Science.gov

Sample records for stream locations july august

  1. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. DETAIL OF PLAQUE COMMEMORATING THE JULY/ AUGUST 1958 VOYAGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE COMMEMORATING THE JULY/ AUGUST 1958 VOYAGE OF THE USS NAUTILUS (SSN-571) TO THE NORTH POLE. NOTE: THIS PLAQUE IS NOT LOCATED AT WHARFS S13-S19; IT IS AT THE SUBMARINE MEMORIAL PARK, ABOUT 1,000' SOUTH OF THE WHARFS. THE LOCATION AND ORIENTATION OF THIS PHOTO IS NOT SHOWN ON THE PHOTO KEY MAP - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Additional Piers and Quay Walls, S13 to S19, Northeast end of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. The July 1990 Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, G. R.; Mied, R. P.; Ochadlick, A. R.; Kobrick, M.; Smith, P. M.; Askari, F.; Lai, R. J.; Sheres, D.; Morrison, J. M.; Beal, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The specific scientific tasks addressed in the July 1990 Gulf Stream (GS) experiment were the following: (1) Kelvin wake behavior across fronts at various ship speeds, (2) the physics of temperature front/radar cross section (RCS) mismatch, (3) wave-current interactions in curvature fronts, and (4) the hydrodynamic structure and origin of synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) slick-like features. Overall, the GS Experiment was most successful, and about 60 percent of the planned data was collected. On-going efforts concentrate on the analysis and interpretation of the data. An overview of the experiment and preliminary results of the data analysis are given.

  4. Talking Stick. Volume 29, Number 6, July-August 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Talking Stick" is published bimonthly, six times a year in January/February, March/April, May/June, July/August, September/October, and November/December by the Association of College and University Housing Officers-International. Each issue is divided into three sections: Features, Columns, and Departments. These sections contain articles…

  5. 8. Photocopied August 1978. BREAKING CONCRETE BARS, JULY 1898. TESTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied August 1978. BREAKING CONCRETE BARS, JULY 1898. TESTING MACHINE USED BY VON SCHON IN EXPERIMENTS ON METHODS OF MIXING CONCRETE AND ON CONCRETE AGGREGATES WHICH USED LOCAL MATERIALS. (4) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  6. Talking Stick. Volume 28, Number 6, July-August 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "Talking Stick" is published bimonthly, six times a year in January/ February, March/April, May/ June, July/August, September/October, and November/ December by the Association of College and University Housing Officers-International. Each issue is divided into three sections, namely: Features, Columns, and Departments. These sections contain…

  7. Talking Stick. Volume 26, Number 6, July-August 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James A., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The "Talking Stick" is published bimonthly, six times a year in January/February, March/April, May/June, July/August, September/October, and November/December by the Association of College and University Housing Officers-International. Each issue is divided into three sections: Features, Columns, and Departments. These sections contain articles…

  8. Campbell Creek TVA 2010 First Year Performance Report July 1, 2009 August 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C; Boudreaux, Philip R; New, Joshua Ryan

    2010-10-01

    This research project was initiated by TVA in March 2008 and encompasses three houses that are of similar size, design and located within the same community - Campbell Creek, Farragut TN with simulated occupancy. This report covers the performance period from July 1, 2009 to August 31, 2010. It is the intent of TVA that this Valley Data will inform electric utilities future residential retrofit incentive program.

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 SOUTH DOOR DETAIL - St. Michael's Creole Benevolent Association, 410 East Government Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 SOUTHEAST VIEW - St. Michael's Creole Benevolent Association, 410 East Government Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 NORTHEAST VIEW - St. Michael's Creole Benevolent Association, 410 East Government Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  12. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 SOUTHWEST VIEW - Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Marine Terminal, 207 East Main Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  13. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 SOUTHEAST VIEW ACROSS THE PARADE - Fort Barrancas, San Carlos & Hovey Roads vicinity, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 OVERVIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Plaza Ferdinand VII, Palafox, Government, Jefferson, & Zaragoza Streets, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 NORTHEAST VIEW - Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Marine Terminal, 207 East Main Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  16. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 OVERALL OF TERREPLEIN AND PARADE - Fort Barrancas, San Carlos & Hovey Roads vicinity, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 NORTHWEST CORNER - Plaza Ferdinand VII, Palafox, Government, Jefferson, & Zaragoza Streets, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 SOUTHEAST VIEW - Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Marine Terminal, 207 East Main Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 BLOCKHOUSE FOUNDATION - Seville Square, Adams, Government, Alcaniz & Zaragoza Streets, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  20. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 SOUTH, JACKSON MONUMENT - Plaza Ferdinand VII, Palafox, Government, Jefferson, & Zaragoza Streets, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 EAST, CHIPLEY MONUMENT - Plaza Ferdinand VII, Palafox, Government, Jefferson, & Zaragoza Streets, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  2. 44. Photocopied August 1978. DREDGES WORKING AT POWER HOUSE LOCATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopied August 1978. DREDGES WORKING AT POWER HOUSE LOCATION, DECEMBER 10, 1898. BY SPECIAL AGREEMENT, CONTRACTORS MASON & HODGE WERE PERMITTED TO BEGIN EXCAVATION OVER THE POWER HOUSE LOCATION WITH DREDGES, COMPLETING THE WORK LATER BEHIND THE COFFER DAM BEING CONSTRUCTED ON THE FAR RIGHT SIDE OF THE PICTURE. (21) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  3. August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than

  4. 42 CFR 486.309 - Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July... Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Requirements for Certification and Designation § 486.309 Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010. An OPO will be considered to be re-certified for...

  5. 42 CFR 486.309 - Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July... Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Requirements for Certification and Designation § 486.309 Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010. An OPO will be considered to be re-certified for...

  6. 42 CFR 486.309 - Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010. 486.309 Section 486.309 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010. An OPO will be considered to be re-certified for...

  7. 42 CFR 486.309 - Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010. 486.309 Section 486.309 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010. An OPO will be considered to be re-certified for...

  8. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July - August 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K. B.; Talbot, R. W.; Browell, E. V.; Barrie, L. A.; Hill, G. F.; Burney, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) were measured in the 0.15- to 6-km portion of the troposphere over subarctic and boreal landscapes of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. In the mid-continent region, Arctic air entering the region was characterized by relatively uniform CO concentrations (86-108 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)) and CH4 concentrations (1729-1764 ppbv). Local biomass burning and long-range transport of CO into the area from industrial/urban sources and distant fires did frequently produce enhanced and variable concentrations. Emissions of CH4 from the Hudson Bay lowlands was the primary source for enhanced and variable concentrations, especially at altitudes of 0.15-1 km. In eastern Canada, most of the observed variability in CO and CH4 was similar in origin to the phenomena described for the midcontinent region. However, unexpectedly low concentrations of CO (51 ppbv) and CH4 (1688 ppbv) were measured in the midtroposphere on several flights. Combined meteorological and chemical data indicated that the low CO-CH4 events were the result of long-range transport of tropical Pacific marine air to subarctic latitudes.

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 ROOF FRAMING - Charles Lavalle House, 203 East Church Street (moved from 111 West Government Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  10. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 POSTERN DOORS TO BATERIA DE SAN ANTONIO - Fort Barrancas, San Carlos & Hovey Roads vicinity, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  11. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 WEST DOORWAY, INTERIOR - McKenzie Oerting & Company Building, 601 South Palafox Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 WINDOW, INTERIOR - Charles Lavalle House, 203 East Church Street (moved from 111 West Government Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 NORTHEAST VIEW - Charles Lavalle House, 203 East Church Street (moved from 111 West Government Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 WEST DOORWAY, EXTERIOR - McKenzie Oerting & Company Building, 601 South Palafox Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  15. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 PHOTOCOPY OF INTERIOR, c. 1920 - McKenzie Oerting & Company Building, 601 South Palafox Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 PORCH COLUMN AND BALUSTRADE - Charles Lavalle House, 203 East Church Street (moved from 111 West Government Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  17. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 PHOTOCOPY OF INTERIOR, c. 1920 - McKenzie Oerting & Company Building, 601 South Palafox Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 NORTHWEST VIEW - Dorothy Walton House, 221 East Zaragoza Street (moved from 137 West Romana Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 SOUTHEAST VIEW - Dorothy Walton House, 221 East Zaragoza Street (moved from 137 West Romana Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 GARRET - Charles Lavalle House, 203 East Church Street (moved from 111 West Government Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 LOUVERED DOOR - Charles Lavalle House, 203 East Church Street (moved from 111 West Government Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 UNDATED PHOTOCOPY, SOUTH (FRONT) FACADE, LOOKING FROM SOUTHWEST - St. Michael's Creole Benevolent Association, 410 East Government Street, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 SOUTHWEST VIEW - Dorothy Walton House, 221 East Zaragoza Street (moved from 137 West Romana Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 FIRING PLATFORM STAIRWAY VAULT AND POSTERN - Bateria de San Antonio, San Carlos & Hovey Roads, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer JulyAugust 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Ray Malinowski, Photographer July-August 1968 FIREPLACE AND STAIRWAY - Charles Lavalle House, 203 East Church Street (moved from 111 West Government Street), Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

  6. Herbicides and herbicide degradation products in upper midwest agricultural streams during august base-flow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.; Lee, K.E.; Porter, S.D.; Terrio, P.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Herbicide concentrations in streams of the U.S. Midwest have been shown to decrease through the growing season due to a variety of chemical and physical factors. The occurrence of herbicide degradation products at the end of the growing season is not well known. This study was conducted to document the occurrence of commonly used herbicides and their degradation products in Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota streams during base-flow conditions in August 1997. Atrazine, the most frequently detected herbicide (94%), was present at relatively low concentrations (median 0.17 μg L−1). Metolachlor was detected in 59% and cyanazine in 37% of the samples. Seven of nine compounds detected in more than 50% of the samples were degradation products. The total concentration of the degradation products (median of 4.4 μg L−1) was significantly greater than the total concentration of parent compounds (median of 0.26 μg L−1). Atrazine compounds were present less frequently and in significantly smaller concentrations in streams draining watersheds with soils developed on less permeable tills than in watersheds with soils developed on more permeable loess. The detection and concentration of triazine compounds was negatively correlated with antecedent rainfall (April–July). In contrast, acetanalide compounds were positively correlated with antecedant rainfall in late spring and early summer that may transport the acetanalide degradates into ground water and subsequently into nearby streams. The distribution of atrazine degradation products suggests regional differences in atrazine degradation processes.

  7. The July - August 2014 Mt. Etna eruptions: insights on the magmatic feeding system from geochemical and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, Francesco; Cannata, Andrea; Gresta, Stefano; Palano, Mimmo; Viccaro, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The 2014 volcanic activity of Mt. Etna has been characterized by a marked change in the eruptive behavior with respect to the one that occurred during the 2011-2013 time interval. During the 2011-2013 period, the volcanic activity was characterized by the occurrence of more than 40 vigorous lava fountain episodes at the summit New South-East Crater (hereinafter NSEC). Conversely, from the end of 2013 to the end of 2014, although intense Strombolian and effusive activity took place at NSEC, the volcanic activity never culminated in sustained lava fountaining and voluminous tephra emission. The July - August 2014 eruption can be framed within such a low level of volcanic activity. This eruption started on July 5 2014, when a fissure opened on the lower eastern flank of the summit North-East Crater (hereinafter NEC), close to the fracture field of the 2008-2009 eruption. These fissures fed weak Strombolian activity and minor lava emission from two new vents located at about 3000 m elevation. On July 25, more intense Strombolian activity took place at a further vent opened close to these two vents, at 3090 m elevation. The eruption from the vents on the lower eastern flank of NEC continued until August 9. Before the end of this eruption, on 8 August a new eruptive episode started at NSEC. This last eruption, culminating during August 11-14 with vigorous Strombolian activity and lava effusion, ended on August 16. Moreover, such a contemporaneous activity at both NSEC and NEC lends credit to the existence of a shallow link between the two craters. Taking advantage from the availability of an extensive dataset of geochemical, seismic and geodetic data we have here analyzed the volcanic activity characterizing this eruptive event. This integrated, multidisciplinary study is aimed at improving the knowledge of the deeper and shallower portions of the magmatic feeding system along with the magma transfer mechanisms toward the surface.

  8. 42 CFR 486.309 - Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Re-certification from August 1, 2006 through July 31, 2010. 486.309 Section 486.309 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE OF SPECIALIZED SERVICES FURNISHED BY...

  9. ORNL Nuclear Safety Research and Development Program Bimonthly Report for July-August 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    2001-08-17

    The accomplishments during the months of July and August in the research and development program under way at ORNL as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nuclear Safety Program are summarized, Included in this report are work on various chemical reactions, as well as the release, characterization, and transport of fission products in containment systems under various accident conditions and on problems associated with the removal of these fission products from gas streams. Although most of this work is in general support of water-cooled power reactor technology, including LOFT and CSE programs, the work reflects the current safety problems, such as measurements of the prompt fuel element failure phenomena and the efficacy of containment spray and pool-suppression systems for fission-product removal. Several projects are also conducted in support of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Other major projects include fuel-transport safety investigations, a series of discussion papers on various aspects of water-reactor technology, antiseismic design of nuclear facilities, and studies of primary piping and steel, pressure-vessel technology. Experimental work relative to pressure-vessel technology includes investigations of the attachment of nozzles to shells and the implementation of joint AEX-PVFX programs on heavy-section steel technology and nuclear piping, pumps, and valves. Several of the projects are directly related to another major undertaking; namely, the AEC's standards program, which entails development of engineering safeguards and the establishment of codes and standards for government-owned or -sponsored reactor facilities. Another task, CHORD-S, is concerned with the establishment of computer programs for the evaluation of reactor design data, The recent activities of the NSIC and the Nuclear Safety journal in behalf of the nuclear community are also discussed.

  10. Atmospheric gas. Annual report, August 1, 1992--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schudlich, R.; Emerson, S.

    1993-12-31

    This proposal requests support for a third year of funding to complete a modelling study of processes controlling the distribution and waters at an ocean location with detailed background measurements of biological physical properties. We determined concentrations of the gases O{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, and the stable isotope ratio ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) of molecular oxygen in surface waters at Station ALOHA in conjunction with the Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS) Hawaiian Ocean Time-series project during the years 1989--90 and 1992--93, the latter currently being completed. Chemical tracers have been incorporated into an existing ocean mixed-layer model to simulate the physical processes controlling the distribution and seasonal cycle of dissolved gases in the upper ocean. The broad background of concurrent chemical, physical, and biological measurements at station ALOHA provides enough redundancy of ``ground truth`` to assess the model`s accuracy. Biological oxygen production estimated from modeled chemical tracers agrees with estimates based on measurements of carbon fluxes into the deep ocean and nitrate fluxes into the upper ocean during 1989--90, verifying for the first time the utility of chemical tracers for determining biological fluxes in the ocean. The results suggest that in the euphoric zone the net biological O{sub 2} production and CO{sub 2} consumption is 4.5 moles m{sup {minus}2}yr{sup {minus}1}. We propose to continue this project an additional year to incorporate isotope data into the simulation and to analyze the 1992--93 data.

  11. Tethered Ozonesonde Measurements During FRAPPE July-August 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.; Wendell, J.; Schnell, R. C.; McClure-Begley, A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    O3 and temperature profiles were measured from tethered ozonesondes from surface to 400 m above ground level on 9 days during the summer of 2014 Colorado Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The portable tethered ozonesonde system was set up at one of 3 sites located next to a Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment surface monitoring station. The day and site chosen were based on the previous day O3 and weather forecast. Measurements typically began at 8:30 AM and ended at 4:30 PM, averaging 40 profiles in one day. The ozonesonde when sampling at the surface consistently read within 0-3 ppbv of the surface monitor at each of the sites with a typical daytime range of 20-90 ppbv. The hourly values were averaged at 50 meter intervals showing O3 production rates were consistently around 8 ppbv per hour from 50 to 300 meters above ground level. On sunny, light wind days the O3 mixing ratio reached a maximum of 80-90 ppbv between 14:00 and 15:00 local time. The generally constant mixing ratio with height and highest mixing ratios above the surface indicate that photochemical O3 production was taking place throughout the profile. Continuous O3 profiles from a tall tower (5 and 300 m) and daily ozonesondes tracked O3 variability through the experiment. High O3 at each site was associated with different local wind directions. At Ft. Collins winds were generally out of the southeast, at Chatfield from the northeast, and at City Park Golf Course more variable. The tether system was developed at NOAA/ESRL to provide a cost effective method to measure O3 profiles on a continuous basis. The tether system consisted of a deep sea fishing pole, electric motor driving the reel with light-weight fishing line attached to the balloon ozonesonde, a tether control box, and laptop. The in house software package monitored data and controlled the tether speed and turn-around point based on real time GPS altitude from the transmitting radiosonde.

  12. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Progress report, 1 August-31 July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1984-08-01

    This progress report describes activities of the Nuclear Theory group at Brown University during the period 1 August 1983 to 31 July 1984. Completed and ongoing research include various theoretical and numerical studies of few-particle systems, nuclear reaction models, nuclear electroexcitation and photon scattering from nuclei. In addition, research on atomic and molecular structure has essentially been concluded and no further DOE-supported research in this area is anticipated.

  13. Volcanic unrest leading to the July-August 2001 lateral eruption at Mt. Etna: Seismological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicali, Simona; Barberi, Graziella; Cocina, Ornella; Musumeci, Carla; Patanè, Domenico

    2015-10-01

    A close relationship between earthquake swarms, volcanic eruptions, and ground deformation at Mt. Etna was well documented shortly before the beginning of the July-August 2001 eruption. Past experiences at this volcano suggest how magma/dike intrusion in the shallow crust or in the upper part of the volcanic pile normally occurs after several years/months of internal recharging. Since seismic investigations provide a means to study the scale and origin of stress perturbations at active volcanoes, allowing to better investigating the preparation phase of an eruption, in this paper, we performed a close examination of the seismic activity recorded at Mt. Etna in the months preceding the 2001 eruption and in particular between November 2000 and July 2001. After integrating data recorded by the two networks operating during that time and run by the Istituto Internazionale di Vulcanologia and SISTEMA POSEIDON, we relocated 522 earthquakes by using the tomoDD code in a 3D velocity model, and then we computed their fault plane solutions. The application of different selection criteria enabled obtaining a good-quality revised data set consisting of 111 fault plane solutions. The high-precision locations identified well-defined seismic clusters, in different periods, suggesting a link with the magma migration from a depth of 8-13 km b.s.l. towards shallower zones. Moreover, the computed maximum compressive stress axis, as inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms, indicated a roughly W-E-oriented σ1. This findings reflect an overpressure of the mid to shallow crust due to the progressive magma uprising in central portion of the volcano and also highlighted a rotation of the local stress field with respect to the regional one N-S trending. In addition, P-axis distribution pointed out the presence of a center of pressure located to the south of the Central Craters. These results provide particularly compelling evidence for a direct causal link between pressurization of the

  14. Base flow, water quality, and streamflow gain and loss of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, and selected tributaries, July and August 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moix, Matthew W.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the Buffalo National River in north-central Arkansas was conducted between July 28-30 and August 13-15, 2003, to characterize the base-flow and water-quality characteristics and streamflow gain and loss in the Buffalo River. The study was separated into two time periods because of a precipitation event that occurred on the afternoon of July 30 causing appreciable storm runoff. Streamflow was separated to identify base-flow and surface-runoff components using the Base Flow Index hydrograph separation computer program. Base-flow separation analyses indicated annual variability in streamflow throughout the Buffalo River Basin. Based upon these analyses, total and base flow were below average for the mainstem of the river and Richland Creek during the 2003 water year. Waterquality samples were collected from 25 surface-water sites on the Buffalo River and selected tributaries. Most nutrient concentrations for the mainstem of the Buffalo River were near or below the minimum reporting level and were less than the median flow-weighted concentration for relatively undeveloped stream basins in the United States. Streamflow measurement data were collected at 44 locations along the mainstem of the Buffalo River and at points of inflow (prior to confluence with the mainstem) to identify gaining and losing reaches. Seven gaining and five losing reaches were identified for the Buffalo River. Additionally, surface flow on the mainstem of the Buffalo River was diverted to subsurface flow on the mainstem at two locations (river miles 73.6 and 131.6) where the mainstem was found to be dry. Reaches throughout the length of the river had calculated gains or losses that were less than the sum of measurement errors for the respective reaches of river.

  15. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 84, July-August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for July-August 1986, and is No. 84 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  16. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 78, July-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for July-August 1985, and is No. 78 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  17. August Median Streamflow on Ungaged Streams in Eastern Aroostook County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.; Tasker, Gary D.; Nielsen, Martha G.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in the eastern part of Aroostook County, Maine, with drainage areas from 0.38 to 43 square miles and mean basin elevations from 437 to 1,024 feet. Few long-term, continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations with small drainage areas were available from which to develop the equations; therefore, 24 partial-record gaging stations were established in this investigation. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily flows at nearby long-term, continuous-record streamflow- gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for varying periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Twenty-three partial-record stations and one continuous-record station were used for the final regression equations. The basin characteristics of drainage area and mean basin elevation are used in the calculated regression equation for ungaged streams to estimate August median flow. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -38 to 62 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -40 to 67 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow, which can be used when

  18. NREL photovoltaic subcontract reports: Abstracts and document control information, 1 August 1992--31 July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report contains document control information and abstracts for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) program publications. It also lists source information on additional publications that describe US Department of Energy (DOE) PV research activities. It is not totally exhaustive, so it lists NREL contacts for requesting further information on the DOE and NREL PV programs. This report covers the period from August 1, 1992, through July 31, 1993. This report is published periodically, with the previous one covering the period from August 1, 1991, through July 31, 1992. The purpose of continuing this type of publication is to help keep people abreast of specific PV interests, while maintaining a balance on the costs to the PV program. The information in this report is organized under PV technology areas: Amorphous Silicon Research; Polycrystalline Thin Films (including copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and thin-film silicon); Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts (including silicon, gallium arsenide, and other group III-V materials); PV Manufacturing Technology Development (which may include manufacturing information for various types of PV materials).

  19. June and August median streamflows estimated for ungaged streams in southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for estimating June and August median streamflows were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in southern Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.4 to 74 square miles, with percentage of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 84 percent, and with distance from the centroid of the basin to a Gulf of Maine line paralleling the coast ranging from 14 to 94 miles. Equations were developed with data from 4 long-term continuous-record streamgage stations and 27 partial-record streamgage stations. Estimates of median streamflows at the continuous-record and partial-record stations are presented. A mathematical technique for estimating standard low-flow statistics, such as June and August median streamflows, at partial-record streamgage stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term (at least 10 years of record) continuous-record streamgage stations (index stations). Weighted least-squares regression analysis (WLS) was used to relate estimates of June and August median streamflows at streamgage stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be used to estimate June and August median streamflows on ungaged streams. WLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations. Three basin characteristics-drainage area, percentage of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer, and distance from the centroid of the basin to a Gulf of Maine line paralleling the coast-are used in the final regression equation to estimate June and August median streamflows for ungaged streams. The three-variable equation to estimate June median streamflow has an average standard error of prediction from -35 to 54 percent. The three-variable equation to estimate August median streamflow has an average standard error of prediction from -45 to 83 percent. Simpler one-variable equations that use only

  20. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1994--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes the tasks completed under this project during the period from August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1994. The objective of the study is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. The tasks completed include a market study for the advanced turbine system; definition of an optimized recuperated gas turbine as the prime mover meeting the requirements of the market study and whose characteristics were, in turn, used for forecasting the total advanced turbine system (ATS) future demand; development of a program plan for bringing the ATS to a state of readiness for field test; and demonstration of the primary surface recuperator ability to provide the high thermal effectiveness and low pressure loss required to support the proposed ATS cycle.

  1. NREL photovoltaic subcontract reports: Abstracts and document control information, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report contains document control information and abstracts for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontracted photovoltaic program publications. It also lists source information on additional publications that describe US Department of Energy (DOE) PV research activities. It is not totally exhaustive, so it lists NREL contacts for requesting further information on the DOE and NREL PV programs. This report covers the period from August 1, 1991, through July 31, 1992. The purpose of continuing this type of publication is to help people keep abreast of specific PV interests, while maintaining a balance on the costs to the PV program. The information in this report is organized under PV technology areas: Amorphous silicon research; polycrystalline thin films (including copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and thin-film silicon); crystalline materials and advanced concepts (including silicon, gallium arsenide, and other group III-V materials); and PV manufacturing technology development (which may include manufacturing information for various types of PV materials).

  2. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Hawley

    2002-10-01

    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  3. Storm and flood of July 31-August 1, 1976, in the Big Thompson River and Cache la Poudre River basins, Larimer and Weld Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCain, Jerald F.; Shroba, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    PART A: Devastating flash floods swept through the canyon section of Larimer County in north-central Colorado during the night of July 31-August I, 1976, causing 139 deaths, 5 missing persons, and more than $35 million in total damages. The brunt of the storms occurred over the Big Thompson River basin between Drake and Estes Park with rainfall amounts as much as 12 inches being reported during the storm period. In the Cache la Poudre River basin to the north, a rainfall amount of 10 inches was reported for one locality while 6 inches fell over a widespread area near the central part of the basin. The storms developed when strong low-level easterly winds to the rear of a polar front pushed a moist, conditionally unstable airmass upslope into the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Orographic uplift released the convective instability, and light south-southeasterly winds at middle and upper levels allowed the storm complex to remain nearly stationary over the foothills for several hours. Minimal entrainment of relatively moist air at middle and upper levels, very low cloud bases, and a slightly tilted updraft structure contributed to a high precipitation efficiency. Intense rainfall began soon after 1900 MDT (Mountain Daylight Time) in the Big Thompson River and the North Fork Cache la Poudre River basins. A cumulative rainfall curve developed for Glen Comfort from radar data indicates that 7.5 inches of rain fell during the period 1930-2040 MDT on July 31. In the central part of the storm area west of Fort Collins, the heaviest rainfall began about 2200 MDT on July 31 and continued until 0100 MDT on August 1. Peak discharges were extremely large on many streams in the storm area-exceeding previously recorded maximum discharges at several locations. The peak discharge of the Big Thompson River at the gaging station at the canyon mouth, near Drake was 31,200 cubic feet per second or more than four times the previous maximum discharge of 7,600 cubic feet per second at

  4. SUMMER STREAM TEMPERATURES, JUVENILE COHO CONDITION FACTORS AND BLACK SPOT INFECTION IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored stream temperatures at 35 locations throughout the West Fork Smith River watershed in the Oregon Coast Range during the summer of 2002. Between July 24 and August 24, maximum seven-day moving average high daily temperatures ranged from 21.8 C near the catchment's mo...

  5. African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

  6. Coupling of Indian and East Asian Monsoon Precipitation in July-August

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. A.; Fung, I. Y.; Risi, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work suggests that summer rainfall in the Indian and East Asian monsoons results from different mechanisms. The onset of intense convection in India is mediated by Hadley Cell transitions, whereas frontal rainfall in China (most notably during Meiyu season in June) arises from forced meridional convergence and zonal heat transport in the wake of the Tibetan Plateau. However, the leading mode of July-August interannual rainfall variability for All-Asia (defined as the region within 68E-140E and 5N-45N) demonstrates a statistically significant coupling between monthly anomalies in India and China. In particular, positive anomalies along the Himalayan Foothills are associated with positive anomalies along the Yangtze River, and also with negative anomalies over central India and northern and southern China. The entire pattern reverses in dry years over the Himalayan Foothills. This coupling is not significantly correlated with ENSO, the leading mode of global interannual variability. We propose that a channel of moisture transport links the Bay of Bengal to the Yangtze River valley across the high terrain of the Yunnan Plateau, on the southeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau. This channel only activates in July, when the maximum of moist static energy (MSE) shifts to land, and weakens in September with the cooling of Bay of Bengal SST. Our mechanism is substantiated by analysis of output from the LMDZ5 model, which includes a high-resolution nested grid nudged to reanalysis, improving the simulation of the Indian Monsoon and performance near high topography. Potential changes in moisture transport across the Yunnan Plateau under 21st century warming conditions may lead to modified interannual variability of Asian rainfall.

  7. Neutron scattering studies in the actinide region. Progress report, August 1, 1991--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.

    1994-09-01

    During the period August 1, 1991 to July 31, 1994 the authors report progress on the following: (a) prompt fission neutron energy spectra for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu; (b) two-parameter measurement of nuclear lifetimes; (c) `black` neutron detector; (d) data reduction techniques for neutron scattering experiments; (e) elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in {sup 197}Au; (f) elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in {sup 239}Pu; (g) neutron induced defects in silicon dioxide MOS structures; (h) response of a {sup 235}U fission chamber near reaction thresholds; (i) efficiency calibration of a liquid scintillation detector using the WNR facility at LAMPF; (j) prompt fission neutron energy spectrum measurements below the incident neutron energy; (k) multi-parameter data acquisition system; (l) accelerator improvements; (m) non-DOE supported research. Eight Ph.D. dissertations and two M.S. theses were completed during the report period. Publications consisted of 6 journal articles, 10 conference proceedings, and 19 abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. One invited talk was given.

  8. Green River air quality model development: meteorological and tracer data, July/August 1982 field study in Brush Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lee, R.N.; Orgill, M.M.; Zak, B.D.

    1984-06-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a 3-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The objective of the field experiments was to obtain data to evaluate a model, called VALMET, developed at PNL to predict dispersion of air pollutants released from an elevated stack located within a deep mountain valley in the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period. Three tracer experiments were conducted in the valley during the 2-week period. In these experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was released from a height of approximately 100 m, beginning before sunrise and continuing until the nocturnal down-valley winds reversed several hours after sunrise. Dispersion of the sulfur hexafluoride after release was evaluated by measuring SF/sub 6/ concentrations in ambient air samples taken from sampling devices operated within the valley up to about 8 km down valley from the source. An instrumented research aircraft was also used to measure concentrations in and above the valley. Tracer samples were collected using a network of radio-controlled bag sampling stations, two manually operated gas chromatographs, a continuous SF/sub 6/ monitor, and a vertical SF/sub 6/ profiler. In addition, basic meteorological data were collected during the tracer experiments. Frequent profiles of vertical wind and temperature structure were obtained with tethered balloons operated at the release site and at a site 7.7 km down the valley from the release site. 10 references, 63 figures, 50 tables.

  9. Anomalous propagation conditions of electromagnetic wave observed over Bosten Lake, China in July and August, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sun; Hui, Ning; Jing, Tang; Yong-Jie, Xie; Peng-Fei, Shi; Jian-Hua, Wang; Ke, Wang

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric duct is a common phenomenon over large bodies of water, and it can significantly affect the performance of many radio systems. In this paper, a two-month (in July and August, 2014) sounding experiment in ducting conditions over Bosten Lake was carried out at a littoral station (41.89° N, 87.22° E) with high resolution GPS radiosondes, and atmospheric ducts were observed for the first time in this area. During the two months, surface and surface-based ducts occurred frequently over the Lake. Strong diurnal variations in ducting characteristics were noticed in clear days. Ducting occurrence was found at its lowest in the early morning and at its highest (nearly 100%) in the afternoon. Duct strength was found increasing from early morning to forenoon, and reaching its maximum in the afternoon. But contrarily, duct altitude experienced a decrease in a clear day. Then the meteorological reasons for the variations were discussed in detail, turbulent bursting was a possible reason for the duct formation in the early morning and the prevailing lake-breeze front was the main reason in the afternoon. The propagation of electromagnetic wave in a ducting environment was also investigated. A ray-tracing framework based on Runge-Kutta method was proposed to assess the performance of radio systems, and the precise critical angle and grazing angle derived from the ray-tracing equations were provided. Finally, numerical investigations on the radar performance in the observed ducting environments have been carried out with high accuracy, which demonstrated that atmospheric ducts had made great impacts on the performance of radio systems. The range/height errors for radar measurement induced by refraction have also been presented, too, which shows that the height errors were very large for trapped rays when the total range was long enough.

  10. The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE-3B): July - August 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Bendura, R. J.; Drewry, J. W.; Mcneal, R. J.; Pierce, D.; Rabine, V.; Snell, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B used data from ground-based, aircraft, and satellite platforms to characterize the chemistry and dynamics of the troposphere in subarctic and Arctic regions of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. This paper reports the experimental design for ABLE 3B and a brief overview of results. The detailed results are presented in a series of papers in this issue. The chemical composition of the atmospheric mixed layer over remote tundra, boreal wetland, and forested environments was influenced by emissions of CH4 and nonmethane hydrocarbons from biogenic sources, emissions of gases and aerosols from local biomass burning, and transport of pollutants into the study areas from urban/industrial sources. Minimum concentrations of both trace gas and aerosol species in boundary layer air were associated with Arctic source areas. In the free troposphere the biospheric influence was undetectable, and major sources of chemical variability were related to long-range transport of pollutants into the study areas from biomass burning and industrial sources in Alaska and the Great Lakes regions, respectively. Minimum concentrations of both trace gas and aerosol species in the free troposphere were associated with a persistent, widespread air mass which both chemistry and air mass trajectory analyses suggested had originated in the tropical Pacific. Subsidence of air from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere frequently enhanced ozone and influenced other trace gas and aerosol species at midtropospheric altitudes. The North American Arctic is a complex dynamical and chemical environment with considerable spatial and temporal variability in aerosol and trace gas concentrations. The use of atmospheric chemical indicators for climate change detection will require a much more comprehensive Arctic monitoring program than currently exists.

  11. Western gas sands project. Status report, July-August-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    The progress during July, August and September 1981 on increasing gas production from low permeability gas sands of the Western United States, is summarized in this edition of the WGSP Quarterly Status Report. During the quarter, CK GeoEnergy completed the field work in the Rifle Gap area near Rifle, Colorado, as well as the Draft Phase VI report covering the prognosis about reservoir geometry in the Multi-Well site area. The improved pressure coring system project, officially terminated Sept. 30. Accomplishments included increased capabilities for the pressure core barrel, improvements in the low invasion fluid plus various laboratory core intrusion studies and improved designs for PDC drill bits. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the P/sup 2/L/sup 2/ system described last quarter was evaluated further and the decision has been made to abandon further investigation. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Ceramics Materials Group is preparing to fabricate a ceramic sample with cylindrical pores of specified diameters. The NMR data on this type sample will contribute to a better understanding of the parameters affecting NMR relaxation rates in porous media. During the quarter, modifications were made in the operating and application software of the DOE Well Test Facility, which will support additions to the PDP-11/10 computer system. The Multi-Well Experiment well was spudded on Sept. 13 and by Sept. 30, total depth was 3358 ft. Coring operations are expected to begin at a depth of 4150 ft. At the Nevada Test Site, Sandia National Laboratories completed four additional coreholes for the Fluid Mechanics/ Proppant Transport Experiments.

  12. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1993--July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Yearly Technical Progress Report covers the period August 3, 1993 through July 31, 1994 for Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program by Solar Turbines Incorporated under DOE Contract No. DE-AC421-93MC30246. As allowed by the Contract (Part 3, Section J, Attachment B) this report is also intended to fulfill the requirements for a fourth quarterly report. The objective of Phase 2 of the ATS Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized in the year 2000. During the period covered by this report, Solar has completed three of eight program tasks and has submitted topical reports. These three tasks included a Project Plan submission of information required by NEPA, and the selection of a Gas-Fueled Advanced Turbine System (GFATS). In the latest of the three tasks, Solar`s Engineering team identified an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine as the eventual outcome of DOE`s ATS program coupled with Solar`s internal New Product Introduction (NPI) program. This machine, designated ``ATS50`` will operate at a thermal efficiency (turbine shaft power/fuel LHV) of 50 percent, will emit less than 10 parts per million of NOx and will reduce the cost of electricity by 10 percent. It will also demonstrate levels of reliability, availability, maintainability, and durability (RAMD) equal to or better than those of today`s gas turbine systems. Current activity is concentrated in three of the remaining five tasks a Market Study, GFATS System Definition and Analysis, and the Design and Test of Critical Components.

  13. KINEMATIC DISCOVERY OF A STELLAR STREAM LOCATED IN PISCES

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Charles; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Grillmair, Carl

    2013-03-10

    We report the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream (PSS), at Galactic longitude l Almost-Equal-To 135 Degree-Sign and -39 Degree-Sign < b < -36 Degree-Sign . We originally identified this halo substructure from velocities of red giant branch stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8, and confirmed its presence in turnoff stars from SDSS photometric data. The PSS is a narrow, kinematically cold tidal stream, with {sigma}{sub v,0} Almost-Equal-To 8 km s{sup -1}. Its metallicity is [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -2.2, with {approx}0.3 dex dispersion. The color-magnitude signature of the stream turnoff, combined with our measured metallicity, places the PSS at a distance of 35 {+-} 3 kpc. The PSS is the same as the previously announced ''Triangulum stream'' and part of the proposed ''stream a''. We rule out an association of the PSS with other previously known Milky Way substructures in the same region of the sky.

  14. Ground-water levels in the lower Paleozoic and Precambrian crystalline rocks, southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania, July and August 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garges, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A water table contour map of the lower Paleozoic and Precambrian crystalline rocks of southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania was constructed on the basis of water levels measured in 261 wells in July and August 1986, elevations of 11 springs that were flowing in July and August 1986, and water levels measured in 15 wells. Pre-1986 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more-recent data were not available. The area of crystalline rocks underlies Thornbury, Westtown, East Goshen, and West Goshen Townships, parts of East Whiteland and West Whiteland Townships; and West Chester Borough. Water table altitudes under natural conditions range from 544 ft. above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD of 1929) near Immaculata College to 234 ft. above NGVD of 1929 near Cheyney College. (USGS)

  15. Air Pollution in Moscow Region and Kiev during Heat Wave in July-August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvyagintsev, A. M.; Tarasova, O. A.; Belikov, I. B.; Blum, O. B.; Elansky, N. F.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Shumsky, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The summer of 2010 was extremely hot and dry over the European part of Russia and Ukraine. Some days the air temperature rose up to 40 degrees Celsius. An anomaly of the mesoscale atmospheric processes in the form of a blocking anticyclone in the low atmosphere caused untypical transport of air masses: south-eastern winds became dominating in the Moscow region in summer 2010 instead of north-western transport, which is usually prevailing in summer. Due to long drought and high temperatures (ca. 1 month from July 15) natural fires occurred from time to time over huge territories to the east of Moscow (from Nyzhny Novgorod to Riazan). Forest and peat fires led to unprecedented air pollution and transport of biomass burning products over long distances. The smoke plume repeatedly extended to the Moscow megapolis. Arrival of the polluted air from the burning sources nearest to Moscow was accompanied by a haze with reduced visibility down to 100-200 m, as well as by a strong smell of burning and corresponding abrupt decrease of air quality. Strong photochemical smog of the Los-Angeles type was observed some days in the Moscow megapolis. Air masses polluted with the products of natural fires traveled within the territory of central Russia without crossing its western border. They had no impact on the air quality in Kiev, where air composition was defined by local emissions and meteorological conditions. The short intervals with temperatures above 35 degrees Celsius were accompanied by change of air masses and precipitation events. This paper presents measurement of surface ozone, NOx and CO mixing ratios and PM10 in the Moscow region as well as ozone and NOx level observations in Kiev. Eight-hourly averaged surface ozone mixing ratios in Moscow exceeded 60 ppb during about 30 days. During 20 days a haze was observed in the city from time to time, and the haze was continuous for the period from 3rd to 10th of August. The most intensive smog was observed during 6-8 August

  16. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the

  17. Attending to Multiple Visual Streams: Interactions between Location-Based and Category-Based Attentional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate that subjects are able to divide attention between multiple streams of information at different locations. However, it is still unclear to what extent the observed costs reflect processes specifically associated with spatial attention, versus more general interference due the concurrent monitoring of multiple streams of…

  18. Report of the Council and Accounts for the session 2007 August 1 to 2008 July 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, R.; Boyd, D.

    2008-10-01

    The Council of the British Astronomical Association presents its annual Report and Accounts for the session ended 2008 July 31. The surplus of income over expenditure for the financial year ended 2008 June 30 was £2,642.

  19. Testing a community water supply well located near a stream for susceptibility to stream contamination and low-flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart-Maddox, N. S.; Tysor, E. H.; Swanson, J.; Degon, A.; Howard, J.; Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Newman, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    A community well is the primary water supply to the town of El Rito. This small rural town in is located in a semi-arid, mountainous portion of northern New Mexico where water is scarce. The well is 72 meters from a nearby intermittent stream. Initial tritium sampling suggests a groundwater connection between the stream and well. The community is concerned with the sustainability and future quality of the well water. If this well is as tightly connected to the stream as the tritium data suggests, then the well is potentially at risk due to upstream contamination and the impacts of extended drought. To examine this, we observed the well over a two-week period performing pump and recovery tests, electrical resistivity surveys, and physical observations of the nearby stream. We also collected general chemistry, stable isotope and radon samples from the well and stream. Despite the large well diameter, our pump test data exhibited behavior similar to a Theis curve, but the rate of drawdown decreased below the Theis curve late in the test. This decrease suggests that the aquifer is being recharged, possibly through delayed yield, upwelling of groundwater, or from the stream. The delayed yield hypothesis is supported by our electrical resistivity surveys, which shows very little change in the saturated zone over the course of the pump test, and by low values of pump-test estimated aquifer storativity. Observations of the nearby stream showed no change in stream-water level throughout the pump test. Together this data suggests that the interaction between the stream and the well is low, but recharge could be occurring through other mechanisms such as delayed yield. Additional pump tests of longer duration are required to determine the exact nature of the aquifer and its communication with the well.

  20. Seismic Evidences of Magma Intrusion At Intermediate Depth Before The July-august 2001 Mt. Etna (italy) Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, E.; Alparone, S.; D'Amico, S.; Gambino, S.; Maiolino, V.; Spampinato, S.; Zuccarello, L.

    Several authors investigated the seismic behavior before Mt. Etna eruptions and some models were proposed in order to explain peculiar features of seismicity preceding flank eruptions. In particular, stress and strain fields seemed to modify their orienta- tion due to the action of magma overpressure. Recently, about 40 additional seismic stations boosted the Mt. Etna permanent network and enabled us to study in great de- tail the seismicity that occurred before the July-August 2001 eruption. More than 2600 earthquakes occurred over about 8 months prior to the seismic swarm that heralded the lateral eruption and they pointed out a change in the dynamic condition acting on the volcano starting from November 5, 2000. Seismicity in the November 2000 - June 2001 period was characterised by the occurrence of several relevant seismic swarms. The epicentres of events were spread over a wide area covering mostly the southern and eastern parts of the volcano and delineated two main alignments. A NNW-SSE epicentres alignment built up gradually and was composed of earthquakes occurred both clustered and sparsely in time. A clear NE-SW alignment was also defined mainly by the occurrence of a 4 days swarm. A peculiar feature of the earthquakes' spatial pattern was the depth distribution. Under the eastern part of the volcano seismicity was confined in the depth range 1 - 6 km b.s.l., in the western part hypocentres were distributed in two volumes under 5 km and upper 2 km b.s.l., respectively. This pat- tern defined two volumes affected by few earthquakes. These volumes correspond to crust portions where magma reservoirs were located by previous studies. On the basis of a fault plane solutions analysis, we observed relevant rotation of maximum compressive axis at very short distance, indicating a local stress source elongated in NNW-SSE direction at about 5 - 6 km depth under the summit craters. Analyses on the space distribution of b value outlined that the NNW-SSE epicentres

  1. Time-of-travel of solutes in the Trinity River basin, Texas, September 1973 and July-August 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ollman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Trinity River Authority of Texas, conducted timee-of-travel studies in the Trinity River basin during a period of low flow September 19-23, 1973, and during a period of moderate flow July 23-August 1, 1974.  The purpose of these two studies was to provide data that could be used by the Trinity River Authority as part of the basic input to a mathematical water-quality model of the river. The model is being developed as part of a comprehensive water-quality management plan for the basin.

  2. Geodetic Monitoring of The Strain Evolution Field During The July - August 2001 Mt. Etna Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.; Etna01-Geo Team

    Since the beginning of the 2001 Etna eruption, EDM and GPS measurements have been carried out to monitor the evolution of the ground deformation pattern of the volcano during the particular period of activity. The ground deformation pattern pre- ceding the eruption was known thanks to previous EDM and GPS surveys carried out and completed just few days before the onset of the eruption. During the period of activity, EDM measurements have been carried out daily on the uppermost part of the southern and northeastern trilateration networks in order to monitor the strain of the areas surrounding the eruptive fractures. These surveys allowed following the evolu- tion of the strain field since the beginning of the seismic swarm preceding the opening of the eruptive fracture system. Most of the ground deformation has been observed during the very first days of the eruption. Starting from the last days of the activity, the three EDM networks located on the NE, SW and S flanks of the volcano have been completely measured to fix the ground deformation pattern caused by the eruption. During the opening of the fracture system, the N-S GPS profile (17 stations), starting from the NE Rift to the Rifugio Sapienza area, has been measured together with a few GPS stations on the upper part of the volcano. The comparison of these measurements with the previous ones carried out the day before the seismic swarm, depicts a strong ground deformation pattern in good agreement with the dynamics of the intrusion. Later, several measurements have been carried out also during the eruption, on part of the N-S profile (12 stations), from the NE rift to the Piano del Lago area, very near the upper part of the eruptive fracture, because some of the southernmost stations were covered by the lava flows during the first days of the eruption. GPS sessions have been also carried out almost daily on an E-W profile, consisting of 16 stations and cross- ing the Rifugio Sapienza and the 1989 fracture

  3. Report of the Council and Accounts for the session 2001 August 1 to 2002 July 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, G. M.; Tucker, D.; et al.

    2002-10-01

    The Council of the British Astronomical Association presents its annual Repot and Accounts for the session ended 2002 July 31. The deficit of income over expenditure for the financial year ended 2002 June 30 was £45,103. This amount includes a figure of £25,004 representing losses on revaluation of investment assets.

  4. Report of the Council and Accounts for the session 1997 August 1 to 1998 July 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, M. P.; Hatfield, H. R.; et al.

    1998-10-01

    The Council of the British Astronomical Association presents its Report for the session ended 1998 July 31 and Accounts for the year ended 1998 June 30. By resolution of a Special General Meeting held on 1998 March 25, the financial year of the Association was changed to end on June 30. The Accounts presented here therefore represent the business for eleven months only.

  5. Methods to estimate historical daily streamflow for ungaged stream locations in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, David L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective and responsible management of water resources relies on a thorough understanding of the quantity and quality of available water; however, streamgages cannot be installed at every location where streamflow information is needed. Therefore, methods for estimating streamflow at ungaged stream locations need to be developed. This report presents a statewide study to develop methods to estimate the structure of historical daily streamflow at ungaged stream locations in Minnesota. Historical daily mean streamflow at ungaged locations in Minnesota can be estimated by transferring streamflow data at streamgages to the ungaged location using the QPPQ method. The QPPQ method uses flow-duration curves at an index streamgage, relying on the assumption that exceedance probabilities are equivalent between the index streamgage and the ungaged location, and estimates the flow at the ungaged location using the estimated flow-duration curve. Flow-duration curves at ungaged locations can be estimated using recently developed regression equations that have been incorporated into StreamStats (http://streamstats.usgs.gov/), which is a U.S. Geological Survey Web-based interactive mapping tool that can be used to obtain streamflow statistics, drainage-basin characteristics, and other information for user-selected locations on streams.

  6. Onshore industrial wind turbine locations for the United States through July, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger; Kramer, Louisa; Ancona, Zach; Norton, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This data set provides industrial-scale onshore wind turbine locations in the United States through July 22, 2013, corresponding facility information, and turbine technical specifications. The database has more than 47,000 wind turbine records that have been collected, digitized, locationally verified, and internally quality controlled. Turbines from the Federal Aviation Administration Digital Obstacle File, through product release date July 22, 2013, were used as the primary source of turbine data points. Verification of the turbine positions was done by visual interpretation using high-resolution aerial imagery in ESRI ArcGIS Desktop. Turbines without Federal Aviation Administration Obstacle Repository System numbers were visually identified and point locations were added to the collection. We estimated a locational error of plus or minus 10 meters for turbine locations. Wind farm facility names were identified from publically available facility data sets. Facility names were then used in a web search of additional industry publications and press releases to attribute additional turbine information (such as manufacturer, model, and technical specifications of wind turbines). Wind farm facility location data from various wind and energy industry sources were used to search for and digitize turbines not in existing databases. Technical specifications for turbines were assigned based on the wind turbine make and model as described in literature, specifications listed in the Federal Aviation Administration Digital Obstacle File, and information on the turbine manufacturer’s website. Some facility and turbine information on make and model did not exist or was difficult to obtain. Thus, uncertainty may exist for certain turbine specifications. That uncertainty was rated and a confidence was recorded for both location and attribution data quality.

  7. Time-of-travel and reaeration data for seven small streams in Alabama, June 1983 to August 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Time-of-travel and reaeration data were collected between June 1983 and August 1984 for seven small streams in Alabama. Rhodamine WT was used as a tracer for all the studies and propane was used in the reaeration studies. Mean velocities through the study reaches ranged from 0.06 to 0.67 ft/sec. Computed reaeration coefficients, corrected to 20 C, ranged from 1.7 to 45.8 days-1. (USGS)

  8. Visible light nitrogen dioxide spectrophotometer intercomparison: Mount Kobau, British Columbia, July 28 to August 10, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Elokhov, A. S.; Elansky, N.; Frank, H.; Johnston, P.; Kerr, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization, Environment Canada hosted an international comparison of visible light spectrophotometers at Mt. Kobau, British Columbia in August of 1991. Instruments from four countries were involved. The intercomparison results have indicated that some significant differences exist in the responses of the various instruments, and have provided a basis for the comparison of the historical data sets which currently exist as a result of the independent researches carried out in the past in the former Soviet Union, New Zealand, and Canada.

  9. Novel foot-and-mouth disease virus in Korea, July-August 2014.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Lee, Seo-Yong; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Kim, Su-Mi; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Chun, Ji-Eun; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Kim, Byounghan

    2016-01-01

    Despite nation-wide immunization with O, A, and Asia 1 type vaccines in Republic of Korea, foot-and-mouth disease type O occurred again in July 2014 after three years and three months. This virus was a Mya-98 strain of the Southeast Asian topotype and was most similar to the identified type that circulated in East Asia in 2014. This was new virus with the deletion of 23 amino acids in 3A/3B1 region and low pathogenic property. PMID:26866028

  10. Novel foot-and-mouth disease virus in Korea, July-August 2014

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite nation-wide immunization with O, A, and Asia 1 type vaccines in Republic of Korea, foot-and-mouth disease type O occurred again in July 2014 after three years and three months. This virus was a Mya-98 strain of the Southeast Asian topotype and was most similar to the identified type that circulated in East Asia in 2014. This was new virus with the deletion of 23 amino acids in 3A/3B1 region and low pathogenic property. PMID:26866028

  11. Grand Challenges of Advanced Computing for Energy Innovation Report from the Workshop Held July 31-August 2, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Larzelere, Alex R.; Ashby, Steven F.; Christensen, Dana C.; Crawford, Dona L.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; John, Grosh; Stults, B. Ray; Lee, Steven L.; Hammond, Steven W.; Grover, Benjamin T.; Neely, Rob; Dudney, Lee Ann; Goldstein, Noah C.; Wells, Jack; Peltz, Jim

    2013-03-06

    On July 31-August 2 of 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held a workshop entitled Grand Challenges of Advanced Computing for Energy Innovation. This workshop built on three earlier workshops that clearly identified the potential for the Department and its national laboratories to enable energy innovation. The specific goal of the workshop was to identify the key challenges that the nation must overcome to apply the full benefit of taxpayer-funded advanced computing technologies to U.S. energy innovation in the ways that the country produces, moves, stores, and uses energy. Perhaps more importantly, the workshop also developed a set of recommendations to help the Department overcome those challenges. These recommendations provide an action plan for what the Department can do in the coming years to improve the nation’s energy future.

  12. Reliability of the Solar One plant during the power production phase: August 1, 1984--July 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.; Lopez, C.W.

    1988-10-01

    The power production phase at Solar One spanned three years from August 1, 1984 through July 31, 1987. In that period the plant achieved an average availability, during hours of sunshine, of 81.7%. This report presents the frequencies and causes of the plant outages that occurred. The eleven most important causes composed 75% of the total outage time. Qualitative insights related to the origin and mitigation of these causes are provided. Also presented are insights and statistics regarding the reliability of the heliostat field. The quantitative and qualitative information presented in this report will be useful to studies aimed at improving the reliability of future solar central receiver power plants. 20 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Low enrichment fuel conversion for Iowa State University. Progress report, August 1, 1991--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rohach, A.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the UTR-10 reactor at Iowa State University which went critical on low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel on August 14, 1991. However, subsequent to the criticality experiments the fuel plates started to discolor. In addition, roll pins used to lift the fuel assemblies were discovered to be cracked. It was determined that these problems were due to chemical agents in the primary coolant water. The roll pins were replaced by solid stainless steel pins. The primary coolant was replaced and the reactor is currently in operation. Surveillance specimens will be used to monitor any possible future discoloration. The high enriched fuel (HEU) is being prepared for eventual shipment to a high enriched fuel receiving facility.

  14. The Nimbus 6 data catalog. Volume 7: 1 July - 31 August 1976. Data orbits 5156 - 5985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Operations of various experiments during the reporting period are summarized. Orbital elements, data availability times, anomalies in the data, geographic location, and time of data are tabulated. Montages obtained by infrared and microwave radiometers are included.

  15. Effect of Drought on Streamflow and Stream-Water Quality in Colorado, July through September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chafin, Daniel T.; Druliner, A. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    During 2002, Colorado experienced the State's worst drought since 1977. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into cooperative agreement with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment to evaluate the general effects of drought on the water quality of streams in Colorado during summer 2002 by analyzing a water-quality data set obtained during summer 2002 in cooperation with a variety of State and local governments. Water samples were collected at 148 stream sites in Colorado and were measured or analyzed for field properties, major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, bacteria, and dissolved and total recoverable metals. Mean annual streamflow was analyzed at 134 sites in Colorado, and mean summer (July-September) streamflow for 2002 was determined for 146 sites for water years 1978-2002. Mean annual streamflow for 2002 had an average percentile of 29.4 and mean summer streamflow for 2002 had an average percentile of 7.6 relative to 1978-2002. These results indicate that streamflow in Colorado was substantially less than median streamflow for the period and that the effect of drought on streamflow was greater during summer 2002 than during water year 2002 (October 1, 2001, through September 30, 2002). Few measured constituent concentrations or values were elevated or depressed on a widespread basis during summer 2002. Specific conductance was elevated (in the upper quartile relative to historical data) in five of the seven basins that had sufficient data for characterization, indicating that specific conductance likely was affected by drought in those basins. Chloride concentrations were elevated in three of five basins with sufficient data and indicate that chloride concentration generally was affected by drought in those basins. Sulfate concentration was elevated in four of six basins with sufficient data. The widespread elevation of specific conductance and concentrations of chloride and sulfate indicates that salinity generally was affected by

  16. Decreasing trend of tropical cyclone genesis frequency in July-August over the western North Pacific in the last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae; Shim, Chang-Sup

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzed the frequency of tropical cyclones (TCs) that occurred in each month of July to September, which is when most TCs occur during a year, in the western North Pacific for the last 20 years. Since the mid-1990s, the TC genesis frequency has tended to decrease during July to August but to increase during September. Therefore, the time series of the TC genesis frequency during July to August was analyzed. The average TC genesis frequency during July to August was 10TCs. Until 2006, a greater number of years had a TC genesis frequency more than 10TCs; however, from 2006, a greater number of years had a TC genesis frequency less than 10TCs. To determine why the TC genesis frequency showed this change in the mid-2000s, the difference between the average of July and August 2007 to 2014 (0714) and that of July and August 1995 to 2006 (9506) was analyzed. With regard to the TC genesis frequency, TCs occurred largely in the eastern sea of the Philippines during 0714 and in the distant eastern sea of the Philippines during 9506. With regard to the TC passage frequency, TCs came ashore at the southeastern area of China via the South China Sea from the Philippines during 0714 and tended to go north toward Korea and Japan through the East China Sea from the distant eastern sea of the Philippines during 9506. The cause of the differences in TC tracks between the two periods was verified through an analysis of the 850- and 500-hPa streamlines. During 0714, anomalous anticyclonic circulations were strengthened in most areas of the western North Pacific. Therefore, the TC genesis frequency during 0714 was lower than that during 9506 in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific; in particular, in this area, anomalous easterlies were strengthened, which caused TCs to go toward the southeastern area of China.

  17. Decontamination systems information and research programs. Quarterly report, July 1--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The US contains numerous hazardous waste sites. Many sites are on private land near operating units of various companies. An effort is being made to determine the conditions under which such sites can be remediated voluntarily. The objective of the project will be to first assess the interest and willingness of industry in the Kanawha River Valley, WV to participate in discussions that would lead toward voluntary cleanup activities. The second will be to implement the activities agreed upon by the interested parties. The project will first involve individual discussions with the industrial, government, and other organized groups in the area. These discussions will help determine the feasibility of organizing voluntary efforts. If the discussions indicate that conditions may be favorable for developing individual or group voluntary cleanup projects, a working group will be convened to establish the environmental goals of the project as well as the technical approach for achieving those goals. The projects for the 1996 WVU Cooperative Agreement are categorized into three task focus areas: Task 1.0 Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation, Task 2.0 Cross Cutting Innovative Technologies, and Task 3.0 Small Business Support Program. Summaries of the accomplishments for the subtasks reporting under these categories during the third quarter, 1 July 96 through 30 September 96, are presented.

  18. DOE Advanced Thermionic Technology Program. Progress report No. 48, July, August, September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The advanced Thermionic Technology Program at Thermo Electron Corporation is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The primary long-term goal is to improve thermionic performance to the level that thermionic topping of fossil-fuel powerplants becomes technically possible and economically attractive. An intermediate goal is to operate a thermionic module in a powerplant during the mid-1980's. A short-term goal is to demonstrate reliable thermionic operation in a combustion environment. Progress made during the three-month period from July through September 1981 is reported. Significant accomplishments include: (1) continuing stable output from the combustion test of the one-inch diameter hemispherical silicon carbide diode (Converter No. 239) at an emitter temperature of 1730/sup 0/K for a period of over 9800 hours; (2) measurement of a barrier index of 2.15 eV during the initial testing of Converter No. 266 (two-inch diameter torispherical silicon carbide diode); and (3) successful thermal cycle test of a CVD silicon carbide coating inside a sintered molybdenum tube.

  19. Materials, Processes and Testing Laboratory. Technical progress report: July, August, September, October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S. E.; Themelis, M. P.

    1980-03-15

    The US Department of Energy has set a 20-year lifetime goal for terrestrial photovoltaic modules. In its capacity as a Photovoltaic Field Test and Application Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory has established various experimental test sites, ranging in size from 0.1 to 25 kW of peak power, throughout the United States. These sites contain modules from several manufacturers and serve as test beds for photovoltaic system components. This report, the sixth in a series of similar reports, summarizes the activities of the Materials, Processes and Testing Laboratory of the Solar Photovoltaic Field Tests and Applications Project during the four-month period, 1 July 1979 through 31 October 1979. During this period, field inspections of test sites at Bryan, Ohio, and Mead, Nebraska, were conducted and are reviewed. An inordinate module failure rate at the University of Texas at Arlington is reviewed and analyzed. Failures and degradation of Mead, Nebraska, modules are analyzed, and the development of testing equipment for PV systems is discussed.

  20. Ground surface deformation patterns, magma supply, and magma storage at Okmok volcano, Alaska, from InSAR analysis: 2. Coeruptive deflation, July-August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A hydrovolcanic eruption near Cone D on the floor of Okmok caldera, Alaska, began on 12 July 2008 and continued until late August 2008. The eruption was preceded by inflation of a magma reservoir located beneath the center of the caldera and ~3 km below sea level (bsl), which began immediately after Okmok's previous eruption in 1997. In this paper we use data from several radar satellites and advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques to produce a suite of 2008 coeruption deformation maps. Most of the surface deformation that occurred during the eruption is explained by deflation of a Mogi-type source located beneath the center of the caldera and 2–3 km bsl, i.e., essentially the same source that inflated prior to the eruption. During the eruption the reservoir deflated at a rate that decreased exponentially with time with a 1/e time constant of ~13 days. We envision a sponge-like network of interconnected fractures and melt bodies that in aggregate constitute a complex magma storage zone beneath Okmok caldera. The rate at which the reservoir deflates during an eruption may be controlled by the diminishing pressure difference between the reservoir and surface. A similar mechanism might explain the tendency for reservoir inflation to slow as an eruption approaches until the pressure difference between a deep magma production zone and the reservoir is great enough to drive an intrusion or eruption along the caldera ring-fracture system.

  1. Nonlinear beam dynamics studies at Indiana University. Final report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1998-03-31

    During the three-year funding period the author`s achievements can be summarized as follows: (1) The author has systematically studied the effect of phase modulation on bunch distribution. (2) The author has found that a frequently observed proton beam instability when the velocity of cooling electrons differs from that of protons is due to Hopf bifurcation. The equilibrium proton beam distribution becomes a limiting cycle attractor. This technique can be used to measure the temperature of cooling electrons. (3) The author has studied mechanisms of controlled bunch dilution. Evolution of beam bunch profile is measured while the beam is perturbed by the modulation of a secondary rf system. The experimental data reveal that mean square bunch length {sigma}{sup 2}(t) exhibits two characteristic time scales. He finds that overlapping parametric resonances plays an important role in beam diffusion. (4) He has studied the effects of global chaos on the halo formation of space charge dominated beams. He has analyzed the halo produced by a modulating mismatched space charge dominated beam in a uniform focusing channel. He found that the halo formation is determined by a single scaling parameter, the space charge perveance parameter divided by the phase advance per unit length. The condition of global chaos can thus be predicted. In June 1994, Indiana University has served as the host of the USPAS (United States Particle Accelerator School). In July 1994, IUCF has also served as the host site of the workshop on the future direction of hadron facilities. In October 1994, the author organized a successful workshop on space charge dominated beams and application of high brightness beams. During this period of this funding, he has had many visitors from SSC, SLAC, Fermilab, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. He has carried out many nonlinear beam dynamics experiments at the IUCF Cooler Ring. He has published about 30 refereed journal papers related to this project. These

  2. Agreement between Wayne State University and the Wayne State University Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, August 1, 1981 to July 31, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Wayne State University and the Wayne State University Chapter (1,460 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period August 1, 1981-July 31, 1983 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: AAUP recognition, personnel classification, association rights…

  3. Agreement between Wayne State University and the Wayne State University Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, August 1, 1986-July 31, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Wayne State University and the Wayne State University Chapter of the American Association of University Professors covering the period August 1, 1986-July 31, 1988 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: personnel classification, union rights and privileges, administration rights, deduction…

  4. Agreement between Wayne State University and the Wayne State University Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, August 1, 1983-July 31, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Wayne State University and the Wayne State University Chapter of AAUP covering the period August 1, 1983-July 31, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: personnel classification, administration rights, union rights, union privileges, deduction of union dues and fees,…

  5. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 4. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii for June, July, and August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during June, July, and August 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weater are provided.

  6. GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROGICAL AND TRACER DATA-FIELD STUDY IN BRUSH VALLEY, COLORADO, JULY-AUGUST, 1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    Special meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a three-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The experiments were conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as p...

  7. Combustion of dense streams of coal particles. Final report, August 29, 1990--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Gopalakrishnan, C.; Du, X.

    1994-05-01

    The USA consumes almost 94 quads of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} BTU or 1.05 {times} 10{sup 15} KJ). The utilities account for about 30 quads of fossil energy where coal is predominantly used as energy source. The coal is ground to finer size and fired into the boiler as dense suspension. Under dense conditions, the particles burn at slower rate due to deficient oxygen within the interparticle spacing. Thus interactions exist amongst the particles for dense clouds. While the earlier literature dealt with combustion processes of isolated particles, the recent research focusses upon the interactive combustion. The interactive combustion studies include arrays consisting of a finite number of particles, and streams and clouds of a large number of particles. Particularly stream combustion models assume cylindrical geometry and predict the ignition and combustion characteristics. The models show that the ignition starts homogeneously for dense streams of coal particles and the ignition time show a minimum as the stream denseness is increased, and during combustion, there appears to be an inner flame within the stream and an outer flame outside the stream for a short period of time. The present experimental investigation is an attempt to verify the model predictions. The set-up consists of a flat flame burner for producing hot vitiated gases, a locally fluidizing feeder system for feeding coal particles, a particle collection probe for collecting particles and an image processing system for analyzing the flame structure. The particles are introduced as a stream into the hot gases and subsequently they ignite and burn. The ash % of fired and collected particles are determined and used to estimate the gasification efficiency or burnt fraction. The parametric studies include gas temperature, oxygen % in gases, residence time, and A:F ratio of the stream.

  8. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation

  9. Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games event study, 1996. Final report, July 1996--August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Amodei, R.; Bard, E.; Brong, B.; Cahoon, F.; Jasper, K.

    1998-11-01

    The Atlanta metropolitan region was the location of one of the most ambitious Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployments in the United States. This deployment included several individual projects--a Central Transportation Management Center (TMC), six Traffic Control Centers (TCCs), one Transit Information Center (TIC), The Travel Information Showcase (TIS), and the extension of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Rail network and the new high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-85 and I-75. The 1996 Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games created a focus for these projects. All of these systems were to be brought on-line in time for the Olympic Games. This report presents the findings of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games Events Study--a compilation of findings of system performance, the benefits realized, and the lessons learned during their operations over the event period. The study assessed the performance of the various Travel Demand Management (TDM) plans employed for Olympic Games traffic management.

  10. Theoretical studies of breakdown in random media. Progress report, August 1, 1990--31 July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, P.M.

    1993-08-01

    Failure initiates in local regions of a material microstructure which are either especially weak, or which carry an especially large field. The size and location of these weak or ``hotspots`` depends on the microstructure, and is especially sensitive to microstructural disorder. Using model random microstructures, we have developed analytic and numerical tools to predict where failure initiates, its initiation field, and how it propagates from the initiation sites. We have found it useful to divide the failure process into a nucleation stage, in which damage occurs quite randomly throughout the material, a localisation stage, where a critical crack nucleates, and a catastrophic failure stage during which an unstable crack propagates through the material. Results are being compared with experiments on: Highly porous materials (porous glass, and porous gold); dielectric breakdown of metal loaded insulators (e.g. aluminum in poly-ethyelene) and; the critical current of superconductors containing cracks (Nb and Nb{sub 3}Ge). This report summarises our efforts in these areas.

  11. Ethanol production for automotive fuel usage. Final technical report, July 1979-August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R.A.; Yu, J.; Lindemuth, T.E.; Soo-Hoo, R.; May, S.C.; Yim, Y.J.; Houle, E.H.

    1980-08-01

    Production of ethanol from potatoes, sugar beets, and wheat using geothermal resources in the Raft River area of Idaho was evaluated. The south-central region of Idaho produces approximately 18 million bushels of wheat, 1.3 million tons of sugar beets, and 27 million cwt potatoes annually. A 20-million-gallon-per-year ethanol facility has been selected as the largest scale plant that can be supported with the current agricultural resources. The conceptual plant was designed to operate on each of these three feedstocks for a portion of the year, but could operate year-round on any of them. The processing facility uses conventional alcohol technology and uses geothermal energy for all process heating. There are three feedstock preparation sections, although the liquefaction and saccharification steps for potatoes and wheat involve common equipment. The fermentation, distillation, and by-product handling sections are common to all three feedstocks. Maximum geothermal fluid requirements are approximately 6000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by nine production wells located on private and BLM lands in the Raft River KGRA. The geothermal fluid will be flashed from 280/sup 0/F in three stages to supply process steam at 250/sup 0/F, 225/sup 0/F, and 205/sup 0/F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will be returned to receiving strata through six injection wells.

  12. Water-quality parameters and benthic algal communities at selected streams in Minnesota, August 2000 - Study design, methods and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the study design, sampling methods, and summarizes the physical, chemical, and benthic algal data for a component of the multiagency study that was designed to document diurnal water-quality measurements (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen), benthic algal community composition and chlorophyll-a content, and primary productivity at 12 stream sites on 6 streams in Minnesota during August 2000. Specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentrations and percent dissolved oxygen saturation measurements were made with submersible data recorders at 30 minute intervals for a period of 3-6 days during August 2000. Benthic algae collected from wood and rock substrate were identified and enumerated. Biovolume (volume of algal cells per unit area), density (number of cells per unit area), and chlorophyll-a content from benthic algae were determined. These data can be used as part of the multiagency study to develop an understanding of the relations among nutrient concentrations, algal abundance, algal community composition, and primary production and respiration processes in rivers of differing ecoregions in Minnesota.

  13. Organizational Support for the 3rd Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, July 30 – August 8, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-07-01

    This grant provided partial funds for American graduate students to attend the 3rd Graduate Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, which was held from July 30 to August 8, 2012 at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. The Graduate Summer Institute is a topical series of instructional workshops held bi-annually on the emerging field of complex plasmas that is jointly organized through a collaboration between American and German-European Union plasmas researchers. This specialized program brings together many of the world's leading researchers in the specialized area of complex plasmas, who freely provide instructional lectures and tutorials on the most recent research and discoveries done in this branch of plasma science. The partial funds provided by this grant helped support the travel and accommodation expenses of the participating American students and tutorial instructors. Partial funds further supported the travel and accommodation of three renown American plasma researchers that provided educational tutorials to the thirty-eight participating students from the United States, Europe, and Asia. The organized program afforded a unique opportunity for the participating American graduate students to learn about and engage more deeply in an area of plasma science that is not studied in any of the graduate educational curriculums provided by universities in the United States of America. The educational experience offered by this program provided the necessary knowledge needed by future American plasma researchers to keep the national plasma research effort on the cutting-edge and keep the national plasma community as a global leader.

  14. Understanding Solar Energetic Particle profiles in the context of shock connectivity: August 2010 and July 2012 case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Hazel; Mays, Leila; Luhmann, Janet; Li, Yan; Jian, Lan K.; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2016-05-01

    During periods of increased solar activity, flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur in close succession and proximity to one another. CME shocks and magnetic ejecta can interact and merge as they propagate in the heliosphere. The resulting solar energetic particle (SEP) profiles can appear complex, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections, and it can be challenging to understand these events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information regarding the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties. We discuss observations of the SEP rich periods of August 2010 and July 2012 in conjunction with WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling to investigate how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on non-local magnetic connections to shock sources. We find that much of SEP activity can only be understood in light of such models, and in particular from knowledge of the shock connectivity.

  15. The Second Chernogolovka Workshop on Low Temperature Physics in Microgravity Environment (CWS-99), July 28-August 2, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhov-Deglin, L. P.

    2000-03-01

    The International Seminar CWS-99, devoted to a discussion of the current status and prospects for development of fundamental research in the field of low-temperature physics in a microgravity environment, was held in at the Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RCC RAN) in Chernogolovka, Moscow District on July 28-August 2, 1999. This seminar was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics and the Space Materials Science section of the Space Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the financial support of the Russian Fund for Fundamental Research, the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Russian Federation, The Russian Aviation & Space Agency, and the Council on Low Temperature Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The CWS-99 Seminar preceded the International Conference on Low Temperature Physics LT-22, and, as one of the satellite activities of LT-22 conducted in the framework of international scientific cooperation, it received substantial support from the Organizing Committee of LT-22 and from the OLMSA Division of the National Aeronoutics and Space Administration (NASA), USA.

  16. Larval and early juvenile fish distribution and assemblage structure in the Canadian Beaufort Sea during July-August, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulic, Joclyn E.; Papst, Michael H.

    2013-11-01

    The distribution and composition of marine larval and early juvenile fish were investigated during a multidisciplinary project conducted in the nearshore Canadian Beaufort Sea in July and August, 2005. Larvae were sampled using replicate bongo net (500 μm) tows within 50 m water depth. A total of 458 larval fish representing seven families were captured.Multivariate statistical analyses revealed two distinct larval assemblages that were closely correlated to water mass category. The two larval fish assemblages were defined as coastal and estuarine. The coastal assemblage was dominated by Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii) and was found in the shallow intense plume water mass. This area is greatly influenced by the Mackenzie River outflow. The estuarine assemblage was dominated by Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) and was typically found within the diffuse plume and oceanic water masses. Other larval fish families that were represented in the estuarine assemblage were Cottidae, Stichaeidae, Liparidae and Agonidae. Species richness and abundance was greater along the Toker transect in Kugmallit Bay than the Paktoa transect northwest of Garry Island in the Mackenzie Bay.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of Ozonesonde Data from Houston, TX as Part of INTEX-A, July - August 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S.; Morris, G.; Fraser, M.; Holmes, C.; Thompson, A.; Kuscera, T.; Witte, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Houston area is well-known for its frequent levels of high ozone pollution. The extent of the pollution in Houston has important direct and indirect consequences for the local population, ranging from the cancelling of recess to increased rates of asthma to threats of fines and loss of transportation dollars for failure to comply with EPA standards. Despite these consequences, the Houston area has no established program to monitor ozone concentrations at any altitude in the atmosphere but the surface. During the period July 8 - August 12, we launched 25 ozonesondes that yielded data on the vertical distribution of ozone over the city of Houston as part of INTEX-A and a study sponsored by the Shell Center for Sustainable Development at Rice University. Combining ozonesonde data from Houston with a trajectory model from NASA Goddard provides a powerful approach to interpreting the data, including insight into local and remote contributions to Houston's ozone pollution. Analysis of our data show (1) the impact of remote wild fires on ozone levels above Houston, (2) the amount of ozone that develops over Houston in the course of one day, and (3) the extent of vertical mixing of Houston's ozone pollution, a factor in transport to areas downwind of the city.

  18. Estimated pressure source on Kozu Island volcano, South Central Japan, from GPS measurements (July 1996-August 1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimata, Fumiaki; Kariya, Shin-ichi; Fujita, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Kunio; Tabei, Takao; Segawa, Jiro; Yamada, Akiko

    2000-11-01

    Although the Kozu Island Volcano, one of the Izu Islands Volcanoes in the south part Central Japan, is an active volcano, there is no record of the eruption for about 1100 years since the last eruption in 833 A.D. Since 1988, frequent earthquake swarms are observed around the Kozu Island, and the uplift of 2-4 cm/yr is observed on the island by tidal observations. Station velocities detected by GPS measurements since 1989 show velocities that differ from the convergent velocity of the Philippine Sea plate calculated from plate motion models. A local GPS network with 12 stations is occupied around the volcano, and the GPS measurements are repeated every about six month since July 1996. Inflated deformation of 2-4 cm/yr are detected from the GPS measurements and the pressure source is estimated to be located in the northeastern part of the island at a depth of 2.1 km using Mogi solution. Negative gravity changes of more than 30 microgal are also measured above the pressure source in the period November 1998 to July 1999, consistent with uplift.

  19. Estimates of Flow Duration, Mean Flow, and Peak-Discharge Frequency Values for Kansas Stream Locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Wolock, David M.; Artman, Joshua C.

    2004-01-01

    Streamflow statistics of flow duration and peak-discharge frequency were estimated for 4,771 individual locations on streams listed on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. These statistics included the flow-duration values of 90, 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent, as well as the mean flow value. Peak-discharge frequency values were estimated for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Least-squares multiple regression techniques were used, along with Tobit analyses, to develop equations for estimating flow-duration values of 90, 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent and the mean flow for uncontrolled flow stream locations. The contributing-drainage areas of 149 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Kansas and parts of surrounding States that had flow uncontrolled by Federal reservoirs and used in the regression analyses ranged from 2.06 to 12,004 square miles. Logarithmic transformations of climatic and basin data were performed to yield the best linear relation for developing equations to compute flow durations and mean flow. In the regression analyses, the significant climatic and basin characteristics, in order of importance, were contributing-drainage area, mean annual precipitation, mean basin permeability, and mean basin slope. The analyses yielded a model standard error of prediction range of 0.43 logarithmic units for the 90-percent duration analysis to 0.15 logarithmic units for the 10-percent duration analysis. The model standard error of prediction was 0.14 logarithmic units for the mean flow. Regression equations used to estimate peak-discharge frequency values were obtained from a previous report, and estimates for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods were determined for this report. The regression equations and an interpolation procedure were used to compute flow durations, mean flow, and estimates of peak-discharge frequency for locations along uncontrolled flow streams on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. Flow durations, mean

  20. Shock Connectivity in the August 2010 and July 2012 Solar Energetic Particle Events Inferred from Observations and ENLIL Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, H. M.; Mays, M. L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.; Jian, L. K.; Odstrcil, D.

    2016-07-01

    During periods of increased solar activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can occur in close succession and proximity to one another. This can lead to the interaction and merger of CME ejecta as they propagate in the heliosphere. The particles accelerated in these shocks can result in complex solar energetic particle (SEP) events, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections. It can be challenging to understand these complex SEP events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs in the near-Sun environment, from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory–Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph, greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information on conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties well enough to forecast their characteristics. Wang–Sheeley–Arge WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling provides a tool to interpret major SEP event periods in the context of a realistic heliospheric model and to determine how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on nonlocal magnetic connections to shock sources. We discuss observations of the SEP-rich periods of 2010 August and 2012 July in conjunction with ENLIL modeling. We find that much SEP activity can only be understood in the light of such models, and in particular from knowing about both remote and local shock source connections. These results must be folded into the investigations of the physics underlying the longitudinal extent of SEP events, and the source connection versus diffusion pictures of interpretations of SEP events.

  1. Six Cases of Paratyphoid Fever Due to Salmonella Paratyphi A in Travelers Returning from Myanmar Between July 2014 and August 2015.

    PubMed

    Katanami, Yuichi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-09-01

    We report six cases of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A infections in travelers returning from Myanmar. In 2015, 31 cases of paratyphoid fever were reported in Japan, and 54.8% of those traveled to Myanmar. Among them, six patients presented to our hospital. They had traveled to Myanmar from July 2014 to August 2015 for business purposes. All six isolates were phage type 1, and they were resistant to nalidixic acid. PMID:27352874

  2. Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms July 24, 1946 to August 6, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolefson, Harold B.

    1947-01-01

    The results obtained from gust and draft velocity measurements within thunderstorms for the period July 24, 1946 to August 6, 1946 at Orlando, Florida are presented herein. These data are summarized in tables I and II and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. In two thunderstorm traverses, indications of ambient-air temperature were obtained from photo-observer records. These data are summarized in table III.

  3. Subglacial hydrology as a control on ice stream shear margin locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, Thibaut; Rice, James R.; Platt, John D.; Suckale, Jenny

    2015-11-01

    Ice streams are fast-flowing bands of ice separated from the nearly stagnant ice in the adjacent ridge by zones of highly localized deformation known as shear margins. However, it is presently unclear what mechanisms can control the location of shear margins. Within the shear margin, the transition from a slipping bed beneath the ice stream to a locked bed beneath the ridge concentrates stresses. We show that subglacial hydrology can select the shear margin location by strengthening the till within the margin. Our study uses a two-dimensional thermo-mechanical model in a cross-section perpendicular to the direction of flow. We show that the intense straining at the shear margins can generate large temperate regions within the deforming ice. Assuming that the melt generated in the temperate ice collects in a drainage channel at the base, we show that the channel locally decreases the pore pressure in the till. For a Coulomb-plastic rheology, this depressed pore pressure leads to a basal strength substantially higher than that inferred under the majority of the stream. Our results show that the additional basal resistance produced by the channel can reduce the stresses concentrated on the locked bed. Matching the model to surface velocity data at Whillans ice stream margin, we show that a stable shear margin occurs when the slipping-to-locked bed transition is less than 500 m away from a channel operating at an effective pressure of 200 kPa if the basal hydraulic transmissivity is equivalent to that of a water-film 0.2 mm thick.

  4. Subglacial hydrology as a control on ice stream shear margin locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perol, T.; Rice, J. R.; Platt, J. D.; Suckale, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ice streams are fast-flowing bands of ice separated from the nearly stagnant ice in the adjacent ridge by zones of highly localized deformation known as shear margins. However, it is presently unclear what mechanisms can control the location of shear margins, and possibly allow them to migrate. Within the shear margin, the transition from a freely slipping bed beneath the ice stream to a locked bed beneath the ridge concentrates stresses on the locked bed. We show that subglacial hydrological processes can select the shear margin location by strengthening the subglacial till within the margin, reducing the stress concentration associated with the transition from a slipping to a locked bed. Our study uses a two-dimensional thermo-mechanical model in a cross-section perpendicular to the direction of flow. We show that the intense straining at the shear margins can generate large temperate regions within the deforming ice. Assuming that the melt generated in the temperate ice collects in a drainage channel at the base of the margin, we show that the channel locally decreases the pore pressure in the subglacial till. For a Coulomb-plastic rheology, this depressed pore pressure leads to a basal shear strength substantially higher than that inferred under the majority of the stream. Our results show that the additional basal resistance produced by the channel can offset the large stresses concentrated on the locked bed, allowing the drainage channel to select the margin location. Matching the model to surface velocity data near Dragon Margin within Whillans ice stream B2, we show that a stable shear margin occurs when the slipping-to-locked bed transition is less than 500 m away from a channel operating at an effective pressure of 200 kPa if the basal hydraulic transmissivity is equivalent to that of a water-film ~0.2 mm thick. Extending these results we explore how the shear margin location varies with the effective pressure of the channel and hydraulic properties of

  5. Concentrations of Escherichia coli in streams in the Ohio River watershed in Indiana, May-August 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silcox, Cheryl A.; Robinson, Bret A.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Water samples collected from 40 stream sites in the Ohio River Watershed in Indiana from May through August 2000 were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Each site was sampled five times in a 30-day period. Concentrations of E. coli in 72 of the 200 samples exceeded the State of Indiana single-sample standard of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters for waters used for recreation. A five-sample geometric mean of concentrations was computed for each site. Concentrations in samples from 24 of the 40 sites exceeded the State of Indiana standard for a five-sample geometric mean of 125 colonies per 100 milliliters for waters used for recreation. Samples collected from 34 sites had E. coli concentrations that exceeded either or both the single-sample standard and the five sample geometric mean standard. Five of the 40 sampling sites were at or near U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations. On the basis of records from these stations, 16 percent of the samples from these sites were collected at streamflows above the median daily mean discharge for each station. E. coli concentrations and turbidity measurements collected during 2000 were analyzed in concert with E. coli concentration and turbidity data collected in 1999 at streams within the Kankakee and Lower Wabash River Watersheds in Indiana and in 1998 at streams within the Upper Wabash River Watershed in Indiana. These data were grouped together to investigate the relation between concentrations of bacteria and turbidity. The resulting analysis indicated a statistically significant correlation between concentrations of E. coli and turbidity.

  6. An overview of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials 3 experiment: Space Shuttle Mission 46, July-August 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Visentine, James T.; Hunton, Don E.; Cross, Jon B.; Hakes, Charles L.

    1995-01-01

    The Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials 3 (EOIM-3) flight experiment was developed to obtain benchmark atomic oxygen reactivity data and was conducted during Space Transportation System Mission 46 (STS-46), July 31 to August 7, 1992. In this paper, we present an overview of EOIM-3 and the results of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) materials reactivity and mass spectrometer/carousel experiments. Mass spectrometer calibration methods are discussed briefly, as a prelude to a detailed discussion of the mass spectrometric results produced during STS-46. Mass spectrometric measurements of ambient O-atom flux and fluence are in good agreement with the values calculated using the MSIS-86 model of the thermosphere as well as estimates based on the extent of O-atom reaction with Kapton polyimide. Mass spectrometric measurements of gaseous products formed by O-atom reaction with C(13) labeled Kapton revealed CO, CO2, H2O, NO, and NO2. Finally, by operating the mass spectrometer so as to detect naturally occurring ionospheric species, we characterized the ambient ionosphere at various times during EOIM-3 and detected the gaseous reaction products formed when ambient ions interacted with the C(13) Kapton carousel sector. By direct comparison of the results of on-orbit O-atom exposures with those conducted in ground-based laboratory systems, which provide known O-atom fluences and translational energies, we have demonstrated the strong translational energy dependence of O-atom reactions with a variety of polymers. A 'line-of-centers' reactive scattering model was shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the translational energy dependence of polymer reactions with O atoms at high atom kinetic energies while a Beckerle-Ceyer model provided an accurate description of O-atom reactivity over a three order-of-magnitude range in translational energy and a four order-of-magnitude range in reaction efficiency. Postflight studies of the polymer samples

  7. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues: Quarterly report, July 1-September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1996-12-09

    This is the eighth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, additional analyses were performed on ashes from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. Work continued on the HGCU data base being constructed in Microsoft Access. A variety of information has been entered into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Detailed design of a bench top device for high temperature measurement of ash permeability has also begun. In addition to these activities, a paper was prepared and a poster was presented summarizing recent work performed under this contract at the 1996 DOE/METC Contractor`s Conference. A presentation was also given corresponding to the manuscript entitled Particle Characteristics and High-Temperature Filtration that was prepared for publication in the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference held this September in Pittsburgh, PA. Arrangements have been made to be present at the DOE/METC Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR) at the conclusion of the next run of the DOE/METC air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG). This visit will include on-site sampling to collect and characterize the filter cakes collected during FGB operation. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on

  8. Bioethanol Co-Location Study: August 15, 2000 - February 28, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.

    2002-11-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis of the generic economic feasibility of co-locating ethanol production facilities with California biomass power plants, and with coal-fired power plants in the Southwest.

  9. Discharge and travel-time determinations in the Royal Spring groundwater basin, Kentucky. Research report July 1983-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkill, J.; Gouzie, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Groundwater flow in many karst regions, including the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky in which the study area was located, is unlike groundwater flow in granular aquifers. At least the major flows are turbulent and often with a free surface in large conduits, and applying concepts based on Darcy's Law to describe and model these flows is inappropriate. Parameters such as linear velocity, channel geometry, and conveyance used to describe surface stream flows are more applicable, and the primary objective of the project was to estimate these in a groundwater basin using the travel time of dye slugs and discharges obtained by dye dilution. These data were also needed to determine the travel time-discharge relationship required to manage contaminant spills and evaluate methods of enhancing low flows in the basin, the second and third objective of the project. These latter two objectives are of importance because the flow in the Royal Spring groundwater basin that was investigated is used as a municipal water supply.

  10. Solar-geophysical data number 588, August 1993. Part 1: (Prompt reports). Data for July, June 1993, and late data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, H. E.

    1993-08-01

    Solar-Geophysical Data prompt reports for July, and June 1993 are presented. Included are: Data for July 1993; Solar-Terrestrial Environment; IUWDS Alert Periods (Advance and Worldwide); Solar Activity Indices; Solar Flares; Solar Radio Emission; Stanford Mean Solar Magnetic Field; Data for June 1993; Solar Active Regions; Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances; Solar Radio Spectral Observations; Solar Radioheliograph - 164 MHz - Nancay; Cosmic Ray Measurements by Neutron Monitor; and Geomagnetic Indices.

  11. Melt inclusion data from the July/August 2006 and May 2010 eruptions of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, M.; Geist, D.; Rowe, M. C.; Harpp, K. S.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Tungurahua volcano, located in the eastern Cordillera of the Ecuadorian Andes, began a new eruptive sequence in 1999 after ~80 years of inactivity, which persists as of August 2011. This study focuses on the pyroclastic flow-forming eruptions of 2006 and May 2010, using melt inclusions within plagioclase and pyroxene to complement the whole rock compositions presented by Samaniego et al. (2011). Melt inclusions in pyroxene from the 2006 eruption have higher silica concentrations (61-64 wt%) than those hosted within plagioclase (59-62 wt%), the matrix glass (61-62 wt%), and the bulk rock (58 wt%). The 2010 eruption shows a similar but more exaggerated trend, with pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions having silica concentrations ranging from 58-67 wt%, plagioclase between 61-63 wt% and glass between 59-62 wt%. These differences are not attributable to post-entrapment modification. The more evolved inclusions in the 2010 pyroxenes can be created through fractional crystallization of the 2006 glass compositions, using pressures ~2-3 kb and water concentrations ~3 wt%, as simulated by MELTs. Phenocrysts in the 2006 samples have reabsorbed rims and sieve textures, whereas few of the 2010 plagioclases are sieve textured. The 2006 and 2010 melt inclusion compositions plot within the trend formed by the whole rock data from historical eruptions, suggesting that they originated from similar petrogenetic processes. The 2006 pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions have aluminum concentrations above the whole rock trend, whereas the 2010 fall below; otherwise, rocks and inclusions from the two eruptions have similar compositions. Because the pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions contain more evolved melt than the plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions, it is possible that: 1) plagioclase crystallized at higher temperature, along with iron-titanium oxides, increasing the silica concentrations in liquids that were captured by pyroxene, followed by a mafic intrusion that triggered the eruption or 2

  12. Evaluating terrain-based predictions of groundwater discharge locations along a boreal stream using temperature and isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Jason; Lidberg, William; Peralta-Tapia, Andres; Ågren, Anneli; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater discharge along streams exerts an important influence on biogeochemistry and thermal regimes of aquatic ecosystems. A common approach for predicting locations of groundwater discharge is to use digital elevation models (DEMs) combined with flow accumulation algorithms. In this study, we evaluated these terrain-based predictions of groundwater discharge zones along a stream reach using temperature and isotope tracers. Our study was conducted on a 1300 m headwater stream reach in the boreal region of northern Sweden. Using flow accumulation algorithms and a 2 m LiDAR-derived DEM, we predicted locations of groundwater discharge along the stream reach. We deployed fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) instrumentation to monitor stream temperature at 0.25 m intervals along the reach. We also conducted manual measurements of stream water isotope composition at 50 m intervals for four sampling periods representing distinct streamflow conditions before and during a major rain event. The combined tracer evaluation showed that terrain-based predictions of groundwater discharge were generally reasonable under baseflow conditions, although some prediction errors occurred. In addition, the tracers suggested that groundwater contributions were spatially dynamic during the rain event, which was not fully captured by the terrain-based predictions. Overall, this study highlights potential utility of predicting groundwater discharge zones using terrain-based approaches in boreal regions. In addition, we show advantages of using a combination of tracers to characterize spatiotemporal variability of groundwater discharge along streams.

  13. Whirling disease among snake river cutthroat trout in two spring streams in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubert, W.A.; Joyce, M.P.; Gipson, R.; Zafft, D.; Money, D.; Hawk, D.; Taro, B.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed endemic age-0 cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki for evidence of pathology associated with Myxobolus cerebralis in two streams formed by springs in western Wyoming. We hypothesized that the location of spawning sites in spring streams would affect the extent of exposure of cutthroat trout fry to M. cerebralis triactinomyxons (tams), occurrence of the parasite in their bodies, and clinical signs of whirling disease. The spring streams were warm relative to nearby streams flowing from the mountains or spawning and emergence of fry was early compared with fish in mountain streams. Tams were abundant early in the summer and clinical signs of whirling disease among age-0 fish were seen as early as mid-June in one stream. There were high densities of tams in one stream, and densities declined with upstream progression from May through July, whereas in the other stream, low densities of tams were observed in the downstream portion early in the summer, and they were not detected in July and August. Age-0 cutthroat trout were abundant; clinical signs of whirling disease were evident, and histological evidence of whirling disease was common in the stream where tams were abundant. Low densities of age-0 cutthroat trout and no clinical signs of whirling disease were observed in the stream where tams were not abundant. Among sentinel fish in the stream with abundant tams, we found extensive occurrence of M. cerebralis, with many fish showing clinical signs and histological evidence of pathology associated with M. cerebralis. The proportion of sentinel fish with clinical and histological signs of whirling disease decreased with upstream progression. In the stream with low tam, densities sentinel fish became infected with M. cerebralis, but there were essentially no clinical signs or histological indications of whirling disease. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  14. Stream measurements locate thermogenic methane fluxes in groundwater discharge in an area of shale-gas development.

    PubMed

    Heilweil, Victor M; Grieve, Paul L; Hynek, Scott A; Brantley, Susan L; Solomon, D Kip; Risser, Dennis W

    2015-04-01

    The environmental impacts of shale-gas development on water resources, including methane migration to shallow groundwater, have been difficult to assess. Monitoring around gas wells is generally limited to domestic water-supply wells, which often are not situated along predominant groundwater flow paths. A new concept is tested here: combining stream hydrocarbon and noble-gas measurements with reach mass-balance modeling to estimate thermogenic methane concentrations and fluxes in groundwater discharging to streams and to constrain methane sources. In the Marcellus Formation shale-gas play of northern Pennsylvania (U.S.A.), we sampled methane in 15 streams as a reconnaissance tool to locate methane-laden groundwater discharge: concentrations up to 69 μg L(-1) were observed, with four streams ≥ 5 μg L(-1). Geochemical analyses of water from one stream with high methane (Sugar Run, Lycoming County) were consistent with Middle Devonian gases. After sampling was completed, we learned of a state regulator investigation of stray-gas migration from a nearby Marcellus Formation gas well. Modeling indicates a groundwater thermogenic methane flux of about 0.5 kg d(-1) discharging into Sugar Run, possibly from this fugitive gas source. Since flow paths often coalesce into gaining streams, stream methane monitoring provides the first watershed-scale method to assess groundwater contamination from shale-gas development. PMID:25786038

  15. Methods for estimating flow-duration curve and low-flow frequency statistics for ungaged locations on small streams in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Lorenz, David L.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Czuba, Christiana R.

    2015-01-01

    Equations developed in this study apply only to stream locations where flows are not substantially affected by regulation, diversion, or urbanization. All equations presented in this study will be incorporated into StreamStats, a web-based geographic information system tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. StreamStats allows users to obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and other information for user-selected locations on streams through an interactive map.

  16. The Effect of summer tropical heating on the location and intensity of the extratropical westerly jet streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Webster, Peter J.

    1990-10-01

    The role of the summer hemisphere tropical diabatic heating on the location and magnitude of the winter hemisphere subtropical and extratropical westerly jet streams is studied. In particular, the relationships between the extratropical zonal wind, the subtropical meridional wind and the tropical outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) patterns are examined. It is found that the heating field, the cross-equatorial meridional wind, and the winter zonal wind maxima are closely linked on annual and interannual time scales. These factors indicate that the adjacent hemisphere heating is at least as important as the northern hemisphere orography in determining the location and magnitude of the westerly jet streams. Credence is added to this conclusion by noting the similar associations between the northern hemisphere heating pattern and the location and variations of the southern hemisphere jet streams which are less clearly associated with orography. Furthermore, interannual changes in the location and magnitude of the westerly jet streams are closely related to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Thus, in addition to the well known relationship between ENSO and the near-equatorial or symmetric zonal circulation, there is a strong association on the same time scale in the cross-equatorial flow or asymmetric components about the equator.

  17. The effect of summer tropical heating on the location and intensity of the extratropical westerly jet streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    1990-10-01

    The role of the summer hemisphere tropical diabatic heating on the location and magnitude of the winter hemisphere subtropical and extratropical westerly jet streams is studied. In particular, the relationships between the extratropical zonal wind, the subtropical meridional wind and the tropical outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) patterns are examined. It is found that the heating field, the cross-equatorial meridional wind, and the winter zonal wind maxima are closely linked on annual and interannual time scales. These factors indicate that the adjacent hemisphere heating is at least as important as the northern hemisphere orography in determining the location and magnitude of the westerly jet streams. Credence is added to this conclusion by noting the similar associations between the northern hemisphere heating pattern and the location and variations of the southern hemisphere jet streams which are less clearly associated with orography. Furthermore, interannual changes in the location and magnitude of the westerly jet streams are closely related to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Thus, in addiiton to the well known relationship between ENSO and the near-equatorial or symmetric zonal circulation, there is a strong association on the same time scale in the cross-equatorial flow or asymmetric components about the equator.

  18. Measurements of the summer surface heat budget of the Northeast Water Polynya. USCGC Polar Sea cruise, July 15--August 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Minnett, P.J.

    1994-03-01

    A research cruise of the USCGC Polar Sea to the Northeast Water Polynya, off the eastern coast of Greenland (77--81{degree}N, 6--17{degree}W), was made from mid-July to mid-August of 1992 (NEWP `92) as the first field component of the multi-disciplinary study of a high-Arctic polynya funded by the NSF as part of the Arctic Systems Science program. Instruments to measure the components of the surface heat budget of the polynya were installed on a foremast at the bow of the ship. This report presents the measured variables and derived surface fluxes in graphical and tabulated form. Profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity were taken using radiosondes, and these are also presented.

  19. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling. Technical progress report, [July 16, 1990--August 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1991-08-01

    This report contains three documents describing the progress made by the University of Illinois electromagnetic railgun program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of the United States Department of Energy during the period from July 16, 1990 to August 16, 1991. The first document contains a brief summary of the tasks initiated, continued, or completed, the status of major tasks, and the research effort distribution, estimated and actual, during the period. The second document contains a description of the work performed on time resolved laser interferometric density measurement of the railgun plasma-arc armature. The third document is an account of research on the spectroscopic measurement of the electron density and temperature of the railgun plasma arc.

  20. Summer-time salinity variability in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre; comparison of freshening events observed in June 2006 and in July-August 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, G. P.; Morisset, S.; David, L.; Boutin, J.; Martin, N.; Marié, L.; Gaillard, F.; Centurioni, L. R.; Font, J.; Salvador, J.; Ward, B.; Diverrès, D.

    2012-12-01

    The largest surface salinity in the world ocean away from semi-enclosed seas is found in late summer in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre near 25-26°N 35-40°W, where it often exceeds 37.7 psu. This region is the site of the SPURS experiment. We examined all thermosalinograph data between 2002 and 2012 from two ships regularly crossing this region, the MN Colibri and MN Toucan. The data show that this region presents a minimum of spatial variability in summer, but is interspersed by occasional tongues of lower salinity, the best observed instance having happened in June 2006. In this case, we interpret the feature as advected from the north by southward currents in front of a high feature propagating to the west as Rossby waves. In the same region, recent salinity observations from instrumented drifters indicate occasional drops (by 0.3) in July and August 2012. We will discuss how advection and vertical stirring contribute to the surface salinity budget of these features. Data from the Strasse cruise surveys in August 2012 will be used to further diagnose the summer-time surface salinity budget in this region.

  1. Recycled brake linings as partial aggregate substitute in asphalt paving. Construction and final report. Report for July 1992-August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.A.; Sukley, R.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the performance of asphalt containing various percentages of brake lining as an aggregate, and compare its performance to that of normal asphalt containing natural aggregate. This project is an effort to explore alternate ways to use waste product. Four test section of FB-2 Modified mix containing brake lining materials were placed in July 1992 along with one control section on SR 3022 in Mercer county. To date all sections are performing satisfactory, and Brake linings should be recommended as a viable partial replacement of aggregate in bituminous materials. This study only considered the performance of only off-spec brake linings, therefore, any performance data or enviromental effects of placement of used brake material should be addressed.

  2. Stream and bed temperature response to partial-retention forest harvesting in a coastal headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. D.; Guenther, S.; Gomi, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantified the effects of partial-retention forest harvesting on stream and bed temperatures in a headwater catchment in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Stream temperature was recorded between 2002 and 2005 at four sites, three located within the harvested area and one upstream. Logging occurred in autumn 2004. Shallow groundwater temperatures, along with bed temperature profiles at depths of 1 to 30 cm, were recorded at 10-minute intervals in two hydrologically distinct reaches beginning in 2003 or 2004, depending on the site. The lower reach had smaller discharge contributions via lateral inflow from the hillslopes and fewer areas with upwelling and/or neutral flow across the stream bed compared to the middle reach. Based on a paired-catchment analysis, the logging treatment resulted in higher daily maximum stream and bed temperatures but smaller changes in daily minima. Changes in daily maximum stream temperature, averaged over July and August of the post-harvest year, ranged from 1.6 to 3 oC at different locations within the cut block. Post-harvest changes in bed temperature in the lower reach were lower than the changes in stream temperature, greater at sites with downwelling flow, and decreased with depth at both upwelling and downwelling sites, dropping to about 1 oC at a depth of 30 cm. In the middle reach, changes in daily maximum bed temperature, averaged over July and August, were generally about 1 oC and did not vary significantly with depth. The pre-harvest regression models for shallow groundwater were not suitable for applying the paired-catchment analysis to estimate the effects of harvesting.

  3. Estimation of daily mean streamflow for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin, water years 1960–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to characterize baseline streamflow conditions, compare them with current conditions, and assess effects of human activities on streamflow is fundamental to water-management programs addressing water allocation, human-health issues, recreation needs, and establishment of ecological flow criteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, through the National Water Census, has developed the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) to estimate baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) and altered streamflow at a daily time step for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin for water years 1960–2010. Daily mean baseline streamflow is estimated by using the QPPQ method to equate streamflow expressed as a percentile from the flow-duration curve (FDC) for a particular day at an ungaged stream location with the percentile from a FDC for the same day at a hydrologically similar gaged location where streamflow is measured. Parameter-based regression equations were developed for 22 exceedance probabilities from the FDC for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin. Water use data from 2010 is used to adjust the baseline daily mean streamflow generated from the QPPQ method at ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin to reflect current, or altered, conditions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the overall QPPQ method contained within DRB-SET, a comparison of observed and estimated daily mean streamflows was performed for 109 reference streamgages in and near the Delaware River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values were computed as a measure of goodness of fit. The NSE values (using log10 streamflow values) ranged from 0.22 to 0.98 (median of 0.90) for 45 streamgages in the Upper Delaware River Basin and from -0.37 to 0.98 (median of 0.79) for 41 streamgages in the Lower Delaware River Basin.

  4. Water quality and habitat conditions in upper Midwest streams relative to riparian vegetation and soil characteristics, August 1997 : study design, methods, and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, S.K.; Porter, S.D.; Akers, K.B.; Harris, M.A.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Lee, K.E.; Roberts, L.; Terrio, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Water-chemistry, biological, and habitat data were collected from 70 sites on Midwestern streams during August 1997 as part of an integrated, regional water-quality assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The study area includes the Corn Belt region of southern Minnesota, eastern Iowa, and west-central Illinois, one of the most intensive and productive agricultural regions of the world. The focus of the study was to evaluate the condition of woodedriparian zones and the influence of basin soildrainage characteristics on water quality and biological-community responses. This report includes a description of the study design and site-characterization process, sample-collection and processing methods, laboratory methods, quality-assurance procedures, and summaries of data on nutrients, herbicides and metabolites, stream productivity and respiration, biological communities, habitat conditions, and agriculturalchemical and land-use information.

  5. Hydraulic and channel characteristics of selected streams in the Kantishna Hills area, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 1982-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Maanen, J.L.; Solin, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Kantishna Hills area of the Denali National Park and Preserve contains extensive placer gold deposits. In order to develop plans for the management of this natural resource, and to assess the effects of placer mining on aquatic systems, documentation of the physical characteristics of the streams in the area is needed. Channel morphology, streamflow and streambed composition data were collected at 14 stream reaches in the Kantishna Hills area in September 1982 and in June, July, August , and September of 1983 and 1984. The reaches selected include locations of historical and current mining activity and locations which are undisturbed. The data indicate only minor differences in the physical properties of the streams in mined and unmined drainage basins. The composition of streambeds below mined areas tended to consist of finer sized particles and exhibited less variation in mean particle size than streambed in unmined basins. This may be due in part to the natural sorting of material in stream channels because mined areas, and thus study reaches below them, tended to be located relatively farther downstream (nearer the stream mouth) than were study reaches in basins where no mining has occurred. Changes in the physical properties of the streams which could be directly attributed to mining activity were noted at only one location, Rainy Creek near Kantishna, where the stream had been diverted from its natural channel by the construction of settling ponds. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  7. 43 CFR 3813.1 - Minerals reserved by the Act of July 17, 1914, subject to mineral location, entry and patenting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals reserved by the Act of July 17, 1914, subject to mineral location, entry and patenting. 3813.1 Section 3813.1 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under...

  8. 43 CFR 3813.1 - Minerals reserved by the Act of July 17, 1914, subject to mineral location, entry and patenting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals reserved by the Act of July 17, 1914, subject to mineral location, entry and patenting. 3813.1 Section 3813.1 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under...

  9. 43 CFR 3813.1 - Minerals reserved by the Act of July 17, 1914, subject to mineral location, entry and patenting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals reserved by the Act of July 17, 1914, subject to mineral location, entry and patenting. 3813.1 Section 3813.1 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under...

  10. 43 CFR 3813.1 - Minerals reserved by the Act of July 17, 1914, subject to mineral location, entry and patenting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals reserved by the Act of July 17, 1914, subject to mineral location, entry and patenting. 3813.1 Section 3813.1 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under...

  11. Air quality monitoring for dioxins, furans and PCBs in the Swan Hills area, Summer 1997, July 7 to August 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Summarizes results of air quality monitoring activities carried out in the Swan Hills area of Alberta in summer 1997. At four locations in the area, samples of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyls were analyzed and ambient concentrations determined. Results are presented in terms of toxic equivalents of dioxins and furans, total dioxins, total furans, and total polychlorinated biphenyls, normalized by compounds within each homologue group.

  12. Sex and Violence on TV; Hearings before the Subcommittee on Communications of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, 94th Congress, Second Session, July 9; August 17-18, 1976. Serial No. 94-140.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

    This volume contains the proceedings of hearings held on 9 July 1976 and 17, 18 August 1976 before the Subcommitee on Communications of the House of Representatives, concerning the issue of televised violence and obscenity. Transcripts of statements given by individuals involved in various aspects of television and other communication media are…

  13. Results from air-injection and tracer testing in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves of the Exploratory Studies Facility, August 1994 through July 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeCain, Gary D.

    1998-01-01

    Air-injection and tracer testing were conducted in the upper Tiva Canyon, Bow Ridge Fault, and upper Paintbrush contact alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from August 1994 to July 1991. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Long-term benthic monitoring and assessment program for the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay: data summary and progress report (July 1984-August 1988). Volume 1-text. Volume 2-appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, L.C.; Holland, A.F.; Shaughnessy, A.T.; Dickens, V.; Ranasinghe, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    This report presents data collected in the fourth year of a five-year study to assess long-term responses of benthic communities to changes in water quality resulting from Bay-wide clean-up efforts, and to assess the short- and long-term responses of the benthos to power-plant operations. The results of preliminary comparisons of the data with patterns identified after the first three years are also presented. The report is organized into two volumes. Volume I contains the text and summary findings as follows: July 1984 to August 1988 water-quality data, July 1984 to April 1988 sediment and taxonomic data, and July 1984 to June 1987 production and biomass data. Tables and figures were included at the end of each chapter in Volume I. Volumes II consist of Appendices A through T which contain data gathered between January 1987 and August 1988 and are supplementary to data submitted in previous data summary reports.

  15. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols during the MINOS campaign in Crete, July-August 2001: a multi-analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, J.; Cachier, H.; Oikonomou, K.; Ausset, P.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2003-07-01

    these two methods for determining BC brings here new insights on the origin of carbonaceous aerosols in a complex mixture of different sources. It brings also to our attention that important deviations in BC levels are observed using three widely used EGA techniques and most probably none of the EGA tested here are well adapted to fully characterize this aerosol mixture. Spherical, smooth and silico-aluminated fly-ash observed by Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM) confirm the influence of coal combustion on the carbonaceous aerosol load throughout the campaign. A raw calculation based on BC/nss-SO4 mass ratio suggests that biomass burning could be responsible for half of the BC concentration recorded during the MINOS campaign. From the plot of BC as a function of TC, two linear correlations were observed corresponding to 2 times series (before and after 12 August). Such good correlations suggest, from a first look, that both BC and OC have similar origin and atmospheric transport. On the other hand, the plot of BC as a function of TC obtained from the 2-step thermal method applied to DEKATI Low Pressure Cascade Impactor samples does not show a similar correlation and points out a non conservative distribution of this ratio with 2 super micron modes enriched in OC, correlated with sea salt aerosols and probably originating from gas-to-particle conversion.

  16. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols during the MINOS campaign in Crete, July August 2001: a multi-analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, J.; Cachier, H.; Oikonomou, K.; Ausset, P.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2003-10-01

    two methods for determining BC brings here new insights on the origin of carbonaceous aerosols in a complex mixture of different sources. It brings also to our attention that important deviations in BC levels are observed using three widely used EGA's techniques and most probably none of the EGA tested here are well adapted to fully characterize this aerosol mixture. Spherical, smooth and silico-aluminated fly-ash observed by an Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM) confirm the influence of coal combustion on the carbonaceous aerosol load throughout the campaign. A rough calculation based on a BC/nss-SO4 mass ratio suggests that biomass burning could be responsible for half of the BC concentration recorded during the MINOS campaign. From the plot of BC as a function of TC, two linear correlations were observed corresponding to 2 times series (before and after 12 August). Such good correlations suggest, from a first look, that both BC and OC have similar origin and atmospheric transport. On the other hand, the plot of BC as a function of TC obtained from the 2-step thermal method applied to DEKATI Low Pressure Cascade Impactor samples does not show a similar correlation and points out a non conservative distribution of this ratio with 2 super micron modes enriched in OC, correlated with sea salt aerosols and probably originating from gas-to-particle conversion.

  17. Coma imaging of comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf at Calar Alto in late July to mid August 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Vanysek, Vladimir; Birkle, K.; Hopp, U.

    1992-01-01

    Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on 1989/07/28+30 and on 1989/08/04+12(+14) with the 3.5 m telescope and the 0.8 m Schmidt camera at Calar Alto/Spain. The images exhibit a narrow plasma tail pointing into anti-solar direction. On 1989/07/30 a triple tail was found which can be interpreted as tail ray event. The coma isophotes show prominent asymmetries with the nucleus located on the tailward side of the isophote foci and with a slightly higher brightness in the Northern Hemisphere of the coma. A strong curved jet feature was detected in the coma on 1989/07/30. The jet extended at least 30,000 km into the sunward coma hemisphere. The rotation period of about 1.3 days, estimated from the curvature of the coma jet, needs verification by other observations.

  18. New catalysts for the indirect liquefaction of coal. Second annual technical report, August 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Melson, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Series of zeolite-supported iron-containing catalysts with weight percent iron (% Fe) varying from approx. 1 to approx. 17% Fe have been prepared from Fe/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ and the synthetic zeolites ZSM-5, mordenite and 13X by an extraction technique. The zeolites ZSM-5 and mordenite were used in the acid form, 13X in the sodium form. The catalysts were characterized by a variety of techniques including infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ion-scattering spectrometry and Mossbauer spectroscopy. All catalysts contain highly dispersed, small particle-sized ..gamma..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with a small amount of the iron (0.6 to 1.5% Fe depending on the support) located in the pores of the support. Evaluation of the catalytic ability of some of these materials for synthesis gas conversion was conducted at 280/sup 0/C and 300/sup 0/C by using a fixed-bed continuous flow microreactor. All catalysts evaluated produce significant quantities of hydrocarbons. The distribution of hydrocarbons varies, depending upon the support used, for catalysts with similar weight percent iron. For the liquid hydrocarbons, Fe/ZSM-5 produces the highest percentage of aromatics, Fe/mordenite produces the highest percentage of olefins, and Fe/13X produces the highest percentage of saturates. The effect of support acidity and pore structure on hydrocarbon product distribution is discussed.

  19. VIRTIS-Rosetta observations of the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the Comet Characterisation phase (July-August 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Erard, Stephane; Arnold, Gabriele; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Tosi, Federico; Leyrat, Cedric; Tozzi, Gian Paolo; Drossart, Pierre; Ciarniello, Mauro; Raponi, Andrea; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Formisano, Michelangelo; Schmitt, Bernard; Migliorini, Alessandra; Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Flamini, Enrico

    2014-11-01

    The paper will describe the major results obtained during the comet nucleus characterization phase, July-August 2014, of the Rosetta Mission by the instrument VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer), the dual channel spectrometer onboard Rosetta. The nucleus observations in this phase were performed in a wide range of illumination conditions and with spatial sampling varying from the initial 500m down to 20m. VIRTIS covers the spectral range from 0.25 to 5micron with a mapping channel (VIRTIS-M) and the range 2-5micron with a High Spectral Resolution channel (VIRTIS-H). Both channels have been used to generate maps correlated to various properties (temperature, albedo, composition) of the illuminated areas. Special emphasis was placed on mapping those surface regions considered reachable areas for the Philae Lander descent, and to those area in the “neck” of the nucleus which from the very early Osiris observations did show hints of surface outgassing activity. Authors acknowledge the support from national funding agencies, ASI, DLR and CNES.

  20. Characteristics of African easterly waves associated with tropical cyclogenesis in the Cape Verde Islands region in July-August-September of 2004-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joël; Roux, Frank

    2011-04-01

    The most common synoptic-scale disturbances related to cyclogenesis over the tropical north Atlantic Ocean are African easterly waves (AEWs) that originated from the northern African continent. However, most of these waves do not evolve in tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes. The reasons why only few AEWs develop and the necessary conditions for cyclogenetic evolution are still the subject of intense debate. Tropical cyclogenesis occurring near the Cape Verde Islands in the eastern tropical Atlantic is investigated here with five seasons (July-August-September of 2004-2008) of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses, Meteosat-9 images, and National Hurricane Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Prediction) "best track" archives. The nine named storms that first reached tropical depression intensity east of 30°W, and two among six which developed between 30 and 40°W, during these five years evolved from intense AEW troughs, associated with low-level cyclonic circulation, weak mid-level anticyclonic Saharan flow to the east, and deep convection near the center of cyclonic vorticity. The cyclogenetic evolution of three AEW troughs, which verified these conditions but failed to develop into named storms, was probably inhibited by unusually dry environment and strong vertical wind shear. The fate of other AEW troughs, which did not satisfy the necessary conditions, is also discussed.

  1. Hydrologic monitoring of selected streams in coal fields of central and southern Utah - Summary of data collected, August 1978-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.; Plantz, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey conducted a coal-hydrology monitoring program in coal-field areas of central and southern Utah during August 1978-September 1984 to determine possible hydrologic impacts of future mining and to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic systems of the coal resource areas monitored. Data were collected at 19 gaging stations - 18 stations in the Price, San Rafael, and Dirty Devil River basins, and 1 in the Kanab Creek Basin. Types of data collected at each station included quantity and quality of stream-flow; suspended sediment concentrations; and descriptions of stream bottom sediments, benthic invertebrate, and phytoplankton samples. Also, base flow measurements were made annually upstream from 12 of the gaging stations. Stream bottom sediment sampled at nearly all the monitoring sites contained small to moderate quantities of coal, which may be attributed chiefly to pre-monitoring mining. Streamflow sampled at several sites contained large concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids. Also, concentrations of various trace elements at 10 stations, and phenols at 18 stations, exceeded the criteria of the EPA for drinking water. The data collected during the complete water years (1979-84) of monitoring do provide a better understanding of the hydrologic systems of the coal field areas monitored. The data also provide a definite base by which to evaluate hydrologic impacts of continued or increased coal mining in those areas. 14 refs., 32 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    The State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program was implemented on January 1, 2001. The program includes the collection of rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data at selected sites in the Halawa Stream drainage basin. Rainfall and streamflow data were collected from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001. Few storms during the year met criteria for antecedent dry conditions or provided enough runoff to sample. The storm of June 5, 2001 was sufficiently large to cause runoff. On June 5, 2001, grab samples were collected at five sites along North Halawa and Halawa Streams. The five samples were later analyzed for nutrients, trace metals, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, biological and chemical oxygen demands, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  4. Effects of the H-3 Highway Stormwater Runoff on the Water Quality of Halawa Stream, Oahu, Hawaii, November 1998 to August 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.; Wong, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Since November 1998, water-quality data have been collected from the H-3 Highway Storm Drain C, which collects runoff from a 4-mi-long viaduct, and from Halawa Stream on Oahu, Hawaii. From January 2001 to August 2004, data were collected from the storm drain and four stream sites in the Halawa Stream drainage basin as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Storm Water Monitoring Program. Data from the stormwater monitoring program have been published in annual reports. This report uses these water-quality data to explore how the highway storm-drain runoff affects Halawa Stream and the factors that might be controlling the water quality in the drainage basin. In general, concentrations of nutrients, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids were lower in highway runoff from Storm Drain C than at stream sites upstream and downstream of Storm Drain C. The opposite trend was observed for most trace metals, which generally occurred in higher concentrations in the highway runoff from Storm Drain C than in the samples collected from Halawa Stream. The absolute contribution from Storm Drain C highway runoff, in terms of total storm loads, was much smaller than at stations upstream and downstream, whereas the constituent yields (the relative contribution per unit drainage basin area) at Storm Drain C were comparable to or higher than storm yields at stations upstream and downstream. Most constituent concentrations and loads in stormwater runoff increased in a downstream direction. The timing of the storm sampling is an important factor controlling constituent concentrations observed in stormwater runoff samples. Automated point samplers were used to collect grab samples during the period of increasing discharge of the storm throughout the stormflow peak and during the period of decreasing discharge of the storm, whereas manually collected grab samples were generally collected during the later stages near the end of the storm. Grab samples were

  5. Geologic and hydrologic research at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York. Annual report, August 1981-July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Albanese, J.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Dunne, L.A.; Weir, B.A.

    1983-03-01

    This report details the research accomplished during the second part of the New York State Geological Survey's (NYSGS) three part program of geologic and hydrologic investigations at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) at West Valley, New York. During this reporting period, July 1981-July 1982, the surficial gravel and the underlying till surface of the North Plateau area were measured using core log data and seismic techniques. Contour and isopach maps are included and show the surficial gravel layer to be lenticular in cross section and approximately forty feet thick at its center. The history of drilling at the site and all available subsurface information pertaining to site stratigraphy has been compiled and standardized. Geologic sections based upon the locations of all wells and their geologic logs show that a sandy stratum, previously reported to extend under the entire site at an elevation of 1350 feet, is not a continous layer. Analyses of surface and subsurface till samples show that Lavery Till can be subdivided into three subfacies using grain size distributions and the Kent Till can be distinguished from it by its higher silt content. Initial measurements for movement determination on two landslides yield an average downslope movement rate of 0.23 meters/year. A site slope domain map, establishing five domains of varying sliding potential, has been compiled from aerial photos and field mapping. The final phase of the Buttermilk Creek investigation and the study of the erosional history of the Cattaraugus Creek drainage basin have been initiated. A preliminary characterization of the relationship between precipitation and runoff on the North Plateau shows the income to outflow ratio is 3:1 during the summer and nearly equal to one in the winter.

  6. Gain-loss study along two streams in the upper Sabine River basin, Texas; August-September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    A gain-loss study was made August-September 1981 along the upper Sabine River from Lake Tawakoni to Farm Road 2517 near Carthage and along Lake Fork Creek from Lake Fork Reservoir to its junction (mouth) with the Sabine River. The hydrologic data collected during the gain-loss study indicated that during periods of low flow on the Sabine River, at least as much water as is released from Lake Tawakoni and from Lake Fork Reservoir will be available downstream at Farm Road 14 near Big Sandy and at Farm Road 2517 near Carthage. Gains from bank seepage and small tributary inflows compensate for losses due to evaporation, evapotranspiration, and loss of water into the alluvial aquifer. Dissolved solids concentrations in the Sabine River, estimated from specific conductance, increased from about 120 milligrams per liter near the upstream end of the reach to about 400 milligrams per liter near the downstream end of the reach. Water with these concentrations of dissolved solids generally is suitable for most uses.

  7. Problematic Location and Focal Mechanism of Weak Earthquakes: Example From The February-july 2001 Sequence In Aegion, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokos, E.; Zahradnik, J.; Jansky, J.; Serpetsidaki, A.

    An earthquake sequence comprising of almost 200 events, with ML 2.0 to 4.7 oc- curred at about 10 km south of Aegion, the town heavily damaged by the ML = 6.2 earthquake of 1995. This region is of interest to the EC project cluster, the "Corinth Rift Laboratory". The sequence started in February 2001 and ended in July 2001. It was located by the regional short-period network of the University of Patras, PATNET, covering the Western Greece. The HYPO71PC method of Lee and Valdes (using var- ious constant-velocity layered crustal models and various starting depths) indicated that the earthquakes occupied a relatively large volume, whose horizontal and verti- cal extent is 10 x 10 km, and 20 km, respectively. The grid-search method applied in the same models, and also in a crustal model composed of gradient layers, confirmed this result but it also revealed existence of a dense cluster in the depth range 14 to 20 km, close to the mainshock depth. To retrieve the focal mechanism of the main- shock (April 8, ML=4.7), the amplitude spectra of complete waveforms at 0.1 to 0.2 Hz, below the corner frequency, were grid-searched for the strike, dip, and rake, using several trial depths. Three stations were employed: KER (Kernitsa, distance 17 km) and SER (Sergoula, 26 km) with digital accelerographs CMG5-T (Guralp), and DES (Desfina, 56 km), equipped by LE-3D/5s (Lennartz) instrument; DES is operated by the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens. The synthetic spectra were calculated by the discrete wavenumber method of Bouchon. The best solution (depth 8 km) is given by the strike = 220, dip = 40 , rake = -160, and its conjugate 114, 77, -52. The scalar seismic moment is 2.5e15 Nm, which gives the moment magnitude Mw=4.3. To assess the fault size, the waveforms (0.1 to 5.0 Hz) were fitted with a triangular moment-rate function. The best fit was obtained for the source duration of 0.3-0.4 sec, corresponding to the fault size of about 1 km. This implies average

  8. Archive of Chirp Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Cruises 01SCC01 and 01SCC02, Timbalier Bay and Offshore East Timbalier Island, Louisiana, June 30 - July 9 and August 1 - 12, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.; Kindinger, Jack G.

    2003-01-01

    In June, July, and August of 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of New Orleans, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, conducted a shallow geophysical and sediment core survey of Timbalier Bay and the Gulf of Mexico offshore East Timbalier Island, Louisiana. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital seismic reflection data, trackline navigation files, trackline navigation maps, observers' logbooks, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) information, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. In addition, a gained digital Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) image of each seismic profile is provided. Please see Kulp and others (2002), Flocks and others (2003), and Kulp and others (in prep.) for further information about the sediment cores collected and the geophysical results. For convenience, a list of acronyms and abbreviations frequently used in this report is also included. This Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) document is readable on any computing platform that has standard DVD driver software installed. Documentation on this DVD was produced using Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) utilized by the World Wide Web (WWW) and allows the user to access the information using a web browser (i.e. Netscape, Internet Explorer). To access the information contained on these discs, open the file 'index.htm' located at the top level of each disc using a web browser. This report also contains WWW links to USGS collaborators and other agencies. These links are only accessible if access to the internet is available while viewing these DVDs. The archived chirp seismic reflection data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry et al., 1975) and may be downloaded for processing with public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU), currently located at http://www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes/index.html. Examples of SU processing scripts are

  9. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation. Annual report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, `Ken-Flote` column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  10. Estimation of baseline daily mean streamflows for ungaged locations on Pennsylvania streams, water years 1960-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water-resource managers use daily mean streamflows to generate streamflow statistics and analyze streamflow conditions. An in-depth evaluation of flow regimes to promote instream ecological health often requires streamflow information obtainable only from a time series hydrograph. Historically, it has been difficult to estimate daily mean streamflow for an ungaged location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, and The Nature Conservancy, has developed the Baseline Streamflow Estimator (BaSE) to estimate baseline streamflow at a daily time scale for ungaged streams in Pennsylvania using data collected during water years 1960–2008. Baseline streamflow is minimally altered by regulation, diversion, or mining, and other anthropogenic activities. Daily mean streamflow is estimated in BaSE using a methodology that equates streamflow as a percentile from a flow duration curve for a particular day at an ungaged location with streamflow as a percentile from the flow duration curve for the same day at a reference streamgage that is considered to be hydrologically similar to the ungaged location. An appropriate reference streamgage is selected using map correlation, in which variogram models are developed that correlate streamflow at one streamgage with streamflows at all other streamgages. The percentiles from a flow duration curve for the ungaged location are converted to streamflow through the use of regression equations. Regression equations used to predict 17 flow-duration exceedance probabilities were developed for Pennsylvania using geographic information system-derived basin characteristics. The standard error of prediction for the regression equations ranged from 11 percent to 92 percent with the mean of 31 percent. The map correlation method for estimating streamflow was tested at locations within two pilot basins, the Upper Delaware River Basin and the

  11. Cues for auditory stream segregation of birdsong in budgerigars and zebra finches: Effects of location, timing, amplitude, and frequency.

    PubMed

    Dent, Micheal L; Martin, Amanda K; Flaherty, Mary M; Neilans, Erikson G

    2016-02-01

    Deciphering the auditory scene is a problem faced by many organisms. However, when faced with numerous overlapping sounds from multiple locations, listeners are still able to attribute the individual sound objects to their individual sound-producing sources. Here, the characteristics of sounds important for integrating versus segregating in birds were determined. Budgerigars and zebra finches were trained using operant conditioning procedures on an identification task to peck one key when they heard a whole zebra finch song and to peck another when they heard a zebra finch song missing a middle syllable. Once the birds were trained to a criterion performance level on those stimuli, probe trials were introduced on a small proportion of trials. The probe songs contained modifications of the incomplete training song's missing syllable. When the bird responded as if the probe was a whole song, it suggests they streamed together the altered syllable and the rest of the song. When the bird responded as if the probe was a non-whole song, it suggests they segregated the altered probe from the rest of the song. Results show that some features, such as location and intensity, are more important for segregating than other features, such as timing and frequency. PMID:26936551

  12. Effects of plantation forest clearfelling on stream temperatures in the Plynlimon experimental catchments, mid-Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, T.; Marks, S.

    Hourly stream temperatures monitored over 28 months, which spanned a 3 month period of environmentally sensitive plot-scale harvesting of 20 ha. (20%) of the Nant Tanllwyth catchment (0.89 km2) on the south side of the main stream in early 1996, resulted in a 0.58°C (p< 0.001) increase in monthly mean stream temperature. Over the same 28 month experimental period, there was no significant increase in the monthly mean air temperature recorded at a nearby automatic weather station. Monthly mean temperatures are highest in July and August in the year before and the year after the clearfelling, and one of the main effects of the clearfelling was to decrease the difference between the monthly mean stream and air temperatures. Despite the air temperatures being cooler in the post-clearfelling year, the stream temperatures still showed an increase in the summer months. Monthly mean maximum stream temperatures, also highest in July and August in the year before and the year after the clearfelling, showed a marked increase of 7.0°C: in July and 5.3°C in August from the pre- to the post-clearfelling years, while monthly mean minimum air temperatures actually showed a slight decrease for the same months. The likely effects on stream fauna are discussed, as are suggestions for, and likely effects of, buffer strips alongside the streams.

  13. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  14. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.

    2002-01-01

    The State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program was implemented on January 1, 2001. The program includes the collection of rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data at selected sites in the Halawa Stream drainage basin. Rainfall data were collected at two sites, and streamflow data were collected at 3 sites for the year July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002. Water-quality data were collected at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. Six storms were sampled during the year July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002, for a total of 44 samples. For each storm event, grab samples were collected nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted, time-composite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, trace metals, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Quality assurance samples were also collected to verify analytical procedures and insure proper cleaning of equipment.

  15. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous streamflow data at three stations, and water-quality data at five stations, which include the two continuous streamflow stations. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007. A total of 13 samples was collected over two storms during July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007. The goal was to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five stations and flow-weighted time-composite samples at the three stations equipped with automatic samplers. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples were also collected during storms and during routine maintenance to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  16. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two sites, continuous streamflow data at three sites, and water-quality data at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2003 and June 30, 2004. A total of 30 samples was collected over four storms during July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004. In general, an attempt was made to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted time-composite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. However, all four storms were partially sampled because either not all stations were sampled or only grab samples were collected. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc). Grab samples were additionally analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples, collected during storms and during routine maintenance, were also collected to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  17. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data was collected at two sites, continuous streamflow data at three sites, and water-quality data at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003. A total of 28 samples were collected over five storms during July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003. For two of the five storms, five grab samples and three flow-weighted timecomposite samples were collected. Grab samples were collected nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted timecomposite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. The other three storms were partially sampled, where only flow-weighted time-composite samples were collected and/or not all stations were sampled. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc). Grab samples were additionally analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/qualitycontrol samples, collected during storms and during routine maintenance, were also collected to verify analytical procedures and insure proper cleaning of equipment.

  18. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.; Young-Smith, Stacie T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous discharge data at one station, continuous streamflow data at two stations, and water-quality data at five stations, which include the continuous discharge and streamflow stations. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2005 and June 30, 2006. A total of 23 samples was collected over five storms during July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006. The goal was to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five stations, and flow-weighted time-composite samples at the three stations equipped with automatic samplers; however, all five storms were partially sampled owing to lack of flow at the time of sampling at some sites, or because some samples collected by the automatic sampler did not represent water from the storm. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples were also collected during storms and during routine maintenance to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  19. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous streamflow data at two stations, and water-quality data at five stations, which include the two continuous streamflow stations. This report summarizes rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2004 and June 30, 2005. A total of 15 samples was collected over three storms during July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005. In general, an attempt was made to collect grab samples nearly simultaneously at all five stations and flow-weighted time-composite samples at the three stations equipped with automatic samplers. However, all three storms were partially sampled because either not all stations were sampled or not all composite samples were collected. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc). Chromium and nickel were added to the analysis starting October 1, 2004. Grab samples were additionally analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Quality-assurance/quality-control samples were also collected during storms and during routine maintenance to verify analytical procedures and check the effectiveness of equipment-cleaning procedures.

  20. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri River in and into Missouri during summer flooding, July-August 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas and Missouri Departments of Transportation, in the vicinity of 36 bridges at 27 highway crossings of the Missouri River between Brownville, Nebraska and St. Louis, Missouri, from July 13 through August 3, 2011, during a summer flood. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,350 to 1,860 feet and extending across the active channel of the Missouri River. These bathymetric scans provide a "snapshot" of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Kansas and Missouri Departments of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods. Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water, in extremely shallow water, or surrounded by debris rafts. Scour holes were present at most piers for which bathymetry could be obtained, except at piers on channel banks, those near or embedded in lateral or longitudinal spur dikes, and those on exposed bedrock outcrops. Scour holes observed at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to depth and shape. Although exposure of parts of foundational support elements was observed at several piers, at most sites the exposure likely can be considered minimal compared to the overall substructure that remains buried in bed material; however, there were several notable exceptions where the bed material thickness between the bottom of the scour hole and bedrock was less than 6 feet. Such substantial exposure of usually buried substructural elements may warrant special observation in future flood events. Previous bathymetric surveys had been done at several of the sites

  1. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  2. User Education in the Online Age II. IATUL International Seminar Proceedings, (2nd, Delft, The Netherlands, July 30-August 2, 1984). Vol. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Papers presented at an August 1984 international seminar on online user education include "Library Policies and Strategies in The Netherlands" (Chris J. van Wijk, The Netherlands); "Promotion and Marketing of Library Services" (Nancy Fjallbrant, Sweden); "Library Promotion by Computer" (Ian Malley, United Kingdom); "Library User Education and…

  3. Solar-geophysical data number 493, September 1985. Part 1: (Prompt reports). Data for August 1985, July 1985 and late data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, H. E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered include: detailed index for 1985; data for August 1985--(IUWDS alert periods (Advanced and Worldwide), solar activity indices, solar flares, solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field); (solar active regions, sudden ionospheric disturbances, solar radio spectral observations, cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, geomagnetic indices, radio propagation indices); and late data--calcium plage data.

  4. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    CONSOL completed characterization of 64 samples from five run conditions of HTI Run ALC-1 (227-94), in which raw and cleaned (oil-agglomerated at low pH) Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal was fed and processed using only dispersed catalysts in the liquefaction reactors. Extraction of THF-soluble resid from the pressure-filter cakes was more complete when agglomerates were fed, leaving only 5% or less THF solubles in the extracted cakes. When raw coal was fed, the extracted cakes contained 9-34% THF solubles. HTI also observed improved filtration during the periods that agglomerates were fed. Improved operability, if verified by additional work, could be an economically significant benefit of coal cleaning by oil agglomeration at low pH. An apparently higher Mo addition rate (see fourth bullet) may have contributed to the benefits of using oil-agglomerated coal. Other stream sample characteristics changed when oil-agglomerated coal was fed in Conditions 2-4, relative to when uncleaned coal was fed in Conditions 1 and 5. The ash content of the 0-6 bottoms samples was lower when oil-agglomerates were fed. The THF-soluble 524{degrees}C+ resid concentration in the feed slurry doubled when agglomerated coal was fed. Three factors may have influenced these characteristics. Higher coal conversion would have produced more resid. More efficient toluene-extraction of the filter cake would have recycled more resid. Removal of distillate as product to offset oil fed as part of the agglomerated coal would preferentially recycle the heaviest components.

  5. Surface-water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; dissolved oxygen and Escherichia coli bacteria in streams during low flow, July 1988 through July 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The 15,300-square-mile lower Kansas River Basin in Kansas and Nebraska was investigated, as one of the pilot study units of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, to address a variety of water-quality issues. This report describes sanitary quality of streams as defined by concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and densities of a fecal-indicator bacterium, Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sixty-one surface-water sampling sites were chosen for this investigation. Synoptic surveys were conducted in July 1988, November 1988, March 1989, and May 1989 to define the concentrations and diel and seasonal variability in concentrations of DO. Synoptic surveys were conducted in July 1988 and July 1989 to define densities of E. coli. Ancillary data included measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature. barometric pressure, and concentrations of nutrients, total organic carbon, chlorophyll, and suspended sediment. Surveys were conducted during stable-flow, dry-weather conditions. During the July 1988 synoptic survey for DO, emphasis was placed on the measurement of DO under maximum stress (high water temperature, low streamflow, and predawn conditions). Of 31 sites sampled just before dawn, 5 had DO concentrations less than the 5.0-milligrams-perliter, l-day minimum warmwater criterion for early life stages as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and 4 of these 5 sites had concentrations less than the 3.0-milligrams-per-liter criterion for all other life stages. For all four synoptic surveys, a total of 392 DO determinations were made, and 9 (2.3 percent) were less than water-quality criteria. Concentrations of DO less than water-quality criteria in the study unit are localized occurrences and do not reflect regional differences in DO. The most severe DO deficiencies are the result of discharges from wastewater-treatment plants into small tributary streams with inadequate assimilation capacity. Algal

  6. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and July 2006-Taylor Mountains 1:250,00-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled ?Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.? Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July 2006. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the third release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; aqueous geochemical data from samples collected in 2004 and 2005 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountains quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. Generally, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. All field blank major-ion and trace-element concentrations were below detection.

  7. Aqueous Geochemical Data From the Analysis of Stream-Water Samples Collected in June and July 2005--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 Scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Stetson, Sarah; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2006-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. Parameters for which data are reported include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and dissolved organic-carbon concentrations. Samples were collected as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project 'Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development.' Data presented here are from samples collected in June and July of 2005. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. This is the second release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; 2004 aqueous geochemical data were published previously (Wang and others, 2006). The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data release. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry ranges from Ca2+/Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+/Mg2+/Na++K+. In general, good agreement was found between the major cations and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements in these samples were at or near the analytical method detection limit, but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. With the exception of a total mercury concentration of 0.33 ng/L detected in a field blank, field blank major-ion and trace-elements concentrations were below detection.

  8. Field based analysis of sediment entrainment in two high gradient streams located in Alpine and Andine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Luca; Uyttendaele, Geertrui Paula; Iroumé, Andrés; Lenzi, Mario Aristide

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of critical thresholds for bedload transport based on field measurements conducted in two small, high gradient streams: the Rio Cordon (Italian Alps) and the Tres Arroyos (Chilean Andes). The threshold of incipient motion was identified by using marked particles displacement and both flood and flow competence approaches. The findings are expressed in terms of Shields parameter, dimensionless discharge, and specific stream power, and are used to identify the effects of relative grain size, relative depth, and bedform resistance. Overall, particle entrainment tends to be size selective, rather than exhibiting equal mobility, and the high values of dimensionless critical shear stress observed at both study sites confirm the additional roughness effects of step-pool morphologies that are very effective in reducing the bed shear stress and causing an apparent increase in critical shear stress.

  9. A computerised real-time measurement system to locate the position of the urine stream in designing urine collection devices for women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Macaulay, M C; Jowitt, F A; Clarke-O'Neill, S R; Fader, M J; van den Heuvel, E A; Cottenden, A M

    2008-05-01

    A computerised real-time measurement system has been developed and tested for locating the position of the urine stream into a handheld urinal and onto a body-worn pad using arrays of resistive or optical sensors. Experimental data indicates that urine streams were usually scattered over quite a large cross-sectional area (typically 30mm in the anterior/posterior direction) at the point of entry into handheld urinals. However, a correctly placed aperture of length 90mm would have successfully received all the urine from the total of 36 clinical experiments run with seven women. Similarly, experiments to determine the initial position of the urine stream onto body-worn pads indicated that a target area of length 120mm would have received the initial stream of urine from all 54 clinical experiments with 18 women. These data have been used to help with the design of a handheld urinal and a body-worn urine collection interface (the latter using the body-worn pad data) to be used in two variants of a new urine collection device for women (NICMS). Although both resistive and optical sensors provided useful data, the reliability of optical sensors was often compromised by droplets of urine splashing onto light sources or detectors. Future work should focus on protecting them from splashing. PMID:17643336

  10. Diel changes in water chemistry in an arsenic-rich stream and treatment-pond system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammons, C.H.; Grant, T.M.; Nimick, D.A.; Parker, S.R.; DeGrandpre, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations are elevated in surface waters of the Warm Springs Ponds Operable Unit (WSPOU), located at the head of the upper Clark Fork River Superfund site, Montana, USA. Arsenic is derived from historical deposition of smelter emissions (Mill and Willow Creeks) and historical mining and milling wastes (Silver Bow Creek). Although long-term monitoring has characterized the general seasonal and flow-related trends in As concentrations in these streams and the pond system used to treat Silver Bow Creek water, little is known about solubility controls and sorption processes that influence diel cycles in As concentrations. Diel (24-h) sampling was conducted in July 2004 and August 2005 at the outlet of the treatment ponds, at two locations along a nearby reconstructed stream channel that diverts tributary water around the ponds, and at Silver Bow Creek 2??km below the ponds. Dissolved As concentration increased up to 51% during the day at most of the stream sites, whereas little or no diel change was displayed at the treatment-pond outlet. The strong cycle in streams is explained by pH- and temperature-dependent sorption of As onto hydrous metal oxides or biofilms on the streambed. Concentrations of dissolved Ca2+ and HCO3- at the stream sites showed a diel temporal pattern opposite to that of As, and geochemical modeling supports the hypothesis that the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- were controlled by precipitation of calcite during the warm afternoon hours when pH rose above 9.0. Nightly increases in dissolved Mn and Fe(II) concentrations were out of phase with concentrations of other divalent cations and are more likely explained by redox phenomena. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Bayou Grand Cane, De Soto Parish, Louisiana. Topical report, August 1991--July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Hayes, D.; Van Dyke, G.D. |

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipeline on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and night of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 12-13, 1991, at the Bayou Grand Cane crossing in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, where a pipeline constructed three years prior to the survey crosses the bayou through mature bottomland hardwoods. The sit was not seeded or fertilized after construction activities. At the time of sampling, a dense herb stratum (composed of mostly native species) covered the 20-m-wide ROW, except within drainage channels. As a result of the creation of the ROW, new habitat was created, plant diversity increased, and forest habitat became fragmented. The ROW must be maintained at an early stage of succession to allow access to the pipeline however, impacts to the wetland were minimized by decreasing the width of the ROW to 20 m and recreating the drainage channels across the ROW. The canopy trees on the ROW`s edge shaded part of the ROW, which helped to minimize the effects of the ROW.

  12. Polymer-based separations: Synthesis and application of polymers for ionic and molecular recognition. Annual performance report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    During this period, focus was on design and synthesis of bifunctional polymers for complexing metal ions from aqueous solutions; this could provide a means for separating radioactive and toxic metal ions from contaminated waste water as well as valuable metals from dilute ore processing streams. The synthesis of bifunctional polymers required a new preparative technique; bifunctional interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) was an important part of the studies. In the preparation, a pre-formed crosslinked polymer is contacted with a solution of monomers, and a second network was polymerized within the first. Imidazole ligands were used. A new resin, prepared with a macrocyclic sorbed within polystyrene beads modified with sulfonic acid ligands, extracted Cu(II) 10--100-fold. Maximum metal ion complexation rates depend on a balance between chemical interactions and physical parameters (matrix porosity, rigidity). A novel ion exchange resin (Diphonix{trademark}) has been produced which displays both ionic selectivity (diphosphonic acid ligands) and rapid complexation rates (sulfonic acid ligands).

  13. Physical and chemical data on sediments deposited in the Missouri and the Mississippi River flood plains during the July through August 1993 flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Gregg K.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Johnson, Gary P.

    1998-01-01

    Because sediments deposited by the 1993 floods on the Missouri and Mississippi rivers were thought to contain elevated concentrations of nutrients and trace elements, sediment deposits were sampled at 25 floodplain locations. The samples were analyzed for particle size, water content, volatile solids, nutrients, carbon, selected trace elements, pesticides, and semivolatile organic compounds. Preflood soil samples were analyzed for particle size only. Procedures for selecting sites, techniques developed for sampling, laboratory and analytical methods, and quality assurance methods also are described.

  14. An Experiment on the Utility and Viability of Providing Non-Skills Training to Underutilized, High Seniority Workers in the Canning Industry. An Industry-Specific Approach to Lay-Off Time Training. Final Report, July 1, 1972-August 31, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, William T.

    An experimental project was conducted between July 1972 and August 1973 to offer adult basic education to high seniority, unskilled employees laid off because of the seasonal nature of their jobs in the fruit and vegetable canning industry in northern California. The project's purpose was to demonstrate that layoff time training (LOTT) would be…

  15. Analytical results and sample locations of reanalyzed NURE stream-sediment and soil samples for the Humboldt River basin mineral-environmental assessment, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folger, H. W., (compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), began a study in 1996 to describe to the geochemistry of the Humboldt River Basin. The principal sample media evaluated are stream-sediment and soil samples retrieved from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) archives located in Denver, Colorado. Samples were retrieved from the Wells, McDermitt, Vya, Lovelock, Winnemucca, Elko, Ely, Millett, Reno, and Tonopah 1? x 2? quadrangles in northern Nevada. The data are appropriate for large-scale reconnaissance resource evaluations and landscape geochemical-geoenvironmental evaluations. The analytical results are presented in this report.

  16. Study of roughness-induced diffuse and specular reflectance at silver-air and silver-liquid interfaces. Final report, July 1, 1979-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, S.O.

    1980-07-01

    Results of an extended investigation of surface plasma-wave absorption and roughness-induced optical scattering from an interface of silver and air are described. In particular, the position of the surface plasma resonance minimum in reflectivity for a stochastically roughened metal silver surface has been studied as a function of a number of distinct roughness perturbations. In the case of a transparent liquid-silver boundary the frequency red shift of the resonance minimum has been determined and the location of the surface plasmon dip for various liquids is shown to agree well with a simple roughness theory. The additional interfacial properties due to the formation of a thin inhomogeneous oxide layer occurring either spontaneously or due to application of a small interfacial electrical potential are more complex. However, the optical constants of the interlayer have been determined from differential specular reflectance measurements at the boundary. Nodule size parameters determined from scattering and absorption measurements and features of both polarized and depolarized diffuse reflectance give further information on the state of the interface. Reflectance of ordered-corrugated surfaces are also described.

  17. Flood of August 1950 in the Waimea area, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chun, R.K.

    1952-01-01

    This report presents detailed records of stages and discharges at four gaging stations in the basin during the flood period August 15-18 in the Waimea River basin, a summary of flood discharges at gaging stations on the principal streams on the island of Kauai, a description of the physical features of the drainage basin, a description of the two types of storms that prevail on the Hawaiian Islands, and a section on the meteorology of the storm of August 15-18. Figure 46 is a map of the island of Kauai, which shows the location of the gaging stations referred to in this report, the location of .rain gages in the area where rainfall was the greatest, and lines of equal rainfall for the period August 14-19, 1950.

  18. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  19. Headwater locations of U.S. streams tributary to St. Lawrence River basin between western Ohio and eastern New York, excluding Lake Champlain basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eissler, Benjamin B.

    1979-01-01

    The headwater locations of several thousand U.S. streams tributary to Lakes Ontario and Erie and the St. Lawrence and Niagara Rivers, from the Maumee River in Ohio to the western border of the Lake Champlain basin in New York, including parts of Pennsylvania, are listed by quadrangle. The location of the headwater of each is given with reference to cultural and topographic features. ' Headwater ' in this report is defined as the first site downstream from which the average streamflow is 5 cubic feet per second. The site locations were determined from drainage areas as indicated on topographic maps. The size of the drainage area required to produce an average flow of 5 cubic feet per second was determined from equations, developed separately for each State by regression techniques, that define the relation between streamflow and hydrologic factors of the region. Drainage area and precipitation were factors in the equations for all three States: forest cover was found to be significant in Ohio. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Science& Technology Review July/August 2003

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D H

    2003-07-01

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Calling All Nuclear Scientists--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) An Inside Attack on Cancer--Customizing the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, for individual cancers and individual patients, is the goal of a Livermore research initiative; (3) Cells Respond Uniquely to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation--Mammalian cells and tissues exposed to low-level radiation respond by switching on hundreds of genes specialized in repairing damaged chromosomes, membranes, and proteins and in countering cellular stress. (4) A New Generation of Munitions--Warhead designers are developing low collateral damage munitions that only deliver their destructive force to the intended target; and (5) Whatever the Waste, New Facility Takes It On--A new decontamination and waste treatment facility makes it easier for Livermore to manage a variety of wastes effectively, practically, and responsibly.

  1. Energy technology review, July--August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    This issue of Energy Technology Review'' gives the annual review of the programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This State of the Laboratory issue includes discussions of all major programs: Defense Systems; Laser Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Energy and Earth Sciences; Environmental Technology Program; Biomedical and Environmental Science; Engineering; Physics; Chemistry and Materials Science; Computations; and Administrative and Institutional Services. An index is also given of the 1991 achievements with contact names and telephone number.

  2. Science & Technology Review July/August 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M B

    2005-06-14

    This journal contains the following articles (1) The Grand Challenge of Thermonuclear Ignition--Commentary by Edward I. Moses; (2) Orchestrating the World's Most Powerful Laser--The computer control system for the National Ignition Facility will soon have about 1.4-million lines of code running on more than 750 computers; (3) A Randon Walk through Time and Space--Albert einstein's 1905 papers on Brownian motion, random fluctuations, and statistical mechanics are fundamental to many Livermore research projects; (4) The Search for Methane in Earth's Mantle--Scientists are discovering that Earth's mantle may have untapped reserves of methane; and (5) Testing the Physics of Nuclear Isomers--Results from a tri-laboratory project contradict claims of accelerated release of energy from the nuclear isomer hafnium-178.

  3. Education Matters, July-August 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Does Universal Preschool Improve Learning? Lessons from…

  4. Education Matters, July-August 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) In Praise of (and Sympathy for) Teachers (Chester E.…

  5. Laser programs highlights, July--August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Laser research at LLNL is divided into five major programmatic areas: inertial confinement fusion (ICF), uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (U-AVLIS), special (plutonium) isotope separation (SIS), laser technology, and advanced applications. We have made important progress this past year in each of these areas. This report covers the current state of these 5 areas.

  6. Science & Technology Review July/August 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P

    2008-05-27

    This months issue has the following articles: (1) Science Translated for the Greater Good--Commentary by Steven D. Liedle; (2) The New Face of Industrial Partnerships--An entrepreneurial spirit is blossoming at Lawrence Livermore; (3) Monitoring a Nuclear Weapon from the Inside--Livermore researchers are developing tiny sensors to warn of detrimental chemical and physical changes inside nuclear warheads; (4) Simulating the Biomolecular Structure of Nanometer-Size Particles--Grand Challenge simulations reveal the size and structure of nanolipoprotein particles used to study membrane proteins; and (5) Antineutrino Detectors Improve Reactor Safeguards--Antineutrino detectors track the consumption and production of fissile materials inside nuclear reactors.

  7. Rainfall, Discharge, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008; Halawa Stream Drainage Basin and the H-1 Storm Drain, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.; Young, Stacie T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. The program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream and to assess the effects from the H-1 storm drain on Manoa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at three stations, continuous discharge data at four stations, and water-quality data at six stations, which include the four continuous discharge stations. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2008. A total of 16 environmental samples were collected over two storms during July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008, within the Halawa Stream drainage area. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Some samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes because an insufficient volume of sample was collected by the automatic samplers. Three additional quality-assurance/quality-control samples were collected concurrently with the storm samples. A total of 16 environmental samples were collected over four storms during July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008 at the H-1 Storm Drain. All samples at this site were collected using an automatic sampler. Samples generally were analyzed for total suspended solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc), although some samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes. During the storm of January 29, 2008, 10 discrete samples were collected. Varying constituent concentrations were detected for the samples collected

  8. Prototype development of an apparatus to locate and map sea floor petroleum seepages. First quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1995--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document is the first quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled {open_quotes}Prototype Development of an Apparatus to Locate and Map Sea Floor Petroleum Seepages{close_quotes}. This report describes progress in three areas: electronic design, mechanical design, and experiment/research.

  9. Changing glacial coverage influences stream dissolved organic matter signatures in coastal watersheds of southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, J. B.; Hood, E. W.; Stubbins, A.; Spencer, R. G.; Raymond, P.

    2012-12-01

    Glacier runoff is a major source of freshwater to Arctic and sub-Arctic streams and coastal marine zones. However, relatively little is known about how glacier runoff influences stream biogeochemical signatures, especially with regard to dissolved organic matter (DOM). We collected streamwater weekly to fortnightly during the glacial runoff season of 2012 from four coastal watersheds in southeast Alaska that ranged in glacier coverage from 0 to 63% and a glacier outflow stream. This allowed us to determine how changing glacier coverage influences the chemical signature of DOM. We also used δ18O of streamwater, snow/glacial icemelt, and rainfall to elucidate how the origin of streamwater influences stream DOM signatures. All streams showed a decrease in δ18O in early May coincident with snowmelt. By the end of May, δ18O in the non-glacial stream increased reflecting the increasing contribution of rainfall and groundwater to streamflow. However, δ18O in the glacial-fed streams remained depleted well into the summer months of July and August. This seasonal shift in δ18O was reflected in the DOM signatures for all streams. Glacier-fed streams showed an overall decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from May through July, but concentrations increased in the non-glacial stream during the same period. Similarly, stream specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254) and fluorescence index (FI) values decreased during the glacial meltwater season reflecting the decreasing contribution of plant derived, aromatic carbon to the bulk DOM pool. Overall, δ18O was significantly related to DOC concentration, SUVA254, and FI (all p<0.05) for all streams, which provides quantitative evidence of the hydrologic influence on DOM signatures in these watersheds. Our findings show that continued glacial recession and subsequent changes in freshwater input to streamflow could substantially influence the biogeochemistry of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems by

  10. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream water samples collected in August 2004--Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Mueller, Seth; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2006-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000 quadrangle. Samples were collected as part of the multi-year U.S. Geological Survey's project -- Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development. Data presented here are from water samples collected primarily in the northeastern part of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle. The data include samples taken from the Taylor Mountains C1, C2, D1, D2, and D4 1:63,360 scale quadrangles. The data are being released at this time with minimal interpretation. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first and second order drainages. Water sampling site selection was based on landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and the cursory field review of the mineralogy from the pan concentrates. Stream water in the Taylor Mountians quadrangle is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), though in a few samples more than 50% of the anionic charge can be attibuted to sulfate ( SO42-). The major-cation chemistry range from Ca/Mg dominated to a mix of Ca/Mg/Na+K. Good agreement was found between the major cation and anions in the duplicate samples. Many trace elements were at or near the method detection limit in these samples but good agreement was found between duplicate samples for elements with detectable concentrations. Major ion concentrations were below detection in all field blanks and the trace elements concentrations generally were below detection. However, Ta (range 0.9 -.1 ug/L) and Zn (1 to 3.5 ug/L) were detected in all blanks and Ba ( 0.24 ug/L) and Th (0.2 ug/L) were detected in one blank. There was good agreement between dupilicate total- and methyl- mercury and DOC samples; however, total mercury, methyl-mercury and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were detected in the blank at 2.35 ng/L, 0.07 ng/L and 0.57 mg/L, respectively.

  11. Survey of the state of the art in near-shore pipeline location and burial assessment. Topical report, August 1990--November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, P.L.

    1991-11-01

    Project`s objective is to evaluate state-of-the-art methods for locating pipelines in shallow (less than 15 ft) water and for determining and monitoring their burial depths. The following recommendations are made on the research needed in three areas for locating near-shore, shallowly buried pipelines: (1) Sensors: The pipeline industry has selected the magnetic gradiometer array (GA) as a preferred sensor method. Other potential methods exist as backups. No additional research is recommended. (2) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs): The Pipeline Research Committee is pursuing development of a prototype ROV is deliver the GA or other similar equipment to pipeline locations. (3) Phenomena: The data being collected from research on the phenomena affecting seabed conditions and the bathymetric data being collected along the Gulf Coast should be synthesized. This new effort should focus on identifying erosion-prone areas with respect to present and potential future pipeline locations. Technical approach is to get the broadest perspective on the concerns related to the determination of burial conditions for offshore pipelines, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contacted individuals and organizations from the gas and petroleum industries, hardware and software vendors, academicians, and representatives from the government. A literature survey yielded the names of persons within academia who are presently working on similar applications with sensors. In the oil and gas industry, individuals and organizations involved in the Pipeline Research Committee made extensive contributions to the review and also provided the names of meaningful contacts from among their vendors. Discussions were held with the various persons both on the telephone and face to face. Vendors provided background materials and overview presentations on their capabilities for ANL to review.

  12. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  13. The Massachusetts Sustainable-Yield Estimator: A decision-support tool to assess water availability at ungaged stream locations in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Vogel, Richard M.; Steeves, Peter A.; Brandt, Sara L.; Weiskel, Peter K.; Garabedian, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Federal, State and local water-resource managers require a variety of data and modeling tools to better understand water resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a statewide, interactive decision-support tool to meet this need. The decision-support tool, referred to as the Massachusetts Sustainable-Yield Estimator (MA SYE) provides screening-level estimates of the sustainable yield of a basin, defined as the difference between the unregulated streamflow and some user-specified quantity of water that must remain in the stream to support such functions as recreational activities or aquatic habitat. The MA SYE tool was designed, in part, because the quantity of surface water available in a basin is a time-varying quantity subject to competing demands for water. To compute sustainable yield, the MA SYE tool estimates a daily time series of unregulated, daily mean streamflow for a 44-year period of record spanning October 1, 1960, through September 30, 2004. Selected streamflow quantiles from an unregulated, daily flow-duration curve are estimated by solving six regression equations that are a function of physical and climate basin characteristics at an ungaged site on a stream of interest. Streamflow is then interpolated between the estimated quantiles to obtain a continuous daily flow-duration curve. A time series of unregulated daily streamflow subsequently is created by transferring the timing of the daily streamflow at a reference streamgage to the ungaged site by equating exceedence probabilities of contemporaneous flow at the two locations. One of 66 reference streamgages is selected by kriging, a geostatistical method, which is used to map the spatial relation among correlations between the time series of the logarithm of daily streamflows at each reference streamgage and the ungaged site. Estimated unregulated, daily mean streamflows show good agreement with observed

  14. Combined use of thermal methods and seepage meters to efficiently locate, quantify, and monitor focused groundwater discharge to a sand-bed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin A.; Delin, Geoffrey; Hare, Danielle K.

    2016-06-01

    Quantifying flow of groundwater through streambeds often is difficult due to the complexity of aquifer-scale heterogeneity combined with local-scale hyporheic exchange. We used fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS), seepage meters, and vertical temperature profiling to locate, quantify, and monitor areas of focused groundwater discharge in a geomorphically simple sand-bed stream. This combined approach allowed us to rapidly focus efforts at locations where prodigious amounts of groundwater discharged to the Quashnet River on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, northeastern USA. FO-DTS detected numerous anomalously cold reaches one to several m long that persisted over two summers. Seepage meters positioned upstream, within, and downstream of 7 anomalously cold reaches indicated that rapid groundwater discharge occurred precisely where the bed was cold; median upward seepage was nearly 5 times faster than seepage measured in streambed areas not identified as cold. Vertical temperature profilers deployed next to 8 seepage meters provided diurnal-signal-based seepage estimates that compared remarkably well with seepage-meter values. Regression slope and R2 values both were near 1 for seepage ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 m d-1. Temperature-based seepage model accuracy was improved with thermal diffusivity determined locally from diurnal signals. Similar calculations provided values for streambed sediment scour and deposition at subdaily resolution. Seepage was strongly heterogeneous even along a sand-bed river that flows over a relatively uniform sand and fine-gravel aquifer. FO-DTS was an efficient method for detecting areas of rapid groundwater discharge, even in a strongly gaining river, that can then be quantified over time with inexpensive streambed thermal methods.

  15. Distribution and abundance of zooplankton at selected locations on the Savannah River and from tributaries of the Savannah River Plant: December 1984--August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.

    1986-11-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in the abundance and composition of the zooplankton community occurred at Savannah River and SRP creek/swamp sampling locations. Stations are grouped into four categories based on differences in community structure: Savannah River; thermally influenced stations on Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch; closed-canopy stations in the Steel Creek system; and open-canopy Steel Creek stations, non-thermally influenced stations on Pen Branch and Beaver Dam Creek. Differences among stations were little related to water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, conductivity or pH at the tine of collection. None of these parameters appeared to be limiting. Rather, past thermal history and habitat structure seemed to be important controlling factors. 66 refs.

  16. Techniques and equipment for detecting and locating incipient faults in underground power transmission cable systems. Technical progress report 3, 1 July 1979-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.C.; Nanevicz, J.E.; Adamo, R.C.; Cole, C.A.; Honey, S.K.; Petro, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    The study is divided into seven tasks: (1) developing RF sounding techniques including experimental detector/locator units such as the HV crossmodulation sounder; (2) constructing a prototype swept-frequency cable sounder; (3) measuring cable characteristics; (4) developing power-transmission-line signal couplers; (5) constructing an HV source to augment experimental and prototype detector/locator units; (6) evaluating the prototype swept-frequency cable sounder; and (7) studying technically effective and economical use of incipient-fault detector/locator units.

  17. Ecological characterization of streams, and fish-tissue analysis for mercury and lead at selected locations, Fort Gordon, Georgia, June 1999 to May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, M. Brian; Stamey, Timothy C.; Wellborn, John B.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Ga., documented the ecological condition of selected water-bodies on the Fort Gordon military installation from June 1999 to May 2000. This study includes stream-habitat assessments, aquatic invertebrate and fish-community surveys in selected stream reaches, and analyses of mercury and lead concentrations in largemouth bass (Micropterous salmoides) muscle tissue from three impoundments. Assessment surveys indicate lower habitat value scores in some streams draining the more developed areas on Fort Gordon. A small tributary to Butler Creek--which drains parking lots associated with military motor pools and other impervious surfaces--is characterized by moderate levels of bank erosion and excess sediment in the stream channel compared to reference sites. Four other stream reaches are more similar to reference streams in respect to habitat conditions. Invertebrate communities in streams draining these urbanized watersheds are inhabited by 13 to 16 taxa per reach; whereas, 23 and 33 taxa were collected from the two reference stream reaches. Measures of invertebrate abundance, taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Tricoptera Index are lower in streams draining urbanized watersheds. Measures of community similarity also indicate differences between streams draining urbanized areas and reference streams. Streams draining developed areas on Fort Gordon are inhabited by 3 to 10 fish species and included more species regarded as tolerant of degraded water-quality conditions; whereas, the two reference stream reaches support 4 and 10 species, respectively, including one species considered intolerant of degraded water-quality conditions. Mercury was detected in all largemouth bass collected from three impoundments on Fort Gordon. Wet-weight mercury concentrations in fish tissue analyzed from all sites range from 0

  18. Water quality of the Upper West Branch Susquehanna River and tributary streams between Curwensville and Renovo, Pennsylvania, May and July 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hainly, R.A.; Barker, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The soils and rocks of the Upper West Branch Susquehanna River basin, from its headwaters downstream for 150 miles, are laden with pyritic materials that have the potential to produce acid mine drainage. The effects of mine drainage are severe, particularly in the reach between Curwensville and Renovo where present water quality cannot support viable populations of benthic macroinvertebrates or fish. During base-flow periods in May and July 1984, streamflow and water quality were measured at four sites on the West Branch Susquehanna River and near the mouths of 94 tributaries. Water-quality constituents determined were temperature, specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate and total and dissolved forms of iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc. The data collected for the study indicate that the predominant influence on water quality of the tributaries is land use. An area where few or no coal deposits or disturbed area were present was found to have relatively good surface-water quality (median pH was nearly 5.5 units), whereas areas where coal mining was active in the basin, or where large areas of unreclaimed mines were present, were found to have poorest water quality (median pH was generally less than 4.0 units). In general, Moshannon, Sinnemahoning, Clearfield, and Kettle Creeks were found to be the largest tributary sources of acidity and total-recoverable iron to the river. During the May sampling, Moshannon, Sinnemahoning, and Clearfield Creeks contributed 63 percent of the 365 tons/day of acidity, and Moshannon and Clearfield Creeks contributed 76 percent of the 44.8 tons/day of total-recoverable iron that were discharged to the river. During the July sampling, Moshannon, Kettle, and Clearfield Creeks contributed 60 percent of the 131 tons/day of acidity, and Moshannon and Kettle Creeks contributed 51 percent of the 6.5 tons/day of total-recoverable iron discharged to the river . The West Branch Susquehanna River

  19. Chemical quality, benthic organisms, and sedimentation in streams draining coal-mined lands in Raccoon Creek basin, Ohio, July 1984 through September 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans widespread reclamation of abandoned coal mines in the Raccoon Creek basin in southeastern Ohio. Throughout Raccoon Creek basin, chemical, biological, and suspended-sediment data were collected from July 1984 through September 1986. Chemical and biological data collected at 17 sites indicate that the East Branch, Brushy Creek, Hewett Fork, and Little Raccoon Creek subbasins, including Flint Run, are affected by drainage from abandoned coal mines. In these basins, median pH values ranged from 2.6 to 5.1, median acidity values ranged from 20 to 1,040 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as CaCo3, and median alkalinity values ranged from 0 to 4 mg/L as CaCo3. Biological data indicate that these basins do not support diverse populations because of degraded water systems. Suspended-sediment yields of 70.7 tons per square mile per year at the headwaters of Raccoon Creek and 54.5 tons per square mile per year near the month of Raccoon Creek indicate that cumulative sedimentation from erosion of abandoned-mine lands is not excessive in the basin.

  20. Rainfall, Discharge, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009 - Halawa Stream Drainage Basin and the H-1 Storm Drain, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. The program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream, and to assess the effects from the H-1 storm drain on Manoa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at three stations, continuous discharge data at five stations, and water-quality data at six stations, which include the five continuous discharge stations. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2009. Within the Halawa Stream drainage area, three storms (October 25 and December 11, 2008, and February 3, 2009) were sampled during July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009. A total of 43 environmental samples were collected during these three storms. During the storm of October 25, 2009, 31 samples were collected and analyzed individually for metals only. The other 12 samples from the other two storms were analyzed for some or all of the following analytes: total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for some or all of the following analytes: oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Some grab and composite samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes, either because samples could not be delivered to the laboratory in a timely manner, or an insufficient volume of sample was collected by the automatic samplers. Two quality-assurance/quality-control samples were collected after cleaning automatic sampler lines to verify that the sampling lines were not contaminated. Four environmental samples were collected at the H-1 Storm Drain during July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009. An oil and grease sample and a composite sample were collected during the

  1. Water temperature differences by plant community and location in re-established wetlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, July 2005 to February 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Miller, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of carbon storage in wetlands are determined by the balance of its inputs and losses, both of which are affected by environmental factors such as water temperature and depth. In the autumn of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey re-established two wetlands with different shallow water depths—about 25 and 55 centimeters deep—to investigate the potential to reverse subsidence of delta islands by preserving and accumulating organic substrates derived from plant biomass inputs over time. Because cooler water temperatures can slow decomposition rates and increase accretion of plant biomass, water temperature was recorded from July 2005 to February 2008 in the deeper of the two wetlands, where areas of emergent and submerged vegetation persisted throughout the study, to assess differences in water temperature between the two vegetation types. Water temperature was compared at three depths in the water column between areas of emergent and submerged vegetation and between areas near the water inflow and in the wetland interior in both vegetation types. The latter comparison was a way of evaluating the effect of the length of time water had resided in the wetland on water temperatures. There were statistically significant differences in water temperature at all depths between the two vegetation types. Overall, in areas of emergent marsh vegetation, the mean water temperature at the surface was 1.4 degrees Celsius (°C) less than it was in areas of submerged vegetation; however, when analyses accounted for the changes in temperature due to seasonal and diurnal cycles, differences in the mean water temperature between the vegetation types were even greater than this. For example, in the spring, the mean temperatures in areas of emergent marsh vegetation at the surface, mid-point, and near the sediment in the water column were 2.0, 2.3, and 2.1 °C less, respectively, than water temperatures in areas of submerged vegetation. When diurnal changes in temperature were

  2. 75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... July 24, 2009, 74 FR 36705. The public comment period closed on August 24, 2009. A summary of each...'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735 (October 4, 1993)) and is therefore not subject to... AGENCY Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country...

  3. Aqueous geochemical data from the analysis of stream-water samples collected in June and August 2008—Taylor Mountains 1:250,000- and Dillingham D-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Owens, Victoria; Bailey, Elizabeth; Lee, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We report on the chemical analysis of water samples collected from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000- and Dillingham D-4 1:63,360-scale quadrangles, Alaska. Reported parameters include pH, conductivity, water temperature, major cation and anion concentrations, and trace-element concentrations. We collected the samples as part of a multiyear U.S. Geological Survey project entitled "Geologic and Mineral Deposit Data for Alaskan Economic Development." Data presented here are from samples collected in June and August 2008. Minimal interpretation accompanies this data release. This is the fourth release of aqueous geochemical data from this project; data from samples collected in 2004, 2005, and 2006 were published previously. The data in this report augment but do not duplicate or supersede the previous data releases. Site selection was based on a regional sampling strategy that focused on first- and second-order drainages. Water sample sites were selected on the basis of landscape parameters that included physiography, wetland extent, lithological changes, and a cursory field review of mineralogy from pan concentrates. Stream water in the study area is dominated by bicarbonate (HCO3-), although in a few samples more than 50 percent of the anionic charge can be attributed to sulfate (SO42-). The major-cation chemistry of these samples ranges from Ca2+-Mg2+ dominated to a mix of Ca2+-Mg2+-Na++K2+. In most cases, analysis of duplicate samples showed good agreement for the major cation and major anions with the exception of the duplicate samples at site 08TA565. At site 08TA565, Ca, Mg, Cl, and CaCO3 exceeded 25 percent and the concentrations of trace elements As, Fe and Mn also exceeded 25 percent in this duplicate pair. Chloride concentration varied by more than 25 percent in 5 of the 11 duplicated samples. Trace-element concentrations in these samples generally were at or near the detection limit for the method used and, except for Co at site 08TA565, generally good

  4. Quality of Water and Sediment in Streams Affected by Historical Mining, and Quality of Mine Tailings, in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, Big Bend Area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Kolbe, Christine M.; Belzer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Boundary and Water Commission - U.S. and Mexican Sections, the National Park Service, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales in Mexico, the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Canon de Santa Elena in Mexico, and the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Maderas del Carmen in Mexico, collected samples of stream water, streambed sediment, and mine tailings during August 2002 for a study to determine whether trace elements from abandoned mines in the area in and around Big Bend National Park have affected the water and sediment quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin of the United States and Mexico. Samples were collected from eight sites on the main stem of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, four Rio Grande/Rio Bravo tributary sites downstream from abandoned mines or mine-tailing sites, and 11 mine-tailing sites. Mines in the area were operated to produce fluorite, germanium, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc during the late 1800s through at least the late 1970s. Moderate (relatively neutral) pHs in stream-water samples collected at the 12 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo main-stem and tributary sites indicate that water is well mixed, diluted, and buffered with respect to the solubility of trace elements. The highest sulfate concentrations were in water samples from tributaries draining the Terlingua mining district. Only the sample from the Rough Run Draw site exceeded the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards general-use protection criterion for sulfate. All chloride and dissolved solids concentrations in water samples were less than the general-use protection criteria. Aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were detected in all water samples for which each element was analyzed. Cadmium, chromium, and lead were detected in samples less frequently, and silver was not detected in any of the samples. None of the sample concentrations of

  5. Organic Carbon Sources in Coastal Southeast Alaskan Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Lange, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is abundant in southeast Alaskan watersheds and plays an important role in the biological and physical processes in these aquatic systems. Nearly 30% of the land area in southeast Alaska is classified as wetlands, a large proportion of which are peatlands. Peatlands are thought to provide substantial DOM to surface waters. Another important source of carbon to streams is spawning anadromous salmon. This study examines how streamwater concentrations of DOC are influenced by 1) catchments soils and vegetation, particularly wetland extent and 2) the presence or absence of anadromous fish. Our goal is to characterize the quantity and quality of different DOM sources and to develop an understanding of how these sources influence seasonal trends in streamwater DOM in coastal freshwater systems in southeast Alaska. Surface water and well samples were collected on two contrasting streams near Juneau, Alaska: Peterson Creek, a brownwater, high-carbon stream in a wetland-dominated catchment and McGinnis Creek, a clearwater stream draining upland spruce forest and alpine tundra. Both streams have runs of pink, coho, and chum salmon from July-September. Streamwater DOC concentrations on Peterson Creek averaged 5-6 mg C L-1 during the early summer and increased to 8-12 mg C L-1 during late July and August. Streamwater DOC concentrations on McGinnis Creek were typically less than 1 mg C L-1 during the early summer but increased dramatically to 4-9 mg C L-1 during spates in August. Well samples collected upslope from the streamwater sampling sites on Peterson and McGinnis Creeks had a similar range in DOC concentrations (10-40 mg C L-1), however the wells on McGinnis Creek showed much higher seasonal variability. Our initial results suggest that the seasonal increase in DOC in both streams is primarily associated with the flushing of soluble organic carbon from catchment soils by late summer rains. However, leaching of DOC from salmon carcasses may

  6. A Fish-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for the Assessment of Streams Located in a Sugarcane-Dominated Landscape in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Fernanda Bastos; Esteves, Katharina Eichbaum

    2015-08-01

    A multimetric, fish-based Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was developed and tested to assess the ecological status of streams with different riparian conditions in the Piracicaba River Basin. Nine streams with three categories of riparian zone preservation were selected: native forest (NF) with preserved forest, secondary forest (SF) with forest in an advanced state of regeneration and surrounded by sugarcane plantations, and sugarcane (SC) without riparian vegetation and surrounded by SC crops. A continuous scoring system was employed, and candidate metrics were tested for range, responsiveness, and redundancy, resulting in the selection of eight metrics to compose the index. The final IBI score was positively correlated with an Environmental Index both in the dry (Spearman's rho = 0.76; P = 0.01) and rainy seasons (Spearman's rho = 0.66; P = 0.04), suggesting that this IBI is a suitable tool for the assessment of the biological conditions of these streams. The highest IBI values were observed in the rainy season at the NF and SF sites, with significant differences between the NF and SC sites (Kruskal-Wallis test: P = 0.03). The results indicated some variability in the biological integrity at SF and SC sites, suggesting a relationship with the intensity of the management of this crop. Patterns were consistent with other studies that have shown the effects of agriculture on the environmental quality of streams, which indicate the importance of the riparian zone to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and supports the use of the IBI for biological monitoring in similar regions. PMID:25924789

  7. A Fish-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for the Assessment of Streams Located in a Sugarcane-Dominated Landscape in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Fernanda Bastos; Esteves, Katharina Eichbaum

    2015-08-01

    A multimetric, fish-based Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was developed and tested to assess the ecological status of streams with different riparian conditions in the Piracicaba River Basin. Nine streams with three categories of riparian zone preservation were selected: native forest (NF) with preserved forest, secondary forest (SF) with forest in an advanced state of regeneration and surrounded by sugarcane plantations, and sugarcane (SC) without riparian vegetation and surrounded by SC crops. A continuous scoring system was employed, and candidate metrics were tested for range, responsiveness, and redundancy, resulting in the selection of eight metrics to compose the index. The final IBI score was positively correlated with an Environmental Index both in the dry (Spearman's rho = 0.76; P = 0.01) and rainy seasons (Spearman's rho = 0.66; P = 0.04), suggesting that this IBI is a suitable tool for the assessment of the biological conditions of these streams. The highest IBI values were observed in the rainy season at the NF and SF sites, with significant differences between the NF and SC sites (Kruskal-Wallis test: P = 0.03). The results indicated some variability in the biological integrity at SF and SC sites, suggesting a relationship with the intensity of the management of this crop. Patterns were consistent with other studies that have shown the effects of agriculture on the environmental quality of streams, which indicate the importance of the riparian zone to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and supports the use of the IBI for biological monitoring in similar regions.

  8. Field Observations of Supraglacial Streams on the Juneau Icefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, A.; Karlstrom, L.; Hood, E. W.; Manga, M.; Wenzel, R.; Kite, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Each year during the summer, networks of meltwater streams form below the neve line on many glaciers as the ice surface ablates. This supraglacial network forms an integral part of the total glacial hydrologic system, and exhibits many features common to other fluvial systems despite marked differences in the mechanisms and timescales of erosional processes. Here, we discuss field observations of supraglacial streams on the Mendenhall and Llewellyn glaciers on the Juneau Icefield, taken in July and August, 2010. These sites, 960 m apart in elevation and on different sides of the continental divide, exist in different microclimates and are dominated by different terrain features. The Mendenhall site, near the terminus, receives a large yearly rainwater input and exhibits well-developed stream networks dominated by structural control of the underlying ice. In contrast, the Llewellyn site is much drier and near the neve line, with a dense network of streams whose incision dominates the sculpting of the glacial surface. Stream data includes temperature measurements taken with a Distributed Temperature Sensor and HOBO temperature loggers, velocity profiles taken with an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, downstream meander migration rates, and the isotopic composition of water samples. We also document the dynamics of streams in the context of the broader supraglacial network by taking detailed GPS surveys of the beds and banks of streams, as well as measuring drainage density and subsurface flow. Finally, we relate these measurements to surface ablation rates and meteorological data gathered from each site. We find distinct diurnal variation in stream water temperature, discharge, and isotopic content. Distributed Temperature Sensor measurements and cross sectional temperature profiles reveal subtle variation in downstream and cross-stream water temperature. Water temperature generally increases downstream where channels tend to be large, and we investigate the contribution

  9. Response of Stream Chemistry During Base Flow to Gradients of Urbanization in Selected Locations Across the Conterminous United States, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Harned, Douglas A.; Hall, David W.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    During 2002-2004, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted a study to determine the effects of urbanization on stream water quality and aquatic communities in six environmentally heterogeneous areas of the conterminous United States--Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; and Portland, Oregon. This report compares and contrasts the response of stream chemistry during base flow to urbanization in different environmental settings and examines the relation between the exceedance of water-quality benchmarks and the level of urbanization in these areas. Chemical characteristics studied included concentrations of nutrients, dissolved pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, and chloride in base flow. In three study areas where the background land cover in minimally urbanized basins was predominantly forested (Atlanta, Raleigh-Durham, and Portland), urban development was associated with increased concentrations of nitrogen and total herbicides in streams. In Portland, there was evidence of mixed agricultural and urban influences at sites with 20 to 50 percent urban land cover. In two study areas where agriculture was the predominant background land cover (Milwaukee-Green Bay and Dallas-Fort Worth), concentrations of nitrogen and herbicides were flat or decreasing as urbanization increased. In Denver, which had predominantly shrub/grass as background land cover, nitrogen concentrations were only weakly related to urbanization, and total herbicide concentrations did not show any clear pattern relative to land cover - perhaps because of extensive water management in the study area. In contrast, total insecticide concentrations increased with increasing urbanization in all six study areas, likely due to high use of insecticides in urban applications and, for some study areas, the proximity of urban land cover to the sampling sites. Phosphorus

  10. Simulating the effect of climate change on stream temperature in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Selbig, William R

    2015-07-15

    The potential for increases in stream temperature across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate change can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated changes to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected changing climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream temperature will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2°C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream temperature during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal temperatures with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream temperature, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery. PMID:25828407

  11. A seepage investigation of an area at and near Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March through August 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A seepage investigation was conducted of an area surrounding the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from March through August 1993. The project was divided into three phases: a reconnaissance to inventory and map seeps, springs, and stream-measurement sites; a high base flow seepage investigation; and a low base flow seepage investigation. The reconnaissance consisted of following each tributary to its source to inventory each site where water was issuing from the ground. Stream- measurement sites were also located along stream reaches at 500-foot intervals. A total of 822 sites were identified. A global positioning system was used to locate 483 sites to within 3- to 5-meter accuracy. The high base flow seepage investigation was conducted from April 29 through May 3, 1993, and from May 7 through May 10, 1993. During the high base flow seepage investigation, sites identified during the reconnaissance were revisited. At almost all sites with flowing water, discharge, pH, specific conductance, and temperature were recorded. Two hundred and fourteen sites were dry. The low base flow seepage investigation was conducted from August 8 through August 10, 1993, and consisted of revisiting the seeps and springs that were flowing during the high base flow seepage investigation. Stream- measurement sites were not revisited. One hundred and forty-one sites were dry.

  12. The large motor plume/material impingement test program at AEDC utilizing the four selected propellants from the small motor tests at MSFC (July, August, and September 1974), section 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Efforts made to determine the vulnerability of Orbiter and ET materials located at various positions within exhaust plumes from test SSRM's using four different propellant formulations are discussed. Data also cover the effect on TPS materials from a single SSRM plume and dual SSRM plumes, and definitions of test SSRM plume environment at material specimen locations.

  13. Determining the Location, Number Density and Temporal Evolution of Streams of Hazardous Near-Earth Objects Using the Magnetic Signatures Produced in Destructive Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H.; Delzanno, G. L.; Connors, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) of tens of meters in diameter are difficult to detect by optical methods from the Earth but they result in the most damage per year. Many of these bodies are produced in non-destructive collisions with larger well-characterized NEOs. After generation, the debris spreads forward and backward in a cocoon around the orbit of the parent body. Thereafter, scattering will occur due to gravitational perturbations when the debris stream passes near a planet even when the parent body has no such close approaches. Therefore "safe" NEOs which have no close encounters to the Earth for thousands of years may be accompanied by potentially hazardous co-orbiting debris. We have developed a technique to identify co-orbiting debris by detecting the magnetic signature produced when some of the debris suffers destructive collisions with meteoroids, which are numerous and can be as small as tens of centimeters in diameter. Clouds of nanoscale dust/gas particles released in such collisions can interact coherently with the solar wind electromagnetically. The resultant magnetic perturbations are readily identified when they pass spacecraft equipped with magnetometers. We can use such observations to obtain the spatial and size distribution as well as temporal variation of the debris streams. A test of this technique has been performed and debris streams both leading and trailing asteroid 138175 have been identified. There is a finite spread across the original orbit and most of the co-orbitals were tens of meters in diameter before the disruptive collisions. We estimate that there were tens of thousands of such co-orbiting objects, comprising only 1% of the original mass of the parent asteroid but greatly increasing the impact hazard. A loss of the co-orbitals since 1970s has been inferred from observations with a decay time consistent with that calculated from the existing collisional model [Grün et al., 1985]. Therefore disruptive collisions are the main loss

  14. The new July meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, Przemyslaw; Wisniewski, Mariusz

    2012-12-01

    A new meteor stream was found after an activity outburst observed on 2005 July 15. The radiant was located five degrees west of the possible early Perseid radiant, close to the star Zeta Cassiopeiae. Numerous bright meteors and fireballs were observed during this maximum. Analysis of the IMO Video Database and the SonotaCo orbital database revealed an annual stream which is active just before the appearance of the first Perseids, with a clearly visible maximum at solar longitude 113°1. Activity of the stream was estimated as two times higher than activity of the Alpha Capricornids at the same time. The activity period extends from July 12 to 17, during maximum the radiant is visible at coordinates alpha = 5°9, delta = +50°5, and observed meteors are fast, with Vg = 57.4 km/s. The shower was reported to the IAU Meteor Data Center and recognized as a new discovery. According to IAU nomenclature the new stream should be named the Zeta Cassiopeiids (ZCS). %z Arlt R. (1992). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 20:2, 62-69. Drummond J. D. (1981). Icarus, 45, 545-553. Kiraga M. and Olech A. (2001). In Arlt R., Triglav M., and Trayner C., editors, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, Pucioasa, Romania, 21-24 September 2000, pages 45-51. IMO. Molau S. (2007). In Bettonvil F. and Kac J., editors, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, Roden, The Netherlands, 14-17 September 2006, pages 38-55. IMO. Molau S. and Rendtel J. (2009). WGN, Journal of the IMO, 37:4, 98-121. Olech A., Zoladek P., Wisniewski M., Krasnowski M., Kwinta M., Fajfer T., Fietkiewicz K., Dorosz D., Kowalski L., Olejnik J., Mularczyk K., and Zloczewski K. (2006). In Bastiaens L., Verbert J., Wislez J.-M., and Verbeeck C., editors, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, Oostmalle, Belgium, 15-18 September 2005, pages 53-62. IMO. Poleski R. and Szaruga K. (2006). In Bastiaens L., Verbert J., Wislez J.-M., and Verbeeck C., editors, Proceedings of the International Meteor

  15. July streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The lingering effects of a record-deep mountain snowpack continued to keep streamflows at near record high levels in much of the western United States during July. Elsewhere in the nation, a lack of rainfall and prolonged high temperatures contributed to declining streamflows, and parts of the northeast and southeast reported near record-low streamflows, according to a monthend check on water conditions by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). (See map, courtesy of USGS.)USGS hydrologists said that record-high streamflows were set in California, Colorado, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, and Iowa based on reports from 172 key index stations across the country. Well above average flows during July, within the highest 25% of record, were reported at 57 of the index gaging stations. Of the remaining stations, 98 reported near-average flows and 17 reported well below average flows. Along the east coast, 12 of the 72 key index stations from Maine to Florida reported well below average flows for the month. In the extreme southwest, two stations reported their lowest July flows for the period of record.

  16. What's Happening in August?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet contains nine short lessons related to events in United States history that are remembered in August: the birthday of Francis Scott Key, composer of the national anthem (August 1); the first United States census (August 1); the birthday of Herbert Hoover, 31st President (August 2); the birthday of Julian…

  17. The Puzzling Ophiuchus Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies or globular clusters orbiting the Milky Way can be pulled apart by tidal forces, leaving behind a trail of stars known as a stellar stream. One such trail, the Ophiuchus stream, has posed a serious dynamical puzzle since its discovery. But a recent study has identified four stars that might help resolve this streams mystery.Conflicting TimescalesThe stellar stream Ophiuchus was discovered around our galaxy in 2014. Based on its length, which appears to be 1.6 kpc, we can calculate the time that has passed since its progenitor was disrupted and the stream was created: ~250 Myr. But the stars within it are ~12 Gyr old, and the stream orbits the galaxy with a period of ~350 Myr.Given these numbers, we can assume that Ophiuchuss progenitor completed many orbits of the Milky Way in its lifetime. So why would it only have been disrupted 250 million years ago?Fanning StreamLed by Branimir Sesar (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy), a team of scientists has proposed an idea that might help solve this puzzle. If the Ophiuchus stellar stream is on a chaotic orbit common in triaxial potentials, which the Milky Ways may be then the stream ends can fan out, with stars spreading in position and velocity.The fanned part of the stream, however, would be difficult to detect because of its low surface brightness. As a result, the Ophiuchus stellar stream could actually be longer than originally measured, implying that it was disrupted longer ago than was believed.Search for Fan StarsTo test this idea, Sesar and collaborators performed a search around the ends of the stream, looking for stars thatare of the right type to match the stream,are at the predicted distance of the stream,are located near the stream ends, andhave velocities that match the stream and dont match the background halo stars.Histogram of the heliocentric velocities of the 43 target stars. Six stars have velocities matching the stream velocity. Two of these are located in the main stream; the other

  18. Stream, Inverted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the inverted, eroded remains of a channel -- now standing as a complex ridge that runs across the middle of this scene -- in dust-mantled terrain west of Sinus Meridiani, Mars. The original channel might have been carved by running water, but too little detail remains today to provide any certainty as to whether water was the culprit.

    Location near: 5.6oN, 7.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  19. Streamflow gain/loss in the Republican River basin, Nebraska, July 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Cornwall, James F.; Landon, Matthew K.

    2002-01-01

    This arc and point data set contains streamflow-measurement sites and reaches indicating streamflow gain or loss under base-flow conditions along Republican River tributaries in Dundy and Chase Counties, Nebraska during July 14 to 18, 1975 (U.S. Geological Survey, 1976). The streamflow measurements were made to obtain data on ground-water/surface-water interaction. Flow was observed visually to be zero, was measured, or was estimated at 55 sites. Tributaries were followed upstream until the first road crossing where zero flow was encountered. For selected streams, points of zero flow upstream of the first zero flow site also were checked. Streamflow gain or loss for each stream reach was calculated by subtracting the streamflow values measured at the upstream end of the reach and values for contributing tributaries from the downstream value. The data obtained reflected base-flow conditions suitable for estimating streamflow gains and losses for stream reaches between sites. This digital data set was created by manually plotting locations of streamflow measurements. These points were used to designate stream-reach segments to calculate gain/loss per river mile. Reach segments were created by manually splitting the lines from a 1:250,000 hydrography data set (Soenksen and others, 1999) at every location where the streams were measured. Each stream-reach segment between streamflow-measurement sites was assigned a unique reach number. All other lines in the hydrography data set without reach numbers were omitted. This data set was created to archive the calculated streamflow gains and losses of tributary streams to the Republican River in Dundy and Chase Counties, Nebraska, in July 1975, and make the data available for use with geographic information systems (GIS). If measurement sites are used separately from reaches, the maximum scale of 1:100,000 should not be exceeded. When used in conjunction with the reach segments, the maximum scale should not exceed 1:250,000.

  20. Stream-aquifer relations and the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin in parts of Georgia, Florida, and Alabama, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosner, Melinda S.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water for domestic and agricultural use in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin. Recent drought and increased water use have made understanding surface- and ground-water relations a priority for water-resource managers in the region. From July 1999 through August 2000, less than normal precipitation reduced streamflow in the area to less than 12 percent of average mean-daily streamflow and ground-water levels reached record or near-record lows. Effects of drought on stream-aquifer interactions in the basin were evaluated using baseflow estimation, ground-water seepage calculations, and potentiometric-surface maps. Ground-water discharge to streams, or baseflow, was estimated using three methods: field measurements, hydrograph separation, and linear regression analysis. Results were evaluated seasonally -- October 1999, April 2000, and August 2000 -- and for the period of record at four surface-water stations located on Kinchafoonee, Spring, Muckalee, and Turkey Creeks. Estimates of baseflow also were compared annually; ground-water discharge during the drought years, 1999 - 2000, was compared with ground-water discharge during a relatively wet year, 1994. Hydrograph separation indicated decreased base-flow of streams as the water level in the Upper Floridan aquifer declined. Mean-annual baseflow for Kinchafoonee, Spring, Muckalee, and Turkey Creeks ranged from 36 to 71 percent of total streamflow during the period of record. In 1994 baseflow accounted for only 37 to 56 percent of total streamflow, in 1999 baseflow comprised from 60 to 73 percent of total streamflow, and in 2000 baseflow comprised from 56 to 76 percent of streamflow. The percentage of total streamflow attributed to ground water increased during the drought, whereas other components of streamflow decreased (overland flow, interflow, and channel precipitation). Even though relative ground-water contributions were increased

  1. Glacier-derived August runoff in northwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Adam; Harper, Joel T.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The second largest concentration of glaciers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains is located in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. The total glacier-covered area in this region decreased by ∼35% over the past 50 years, which has raised substantial concern about the loss of the water derived from glaciers during the summer. We used an innovative weather station design to collect in situ measurements on five remote glaciers, which are used to parameterize a regional glacier melt model. This model offered a first-order estimate of the summer meltwater production by glaciers. We find, during the normally dry month of August, glaciers in the region produce approximately 25 × 106 m3 of potential runoff. We then estimated the glacier runoff component in five gaged streams sourced from GNP basins containing glaciers. Glacier-melt contributions range from 5% in a basin only 0.12% glacierized to >90% in a basin 28.5% glacierized. Glacier loss would likely lead to lower discharges and warmer temperatures in streams draining basins >20% glacier-covered. Lower flows could even be expected in streams draining basins as little as 1.4% glacierized if glaciers were to disappear.

  2. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and parts of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and Alabama during drought conditions, July 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of the Interior sustainable water strategy, WaterSMART, the U.S. Geological Survey documented hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and western and central Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia during low-flow conditions in July 2011. Moderate-drought conditions prevailed in this area during early 2011 and worsened to exceptional by June, with cumulative rainfall departures from the 1981-2010 climate normals registering deficits ranging from 17 to 27 inches. As a result, groundwater levels and stream discharges measured below median daily levels throughout most of 2011. Water-quality field properties including temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured at selected surface-water sites. Record-low groundwater levels measured in 12 of 43 surficial aquifer wells and 128 of 312 Upper Floridan aquifer wells during July 2011 underscored the severity of drought conditions in the study area. Most wells recorded groundwater levels below the median daily statistic, and 7 surficial aquifer wells were dry. Groundwater-level measurements taken in July 2011 were used to determine the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Groundwater generally flows to the south and toward streams except in reaches where streams discharge to the aquifer. The degree of connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and streams decreases east of the Flint River where thick overburden hydraulically separates the aquifer from stream interaction. Hydraulic separation of the Upper Floridan aquifer from streams located east of the Flint River is shown by stream-stage altitudes that differ from groundwater levels measured in close proximity to streams. Most streams located in the study area during 2011 exhibited below normal flows (streamflows less than the 25th percentile), substantiating the severity of drought conditions that year. Streamflow

  3. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1997-04-01

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  4. Impact of Flood Spates on Denitrifying Bacteria in Low Order Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrman, K.; Stokdyk, J.

    2011-12-01

    The impact of flood events on channel design, macroinvertebrates, and periphyton in stream ecosystems has been well studied. Little is known, however, about how flood spates affect microorganisms found in stream sediments. Denitrifying bacteria are beneficial organisms because they convert nitrates to nitrogen gas. Providing data that describes the impact of flood events on denitrifiers and the time required after the disturbance for the bacteria to recover are crucial in understanding nitrogen dynamics in stream ecosystems. Three low order streams in central Wisconsin, USA are being monitored during several flood spates during July and August of 2011. Discharge is being continuously monitored in all three streams and sediments are being collected before and after several flood events for laboratory assays. Specifically, sediments are being processed for denitrification rates using the acetylene inhibition technique, microbial biomass carbon using chloroform fumigation, and the quantification of denitrifying bacteria (i.e., nirS, nirK, and nosZ genes) using real-time quantitative PCR. Preliminary data show that within 36 hours after a 90 mm rain event, microbial biomass carbon in all three streams (580 μg C g sediment-1) significantly increased (F1,23 = 650 ± 140; p < 0.001) compared to microbial biomass during baseflow (200 ± 27 μg C g sediment-1). These initial results suggest that contrary to our expectations flood events enhance bacteria in stream sediments. Denitrification rates and quantification of denitrifying bacteria still need to be analyzed to determine if these specific bacteria follow a similar pattern or if the bacterial recolonization of stream sediments follows a unique pattern.

  5. Eventos de Agosto (August Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on seven August events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Herbert Hoover's birthdate (August 10); Acta del Seguro Social (Social Security Act, August 14); Julian E. Blanco (August 14), Enmienda 19 Sufragia de la Mujer (Amendment 19, Women's Suffrage, August 26); Benjamin Harrison (August 20);…

  6. Water quality of interstate streams in the Susquehanna River Basin monitoring report No. 3, water year 1989 (October 1988-September 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    McMorran, C.P.; Bollinger, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    Water samples were collected from twelve stations on interstate streams in November 1988, and February, May and August 1989. Water samples were collected from 23 stations on other interstate streams. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled from each station in July and August 1989. The data collected is used: (1) to assess compliance with water quality standards; (2) to assess impacts on water quality; (3) to characterize ambient and seasonal stream quality; and (4) for future trend assessment. Scott Creek is the only interstate stream having poor water quality. Untreated sewage discharged from Cardiff, maryland impairs water quality and biological conditions. The Cowanesque River exhibits biological impacts due to Cowanesque Lake, but impacts on water quality were minor. The Chemung River showed slight to moderate impairment of macroinvertebrates and water quality due to wastewater discharges from Elmira. Octoraro Creek and Tioga River showed moderate macroinvertebrate impairment coincident with elevated concentrations of some chemical parameters. Elevated chemical concentrations were observed in the Susquehanna River at Sayre and Cayuta Creek; however, no macroinvertebrate impairment was observed. Falling Branch Deer Creek, Big Branch Deer Creek, Troups Creek and Trowbridge Creek showed varying degrees of macroinvertebrate impairment, but no specific causes were indicated by water quality. Most interstate streams have good water quality. Only 39 out of 1,460 observations exceeded water quality standards. Aluminum most commonly exceeded standards.

  7. Science and Technology Review, July/August 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A

    2012-05-30

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Energetic Materials Research Finds an Enduring Home and Mission - Commentary by Bruce T. Goodwin; (2) A Home for Energetic Materials and Their Experts - The Energetic Materials Center has become the National Nuclear Security Administration's go-to facility for high explosives formulation, testing, and expertise; (3) A Spectra-Tacular Sight - Scientists use spectrographic techniques and a high-powered telescope to study the atmospheric composition of exoplanets; (4) Seismic Data Pinpoint Fractures for Geothermal Energy - Livermore researchers are developing advanced microseismic analysis techniques to understand what happens beneath Earth's surface, where hot rock can provide an energy source; and (5) Employees Keep Up with the Times - The Laboratory's Education Assistance Program helps its workforce stay productive, skilled, and dynamic.

  8. Slotted orifice flowmeter. Final report, July 1993-August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.L.

    1995-09-01

    The report shows that a slotted orifice has superior performance characteristics compared to a standard orifice by being significantly less dependent upon upstream flow conditioning than a standard orifice plate. The effectiveness of the slotted orifice as a flow condition is shown.

  9. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  10. Science and technology review, July-August 1998 issue

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, J

    1998-07-01

    On the occasion of Edward Teller's 90th birthday, S&TR has the pleasure of honoring Lawrence Livermore's co-founder and most influential scientist. Teller is known for his inventive work in physics, his concepts leading to thermonuclear explosions, and his strong stands on such issues as science education, the nation's strategic defense, the needs for science in the future, and sharing scientific information. The articles in this issue also show him, as always, tirelessly moving forward with his new and changing interests.

  11. Medical and Health Divisions quarterly report, July, August, September, 1948

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This quarterly report describes progress in four programs entitled (1) The Metabolic Properties of Plutonium and Allied Materials, (2) Biological Studies of Radiation Effects, (3) Biological Effects of Radiation from External and Internal Sources and (4) Health Chemistry and Physics. Progress in each program is separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  12. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, July--August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Lewis, E.B.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  13. Energy and technology review, July--August, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report highlights various research programs conducted at the Lab to include: defense systems, laser research, fusion energy, biomedical and environmental sciences, engineering, physics, chemistry, materials science, and computational analysis. It also contains a statement on the state of the Lab and Laboratory Administration. (JEF)

  14. 2007 Radiation & Climate GRC ( July 29-August 3, 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    William Collins Nancy Ryan Gray

    2008-06-01

    The theme of the fifth Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate is 'Integrating multiscale measurements and models for key climate questions'. The meeting will feature lectures, posters, and discussion regarding these issues. The meeting will focus on insights from new types of satellite and in situ data and from new approaches to modeling processes in the climate system. The program on measurements will highlight syntheses of new satellite data on cloud, aerosols, and chemistry and syntheses of satellite and sub-orbital observations from field programs. The program on modeling will address both the evaluation of cloud-resolving and regional aerosol models using new types of measurements and the evidence for processes and physics missing from global models. The Conference will focus on two key climate questions. First, what factors govern the radiative interactions of clouds and aerosols with regional and global climate? Second, how well do we understand the interaction of radiation with land surfaces and with the cryosphere?

  15. Science and Technology Review July/August 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P

    2009-06-29

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Game-Changing Science in the National Interest - Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) Preventing Close Encounters of the Orbiting Kind - The Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness is improving capabilities for monitoring and detecting threats to space operations; (3) A CAT Scanner for Nuclear Weapon Components - A new x-ray system images nuclear weapon components in three dimensions, promising unprecedented resolution and clarity; (4) Mass-Producing Positrons - Scientists reveal a new method for yielding a greater density of positrons at a much faster rate inside a laboratory setting; and (5) The Next Generation of Medical Diagnostic Devices - Portable medical diagnostic devices using ultrawideband technology help first responders evaluate injuries in emergency situations and could improve overall health care.

  16. Science and technology review, July/August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.

    1997-08-01

    This month`s issues are entitled Assuring the Safety of Nuclear Power; The Microtechnology Center, When Smaller is Better; Speeding the Gene Hunt: High Speed DNA Sequencing; and Microbial Treatments of High Explosives.

  17. Science and Technology Review July/August 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.

    2002-07-01

    This Science and Technology Review has the following stories: (1) Integration is Key to Understanding Climate Change; (2) The Outlook is for Warming, with Measurable Local Effects--Livermore climate models are zeroing in on the effects of human activities on global climate, representing them in simulations with the finest resolution ever; (2) How Metals Fail--experiments are guiding the development of codes that predict how metals react to high explosives; (4) Converting Data to Decisions--a new statistical method executed on supercomputers is bridging the gap between complex data and usable information; (5) Knowing the Enemy, Anticipating the Threat--The Laboratory's charter to counter the nuclear threat has evolved over the years and now includes intelligence analysis and technology to understand and counter biological and chemical threats.

  18. Children's Voice. Volume 16, Number 4, July/August 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Steven S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The Child Welfare League of America is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization committed to engaging people everywhere in promoting the well-being of children, youth, and their families and protecting every child from harm. By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice"…

  19. Energy Information Administration New Releases, July--August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, P.; Springer, I.

    1990-09-01

    New Releases'' is Energy Information Administration's news letter, which reports its activities, publications, and machine-readable data files and modeling programs. For each publication or report, an abstract, subscription price, availability, and other bibliographical information are included. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, coal, electricity, nuclear fuel, renewable energy and conservation, and petroleum. Order forms are also provided.

  20. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July-August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C.; Bartlett, K.B.; Talbot, R.W.; Sachse, G.W.; Collins, J.E. Jr.; Browell, E.V.; Hill, G.F.; Wade, L.; Barrie, L.A.; Burney, L.G.

    1994-01-20

    This article describes the results of a 1990 study of the concentrations of tropospheric methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere above central and eastern Canada. Gas concentrations were measured in the 0.15 to 6 kilometer range of the troposphere using a tunable diode laser instrument. Variable concentrations of both methane and carbon monoxide were documented at altitudes of 0.15 to 6 kilometers over relatively pristine areas. The variability of gas concentration is explained by meteorological factors and local emission sources. The sources are thought to include uncontrolled wildfires, American industrial and urban emissions, retreat of the polar fronts, and emissions from wetland sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Gateways to clinical trials. July-August 2008.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2008-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, 501516, 89-12; Abatacept, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, AG-701, Agatolimod sodium, Alefacept, Aliskiren fumarate, Apixaban, Atazanavir sulfate, Atrasentan, Axitinib; BI-1744-CL, BIBF-1120, BIBW-2992, Bortezomib; Carboxyamidotriazole, Caspofungin acetate, CBP-501, Cediranib, Ceftobiprole, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cholesteryl hydrophobized polysaccharide-Her2 protein complex, CHP-NY-ESO-1, Cypher; Dalbavancin, Dalcetrapib, Daptomycin, Darapladib, Deferasirox, Deforolimus, Denosumab, DNA-HIV-C, Dovitinib, DR-5001, Dronedarone hydrochloride, DT388IL3; E75, EC-17/EC-90, Ecogramostim, Efungumab, Entecavir, EP HIV-1090, EP-2101, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Faropenem daloxate, Fluticasone furoate, Fondaparinux sodium, Fospropofol disodium, Fulvestrant; Golimumab, GSK-089, GW-590735; HO/03/03, hTERT572, hTERT572Y; Iloperidone; Immunoglobulin intravenous (human), Ispinesib mesylate, Istradefylline, Ixabepilone; JR-031, JX-594; KLH; Laropiprant, Lecozotan hydrochloride, Lenalidomide, Lestaurtinib, Linezolid; MGCD-0103, MK-0646, MVA-BN Measles; NI-0401, Niacin/laropiprant, NSC-719239, NYVAC-C; Ospemifene; Paliperidone palmitate, PAN-811, PCV7, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, PEGirinotecan, Perifosine, Pertuzumab, PF-00299804, Picoplatin, Pimavanserin tartrate, Pitavastatin calcium, Pomalidomide, Prasterone, Pratosartan, Prucalopride, PSMA27/pDOM, Pyridoxal phosphate; QS-21, Quercetin; Rebimastat, Rimonabant, Rolofylline, Romidepsin, Rosuvastatin calcium, RTS,S/SBAS2; SCH-530348, SN-29244, Soblidotin, Sodium dichloroacetate, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Spheramine, SU-6668, Succinobucol; Taranabant, Taxus, Telaprevir, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tigecycline, Tiotropium bromide, Tocilizumab, Triphendiol; UC-781, Udenafil, UNIL-025; V-5 Immunitor, Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Varenicline tartrate, Velafermin, Vernakalant hydrochloride, Vinflunine, Vitespen, Vorinostat, VX-001; Xience V, XRP-0038; Yttrium Y90 Epratuzumab; Z-360, Ziconotide, Ziprasidone hydrochloride, Zotarolimus, Zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:18850047

  2. Tutorial Community Report. Progress Report, August 1971-July 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COP Bulletin, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The Tutorial Community Project (TCP) is a seven-year effort (1968-1975) designed to establish a model elementary school in the Los Angeles City School System. This document reports the project's accomplishments at Wilshire Crest and Dublin Avenue schools during the first year of the TCP. The main thrust of TCP is to develop a model, self-renewing,…

  3. Children's Voice. Volume 17, Number 4, July/August 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Emily, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization committed to engaging people everywhere in promoting the well-being of children, youth, and their families and protecting every child from harm. By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's…

  4. Science and Technology Review July/August 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, A.A.

    2001-07-01

    This issue contains the following articles: (1) ''National Security Is Our Unifying Theme''. (2) ''Annual Certification Takes a Snapshot of Stockpile's Health'' The annual assessment of the stockpile is central to Livermore's mission and vital to national nuclear security. (3) ''Sensing for Danger'' Networked sensors are getting smarter so they can better detect, track, and ward off a variety of threats. (4) ''It's the Pits in the Weapons Stockpile'' Getting old is serious business for nuclear weapon pits. (5) ''Looking into the Shadow World'' New software and better radiography are yielding higher-quality tomographs.

  5. Science and Technology Review July/August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Blobaum, K M

    2010-05-27

    This issue has the following articles: (1) Deterrence with a Minimum Nuclear Stockpile - Commentary by Bruce T. Goodwin; (2) Enhancing Confidence in the Nation's Nuclear Stockpile - Livermore experts are participating in a national effort aimed at predicting how nuclear weapon materials and systems will likely change over time; (3) Narrowing Uncertainties - For climate modeling and many other fields, understanding uncertainty, or margin of error, is critical; (4) Insight into a Deadly Disease - Laboratory experiments reveal the pathogenesis of tularemia in host cells, bringing scientists closer to developing a vaccine for this debilitating disease. (5) Return to Rongelap - On the Rongelap Atoll, Livermore scientists are working to minimize radiological exposure for natives now living on or wishing to return to the islands.

  6. Science and Technology Review July-August 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D

    1999-07-01

    This issue covers the following topics: (1) Laboratory in the News; (2)Mike Anastasio's commentary on ''Fusion Ignition as an Integrated Test of Stockpile Stewardship; (3) ''On Target: Designing for Ignition''--researchers are designing and fabricating the exacting targets needed for laser fusion experimentation at the National Ignition Facility, now under construction; (4) ''A New View of the Universe''--Livermore's laser guide star and adaptive optics systems are opening up the skies for astronomers to take a better look; (5) Research Highlights of ''Quantum Molecular Virtual Laboratory'' and ''AAA in the Sky for Satellites; and (6) Patents, Awards and Abstracts.

  7. Science and Technology Review July/August 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H B

    2006-05-25

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Experiments at the Scale of Simulations--Commentary by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia; (2) A New Realm of Materials Science--Livermore scientists are combining experiment, theory, and simulation to study the response of solids to extreme dynamic stresses at nanometer and subnanosecond scales; (3) Planets and Stars under the Magnifying Glass--An international collaboration involving Laboratory scientists has discovered a planet made of rock or ice orbiting a dim star outside our solar system; and (4) Keeping an Eye on the Prize--A Livermore-IBM team uses a new code and the world's fastest computer to set a performance record for a science application.

  8. Census in Schools Educator Update, July/August 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter includes the following items: (1) Census in Schools and…

  9. Environmental regulatory update table, July/August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Salk, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  10. Environmental Regulatory Update Table July/August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1993-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  11. Children's Voice. Volume 15, Number 4, July/August 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehem, Steven S., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The Child Welfare League of America is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization committed to engaging people everywhere in promoting the well-being of children, youth, and their families and protecting every child from harm. By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice"…

  12. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  13. Streamflow and water-quality properties in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin and regression models to estimate real-time suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids concentrations and loads in the West Fork San Jacinto River in the vicinity of Conroe, Texas, July 2008-August 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, Lee J.; Oden, Jeannette H.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the hydrology (streamflow and water quality) of the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas, including spatial and temporal variation in suspended-sediment (SS) and total suspended-solids (TSS) concentrations and loads, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, measured streamflow and collected continuous and discrete water-quality data during July 2008-August 2009 in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe. During July 2008-August 2009, discrete samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made over the range of flow conditions at two streamflow-gaging stations on the West Fork San Jacinto River: West Fork San Jacinto River below Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas (station 08067650) and West Fork San Jacinto River near Conroe, Texas (station 08068000). In addition to samples collected at these two main monitoring sites, discrete sediment samples were also collected at five additional monitoring sites to help characterize water quality in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin. Discrete samples were collected semimonthly, regardless of flow conditions, and during periods of high flow resulting from storms or releases from Lake Conroe. Because the period of data collection was relatively short (14 months) and low flow was prevalent during much of the study, relatively few samples collected were representative of the middle and upper ranges of historical daily mean streamflows. The largest streamflows tended to occur in response to large rainfall events and generally were associated with the largest SS and TSS concentrations. The maximum SS and TSS concentrations at station 08067650 (180 and 133 milligrams per liter [mg/L], respectively) were on April 19, 2009, when the instantaneous streamflow was the third largest associated with a discrete sample at the station. SS concentrations

  14. CONNECTICUT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named streams in Connecticut. It includes two Shapefiles with line and polygon features. Both Shapefiles should be used together. The polygon shapefile fills in open water streams such as the Connecticut River as well as Long Island Sound. T...

  15. Stream Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J.

    Stream processors, like other multi core architectures partition their functional units and storage into multiple processing elements. In contrast to typical architectures, which contain symmetric general-purpose cores and a cache hierarchy, stream processors have a significantly leaner design. Stream processors are specifically designed for the stream execution model, in which applications have large amounts of explicit parallel computation, structured and predictable control, and memory accesses that can be performed at a coarse granularity. Applications in the streaming model are expressed in a gather-compute-scatter form, yielding programs with explicit control over transferring data to and from on-chip memory. Relying on these characteristics, which are common to many media processing and scientific computing applications, stream architectures redefine the boundary between software and hardware responsibilities with software bearing much of the complexity required to manage concurrency, locality, and latency tolerance. Thus, stream processors have minimal control consisting of fetching medium- and coarse-grained instructions and executing them directly on the many ALUs. Moreover, the on-chip storage hierarchy of stream processors is under explicit software control, as is all communication, eliminating the need for complex reactive hardware mechanisms.

  16. Geochemical Data for Upper Mineral Creek, Colorado, Under Existing Ambient Conditions and During an Experimental pH Modification, August 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Steiger, Judy I.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Mineral Creek, an acid mine drainage stream in south-western Colorado, was the subject of a water-quality study that employed a paired synoptic approach. Under the paired synoptic approach, two synoptic sampling campaigns were conducted on the same study reach. The initial synoptic campaign, conducted August 22, 2005, documented stream-water quality under existing ambient conditions. A second synoptic campaign, conducted August 24, 2005, documented stream-water quality during a pH-modification experiment that elevated the pH of Mineral Creek. The experimental pH modification was designed to determine the potential reductions in dissolved constituent concentrations that would result from the implementation of an active treatment system for acid mine drainage. During both synoptic sampling campaigns, a solution containing lithium bromide was injected continuously to allow for the calculation of streamflow using the tracer-dilution method. Synoptic water-quality samples were collected from 30 stream sites and 11 inflow locations along the 2-kilometer study reach. Data from the study provide spatial profiles of pH, concentration, and streamflow under both existing and experimentally-altered conditions. This report presents the data obtained August 21-24, 2005, as well as the methods used for sample collection and data analysis.

  17. Rainfall Generated Debris flows on Mount Shasta: July 21, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulovsky, R. P.; De La Fuente, J. A.; Courtney, A.; Bachmann, S.; Rodriguez, H.; Rust, B.; Schneider, F.; Veich, D.

    2015-12-01

    Convective storms on the evening of July 21, 2015 generated a number of debris flows on the SE flank of Mount Shasta Volcano, Shasta-Trinity National Forest. Widespread rilling, gullying and sheet erosion occurred throughout the affected area. These storms damaged roads by scouring drainage ditches, blocking culverts, eroding road prisms, and depositing debris where streams emerged from their incised channels and flowed over their alluvial fans. Effects were limited geographically to a narrow band about 6 miles wide trending in a northeasterly direction. Debris flows were identified at Pilgrim Creek and nearby channels, and Mud Creek appears to have experienced sediment laden flows rather than debris flows. Doppler radar data reveal that the storm cells remained nearly stationary for two hours before moving in a northeasterly direction. Debris flows triggered by convective storms occur often at Mount Shasta, with a similar event recorded in 2003 and a larger one in 1935, which also involved glacial melt. The 1935 debris flow at Whitney Creek buried Highway 97 north of Weed, CA, and took out the railroad above the highway. In September, 2014, a large debris flow occurred in Mud Creek, but it was associated solely with glacial melt and was not accompanied by rain. The 2014 event at Mud Creek filled the channel and parts of the floodplain with debris. This debris was in turn reworked and eroded by sediment laden flows on July 21, 2015. This study was initiated in August, 2015, and began with field inventories to identify storm effects. Lidar data will be used to identify possible avulsion points that could result in unexpected flash flooding outside of the main Mud Creek channel and on adjacent streams. The results of this study will provide critical information that can be used to assess flash flood risk and better understand how to manage those risks. Finally, some conclusions may be drawn on the kinds of warning systems that may be appropriate for possible flash

  18. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  19. Gravity waves and convection in Colorado during July 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, F.; Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Fua, D.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of gravity-wave/convective-cell interaction is studied using NOAA data collected in NE Colorado during July and August 1983. The pressure fields measured with microbarographs, the tropospheric wind profiles obtained with a UHF wind profiler radar, and precipitation data collected with a 10-cm weather radar for four events (A, B, C, and D) are analyzed. The four disturbances are detected through a substantial depth of the troposphere. It is observed that in event A the wave and convective cells appear to be locked together; in event B, the wave and convective cells commence about the same time, but the wave velocities differ from the cell velocities; and in events C and D, the waves move faster than the maximum wind in the jet and faster than the convective cells. It is suggested that events A and B are generated by wind shear in the jet stream, and the excitation of events C and D depends on mechanisms such as vertical convective motion and acceleration in the jet flow.

  20. Orbit of the Ophiuchus Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesar, Branimir; Bernard, Edouard J.; Bovy, Jo; Cohen, Judith G.; Caldwell, Nelson; Ness, Melissa; Johnson, Christian I.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Martin, Nicolas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ford Schlafly, Eddie; Pan-Starrs1 Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Ophiuchus Stream is the most recently discovered stellar stream in the Milky Way (Bernard et al. 2014). Due to its location (˜5 kpc from the Galactic center) and its puzzling morphology (a thin and short stream, and yet with no visible progenitor), this stream may represent an important piece in our efforts to understand the Galactic potential and the dynamical evolution of accreted structures. In this talk, I will present a followup study of the stream during which we obtained high-quality spectroscopic data on 14 stream member stars using Keck and MMT telescopes. I will show how these newly acquired spectroscopic and existing photometric data enabled us to constrain i) the distance and line-of-sight extent of the stream, ii) the full 3D kinematics of the stream, iii) the chemical properties of the stream and the nature of its progenitor, and iv) the orbit of the stream. I will finish by discussing future prospects in this field in light of the upcoming public release of Pan-STARRS1, Palomar Transient Factory, and GAIA data.

  1. Effects of forest harvesting on summer stream temperatures in New Brunswick, Canada: an inter-catchment, multiple-year comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, C. P.-A.; Pomeroy, J. H.

    This paper presents a pre- and post-harvest comparison of stream temperatures collected in five neighbouring streams (sub-catchments) over a period of five years (1994-1998). The aim of the study was to determine whether land cover changes from clear cutting in areas outside forest buffer zones (applied to streams >0.5 m wide) might contribute to an increase in summer mean stream temperatures in buffered streams downslope by infusion of warmed surface and sub-surface water into the streams. Specific relationships were observed in all five forest streams investigated. To assist in the analysis, several spatially-relevant variables, such as land cover change, mid-summer potential solar radiation, flow accumulation, stream location and slope of the land were determined, in part, from existing aerial photographs, GIS-archived forest inventory data and a digital terrain model of the study area. Spatial calculations of insolation levels for July 15th were used as an index of mid-summer solar heating across sub-catchments. Analysis indicated that prior to the 1995 harvest, differences in stream temperature could be attributed to (i) topographic position and catchment-to-sun orientation, (ii) the level of cutting that occurred in the upper catchment prior to the start of the study, and (iii) the average slope within harvested areas. Compared to the pre-harvest mean stream temperatures in 1994, mean temperatures in the three streams downslope from the 1995 harvest areas increased by 0.3 to 0.7°C (representing a 4-8% increase; p-value of normalised temperatures <<0.05). The greatest temperature change occurred in the stream that had the greatest proportion of its upper catchment harvested (16.8%), which also had the highest calculated potential solar loading ( ~2749 MJ per stream cell). From the analysis it was determined that the thinning applied to the forest buffer of that stream, with a basal area removal of ~28%, was insufficient to cause significant change in the

  2. Spatial Heterogeneity of Stream Water Chemistry in the Elder Creek Catchment at the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurnhoffer, B. M.; Lovill, S. M.; Nghiem, A.; Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K. B.

    2014-12-01

    How does stream chemistry vary with respect to discharge, flow distance, elevation, hill slope orientation, lithology, and vegetation on catchment scale? Is it possible to discern fast flowing seasonally recharged subsurface waters from long residence time waters contributing to base flow? To answer these questions, water samples were collected at ~80 locations distributed over the channel network of the (17 km2) Elder Creek catchment during surveys in May and August/September 2014. The site, located at the Angelo Coast Range Reserve near the headwaters of the South Fork of the Eel River in northern California, experiences a Mediterranean climate with warm dry summers and cold wet winters; this year (2014), our area has received less than 50% of expected precipitation and is experiencing an extreme drought. Our survey times correspond to the beginning of the dry season and late dry season, respectively. The subsurface lithology of the region almost uniform, being largely composed of argillite mudstone with intermittent areas underlain with sandstone. It is forested with Douglas fir, live and tan oaks, madrone and California bay laurel, which vary in abundance with hill-slope orientation. Due to drought, the Elder Catchment has recently experienced the effects of the nearby Lodge Lightening Complex Fire (first detection July 31 2014) and its effects may be differentiated through the continuous 1 - 3 day frequency sampling of Elder Creek water using the ISCO Gravity Filtration System (GFS; Kim et al. 2012, EST). All water samples are analyzed for dissolved major, minor, and trace solutes by Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry and this report focuses on major solutes such as Na, K, Ca, Mg and Si; redox sensitive metals Fe and Mn; and Ba and Sr. Preliminary analysis of May 2014 data shows interesting patterns between tributaries, particularly differences between streams on north vs. south facing slopes. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Na decrease down slope in

  3. Momentum, water vapor, and carbon dioxide exchange at a centrally located prairie site during FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Shashi B.; Kim, Joon; Clement, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Eddy correlation measurements were taken of momentum, water vapor, sensible heat, and CO2 at a centrally located plateau site in the FIFE study area from May to October 1987. Approximately 82 percent of the vegetation at the site was composed of several C4 grass species, with the remainder being C3 grasses, forbs, wedges, and woody plants. Precipitation was about normal during the study period, except for a three week dry period in late July to early August that caused moisture stress conditions.

  4. The Phoenix stream: A cold stream in the southern hemisphere

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Balbinot, E.

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with agemore » $$\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$$ Gyr and $[Fe/H]<-1.6$ located 17.5$$\\pm$$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$$^{\\circ}.$$1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $$\\sim$$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. 2016).« less

  5. Spatio-temporal distribution of stream-aquifer water exchanges along a multi-layer aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhri, A.; Flipo, N.; Faycal, R.; Anne, J.; Ludovic, B.; Patrick, G.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the spatial and temporal variability of stream-aquifer water exchanges along a 6 km-stream network in a multi-layer aquifer system. With an area of 104 km2, the Orgeval experimental basin is located 70 km east from Paris. It drains a multi-layer aquifer system, which is composed of two main geological formations: the Oligocene (upper aquifer unit) and the Eocene (lower aquifer unit). These two aquifer units are separated by a clayey aquitard. Five MOLONARI stations (MOnitoring LOcal des échanges NAppe-RIvière) have been deployed along the stream-network to monitor stream-aquifer exchanges over years, based on continuous pressure and temperature measurements (15 min-time step). The five MOLONARI stations are distributed in two upstream, two intermediate, and one downstream site. The two upstream sites are connected to the upper aquifer unit, and the downstream one is connected to the lower aquifer unit. One year (april2012-july 2013) of hydrological data are hereafter analyzed. We first focus on the spatial distribution of the stream-aquifer exchanges along the multi-layer aquifer system during the low flow period. Results display an upstream-downstream functional gradient, with upstream gaining stream and downstream losing stream. This spatial distribution is due to the multi-layer nature of the aquifer system, whose lower aquifer unit is depleted. Then it appears that the downstream losing streams temporally switch into gaining ones during extreme hydrological events (December 2012 and January 2013), while the upstream streams remain gaining streams even during the flood peak when overflow drastically reduces the water exchanges. To illustrate the spatial distribution of the stream-aquifer exchanges' temporal variability three extreme hydrological events of various intensity are analyzed.

  6. Atmospheric and Microbial Nitrate Contributions to Streams across a Regional Nitrogen Deposition Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, L.; Elliott, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Chronically elevated atmospheric nitrate deposition has increased nitrate export from forests worldwide. This problem is particularly evident in the eastern U.S., where elevated stream nitrate concentrations and export from forested watersheds has led to the suggestion that some forests may be at or nearing a state of nitrogen saturation. To investigate the utility of nitrate stable isotopes in assessing the nitrogen saturation status of forests, we measured monthly δ15N, δ18O, Δ17O, and concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and stream water from reference watersheds at Coweeta (North Carolina), Fernow (West Virginia), and Hubbard Brook (New Hampshire) Experimental Forests from August 2012 to July 2013. Long-term mean nitrate deposition ranges from 11 kg ha-1 yr-1 to 17 kg ha-1 yr-1 and is significantly different (p<0.05) among the sites. Nitrate concentrations and isotopic compositions of precipitation did not differ significantly among the sites during the study. Seasonal trends in δ18O and Δ17O of nitrate values were also similar among sites, and were indicative of seasonal variation in dominant NOx oxidation pathway. The study sites differed significantly with respect to stream nitrate concentration (p<0.05) and isotopic composition (p<0.05). The high deposition site (Fernow) had the highest mean stream water nitrate concentration during the study period but the lowest percentages of atmospheric nitrate in monthly samples and on an annual average basis. In contrast, the low deposition site (Coweeta) had the lowest mean stream nitrate concentrations during the study and the highest mean percentage of atmospheric nitrate in the stream. Unprocessed atmospheric nitrate was also present in Coweeta stream samples during every month that isotope analyses were conducted for this site. Among these watersheds, stream nitrate concentration was negatively related to the proportion of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate in streams (R2=0.23; p<0.05). We will explore

  7. Stream Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    This manual provides teachers with some knowledge of ecological study methods and techniques used in collecting data when plants and animals are studied in the field. Most activities deal with the interrelatedness of plant and animal life to the structure and characteristics of a stream and pond. Also included in this unit plan designed for the…

  8. Stream Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a science curriculum reform effort aimed at enabling students to collect original data concerning an environmental parameter such as water quality on a yearly basis. Students track the overall health of the stream by analyzing both biotic and abiotic factors. (DDR)

  9. Chemical, physical, biochemical, and bacteriological characteristics at selected stream sites in Puerto Rico, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, F.; Vasquez, Pedro; Pena-Cortes, Rafael

    1978-01-01

    In 1969, the Caribbean District of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, initiated the operation of a network to monitor some parameters indicative of water-quality changes at selected stream sites. In 1974, at the request of the Environmental Quality Board of Puerto Rico, the network was modified to conform with the Environmental Protection Agency National Water Quality Surveillance System. The purpose of the present network is to monitor changes in water quality between the upstream and downstream stations. The expanded network consisted of 58 stations. During 1976, five had been discontinued. One other was added late in 1976. Most of the stations in the original network have been maintained, thus providing some degree of continuity. The monitoring stations used in this report are shown on a map and listed in a table. The results of the network operation are summarized for the period July 1976 to August 1977. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Analysis of stream-temperature variations in the Upper Delaware River Basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Owen O.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of climatologic conditions and reservoir releases on downstream conditions was determined by means of statistical and graphical analyses of stream-temperature variations measured in the upper Delaware River basin, May-September 1964-67. Climatologic conditions normally increase water temperatures from February through July and decrease them from August through January. Summer releases from New York City's Cannonsville Reservoir were observed to decrease water temperatures by 13?C (Celsius) in 8.1 miles and by 1?C, 55.9 miles downstream from this reservoir. Releases from New York City's Pepacton Reservoir were observed to decrease water temperatures by 11?C in 31.0 miles and between 1?-3?C in 71.0 miles downstream from this reservoir. The influence of releases from these reservoirs is dependent upon five factors: thermal stratification in the reservoir, depth at which water is withdrawn from the reservoir, rate of release, distance downstream from the reservoir, and climatologic conditions.

  11. Characterizing changing stream water quality in a glacierized tropical watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, B. G.; Eddy, A. M.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Walsh, E.; Fernandez, A.; Wigmore, O.; Battista, R.; Guittard, A.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru has been causing downstream hydrologic transformations, altering the amount, timing and chemical quality of stream water. Increased demand from multiple water resource users, particularly industrial-scale agricultural irrigation along the desert coast, underscores the need for accurate source attribution and treatment of pollutants. Water quality assessment is challenging given natural geologic controls on water chemistry concentrations, and a lack of consistent historical monitoring. Here we present results from an analytical characterization of spatial and temporal variability in the dissolved loads of major ions, isotopes and select trace metals in the Pacific-draining Santa River and tributaries. Our approach incorporates multi-year synoptic sampling of water chemistry and stream discharge along the river course and at tributary pour points, along with weekly sampling at single point along the upper Santa. Samples were taken predominately during the austral winter months of June, July, and August in 2004 - 2009 and 2011 - 2013 at 20-30 stream localities. Digitized maps of geology, land use and hydrography permit geographic visualization and exploratory GIS-based data analysis. Results indicate that the dominant hydrochemical processes throughout the Santa watershed include silicate weathering, coupled pyrite oxidation with silicate weathering, and to a lesser extent, carbonate weathering. Low pH and high concentrations of sulfate are found in the presence of high-silica granitic and metamorphic surface lithology in some sites proximal to receding glaciers, reflecting an environment that is driven by coupled sulfide-oxidation and silicate dissolution. Numerous sites had elevated concentrations of trace metals (such as As, Cd, and Pb) indicating potential local sources of contamination, some in excess of World Health Organization. Weekly sampling show dilution of certain trace metals during the wet season, and

  12. Structure and Spatial Distribution of the Chironomidae Community in Mesohabitats in a First Order Stream at the Poço D'Anta Municipal Biological Reserve in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vescovi Rosa, Beatriz Figueiraujo Jabour; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2011-01-01

    The Chironomidae occupy different habitats along the lotic system with their distribution determined by different factors such as the substrate characteristics and water speed. The input of vegetable material from the riparian forest allows a higher habitat diversity and food to the benthic fauna. The main aim of this paper is to verify the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in different mesohabitats in a first order stream located at a Biological Reserve in the southeast of Brazil. In the months of July, August, and September 2007, and in January, February, and March 2008, samples were collected with a hand net (250 µm) in the following mesohabitats: litter from riffles, litter from pools, and sediment from pools. The community structure of each mesohabitat was analyzed through the abundance of organisms, taxa richness, Pielou's evenness, Shannon's diversity, and taxa dominance. Similarity among the mesohabitats was obtained by Cluster analysis, and Chironomidae larvae distribution through the Correspondence analysis. Indicator species analysis was used to identify possible taxa preference for a determined mesohabitat. The analyzed mesohabitats showed high species richness and diversity favored by the large environmental heterogeneity. Some taxa were indicators of the type of mesohabitat. The substrate was the main factor that determined taxa distribution in relation to water flow differences (riffle and pool). Stream characteristics such as low water speed and the presence of natural mechanisms of retention may have provided a higher faunistic similarity between the areas with different flows. The results showed that the physical characteristics of each environment presented a close relationship with the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in lotic systems. PMID:21529258

  13. Signatures of Slow Solar Wind Streams from Active Regions in the Inner Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, V.; Harra, L.; Urnov, A.; Kuzin, S.; Goryaev, F.; Berghmans, D.

    2013-08-01

    The identification of solar-wind sources is an important question in solar physics. The existing solar-wind models ( e.g., the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model) provide the approximate locations of the solar wind sources based on magnetic field extrapolations. It has been suggested recently that plasma outflows observed at the edges of active regions may be a source of the slow solar wind. To explore this we analyze an isolated active region (AR) adjacent to small coronal hole (CH) in July/August 2009. On 1 August, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observations showed two compact outflow regions in the corona. Coronal rays were observed above the active-region coronal hole (ARCH) region on the eastern limb on 31 July by STEREO-A/EUVI and at the western limb on 7 August by CORONAS- Photon/TESIS telescopes. In both cases the coronal rays were co-aligned with open magnetic-field lines given by the potential field source surface model, which expanded into the streamer. The solar-wind parameters measured by STEREO-B, ACE, Wind, and STEREO-A confirmed the identification of the ARCH as a source region of the slow solar wind. The results of the study support the suggestion that coronal rays can represent signatures of outflows from ARs propagating in the inner corona along open field lines into the heliosphere.

  14. 92. Photocopied August 1978. RHEOSTATS AND OIL SWITCHES, IN PENSTOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. Photocopied August 1978. RHEOSTATS AND OIL SWITCHES, IN PENSTOCK 30 AREA, LOOKING WEST, AUGUST 11, 1914. THE RHEOSTATS AND OIL SWITCHES WERE REMOTELY CONTROLLED FROM THE SWITCHBOARD AND LOCATED AT CONVENIENT POINTS ALONG THE GENERATOR ROOM GALLERY SO THAT THE CONTROL PANELS COULD BE BUILT AS SLIMLY AS POSSIBLE. (916) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  15. Preliminary Results from VOC measurements in the Lower Fraser Valley in July/Aug 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, C. L.; Jones, K.; Vingarzan, R.; Leaitch, R.; Macdonald, A.; Osthoff, H. D.; Reid, K.

    2012-12-01

    In July/August 2012, a pilot study looking at the effect of ClNO2 production on the ozone concentrations in the lower Fraser valley near Abbotsford, BC was conducted. The lower Fraser valley in British Columbia Canada has some of the highest ozone concentrations and visibility issues in Canada. Abbotsford is located approximately 80 kms east of Vancouver, BC and approximately 30 kms from the ocean. The site was located in a largely agricultural area with fruit farms (raspberries and blueberries) and poultry barns predominating. During the study biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs were measured in situ using a GCMS/FID with hourly samples. Particle composition was measured using an ACSM and size distribution using an SMPS. Preliminary results from the study will be discussed.

  16. StreamVOC--A Deterministic Source-Apportionment Model to Estimate Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Rivers and Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asher, William E.; Bender, David A.; Zogorski, John S.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the construction and verification of the model, StreamVOC, that estimates (1) the time- and position-dependent concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in rivers and streams as well as (2) the source apportionment (SA) of those concentrations. The model considers how different types of sources and loss processes can act together to yield a given observed VOC concentration. Reasons for interest in the relative and absolute contributions of different sources to contaminant concentrations include the need to apportion: (1) the origins for an observed contamination, and (2) the associated human and ecosystem risks. For VOCs, sources of interest include the atmosphere (by absorption), as well as point and nonpoint inflows of VOC-containing water. Loss processes of interest include volatilization to the atmosphere, degradation, and outflows of VOC-containing water from the stream to local ground water. This report presents the details of StreamVOC and compares model output with measured concentrations for eight VOCs found in the Aberjona River at Winchester, Massachusetts. Input data for the model were obtained during a synoptic study of the stream system conducted July 11-13, 2001, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The input data included a variety of basic stream characteristics (for example, flows, temperature, and VOC concentrations). The StreamVOC concentration results agreed moderately well with the measured concentration data for several VOCs and provided compound-dependent SA estimates as a function of longitudinal distance down the river. For many VOCs, the quality of the agreement between the model-simulated and measured concentrations could be improved by simple adjustments of the model input parameters. In general, this study illustrated: (1) the considerable difficulty of quantifying correctly the locations and magnitudes of ground-water-related sources of

  17. Starting School in August

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the controversial decision of the school board from the Broward County, Florida to start the school year on August 9. School boards across the country that are grappling with the idea of starting school earlier in the year are increasingly running up against strong opposition from parents. In many districts,…

  18. August Has No Holidays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2000-01-01

    Presents a Holiday Trivia Quiz that is designed to highlight American holidays throughout the year. Includes primary questions for grades one through three and intermediate questions for grades three through six; bonus questions; and a writing activity to create a holiday for the month of August. (LRW)

  19. A trace of fireball stream activity in August 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, Przemyslaw; Olech, Arkadiusz; Wisniewski, Mariusz

    2006-08-01

    Four bright meteors and fireballs were observed by photographic and video cameras a few days after the Perseid maximum. All paths of these meteors create a slightly diffuse radiant with coordinates alpha=238 deg and delta=+62 deg. Two approximate orbits are presented. An association with the kappa-Cygnids complex is noticed.

  20. The Phoenix Stream: A Cold Stream in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbinot, E.; Yanny, B.; Li, T. S.; Santiago, B.; Marshall, J. L.; Finley, D. A.; Pieres, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age τ = 11.5 ± 0.5 Gyr and [Fe/H] < -1.6, located 17.5 ± 0.9 kpc from the Sun, gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8.°1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of ˜54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster (GC) is a probable progenitor. There is no known GC within 5 kpc that is compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities (ODs) along the stream, however, no obvious counterpart-bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find ODs along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed—consistent with the epicyclic OD scenario for the formation of cold streams—as well as a misalignment between the northern and southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe OD.

  1. Dynamical modeling of tidal streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo

    2014-11-01

    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its 'track') in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of 'orphan' streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  2. Dynamical Modeling of Tidal Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2014-11-01

    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its "track") in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of "orphan" streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  3. Impact of Stream and Floodplain Rehabilitation on Macroinvertebrate Community Structure and Diversity on the Hammer Creek in Lancaster County, PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppert, J. C.; Kondikof, B.; Wallace, J. R.

    2005-05-01

    Naturally occurring floodplains act as a barrier to adverse effects from anthropogenic sources, while retaining aquatic organism diversity and potentially increasing stream productivity. The purpose of the study is to examine macroinvertebrate communities in response to stream and floodplain rehabilitation. This is an on-going study initiated with pre-restoration sampling conducted in July/August 2001. Post-rehabilitation sampling began in December 2001 and is continuing until the present. Long-term monitoring is being conducted among five sampling sites: above the restored area (control site), two sites within the restored section of the stream, and two sites 100 and 2500 meters below the impacted reach. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from the sites using a modified Hess sampler (n=6 replicates samples/ site). Macroinvertebrates were identified to generic level and analyzed using several metrics such as, Shannon and Simpson biodiversity indices, percent EPT, Functional feeding group analyses, ratio of scrapers to collector-filterers, and ratio of EPT abundance to Chironomidae. We found that stream restoration "traumatized" the macroinvertebrate community and diversity exhibited a lag-time in recovery. Because of an increase in riffle habitat, a modification of flow regime, and potential for preservation of habitat heterogeneity within these riffle zones, macroinvertebrate diversity may respond according to this improvement in habitat.

  4. 43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. and Design, Grand Canyon National Park, dated August 23, 1934, and September 17, 1934 (original located at Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado, #113/3084-set of 2) SEWAGE PLANT ADDITION. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  5. Practical Meteor Stream Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the recent Leonid meteor storms, researchers have made great strides in our ability to predict enhanced meteor activity. However, the necessary calibration of the meteor stream models with Earth-based ZHRs (Zenith Hourly Rates) has placed emphasis on the terran observer and meteor activity predictions are published in such a manner to reflect this emphasis. As a consequence, many predictions are often unusable by the satellite community, which has the most at stake and the greatest interest in meteor forecasting. This paper suggests that stream modelers need to pay more attention to the needs of this community and publish not just durations and times of maxima for Earth, but everything needed to characterize the meteor stream in and out of the plane of the ecliptic, which, at a minimum, consists of the location of maximum stream density (ZHR) and the functional form of the density decay with distance from this point. It is also suggested that some of the terminology associated with meteor showers may need to be more strictly defined in order to eliminate the perception of crying wolf by meteor scientists. An outburst is especially problematic, as it usually denotes an enhancement by a factor of 2 or more to researchers, but conveys the notion of a sky filled with meteors to satellite operators and the public. Experience has also taught that predicted ZHRs often lead to public disappointment, as these values vastly overestimate what is seen.

  6. Bedload transport calculations for steep streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickenmann, D.; Turowski, J. M.; Nitsche, M.; Badoux, A.; Raymond, M.

    2011-12-01

    Due to large flow resistance, bedload transport calculations for steep streams often result in a clear overestimation of observed bedload. This contribution discusses the importance of introducing a proper partitioning of flow resistance for bedload transport calculations for steep streams. Several approaches to account for additional flow resistance were tested. They were used with the same reference bedload transport equation, and the predictions were then compared with bedload observations for a number of mountain streams. To this end, we measured the streambed parameters required for these calculations for flood events in 7 mountain rivers and torrents and for long-term discharge and bedload data of 6 torrents. The streams have channel slopes from 2 to 19 %, catchment areas from 0.5 to 170 km2, and are all located in the Swiss Alps. Some approaches give better predictions for rougher streams and for the extreme flood events than for less rough streams and for the long-term data from the torrents (Nitsche et al., 2011). An example for this prediction pattern is the approach of Yager et al. (2007) which is the one mostly based on physical principles for flow resistance calculations. This approach requires additional field measurements regarding the key roughness parameters. On the other hand considering all the bedload data, the empirical approach of Rickenmann and Recking (2011) appears to give the best overall predictions. This approach has the advantage to be easy to apply. Further bedload transport calculations were made for steep streams upstream of water intakes in the Swiss Alps where information is available on both discharge and annual sediment yield. If no correction for high flow resistance is made, calculated bedload transport rates with many equations tend to result in elevated bedload concentrations which are expected for debris flood or debris flow conditions. Some observations from the widespread flood events of August 2005 in Switzerland

  7. Stream salamanders as indicators of stream quality in Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southerland, M.T.; Jung, R.E.; Baxter, D.P.; Chellman, I.C.; Mercurio, G.; Volstad, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators are critical to the protection of small, headwater streams and the ecological values they provide. Maryland and other state monitoring programs have determined that fish indicators are ineffective in small streams, where stream salamanders may replace fish as top predators. Because of their life history, physiology, abundance, and ubiquity, stream salamanders are likely representative of biological integrity in these streams. The goal of this study was to determine whether stream salamanders are effective indicators of ecological conditions across biogeographic regions and gradients of human disturbance. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we intensively surveyed for stream salamanders at 76 stream sites located west of the Maryland Coastal Plain, sites also monitored by the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) and City of Gaithersburg. We found 1,584 stream salamanders, including all eight species known in Maryland, using two 15 ? 2 m transects and two 4 m2 quadrats that spanned both stream bank and channel. We performed removal sampling on transects to estimate salamander species detection probabilities, which ranged from 0.67-0.85. Stepwise regressions identified 15 of 52 non-salamander variables, representing water quality, physical habitat, land use, and biological conditions, which best predicted salamander metrics. Indicator development involved (1) identifying reference (non-degraded) and degraded sites (using percent forest, shading, riparian buffer width, aesthetic rating, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish indices of biotic integrity); (2) testing 12 candidate salamander metrics (representing species richness and composition, abundance, species tolerance, and reproductive function) for their ability to distinguish reference from degraded sites; and (3) combining metrics into an index that effectively discriminated sites according to known stream conditions. Final indices for Highlands, Piedmont, and Non-Coastal Plain

  8. Factors related to occurrence and distribution of selected bacterial and protozoan pathogens in Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duris, Joseph W.; Reif, Andrew G.; Donna A. Crouse; Isaacs, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and bacterial and protozoan pathogens are controlled by diverse factors. To investigate these factors in Pennsylvania streams, 217 samples were collected quarterly from a 27-station water-quality monitoring network from July 2007 through August 2009. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) indicator bacteria, concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, and the presence of four genes related to pathogenic types of EC (eaeA, stx2, stx1, rfbO157) plus three microbial source tracking (MST) gene markers that are also associated with pathogenic ENT and EC (esp, LTIIa, STII). Water samples were concurrently analyzed for basic water chemistry, physical measures of water quality, nutrients, metals, and a suite of 79 organic compounds that included hormones, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics. For each sample location, stream discharge was measured by using standardized methods at the time of sample collection, and ancillary sample site information, such as land use and geological characteristics, was compiled. Samples exceeding recreational water quality criteria were more likely to contain all measured pathogen genes but notCryptosporidium or Giardia (oo)cysts. FIB and Giardia density and frequency of eaeA gene occurrence were significantly related to season. When discharge at a sampling location was high (>75th percentile of daily mean discharge), there were greater densities of FIB and Giardia, and the stx2, rfbO157, STII, and esp genes were found more frequently than at other discharge conditions. Giardia occurrence was likely related to nonpoint sources, which are highly influential during seasonal overland transport resulting from snowmelt and elevated precipitation in late winter and spring in Pennsylvania. When MST markers of human, swine, or bovine origin were present, samples more frequently carried the eaeA, stx2

  9. A statistical model for estimating stream temperatures in the Salmon and Clearwater River basins, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2002-01-01

    A water-quality standard for temperature is critical for the protection of threatened and endangered salmonids, which need cold, clean water to sustain life. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality has established temperature standards to protect salmonids, yet little is known about the normal range of temperatures of most Idaho streams. A single temperature standard for all streams does not take into account the natural temperature variation of streams or the existence of naturally warm waters. To address these issues and to help the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality revise the existing State temperature standards for aquatic life, temperature data from more than 200 streams and rivers in the salmon and Clearwater River Basins were collected. From these data, a statistical model was developed for estimating stream temperatures on the basis of subbasin and site characteristics and climatic factors. Stream temperatures were monitored hourly for approximately 58 days during July, August, and September 2000 at relatively undisturbed sites in subbasins in the Salmon and Clearwater River Basins in central Idaho. The monitored subbasins vary widely in size, elevation, drainage area, vegetation cover, and other characteristics. The resulting data were analyzed for statistical correlations with subbasin and site characteristics to establish the most important factors affecting stream temperature. Maximum daily average stream temperatures were strongly correlated with elevation and total upstream drainage area; weaker correlations were noted with stream depth and width and aver-age subbasin slope. Stream temperatures also were correlated with certain types of vegetation cover, but these variables were not significant in the final model. The model takes into account seasonal temperature fluctuations, site elevation, total drainage area, average subbasin slope, and the deviation of daily average air temperature from a 30-year normal daily average air temperature

  10. RADIAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE DURING EARTH AND ULYSSES ALIGNMENT OF 2007 AUGUST

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amicis, R.; Bruno, R.; Pallocchia, G.; Bavassano, B.; Telloni, D.; Carbone, V.; Balogh, A.

    2010-07-01

    At the end of 2007 August, during the minimum of solar cycle 23, a lineup of Earth and Ulysses occurred, giving the opportunity to analyze, for the first time, the same plasma sample at different observation points, namely at 1 and 1.4 AU. In particular, it allowed us to study the radial evolution of solar wind turbulence typical of fast wind streams as proposed in a Coordinated Investigation Programme for the International Heliophysical Year. This paper describes both the macrostructure and the fluctuations at small scales of this event. We find that soon after detecting the same fast stream, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observed a change of magnetic polarity being the interplanetary current sheet located between the orbits of the two spacecraft. Moreover, we observe that the compression region formed in front of the fast stream detected at ACE's location evolves in a fast forward shock at Ulysses' orbit. On the other hand, small-scale analysis shows that turbulence is evolving. The presence of a shift of the frequency break separating the injection range from the inertial range toward lower frequencies while distance increases is a clear indication that nonlinear interactions are at work. Moreover, we observe that intermittency, as measured by the flatness factor, increases with distance. This study confirms previous analyses performed using Helios observations of the same fast wind streams at different heliocentric distances, allowing us to relax about the hypothesis of the stationarity of the source regions adopted in previous studies. Consequently, any difference noticed in the solar wind parameters would be ascribed to radial (time) evolution.

  11. Stream velocity and dispersion characteristics determined by dye-tracer studies on selected stream reaches in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.

    1995-01-01

    Dye-tracer analyses were done in the Willamette River and nine tributaries of the Willamette River, from April 1992 to July 1993 during low to medium stream discharge conditions, to determine velocity and dispersion. These dye-tracer analyses provided information on time of arrival, peak concentration, and the occurrence and longevity of a constituent dissolved in streamflow at various discharges. The time of travel of the peak and leading and trailing edge of the dye cloud were determined for each stream segment and were related to discharge at an index location in each stream. On the basis of the dye-tracer measurements, an equation was developed to estimate the velocity of the peak of a solute cloud for unmeasured streams. The results of the dyetracer study on the Willamette River from river mile 161.2 to river mile 138.3 were compared with a previous study of the same river reach. The results of the comparison indicate that, since 1968, the discharge velocity relation has not changed in the streamflow range observed in this study. In order to identify dyedispersion characteristics of a conservative solute in each stream segment, a relation was developed between the elapsed time from injection to the unit-peak concentration of dye measured at each sampling location. A general equation was developed to estimate the peak concentration of dye at a given elapsed time. Channel characteristics and streamflow magnitude are known to effect dye dispersion; however, comparison of streams with apparently similar characteristics resulted in different unit-peak concentration values at various times after dye injection.

  12. Lateral inflows, stream-groundwater exchange, and network geometry influence stream water composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallard, John; McGlynn, Brian; Covino, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The role of stream networks and their hydrologic interaction with hillslopes and shallow groundwater in modifying and transporting watershed signals is an area of active research. One of the primary ways that stream networks can modify watershed signals is through spatially variable stream gains and losses, described herein as hydrologic turnover. We measured hydrologic gain and loss at the reach scale using tracer experiments throughout the Bull Trout watershed in the Sawtooth Mountains of Idaho. We extended the results of reach scale experiments to the stream network using empirical relationships between (1) watershed area and stream discharge and (2) stream discharge and percent stream water loss to the groundwater system. We thus incorporate linkages between (1) hillslopes and stream networks via lateral inflows and (2) stream networks and shallow groundwater via hydrologic exchange. We implemented these relationships within a concise analytical framework to simulate hydrologic turnover across stream networks and estimate the variable influence exerted by upstream reaches and streamflow source locations on stream water composition across stream networks. Application to six natural Sawtooth watersheds and seven synthetic watersheds with varying topographic structure and stream network geometry indicated that contributions to discharge from any upstream source depend on the magnitude of the initial input, but also on the distribution of hydrologic turnover occurring along the stream network. The evolution of stream water source compositions along stream networks was unique in each watershed due to the combination of watershed structure and stream network geometry. Our results suggest that a distributed representation of hydrologic turnover at the stream network scale can improve understanding of how the stream network can modify source water compositions along the stream.

  13. Floods of August 21-24, 2007, in Northwestern and North-Central Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, David E.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Astifan, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy rains in northwestern and north-central Ohio on August 19-22, 2007, caused severe flooding and widespread damages to residential, public, and commercial structures in the communities of Bluffton, Bucyrus, Carey, Columbus Grove, Crestline, Findlay, Mansfield, Ottawa, and Shelby. On August 27, 2007, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued a notice of a Presidential declaration of a major disaster affecting Allen, Crawford, Hancock, Hardin, Putnam, Richland, Seneca, and Wyandot Counties as a result of the severe flooding. Rainfall totals for most of the flooded area were 3 to 5 in., with some locations reporting as much as 8 to 10 in. Three National Weather Service (NWS) gages in the area indicated a rainfall recurrence interval of greater than 1,000 years, and two indicated a recurrence interval between 500 and 1,000 years. Total damages are estimated at approximately $290 million, with 8,205 residences registering for financial assistance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) computed flood recurrence intervals for peak streamflows at 22 streamgages and 8 ungaged sites in and around the area of major flooding. The peak streamflows at Sandusky River near Bucyrus streamgage and at seven of the eight ungaged sites had estimated recurrence intervals of greater than 500 years. The USGS located and surveyed 421 high-water marks and plotted high-water profiles for approximately 44.5 miles of streams throughout the nine communities.

  14. 78 FR 47675 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force; Cancellation of August 6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Advisory Committee Meeting; cancellation. SUMMARY: On Wednesday, July 31, 2013 (78 FR 46329), the... the August 6, 2013 meeting with a future meeting. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Marcia...

  15. Providing a USSD location based clinic finder in South Africa: did it work?

    PubMed

    Parsons, Annie Neo; Timler, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    A new mHealth service, Clinic Finder, was designed to provide a location-based service for any cellphone user in South Africa dialing a dedicated USSD string to find the nearest public primary health care facility. The service was funded by a European Union grant to Cell-Life to support the National Department of Health. Clinic Finder's aims were to provide a reliable and accurate service, and to assess both the most effective means of advertising the service as well as interest in the service. Users dialing the USSD string are asked to agree to geo-location (Vodacom and MTN users) or asked to enter their province, town and street (virtual network users and those choosing not to geo-locate). The service provider, AAT, sends the data to Cell-Life where an SMS with details of the nearest public primary health care facility is sent to the user by Cell-Life's open-source Communicate platform. The service was advertised on 3 days in 2014 using two different means: a newspaper ad on 20 May 2014 and Please Call Me ads on 30 July 2014 and 14 August 2014. 28.2% of unique users on 20 May 2014, 10.5% of unique users on 30 July 2014 and 92.8% of unique users on 14 August 2014 who agreed to geo-location successfully received SMSs. However, only 4.2%, 0.5%, and 2.4% of unique users responding to each advertisement who did not geo-locate then received an SMS. A small survey of users following the 20 May 2014 newspaper ad found overall interest in the idea of Clinic Finder, though unsuccessful users were more likely to dislike the service. The overall experience of using location based services and USSD for Clinic Finder suggests a need in the field of mHealth for wider availability of data on service usability and effectiveness. PMID:25365670

  16. Spatial and seasonal variations of groundwater upwelling zones in Stream Elverdamsåen using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheswaran, K.; Blemmer, M.; Thorn, P.; Rosbjerg, D.; Boegh, E.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations in groundwater upwelling zones form a vital component of hydrological pathways influencing the temperature regimes of a riverine ecosystem necessitating observations at scales finer than the conventional point based measurements over wide array of hydrological conditions. This study presents the dynamic behavior of groundwater fluxes entering within a study reach of a Danish lowland stream in three distinct hydrological settings using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system. High resolution DTS data have been used to identify and map the spatial and seasonal variability of groundwater upwelling zones in a Danish lowland stream 'Elverdamsåen'. An Agilent DTS unit (N4386A) was established in a 1.8 km study reach of Stream Elverdamsåen, Denmark with the fiber optic cable installed along the sediment - water interface to locate groundwater upwelling zones over three distinct hydrological settings comprising August 2010, November 2010 and May 2011. The resultant stream bed temperature data revealed presence of 16 colder anomalies in August 2010, 16 warmer anomalies in November 2010 and 19 colder anomalies in May 2011 dataset within the study reach indicating locations of groundwater upwelling from the stream bed. Of all the identified interactions, two interactions identified at 1093 m and 1201 m were present in all three hydrological settings from August 2010 to May 2011 and two interactions identified at 1412 m and 1515 m were known to contribute throughout the study period in spite of being observed only in May 2011. These four perennial interactions were considered to be a part of regional scale interactions with contributions from glacial outwash sand deposits through fissures and fractures underlying the unconfined glacial moraine clay. This study examined the capability of the DTS system to detect signals of inflow sources based on the variable hydrological settings encountered over three seasons from August 2010 to May 2011

  17. The Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, David R.; Majewski, Steven R.

    The Milky Way's prominent and widely studied Sagittarius (Sgr) dSph tidal stream has proven a valuable tool for exploring a number of problems in galactic astronomy. In this review of the Sgr system, we present a descriptive portrait of the most salient and unambiguous observational properties (e.g., location, radial velocity, proper motion, and chemical composition) of the Sgr core and tidal streams as they are presently known. We discuss how the history of these observations has shaped the development of numerical models of the system over time, and some of the major conclusions that have been drawn from such modeling efforts with regard to the size and shape of the Milky Way's gravitational potential and the patterns of enrichment throughout its stellar halo. Finally, we summarize some of the known failings of the present models, which we lay out as a challenge for future progress on understanding this remarkable and fortuitous example of hierarchical galaxy growth via merging in action.

  18. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin-flood of June 18 through August 4, 1993, in Des Moines and vicinity, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    1996-01-01

    This hydrologic investigations atlas shows the areas in and near Des Moines, Iowa, that were flooded by the Des Moines and the Raccoon Rivers and Walnut, Fourmile, and Beaver Creeks from June 18 through August 4, 1993. This map also depicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood boundaries. The area drained by the Des Moines River upstream from Des Moines received more than 100 percent of normal rainfall in May, June, and July, 1993. At Boone, which is located about 35 miles north-northeast of Des Moines, July rainfall was 424 percent of normal. The discharges at streamflow- gaging stations on the Des Moines River near Stratford, downstream from Saylorville Lake, and at Des Moines are shown. The cumulative discharge for inflow-gaging stations in the Des Moines area and discharge for the Des Moines River below the Raccoon River at Des Moines from July 8 through 21, 1993, are shown. The water-surface elevations of Saylorville Lake from June 18 through August 4, 1993, are shown. Profiles of the maximum water- surface elevations of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers during the 1993 flood in Des Moines and vicinity are higher than the respective Federal Emergency Management Agency 100- and 500-year flood profiles.

  19. Why July Matters.

    PubMed

    Petrilli, Christopher M; Del Valle, John; Chopra, Vineet

    2016-07-01

    Each July, new graduates from premedical, medical, and residency programs, along with junior and midcareer faculty, acclimatize to their changing roles. During this month, overall efficiency, quality, and patient safety may suffer, a problem dubbed the "July effect." The many transitions that occur in teaching hospitals during July are often implicated as the root cause of this problem. The question, then, of how best to improve the team-based clinical care provided in July remains important. In this Commentary, the authors outline a model that combines the team-based care paradigm with effective leadership, followership, and communication-based strategies and propose some actionable steps.A key first step to enhancing patient safety in July is improving effective leadership through use of a select group of attendings whose teaching style empowers learners within a framework of close supervision. Second, programmatic efforts to pair these leaders with good followers are needed. Senior residents in July should be selected on their ability to mentor, guide, and support interns. Third, a system of free-flowing, bidirectional communication must be nurtured to ensure optimal outcomes. Adapting strategies from the airlines (e.g., interdisciplinary conferences to discuss optimal patient care approaches; checklists for daily activities such as sign-outs; directed feedback and debriefing techniques emphasizing actionable areas for improvement) is promising and worth studying.Available data suggest that the "July effect" is real. Developing new and exploring existing approaches for allaying this phenomenon are important areas of further investigation. PMID:27119323

  20. Rapid dike intrusion into Sakurajima volcano on August 15, 2015, as detected by multi-parameter ground deformation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Kohei; Iguchi, Masato; Tameguri, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of ground deformation at Sakurajima in August 2015 and model the deformation using a combination of GNSS, tilt and strain data in order to interpret a rapid deformation event on August 15, 2015. The pattern of horizontal displacement during the period from August 14 to 16, 2015, shows a WNW-ESE extension, which suggests the opening of a dike. Using a genetic algorithm, we obtained the position, dip, strike length, width and opening of a dislocation source based on the combined data. A nearly vertical dike with a NNE-SSW strike was found at a depth of 1.0 km below sea level beneath the Showa crater. The length and width are 2.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, and a dike opening of 1.97 m yields a volume increase of 2.7 × 106 m3. 887 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes beside the dike suggest that the rapid opening of the dike caused an accumulation of strain in the surrounding rocks, and the VT earthquakes were generated to release this strain. Half of the total amount of deformation was concentrated between 10:27 and 11:54 on August 15. It is estimated that the magma intrusion rate was 1 × 106 m3/h during this period. This is 200 times larger than the magma intrusion rate prior to one of the biggest eruptions at the summit crater of Minami-dake on July 24, 2012, and 2200 times larger than the average magma intrusion rate during the period from October 2011 to March 2012. The previous Mogi-type ground deformation is considered to be a process of magma accumulation in preexisting spherical reservoirs. Conversely, the August 2015 event was a dike intrusion and occurred in a different location to the preexisting reservoirs. The direction of the opening of the dike coincides with the T-axes and direction of faults creating a graben structure.

  1. Earth Reconnect -- July 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    A visualization of Earth's magnetosphere on July 15-16, 2012, shows how constant magnetic reconnection caused by an arriving coronal mass ejection, or CME, from the sun disrupted the magnetosphere,...

  2. River restoration and biocoenoses improvement in two streams renaturated using bioengeneering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, B.; Forasacco, E.; Dobner, R.; Cotta Ramusino, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Bioengineering is a constructive discipline having its own technical, ecological and environmental friendly scopes, by using living materials. The aim of this study is to assess the river restoration efficiency of Bioengineering. The basic goals of many management-concepts are the integrity of the river habitat, self-regulation and self-regeneration, the preservation of intact resources, to recreate the uniqueness, diversity and beauty of natural river landscape. From an ecological point of view the richness, diversity and age composition of the populations developing after restoration as a result of habitat improvement reveal the degree to which comprehensive concepts were applied (Jungwirth et al., 1995). The following results summarised an investigation on streams Boesio and Rancina in Valcuvia, (Varese, Northern Italy). These streams are characterised by human impacts like water pollution, river engineering and river bioengineering (palificata doppia viva). The samples of macrobenthic fauna were collected between August 2000 and July 2001 in 4 stations for each stream, where the 3rd station of Boesio and Rancina streams is characterised by bioengeneering measure, using a Surber sampler (0.125 m2, mesh size 0.45 mm). The zoobenthic communities of these pre-alpine streams are characterised by low richness and diversity and few families and genera were predominant. In Rancina stream, Ephemeroptera (genus Baetis), Trichoptera (families Hydropsychidae, Limnephilidae and Rhyacophilidae) and Diptera (families Chironomidae and Simuliidae) are present throughout the year with significant densities. The faunal composition of Boesio stream is similar. It differs, only, from stream Rancina to costant presence of Plecoptera with genus Leuctra. To evaluate the restoration of environmental quality two indices were applied: Indice Biotico Esteso (I.B.E.- Ghetti, 1995); Indice di Funzionalità Fluviale (I.F.F.- Siligardi, 2000). The E.B.I. scores of Boesio stream indicate

  3. Monthly energy review, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    US total energy consumption in July 1990 was 6.7 quadrillion Btu Petroleum products accounted for 42 percent of the energy consumed in July 1990, while coal accounted for 26 percent and natural gas accounted for 19 percent. Residential and commercial sector consumption was 2.3 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector accounted for 35 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Industrial sector consumption was 2.4 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The industrial sector accounted for 36 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Transportation sector consumption of energy was 1.9 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 1 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector consumed 29 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Electric utility consumption of energy totaled 2.8 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. Coal contributed 53 percent of the energy consumed by electric utilities in July 1990, while nuclear electric power contributed 21 percent; natural gas, 12 percent; hydroelectric power, 9 percent; petroleum, 5 percent; and wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy, about 1 percent.

  4. Eldercare Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... page content Skip Navigation Department of Health and Human Services Your Browser ... Welcome to the Eldercare Locator, a public service of the U.S. Administration on Aging connecting you to services for older ...

  5. Semi-annual sampling of Fourmile Branch and its seeplines in the F and H Areas of SRS: July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1994-04-01

    In July 1992, water samples were collected from Fourmile Branch (FMB) and its seeplines in the vicinity of the F and H-Area seepage basins. The samples were collected from five seepline locations in F Area, five seepline locations in H Area, and three stream locations on FMB. The sampling event was the first in a series of three semi-annual sampling event was the first in a series of three semi-annual sampling events aimed at characterizing the shallow groundwater outcropping into FMB and its wetlands. In the past, this groundwater has been shown to contain contaminants migrating from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. The samples were analyzed for Appendix 9 metals, various radionuclides, selected volatile compounds, and selected inorganic constituents and parameters. Results from the July 1992 sampling event suggest that the seeplines in both F and H Areas and FMB continue to be influenced by contaminants migrating from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. However, when compared to 1989 measurements, the concentrations of most of the constituents have declined. Contaminant concentration measured in July 1992 were compared to primary drinking water standards (PDWS), secondary drinking water standards (SDWS), and maximum contaminant levels (MCL) enforceable in 1993. Results were also compared to 1989 measurements at corresponding sampling locations and to background samples collected as part of the July 1992 sampling event. Using two different statistical tests, concentrations of selected F- and H-Area seepline analytes were compared to background samples. These tests were designed to detect if concentrations of contaminants along the F- and H-Area seeplines were greater than background concentrations.

  6. Comparison of visual survey and seining methods for estimating abundance of an endangered, benthic stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, F.; Jelks, H.L.; Bortone, S.A.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    We compared visual survey and seining methods for estimating abundance of endangered Okaloosa darters, Etheostoma okaloosae, in 12 replicate stream reaches during August 2001. For each 20-m stream reach, two divers systematically located and marked the position of darters and then a second crew of three to five people came through with a small-mesh seine and exhaustively sampled the same area. Visual surveys required little extra time to complete. Visual counts (24.2 ?? 12.0; mean ?? one SD) considerably exceeded seine captures (7.4 ?? 4.8), and counts from the two methods were uncorrelated. Visual surveys, but not seines, detected the presence of Okaloosa darters at one site with low population densities. In 2003, we performed a depletion removal study in 10 replicate stream reaches to assess the accuracy of the visual survey method. Visual surveys detected 59% of Okaloosa darters present, and visual counts and removal estimates were positively correlated. Taken together, our comparisons indicate that visual surveys more accurately and precisely estimate abundance of Okaloosa darters than seining and more reliably detect presence at low population densities. We recommend evaluation of visual survey methods when designing programs to monitor abundance of benthic fishes in clear streams, especially for threatened and endangered species that may be sensitive to handling and habitat disturbance. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  7. Meiofauna Responses to Mechanical Disturbances in Stream Mesocosms on the Illinois River, Arkansas (U. S. A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. V.; Reese, R. A.

    2005-05-01

    Benthic meiofauna responses to mechanical disturbance of the substrate was studied in August, 2003 on the Illinois River, Arkansas, (U. S. A.) in stream mesocosms. The Illinois River is a gravel/bed, riffle/pool stream located in the Ozark Highlands. Three levels of disturbance (undisturbed, moderate/frequent, and severe/infrequent) were assigned randomly to twelve stream mesocosms. After 18 days, substrate samples were taken from each mesocosm using a core sampler. Planktonic and natural stream bed samples were taken every third day during the study to identify potential colonizers and to serve as a reference. Within the mesocosms, four of the 17 taxa found and total density of meiofauna L-1 of substrate were significantly different between treatments with the undisturbed channels having higher densities than the severe/ frequent treatment. Total meiofauna densities L-1 in the undisturbed treatment, 4471.9 ± 1308 (2 s. e.), were significantly higher than either of the other treatment levels (F = 15.43, P = 0.001). Chironomidae and Ephemeroptera were numerically dominant in undisturbed channels but both were significantly reduced by the treatments (F = 12.28, P = 0.003; F = 61.22, P < 0.000 respectively). Shannon's diversity index ('H) was highest in the moderate/frequent treatment reflecting the increase in evenness.

  8. Gulf Stream marine hydrokinetic energy resource characterization off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglia, M.; He, R.; Lowcher, C.; Bane, J.; Gong, Y.; Taylor, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf Stream off North Carolina has current velocities that approach 3 m/s and an average volume transport of 90 Sv (1 Sv= 106 m3/s) off of Cape Hatteras, making it the most abundant MHK (Marine Hydrokinetic Energy) resource for the state. Resource availability at a specific location depends primarily on the variability in Gulf Stream position, which is least offshore of Cape Hatteras after the stream exits the Florida Straits. Proximity to land and high current velocities in relatively shallow waters on the shelf slope make this an optimal location to quantify the MHK energy resource for NC. 3.5 years of current measurements beginning in August of 2013 from a moored 150 kHz ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at an optimal location for energy extraction quantify the available energy resource and its variability, and establish the skill of a Mid-Atlantic Bight and South Atlantic Bight Regional Ocean Model in predicting the MHK energy resource. The model agrees well with long-term observed current averages and with weekly to monthly fluctuations in the current speeds. Model and observations over the first 9 months of the ADCP deployment period both averaged 1.15 m/s thirty meters below the surface. The model under estimates observed current speeds for the higher frequency current fluctuations of days to weeks. Comparisons between the model and ADCP observed currents, and velocity derived power density over the entire 3.5 years of observations demonstrate the significant inter-annual variability in power density. Shipboard 300 kHz ADCP cross-stream transects and hourly surface currents measurements off Cape Hatteras from a network of land based HF (high frequency) radars further quantify available MHK energy and assess model skill. Cross-stream transects were made with a vessel-mounted 300 kHz ADCP on a line from the 100-1000m isobaths, and measured currents in the top 100m. These measurements demonstrate the variability in the resource with water depth, and

  9. 20. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION III, LOOKING SOUTH, AUGUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION III, LOOKING SOUTH, AUGUST OR SEPTEMBER 1900, FOLLOWING A MAJOR BANK SLIDE. SLIDES LIKE THIS ONE WERE FAIRLY FREQUENT FOLLOWING RAIN STORMS BEFORE THE CANAL WALLS WERE TIMBER LINED IN THE EARTH SECTIONS. (64) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (hhh) 5- MILE STONE, 879 BLUE HILL AVE., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (iii) 6- MILE STONE, opp. 1280 BLUE HILL AVE., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (ppp) 7- MILE STONE, 1411 BLUE HILL AVE., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 9, 1940 (a) 4- MILE STONE, POND ST., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (e) 6- MILE STONE, POND ST., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 232. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'CLERK'S HOUSE, QUINCY MINE, 1890.' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    232. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'CLERK'S HOUSE, QUINCY MINE, 1890.' FRONT ELEVATION, FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS. LOCATED ON LOT SOUTH OF QMC MINING OFFICE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 16, 1940 (k) 8- MILE STONE, 741 CANTON AVE., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  17. 233. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'PLANS AND ELEVATIONS OF DOCTOR'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    233. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'PLANS AND ELEVATIONS OF DOCTOR'S HOUSE. QUINCY MINE. AUG. 1901.' ILLUSTRATES ALTERATIONS TO AN EXISTING BUILDING. LOCATED WEST SIDE OF ROUTE 41, SOUTH OF QMC OFFICE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  18. 273. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'DISPENSARY, AUG. 29, 1921.' FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    273. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) 'DISPENSARY, AUG. 29, 1921.' FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS. DRAWN FROM THREE EARLIER DRAWINGS, 1917-21. LOCATED WEST OF ROUTE 41, BEHIND DOCTOR'S HOUSE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  19. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (b) 7- MILE STONE, opp. 1040 ADAMS ST., DORCHESTER - Milestones A, B, E, HHH, III & PPP, Various Dorchester locations, Dorchester, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, July 19, 1935. FRONT AND SIDE VIEW (WEST FRONT) - Seale-Mosley House, County Road 40 (moved from original location), Peachburg, Bullock County, AL

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 8, 1940 (ff) 4- MILE STONE, opp. 862 HUNTINGTON AVE., ROXBURY - Milestones D, Y, Z, AA, BB, FF & NN, Various Roxbury locations, Roxbury, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (d) 4- MILE STONE, 471 BLUE HILL AVE., ROXBURY - Milestones D, Y, Z, AA, BB, FF & NN, Various Roxbury locations, Roxbury, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 8, 1940 (bb) 6- MILE STONE, CENTRE ST., opp. ALLANDALE ST., ROXBURY - Milestones D, Y, Z, AA, BB, FF & NN, Various Roxbury locations, Roxbury, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 8, 1940 (aa) 5- MILE STONE, CENTRE & SOUTH STS., ROXBURY - Milestones D, Y, Z, AA, BB, FF & NN, Various Roxbury locations, Roxbury, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (rrr) BOSTON-ROXBURY BOUNDARY STONE, 2000 WASHINGTON ST., BOSTON LOOKING NORTHWEST - Boundary Stones QQQ, RRR, SSS, & TTT, Various Boston locations, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 23, 1940 (sss) BOSTON-ROXBURY BOUNDARY STONE, NAWN ST., BOSTON - Boundary Stones QQQ, RRR, SSS, & TTT, Various Boston locations, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (qqq) BOSTON-ROXBURY BOUNDARY STONE, 2000 WASHINGTON ST., BOSTON LOOKING SOUTH - Boundary Stones QQQ, RRR, SSS, & TTT, Various Boston locations, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 10, 1940 (g) 8- MILE STONE, ADAMS ST., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (kkk) 8- MILE STONE, BLUE HILL AVE., opp. ANNAPOLIS RD., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (fff) 7- MILE STONE, RANDOLPH AVE., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (jjj) 7- MILE STONE, BLUE HILL AVE., opp. CURTIS RD., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  12. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (mmm) 10-MILE STONE, 1399 BLUE HILL AVE., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  13. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (lll) 9- MILE STONE, BLUE HILL AVE. near ATHERTON ST., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  14. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 10, 1940 (c0 8- MILE STONE, 224 ADAMS ST., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 10, 1940 (f) 7- MILE STONE, 247 ADAMS ST., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  16. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, July 19, 1935. WINDOW TREATMENT IN S.W. ROOM - Seale-Mosley House, County Road 40 (moved from original location), Peachburg, Bullock County, AL

  17. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, July 19, 1935. MANTEL IN N. W. ROOM. - Seale-Mosley House, County Road 40 (moved from original location), Peachburg, Bullock County, AL

  18. Applicability of hydromorphological monitoring data to locate flood risk reduction measures: Blanice River basin, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Jakub

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a new methodological approach, using hydromorphological monitoring data from river networks, to identify stream elements that may negatively influence the course of floods, as well as elements suitable for modifications that will reinforce the natural retention potential of the floodplain. The approach uses data derived from hydromorphological monitoring that conforms to the EN 14614 standard "Water quality--Guidance standard for assessing the hydromorphological features of rivers." Four major aspects of stream modifications that can potentially affect the course and consequences of floods, and that can be derived from hydromorphological monitoring, were identified. These are: (1) modifications that increase the speed of runoff, (2) modifications that restrict the retention potential of the floodplain, (3) potential obstacles to the flood course, and (4) improper alterations of stream route modifications. A GIS is used to identify and locate these critical aspects of stream and floodplain modification. This method was applied in the Blanice River basin, an area in central Europe hit by a severe flood in August 2002. The critical modifications identified were compared with geomorphological mapping to display the different effects of individual types of modifications. PMID:18521715

  19. Stream Temperature Variability as an Indicator of Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Two Groundwater-Fed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, M.; Allen, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water temperature can be a useful tool in assessing the nature and the locations of groundwater - surface water interactions, particularly during low flow periods. In this study, a network of forty calibrated temperature (TidBit) loggers was installed in two groundwater-fed streams (Fishtrap and Bertrand Creeks) in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia and northern Washington State. These streams have precipitation-driven flow regimes and are presumed to be sustained by baseflow during the annual low-flow period which lags minimum precipitation by approximately one month. In these particular streams, understanding groundwater-surface water interactions has been identified data gap in the development of recovery strategies for maintaining ecosystem health and habitat for two endangered fish species, the Nooksack Dace and Salish Sucker. From July 2008 to June 2009, stream temperature and discharge, groundwater temperature and level, and climate were monitored consecutively over two low-flow seasons with the objective of quantifying the spatial and temporal variability within each stream, as well as differences and trends between the streams. The temperature logger networks were installed over 50 m of channel or less at one site on each stream, as well as at two additional sites on Fishtrap Creek for regional coverage. Within each stream, the network of temperature loggers showed the variability in water temperature over a short distance of the channel. In Fishtrap Creek, among 15 dataloggers, the mean variability was 1.3oC, and in Bertrand Creek, among 19 dataloggers, the mean variability was 0.7oC. Fishtrap Creek water temperature ranged from 0.4oC to 17.6oC, showing less variability than Bertrand Creek, which ranged from -0.1oC to 20.8oC. The groundwater temperatures remained relatively stable throughout the year and ranged from 10.1oC to 12.0oC. Fishtrap Creek water temperature patterns were generally stable and mimicked groundwater temperature variations

  20. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  1. Floods of August 1967 in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Meckel, James P.; Anderson, Gary S.

    1972-01-01

    East-central Alaska had record floods near Fairbanks following extensive rains of August 8-20, 1967. Precipitation during this period totaled as much as 10 inches, which is close to the average annual precipitation for this area. The most extensive flooding occurred in the White Mountains northeast of Fairbanks and along the major streams draining those mountains. Some of the major streams flooded were the Salcha, Chena, Chatanika, Tolovana, and lower Tanana Rivers, and Birch Creek west of Circle. Peak discharges on some streams in the flood area were from two to four times the probable 50-year flood. The peak discharge of 74,400 cubic feet per second of the Chena River at Fairbanks, from 1,980 square miles of drainage area, was 2.6 times the 50-year flood. The rise of ground-water levels in the Tanana River flood plain to the land surface during the flood caused foundation failures and prevented drainage of subsurface structures. Above-normal ground-water levels existed until the middle of September. Total flood damage was estimated in excess of $85 million. Six lives were reported lost, and about 12,000 persons were evacuated during the flood. This report has been prepared to furnish hydrologic data for development planning. Included are discussions of antecedent streamflow, meteorology of the storm, descriptions of floods, flood damage, flood frequency, ground-water conditions, and stages and discharges of major streams for August 1967.

  2. What's Happening in July?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet provides brief information on eight July events: Independence Day; The Patron Saint Festivals and the Festival of Loiza, celebrated by Puerto Ricans; and the birthdays of P. T. Barnum, Elias Howe, John Quincy Adams, Luis Munoz Rivera, and Simon Bolivar. Information is provided on the Declaration of…

  3. Meteoroid streams and comet disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the statistical analysis of the dynamic parameters of 114 comets that have undergone nuclear splitting are presented in the article. The list of the objects contains: comets that have split in the period of the observation; data of twin-comets; lost comets with designation D; comets with large-scale structure in the coma. We will describe these comets as "splitted". Some aspects of the following hypothesis are studied: disintegration of comet nuclei happens as the result of their collision with meteoroid streams. For the verification of this hypothesis, the position of splitted comet orbits relatively to 125 meteor streams from Kronk's list is analyzed. It was found that the total number of comet orbit nodes located close to the meteor stream planes (for the distances up to 0.1 AU) is N = 1041. It is shown that if these comets are replaced by randomly selected different comets, N will be reduced by a factor of approximately three.

  4. A revised logistic regression equation and an automated procedure for mapping the probability of a stream flowing perennially in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bent, Gardner C.; Steeves, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    A revised logistic regression equation and an automated procedure were developed for mapping the probability of a stream flowing perennially in Massachusetts. The equation provides city and town conservation commissions and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection a method for assessing whether streams are intermittent or perennial at a specific site in Massachusetts by estimating the probability of a stream flowing perennially at that site. This information could assist the environmental agencies who administer the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act of 1996, which establishes a 200-foot-wide protected riverfront area extending from the mean annual high-water line along each side of a perennial stream, with exceptions for some urban areas. The equation was developed by relating the observed intermittent or perennial status of a stream site to selected basin characteristics of naturally flowing streams (defined as having no regulation by dams, surface-water withdrawals, ground-water withdrawals, diversion, wastewater discharge, and so forth) in Massachusetts. This revised equation differs from the equation developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in that it is solely based on visual observations of the intermittent or perennial status of stream sites across Massachusetts and on the evaluation of several additional basin and land-use characteristics as potential explanatory variables in the logistic regression analysis. The revised equation estimated more accurately the intermittent or perennial status of the observed stream sites than the equation from the previous study. Stream sites used in the analysis were identified as intermittent or perennial based on visual observation during low-flow periods from late July through early September 2001. The database of intermittent and perennial streams included a total of 351 naturally flowing (no regulation) sites, of which 85 were observed to be intermittent and 266 perennial

  5. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation.

  6. Aerosol Monosaccharide Anhydrides as Tracer Species for Identifying Wildfire Smoke Transport to California's Central Valley in August 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhyankar, M. S.; Dixon, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    The Biscuit fire burned close to 2,000 km2 of forested land in southwestern Oregon in July and August, 2002. August, 2002 also was a time in which PM2.5 concentrations were higher than typical in California Central Valley cities located several hundred kilometers to the southeast. The concentrations of two monosaccharide anhydrides, levoglucosan and mannosan, were measured in aerosol samples collected at four California Air Resource Board sites in Central Valley cities for the purpose of determining how the wildfire smoke affected air quality. Levoglucosan concentrations ranged from the detection limit of 18 ng m-3 to about 400 ng m-3. While days with high levoglucosan concentrations generally had above average to high PM2.5 concentrations, there were also days with high PM2.5 concentrations with low levoglucosan concentrations. Although mannosan was only detected in a small number of samples, the levoglucosan to mannosan ratios in these samples were consistent with smoke from softwood combustion. A wildfire source levoglucosan to PM2.5 concentration ratio was used to estimate the PM2.5 concentration originating from smoke. From this method, smoke was found to be a significant (greater than 10% of the total PM2.5 concentration) on occassions. The estimated smoke PM2.5 concentration always remained less than 10 μg m-3 and contributed to less than a third of the total PM2.5 concentration. Because the PM2.5 concentrations were higher than typical August values, either there were other factors leading to high PM2.5 concentrations in August 2002, or the smoke estimation method underestimated the smoke concentration.

  7. 30. Photocopied August 1978. LOWER INTAKE, AUGUST 1, 1902. WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopied August 1978. LOWER INTAKE, AUGUST 1, 1902. WATER WAS FIRST ADMITTED FROM THE ST. MARY'S INTO THE CANAL BY DIGGING A CHANNEL THROUGH THE UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM SHOWN IN THE CENTER A FEW BAYS LATER. THE LAND SHOWN BEHIND THE RETAINING CRIBS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE CANAL WAS RECLAIMED FROM ASHMUN BAY WITH MATERIAL EXCAVATED FROM THE CANAL. (270) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  8. Key stream/sediment exchanges of water and heat near stream mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J. E.; Naranjo, R. C.; Niswonger, R. G.; Neilson, B. T.; Allander, K.; Zamora, C.; Smith, D. W.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The section of stream discharging to a lake or other surface-water body is referred to as the stream mouth, a stream reach with rapidly changing hydrologic conditions, leading to unique aquatic and benthic ecology, as well as a visibly active fishery habitat. Of environmental significance, bridges, control structures, channelization and foot traffic are common near stream mouths, warranting comparisons of natural and channelized stream mouths. The present work completes the first investigation focusing specifically on the hydrology of surface-water/sediment exchanges at stream-mouth reaches discharging to lakes and compares these exchanges to those measured along the nearby shoreline in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. Heat and water exchanges for two common types of stream mouths (a natural stream with a summer barrier bar and a channelized stream mouth) are compared with comparable exchanges along the nearby shoreline on the north shore of Lake Tahoe located in the Central Sierra Nevada Mountain Range (CA/NV, US). The study site was selected partially due the abundance of streams discharging into the lake of both a natural and channelized nature (~30 small streams with a large number of both types of stream mouths). Heat and water exchanges were both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct for the three types of hydrologic settings, with (1) cool, low velocity, longitudinal (hyporheic) flowpaths observed below the channelized stream mouth, discharging beneath the warmer, more buoyant lakeshore water, (2) the nearby shoreline receiving relatively warm, higher velocity discharge and (3) for the natural stream mouth, there was strong diurnal temperature pattern in groundwater discharging through the seasonal barrier beach to the lake. Impacts of strong 2013 wave action on exchanges were also distinct for the three settings, with (1) channelization allowing waves to extend well upstream, (2) a lesser invasive impact in the shoreline swash zone exchanges

  9. Stream-subsurface nutrient dynamics in a groundwater-fed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Niederkorn, A.; Parsons, C. T.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2015-12-01

    The stream-riparian-aquifer interface plays a major role in the regional flow of nutrients and contaminants due to a strong physical-chemical gradient that promotes the transformation, retention, elimination or release of biogenic elements. To better understand the effect of the near-stream zones on stream biogeochemistry, we conducted a field study on a groundwater-fed stream located in the rare Charitable Research Reserve, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. This study focused on monitoring the spatial and temporal distributions of nutrient elements within the riparian and hyporheic zones of the stream. Several piezometer nests and a series of passive (diffusion) water samplers, known as peepers, were installed along longitudinal and lateral transects centered on the stream to obtain data on the groundwater chemistry. Groundwater upwelling along the stream resulted in distinctly different groundwater types and associated nitrate concentrations between small distances in the riparian zone (<4m). After the upstream source of the stream surface water, concentrations of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, SO42- and carbon) did not significantly change before the downstream outlet. Although reduction of nitrate and sulphate were found in the riparian zone of the stream, this did not significantly influence the chemistry of the adjacent stream water. Also, minimal retention in the hyporheic zones limited reduction of reactive compounds (NO3- and SO42-) within the stream channel. The results showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and residence time of water in the hyporheic zone and in surface water limited denitrification.

  10. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 497, January 1986. Part 2: (Comprehensive reports). Data for July 1985, and miscellanea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Solar-Geophysical Data Number 497, January 1986. Part 2: (Comprehensive Reports); Data for July 1985, and Miscellanea contains the following: a detailed index for 1985; data for July 1985-(solar flares, solar radio bursts at fixed frequencies, solar x-ray radiation from GOES satellite, mass ejections from the sun, active prominences and filaments); and miscellaneous data-(Meudon carte synoptique 16 April - 13 May 1985, number of solar flares August 1966 - July 1985).

  11. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  12. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1998-08-14

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities.

  13. Adjoint simulation of stream depletion due to aquifer pumping.

    PubMed

    Neupauer, Roseanna M; Griebling, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    If an aquifer is hydraulically connected to an adjacent stream, a pumping well operating in the aquifer will draw some water from aquifer storage and some water from the stream, causing stream depletion. Several analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical approaches have been developed to estimate stream depletion due to pumping. These approaches are effective if the well location is known. If a new well is to be installed, it may be desirable to install the well at a location where stream depletion is minimal. If several possible locations are considered for the location of a new well, stream depletion would have to be estimated for all possible well locations, which can be computationally inefficient. The adjoint approach for estimating stream depletion is a more efficient alternative because with one simulation of the adjoint model, stream depletion can be estimated for pumping at a well at any location. We derive the adjoint equations for a coupled system with a confined aquifer, an overlying unconfined aquifer, and a river that is hydraulically connected to the unconfined aquifer. We assume that the stage in the river is known, and is independent of the stream depletion, consistent with the assumptions of the MODFLOW river package. We describe how the adjoint equations can be solved using MODFLOW. In an illustrative example, we show that for this scenario, the adjoint approach is as accurate as standard forward numerical simulation methods, and requires substantially less computational effort. PMID:22182421

  14. Geomorphic applications of stream-gage information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Fitzpatrick, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, several thousand stream gages provide what typically is the only source of continuous, long-term streamflow and channel-geometry information for the locations being monitored. In this paper, the geomorphic content of stream-gage information, previous and potential applications of stream-gage information in fluvial geomorphic research and various possible limitations are described. Documented applications include studies of hydraulic geometry, channel bankfull characteristics, sediment transport and channel geomorphic response to various types of disturbance. Potential applications include studies to determine the geomorphic effectiveness of large floods and in-stream habitat change in response to disturbance. For certain applications, various spatial, temporal and data limitations may render the stream-gage information of limited use; however, such information often is of considerable value to enable or enhance geomorphic investigations.

  15. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  16. Regex-Stream

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-01

    Log files are typically semi-or un-structured. To be useable, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Regex-Stream facilitates parsing text files into structured data (JSON) in streams of data.

  17. Stream-Network navigation in the U.S. geological survey streamStats web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, K.G.; Steeves, P.A.; Guthrie, J.D.; Rea, A.H.; Stewart, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Webbased geographic information systems application developed as a tool for water-resources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. The primary functionality of StreamStats allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, tools that allow stream-network navigation were added to StreamStats. These tools allow users to select any point along a stream and locate activities upstream and downstream from the selected point, such as streamgaging stations, dams, and point-source discharges, and obtain information about such activities. Users also can obtain stream-reach addresses and estimates of streamflow statistics for the selected points.

  18. Stream-network navigation in the U.S. Geological Survey StreamStats Web Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G., III; Steeves, Peter A.; Guthrie, John D.; Rea, Alan H.; Stewart, David W.

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Webbased geographic information systems application developed as a tool for water-resources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. The primary functionality of StreamStats allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, tools that allow stream-network navigation were added to StreamStats. These tools allow users to select any point along a stream and locate activities upstream and downstream from the selected point, such as streamgaging stations, dams, and point-source discharges, and obtain information about such activities. Users also can obtain stream-reach addresses and estimates of streamflow statistics for the selected points.

  19. Parallel algorithms for computer vision. Annual report No. 2, 31 August 1986-31 August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, T.; Little, J.

    1988-03-01

    Much work during the past year has focused on building the Vision Machine system. The Vision Machine is a testbed for the research on parallel vision algorithms and their integration. The system consists of an input device--a movable two-camera Eye-Head system with six degrees of freedom--and the 16K Connection Machine (CM-1). The authors concentrated on implementing and testing early vision algorithms, and on developing a new sophisticated techniques for their integration. The output of the integration stage will be used for navigation and recognition tasks. From August 31, 1986 to August 31, 1987. The Connection Machine delivered on July 31, 1986 by Thinking Machines Corporation was used. A substantial body of vision software was developed and tested on the machine. Also nearly completed was the development of an integrated Vision Machine that includes several early vision algorithms, and integration stage of middle vision. As outlined in their original proposal, the authors have begun to explore parallel algorithms at the higher level of recognition. They have also studied the performance of alternative, nonconventional architectures for navigation, and worked on the difficult issue of alternative parallel languages for the Connection Machine, in addition to LISP and C. The body of this report gives an overview of the results of the research during the second twelve month of funding.

  20. Biological-Community Composition in Small Streams and its Relations to Habitat, Nutrients, and Land Use in Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes in Indiana and Ohio, 2004, and Implications for Assessing Nutrient Conditions in Midwest Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate algal-, invertebrate-, and fish-community composition to habitat, nutrients, and land-use variables in small streams in agriculturally dominated landscapes of the Midwest in Indiana and Ohio. Thirty sample locations were selected from a single ecoregion; all were small wadable streams within agriculturally dominated landscapes with similar substrate and canopy. Biological and nutrient samples were collected during stable flow conditions in August 2004. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine which variables most influenced each community. Total phosphorus concentrations significantly influenced the depositional-targeted habitat algal-diatom community and the richest-targeted habitat invertebrate community. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that habitat variables were more influential to the richest-targeted habitat algal-diatom and fish communities than nutrient concentrations. Although the nutrient concentrations measured during this study indicate that most streams were not eutrophic, the biological communities were dominated by eutrophic species, suggesting streams sampled were eutrophic. Consequently, it was concluded that biological relations to nutrients in agriculturally dominated landscapes are complex and habitat variables should be included in biological assessments of nutrient conditions in agriculturally dominated landscapes.

  1. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents in selected streams in northern Arkansas, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Haggard, Brian E.; Meyers, Michael T.; Green, W. Reed

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Arkansas and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, collected data in 2004 to determine the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater constituents, including many constituents of emerging environmental concern, in selected streams in northern Arkansas. Samples were collected in March and April 2004 from 17 sites located upstream and downstream from wastewater- treatment plant effluent discharges on 7 streams in northwestern Arkansas and at 1 stream site in a relatively undeveloped basin in north-central Arkansas. Additional samples were collected at three of the sites in August 2004. The targeted organic wastewater constituents and sample sites were selected because wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharge provides a potential point source of these constituents and analytical techniques have improved to accurately measure small amounts of these constituents in environmental samples. At least 1 of the 108 pharmaceutical or other organic wastewater constituents was detected at all sites in 2004, except at Spavinaw Creek near Maysville, Arkansas. The number of detections generally was greater at sites downstream from municipal wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges (mean = 14) compared to sites not influenced by wastewatertreatment plants (mean = 3). Overall, 42 of the 108 constituents targeted in the collected water-quality samples were detected. The most frequently detected constituents included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene.

  2. Evaluating Key Watershed Components of Low Flow Regimes in New England Streams.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Alisa C; Gold, Arthur J; Pelletier, Marguerite C

    2016-05-01

    Water resource managers seeking to optimize stream ecosystem services and abstractions of water from watersheds need an understanding of the importance of land use, physical and climatic characteristics, and hydrography on different low flow components of stream hydrographs. Within 33 USGS gaged watersheds of southern New England, we assessed relationships between watershed variables and a set of low flow parameters by using an information-theoretical approach. The key variables identified by the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) weighting factors as generating positive relationships with low flow events included percent stratified drift, mean elevation, drainage area, and mean August precipitation. The extent of wetlands in the watershed was negatively related to low flow magnitudes. Of the various land use variables, the percentage of developed land was found to have the highest importance and a negative relationship on low flow magnitudes, but was less important than wetlands and physical and climatic features. Our results suggest that management practices aimed to sustain low flows in fluvial systems can benefit from attention to specific watershed features. We draw attention to the finding that streams located in watersheds with high proportions of wetlands may require more stringent approaches to withdrawals to sustain fluvial ecosystems during drought periods, particularly in watersheds with extensive development and limited deposits of stratified drift. PMID:27136170

  3. [Factors of macrozoobenthic communities formation on stony rapids and bars in streams of East Fennoscandia].

    PubMed

    Baryshev, I A

    2014-01-01

    Relying on own data (267 quantitative samples in total), factors of rheophilous zoobenthos formation in East Fennoscandia have been studied with use of detrended correspondence analysis. In the period from 2005 to 2011, in August, samples were taken from 90 stony rapids belonging to 39 streams. On East Fennoscandia territory, which extends over 1000 kilometers in south-north direction, climatic factor plays an important role in formation of macrozoobenthos in streams. With regard to both species composition and total abundance, the poorest benthic communities are found in tundra rivers in the northern part of the region. In limnetic-riverine systems of south Karelia, on the contrary, rheophilous macrozoobenthos is characterized by great number of species and high biomass. However, the structure of benthic communities is markedly influenced, beside the climate, by flowing lakes and settlements located in the catchment area. Under their influence, the species richness of zoobenthos in streams decreases while the biomass increases. Under the conditions of low trophic status that are indicative of northern water bodies, these sources of additional organic matter and biogenic elements improve feeding conditions for macrozoobenthic organisms which, in its turn, leads to biomass and production growth. PMID:25490841

  4. In-Stream Metabolism Differences Between Glacial and Non-Glacial Streams in Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassry, M. Q.; Scott, D.; Vermilyea, A.; Hood, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    As glacier ice gives way to successional vegetation, streams located in glacier-containing watersheds receive decreased contributions from glacial meltwater and increased contributions from terrestrial landscapes. These changes result in increased water temperature, increased shading from vegetation, and changes in the composition and concentration of organic matter delivered to the stream from the landscape. Organic matter and source water contributions from the surrounding landscape can influence in-stream metabolism through both biotic and abiotic factors. The impact of these landscape controls on the in-stream cycling of carbon and nutrients is not well understood in glacial systems. Here, we are focusing on understanding the differences in processing of organic carbon by heterotrophic microbial communities between glacial and non-glacial streams. In this study, the metabolism in streams receiving glacial meltwater was compared to the metabolism of streams located in nearby non-glaciated watersheds to determine the effect of changing inputs of glacial meltwater on stream metabolism. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that decreased inputs of glacier meltwater will result in increased net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) in coastal streams in southeast Alaska. Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide measurements as well as temperature and PAR values were collected at 10-minute increments at each study site for 4 days. This data was used to generate diel curves to establish community respiration (CR24) and gross primary production (GPP) estimates. Lab-scale mesocosms containing sediment and stream water from each end-member stream were used to quantify the relative importance of glacial contributions to respiration rates in the surface sediments. Ultimately, this will provide a better understanding of the changing in-stream processing capabilities in watersheds affected by land cover changes resulting from glacial recession.

  5. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  6. 53. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, August 9, 1893 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'EDDY DAM. LOOKING EAST.' VIEW OF COLLAPSED DAM - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  7. 70. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, August 5, 1911 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown AUTOMATIC GATES AT SPILLWAY NO. 1 - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  8. A Skeptic among Scholars: August Fruge on University Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruge, August

    This memoir describes August Fruge's 32 years as head of the University of California Press. Early chapters describe Berkeley, where the press is located, in the 1940s, conflicts with the Printing Department, the role of the faculty-run editorial committee, and setting new directions for the press. Three chapters describe looking for titles to…

  9. 208. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 2 August 1957 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    208. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 2 August 1957 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). NAPALM BOMB PRODUCTION LINE. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 202. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 2 August 1951 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    202. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 2 August 1951 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). NAPALM BOMB ASSEMBLY LINE. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, August 17, 1965 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, August 17, 1965 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). 2080 READINESS CREW, COVERED WALKWAYS, PLAN AND DETAILS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  12. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "A VIEW OF METHOD OF DAM CONSTRUCTION" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  13. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING DAM AFTER REMOVING OF TRESTLE" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  14. 20th Century Northern hemisphere jet stream variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmecheri, S.; Babst, F.; Trouet, V.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The latitudinal position of the Northern hemisphere Jet stream (NHJ) modulates both long term climate trends and the occurrence and frequency of extreme weather events. Precipitation anomalies in particular are associated with NHJ variability and the resulting floods/droughts can have considerable societal and economic impacts. Therefore a better understanding of NHJs role in regional climate is essential in assessing the natural and socio-economic impacts of projected future change in NHJ features. We developed a new climatology of the 300 hPa NHJ based on its seasonally explicit latitudinal position. We used the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 (20CR) data at monthly resolution from 1930-2012 to define the latitudinal position of NHJ as the latitude with the greatest 300 hPa scalar wind speed (m s-1). From these data, we identified four seasons with coherent NHJ patterns (January-February, April-May, July-August, and October-November) and detected longitudinal sectors (total of 15 sectors for all the seasons) where the seasonal jet shows strong spatial coherence. We examined the influence of seasonal NHJ position on the geographical distribution of precipitation and temperature patterns for all sectors. Furthermore, we compared NHJ positions to atmospheric circulation indices at inter-annual and multi-decadal time scales. We found a significant relationship between the NHJ position and the North Atlantic and Arctic oscillations for all seasons and across the majority of longitudinal sectors. In addition to this, our NHJ data set supports a connection with ocean-atmosphere interactions over the northern Pacific Ocean on various time scales: we found significant correlations between the North Pacific Jet and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation for all seasons and with El Niño Southern Oscillation for the winter season. Our results emphasize the importance of the seasonal and spatial characteristics of NHJ, as well as climate teleconnections, when considering regional

  15. Asteroid 1620 Geographos: II. Associated Meteor Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabova, G. O.

    2002-05-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions. Are there meteor streams genetically related to asteroid 1620 Geographos? When and how were they generated? Can we find any of them in the catalogs of orbits of meteors that have been observed? Numerous model streams, varying in particle-ejection scheme and in the moment of generation, have been considered. It has been found that the meteor streams observed from the Earth were most likely produced as a result of a collision with a small body. However, the generation of the meteor stream under the combined effect of rotation and tidal forces during the asteroid's close approach to the Earth cannot also be ruled out. Meteoroid streams formed at high ejection velocities (up to 1 km/s) can approach the Earth's orbit twice per orbital period: once before perihelion (in February-March) and once after perihelion (in August). The 44 orbits close to the model ones were found in the catalogs of meteoroid orbits. A taxonomic structure has been built for them. The distribution of ejection velocities for the models of Earth-approaching meteoroids points to the impact of an overtaking body, but the moment of collision remains unknown. Thus, it is quite possible that asteroid Geographos is the parent body for twin meteor showers observed at the Earth: Spring and Autumn Geographids.

  16. Incomplete Mixing in a Small, Urban stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, R. J.; Boufadel, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Conservative solute tracer experiments were conducted in Indian Creek, a small urban stream located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Estimated flow rates were between 46 L s-1 and 81 L s-1, average stream width was 5.5 m and average stream depth was 0.2 m. Given these dimensions, most researchers would think it reasonable to assume that the stream is completely mixed vertically and horizontally. However, we found that the stream was not vertically completely mixed in a 0.95 m deep, 30 m long pool. The limited mixing was demonstrated by the vertical stratification of a tracer cloud which was completely mixed both laterally and vertically across the stream prior to entering the pool. We suggest that the cause of limited mixing is due to a balance between groundwater inflow and transverse dispersion at the cross section. We show that the unsupported assumption of complete mix may result in a wide range, and thus increased uncertainty, of the values of stream flow and longitudinal dispersion coefficient estimated from these data. We conclude that the assumption of complete mix and one-dimensional modeling must be checked against actual field conditions, even in small streams.

  17. Regulation of the dissolved phosphate concentration of a mountainous stream, Kitakyushu, southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masaaki; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2012-07-01

    The phosphate concentration in mountainous stream water can be a measure of the forest condition, because its concentration will be low when the biomass in the forest is increasing and vice versa when the forest is declining. To investigate the seasonal change in the dissolved phosphate concentration of the mountainous stream water of the Yamakami River, Kitakyushu, from June 2009 to August 2010, and the regulation mechanism of the phosphate concentration, solid-phase spectrophotometry, which can be applicable to natural water without any pretreatment procedures, was employed for the determination of phosphate at μg P L(-1) levels in natural water. The phosphate concentrations in the mountainous stream waters at 6 sites ranged from 2.2 to 13 μg P L(-1), and those from the catchment area of the steady state forest were 5.3 ± 1.6 (±1 SD) μg P L(-1). Changes in the concentration were fairly small even during a storm runoff. The average phosphate concentration of rain was 2.8 ± 0.7 μg P L(-1), about half of the concentration in the stream water. The rate of runoff in forest areas is generally considered to be about 50% of the total precipitation. For a forest under a climax condition, the phosphate concentration is estimated to be regulated by the fallout and evapotranspiration (α = 0.05). At one of the sites, an upstream tributary, where a fairly big landslide occurred before July in 2009, the phosphate concentration was the highest, suggesting that the biomass may still be decreasing. For all of the six sites examined, a characteristic seasonal change in phosphate concentration was observed, reflecting the local budget between the biological decomposition of plant matter and the consumption by the biomass. The increase in the phosphate concentration during late spring and early summer may result from the extensive decomposition of plant litter mainly supplied in autumn and of plant matter relating to spring blooming such as fallen flowers, pollen and immature

  18. spatial and temporal distribution of nutrients in a linked stream-lake ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Covino, T. P.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    increased again through July and August. Conversely, NO3 concentrations in the lake were below detection for most of the summer following snowmelt flushing. Spatial patterns in the distribution of NH4 and NO3 were weak across the lake, but DON concentrations increased with depth towards the end of summer. Residence time analysis demonstrated the existence of quick flow paths through the lake near the surface, and increasingly immobile water from a 6m depth to the lake bottom. Our research elucidates DIN dynamics in a low nutrient, linked stream-lake ecosystem and offers new insights for how lakes can alter biogeochemical signals and buffer watershed nutrient export downstream.

  19. Climate Change impacts on the hydrology and temperature of Pacific Northwest streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Su, F.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J.; Mantua, N. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    Distributed hydrologic modeling is an important tool for quantifying dynamic environmental constraints (river flow and temperature) on stream habitat quantity, quality and distribution as they may be affected by climate change. A regional scale hydrologic simulation scheme was developed to predict stream flow and temperature changes under historical (1976 to 2005) and future (to 2098) climate change scenarios (IPCC AR4) as they affect current and future patterns of freshwater salmon habitat and associated productivity of North Pacific Rim (NPR) river basins. An efficient simulation scheme was developed, including: a hierarchical Dominant River Tracing (DRT) algorithm for automated extraction and spatial upscaling of flow directions and river networks from fine scale hydrography; a Shuffled Complex Evolution method (SCE-UA) for automatic calibration of Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model simulations for more than 1500 NPR basins; and a DRT-based routing scheme and coupled stream temperature model. Initial implementation and testing of these algorithms was conducted using observations from 12 streams within the Pacific Northwest (PNW) basins. From the statistics over all PNW river segments (1/16 degree grid cells) with upstream drainage areas > 2,500 km2, these simulations show consistent patterns of increased winter, and decreased summer stream flows over the next 100 years, and warming trends in mean annual water temperatures, with a maximum of 0.27°C and a mean of 0.19°C per decade. Warming was slightly greater (0.21 °C per decade on average) for rivers in the southern portion of the domain relative to those in the north (0.18°C per decade). The mean annual frequency of continuous 7-day average temperatures exceeding 21°C increased from 3.4 (1976-2005) to 5.9 (2065-2094) averaged over all rivers, while the corresponding summer (June, July and August) flows show a mean decrease of 2.08% per decade. Our results suggest a future with increasing

  20. Multitier image streaming teleradiology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarnakar, Vivek; Eldar, Adi; Pourfathi, Shahrzad; Keselbrener, Laurence; Genant, Harry K.

    2001-08-01

    With the advent of real-time image streaming, a new paradigm for development of image display and viewing systems that communicate with Picture Archiving and Communication (PACS) systems can be proposed. In this paradigm, the high bandwidth requirements of current systems can be significantly relaxed and security features can be seamlessly adopted and enforced. Based upon this paradigm RealTimeImage and OARG have developed a multi-tiered web-based image display and analysis system for teleradiology. The system architecture consisted of a backend module to communicate with the PACS system via direct file system access or standard DICOM protocols, an Image Server to stream image data to its clients using RealTimeImage Pixel-On-DemandTM streaming technology and a web-based client to provide image display and analysis functionality. The system was used in a clinical research study that required analysis of several hundred images and included participants located at various remote geographical locations. Performance and maintainability of the system were objectively quantified. Usability issues were subjectively identified by the various users of the system. It was observed that the performance of such a system is comparable to that of today's systems over fast LAN, even if the user is connected via standard, dial-up connections. This level of performance was achieved without compromising the usability of the system required for the research study.

  1. Riparian influences on stream fish assemblage structure in urbanizing streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, A.H.; Freeman, B.J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the influence of land cover at multiple spatial extents on fish assemblage integrity, and the degree to which riparian forests can mitigate the negative effects of catchment urbanization on stream fish assemblages. Riparian cover (urban, forest, and agriculture) was determined within 30 m buffers at longitudinal distances of 200 m, 1 km, and the entire network upstream of 59 non-nested fish sampling locations. Catchment and riparian land cover within the upstream network were highly correlated, so we were unable to distinguish between those variables. Most fish assemblage variables were related to % forest and % urban land cover, with the strongest relations at the largest spatial extent of land cover (catchment), followed by riparian land cover in the 1-km and 200-m reach, respectively. For fish variables related to urban land cover in the catchment, we asked whether the influence of riparian land cover on fish assemblages was dependent on the amount of urban development in the catchment. Several fish assemblage metrics (endemic richness, endemic:cosmopolitan abundance, insectivorous cyprinid richness and abundance, and fluvial specialist richness) were all best predicted by single variable models with % urban land cover. However, endemic:cosmopolitan richness, cosmopolitan abundance, and lentic tolerant abundance were related to % forest cover in the 1-km stream reach, but only in streams that had <15% catchment urban land cover. In these cases, catchment urbanization overwhelmed the potential mitigating effects of riparian forests on stream fishes. Together, these results suggest that catchment land cover is an important driver of fish assemblages in urbanizing catchments, and riparian forests are important but not sufficient for protecting stream ecosystems from the impacts of high levels of urbanization.

  2. A Multi-Year Longitudinal Study of Water Quality Parameters in Four Salmon-Bearing and Recreational Streams on Mount Hood, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Wasowski, Ronald; Alexander, David; Kolmes, Steven; Banet, Nathan; Card, Amy; Haines, Morgan; Kolmes, Elijah; Northcutt, Kelly; Roemer, Derek; Webber, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Four streams–Clear Fork, Lost Creek, Camp Creek and Still Creek–in northwestern Oregon’s Sandy River Basin were monitored for temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, and fecal bacterial concentrations in a multi-year analysis examining stream health for recreational users and anchor habitat for Pacific Salmon. Temperatures were recorded using micro –T temperature loggers at 15 locations, during 22 July - 5 September 2006, 2 July - 4 September 2007, 20 June - 7 September 2008, 23 June - 9 September 2009, and 2 July –9 September 2010. The Seven-Day Average Maximum water temperature (7-DAM) of 13°C was used as a reference value for the biological limit governing suitable salmonid spawning and egg incubation conditions. The maximum 7-DAM temperatures occurred on different dates and all streams neared or exceeded the 13°C standard at least once each summer. Dissolved oxygen levels were measured at weekly or longer intervals in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009. Dissolved oxygen levels fell below the 9.0 ppm standard for Clear Fork on almost half the sampling dates in 2006, 2007, and 2009. Concentrations of the bacterial genus Enterococcus were measured as an indicator of fecal contamination. Samples were collected at 15 sites along the four streams. Weekly samples were collected during a 9 week period from July - September 2007, an 11 week period from June - September 2008, and an 11 week period from June - September 2009. Enterococcus counts exceeded the federal recommended national criterion value of 61 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL every year in Camp Creek and occasionally elsewhere, with exceedances trending towards late summer. PMID:23940578

  3. Geochemical results from stream-water and stream-sediment samples collected in Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Todd, Andrew S.; Smith, Kathleen S.; DeWitt, Ed; Zeigler, Mathew P.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey are studying the relationship between watershed lithology and stream-water chemistry. As part of this effort, 60 stream-water samples and 43 corresponding stream-sediment samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 from locations in Colorado and New Mexico. Sample sites were selected from small to midsize watersheds composed of a high percentage of one rock type or geologic unit. Stream-water and stream-sediment samples were collected, processed, preserved, and analyzed in a consistent manner. This report releases geochemical data for this phase of the study.

  4. The July Spike in Operating Room Management: Reality or Perception?

    PubMed

    Sanford, Joseph A; Tsai, Mitchell H; Kadry, Bassam; Mayhew, Christopher R; Adams, David C

    2016-05-01

    Background Some research has found increased incidence of medical errors in teaching hospitals at the beginning of the academic year and have termed this the "July Phenomenon." Objective Our primary hypothesis was that the "July Phenomenon" for anesthesiology and surgical residents might manifest itself as operational inefficiency, measured by monthly total operating room (OR) minutes. Secondary measures were monthly elective overutilized minutes (OR workload minus OR allocated time, after 5:30 pm at our institution), 80th percentile number of ORs running at 7:00 pm, and mean last room end time. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a 525-bed academic tertiary care hospital from January 2010 to September 2014 and were deconstructed to assess for a seasonal component using local regression (Loess). Variable month length was addressed by transforming the monthly totals to average daily minutes and overutilized minutes. Linear regression quantified significance for all primary and secondary analyses. Results In the regressions, monthly average minutes showed no significant difference in July (P = .65) compared to the baseline month of April. There were no significant differences for any month for overutilized minutes or 80th percentile number ORs working at 7:00 pm. Only August was significant (P = .005) for mean last room end time. Conclusions Data from a single institution study did not show a "July Phenomenon" in the number of operating minutes, overutilized minutes, or the number of ORs working late in July. PMID:27168896

  5. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats.

    PubMed

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C

    2016-06-01

    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range. PMID:26993807

  6. What If It Rains on Your Eclipse? Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Keohane, J.

    2010-01-01

    It was a dark and rainy morning, not far out of Shanghai, when we saw the 2009 July 22 total solar eclipse. Many of the Americans puttering around their equipment that morning, in hopes that the sky would clear enough to catch some of event they had traveled around the world to view, were already planning ahead for 2017 August 21, when a narrow strip of the United States will experience up to 2 minutes and 45 seconds of totality. For most people, a total solar eclipse is once in a lifetime event steeped in legend. If you are situated along this privileged corridor, you will have a wonderful opportunity for public outreach. But what if it rains? Historically, August is mostly sunny at the location of greatest eclipse, near Makanda, Illinois. Even with such favorable circumstances, having a rain plan will ensure you make the most of the occasion. First, the flexibility to relocate your program to take advantage of the most favorable weather would be ideal. If that is not a realistic option, include some protective gear with your equipment so that you can set up despite misty or drizzling conditions. Second, monitoring changing light levels and temperatures should be possible even under cloudy skies. Third, for some sites, changes in wildlife behavior may also be noticeable. If the weather is clear, such projects could enhance your program during the partial phases of the eclipse and provide enrichment materials for those unable to attend. While 2017 may still seem in the distant future to all but eclipse fanatics, some creativity and advance brainstorming will ensure that your outreach program shines during the event, even if the Sun does not cooperate. S. Bell (2009, pc.), HMNAO, provided the eclipse predictions. Additional information is available via USNO Eclipse Portal (http://www.eclipse.org.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi).

  7. EIS's filed during August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Under the provisions of NEPA, environmental impact statements must be compiled for any major development project that could adversely affect the environment. Environmental impact statements submitted to EPA during August 1980 are listed. More than 100 environmental impact statements were filed by some 19 federal agencies during the month. The name, address, and telephone number of each federal agency are included.

  8. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  9. Monetary Policy after August 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes conceptually how to think about the dramatic changes in monetary policy since the sub-prime crisis of August 2007. He also discusses how to incorporate these changes and related economic concepts in the teaching of an undergraduate class in macroeconomics. A distinction is made between conventional and…

  10. Volleyball Guide with Official Rules. July 1971 - July 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Jackie, Ed.

    This guide for playing women's volleyball dated July 1971 - July 1973 details rules and standards as well as the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with teamwork, basic fundamentals, suggestions for beginners, a volleyball mini unit, and volleyball visual aids are included. The booklet…

  11. Developmental Changes in Infants' Visual Short-Term Memory for Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.; Hurley, Karinna B.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for location, we presented 6- to 12-month-old infants (N = 199) with two side-by-side stimulus streams. In each stream, arrays of colored circles continually appeared, disappeared, and reappeared. In the "changing" stream, the location of one or more items changed in each cycle; in the…

  12. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 498, February 1986. Part 2: (Comprehensive reports). Data for August1985, and miscellanea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Solar-Geophysical Data Number 498, February 1986, Part 2 (Comprehensive Reports), Data for August 1985, and Miscellenea contains the following: detailed index for 1985-86; data for August 1985--(Solar flares, Solar radio bursts at fixed frequencies, Solar X-ray radiation from GOES satellite, Mass ejections from the Sun, Active prominences and filaments); miscellaneous data--Meudon carte synoptique 13 May - 7 July 1985.

  13. 5. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo Lab Collection). Photographer unknown. August 25, 1950. BEV-307. BEVATRON MAGNET FOUNDATION. B-51 - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  14. IET. Weather instrumentation tower, located south of control building. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Weather instrumentation tower, located south of control building. Camera facing west. Date: August 17, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-2414 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. 41. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo Lab Collection). Photographer unknown. August 29, 1949. BEV-101. BEVATRON AREA LOOKING SOUTHEAST. B-51. - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  16. 58. VIEW OF CABLE INCLINE, LOCATED ON THE HILLSIDE BELOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF CABLE INCLINE, LOCATED ON THE HILLSIDE BELOW THE FOREBAY (NORTHWEST OF FOREBAY), Print No. 156, August 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  17. 27. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo Lab Collection). Photographer unknown. August 18, 1958. Bubble Chamber 605. BUBBLE CHAMBER ASSEMBLY - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  18. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # A266-19). Plan of monorail; August 25, 1944. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # A266-5). Sections & Details; August 25, 1944. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # A266-2). Existing conditions; August 25, 1944. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # A266-13). Crane door details: August 25, 1944. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # A266-6). Door details; August 25, 1944. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Gas stream purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    A gas stream purifier has been developed that is capable of removing corrosive acid, base, solvent, organic, inorganic, and water vapors as well as particulates from an inert mixed gas stream using only solid scrubbing agents. This small, lightweight purifier has demonstrated the ability to remove contaminants from an inert gas stream with a greater than 99 percent removal efficiency. The Gas Stream Purifier has outstanding market and sales potential in manufacturing, laboratory and science industries, medical, automotive, or any commercial industry where pollution, contamination, or gas stream purification is a concern. The purifier was developed under NASA contract NAS9-18200 Schedule A for use in the international Space Station. A patent application for the Gas Stream Purifier is currently on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

  4. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, Clark W.; Landrum, D. Brian; Turner, Matthew; Wagner, David K.; Lambert, James

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane. Initial cold flow testing of the model is underway to determine both, the behavior of the ingested air in the duct and to validate the mixing diagnostics. During the tests, each of the two rocket nozzles ejected up to two pounds mass per second into the 13.6 square inch duct. The tests showed that the mass flow of the rockets was great enough to cause the entrained air to go sonic at the strut, which is the location of the rocket nozzles. More tests are necessary to determine whether the entrained air chokes due to the reduction in the area of the duct at the strut (a physical choke), or because of the addition of mass inside the duct at the nozzle exit (a Fabri choke). The initial tests of the mixing diagnostics are showing promise.

  5. STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.

    2010-02-01

    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  6. Dynamics of stream-subhalo interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis

    2016-04-01

    We develop a formalism for modelling the impact of dark matter subhaloes on cold thin streams. Our formalism models the formation of a gap in a stream in angle-frequency space and is able to handle general stream and impact geometry. We analyse an N-body simulation of a cold stream formed from a progenitor on an eccentric orbit in an axisymmetric potential, which is perturbed by a direct impact from a 108 M⊙ subhalo, and produce a complete generative model of the perturbed stream that matches the simulation well at a range of times. We show how the results in angle-frequency space can be related to physical properties of the gaps and that previous results for more constrained simulations are recovered. We demonstrate how our results are dependent upon the mass of the subhalo and the location of the impact along the stream. We find that gaps formed far downstream grow more rapidly than those closer to the progenitor due to the more ordered nature of the stream members far from the progenitor. Additionally, we show that the minimum gap density plateaus in time at a value that decreases with increasing subhalo mass.

  7. Dynamics of meteor streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babadjanov, P. B.; Obrubov, Yu. U.

    1987-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of meteor streams are generally assumed to be formed due to the decay of comets. The most effective process of the release of solid particles from a cometary nucleus is their ejection by sublimating gases when the comet approaches the Sun. The results of investigation of the Geminids and Quadrantids meteor stream evolution show that under the influence of planetary perturbations, the stream may originally be flat but then thicken depending on the variation range of orbital inclinations. Eventually, due to planetary perturbations, a meteor stream may take such a shape as to cause the start of several active showers at different solar longitudes.

  8. User aware video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy

    2015-03-01

    We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.

  9. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  10. Semi-Continuous Measurement of PM2.5 Ionic Composition at Several Rural Locations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2008-09-01

    To improve understanding of the nature and variability of the ionic fraction of atmospheric fine aerosol particles in non-urban environments, one to two month measurement campaigns were conducted at several rural locations in the United States. Study sites included Yosemite National Park (NP) (July – September 2002), Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon NP, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains NP, Tennessee (July/August 2004). PM2.5 ion composition was measured at 15-minute intervals using a Particle Into Liquid Sampler (PILS) coupled to two ion chromatographs. Comparison of PILS measurements with parallel traditional 24-hr denuder/filter-pack measurements reveal generally good agreement between the two techniques, although PILS measurements of PM2.5 NH4+ appear to be biased slightly low. High-time resolution aerosol concentration measurements provide much better estimates of the range of aerosol concentration levels experienced at these rural locations. Ratios of peak 15-min to 24-hr nitrate concentrations, for example, ranged from 1.7 at Brigantine NWR to 7.0 at the Great Smoky Mountains NP. A strong influence of diurnal upslope/downslope transport patterns was observed on aerosol concentrations at several locations, including Yosemite NP, San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, and Great Smoky Mountains NP, with peak concentrations typically occurring during afternoon upslope transport. High time resolution aerosol composition measurements also provide new insight into relationships between individual aerosol species and the influence of environmental conditions on aerosol composition. Observations at several locations revealed important information about mechanisms of particle nitrate formation. At Yosemite and Grand Canyon NPs, for example, evidence was observed for reaction of nitric acid or its precursors with

  11. Biological assessment of aquaculture effects on effluent-receiving streams in Ghana using structural and functional composition of fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    PubMed

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream (P = 0.0214) and upstream (P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream (P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations (P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area. PMID:22555961

  12. Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  13. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  14. Potential stream density in Mid-Atlantic US watersheds.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Andrew J; Julian, Jason P; Guinn, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    Stream network density exerts a strong influence on ecohydrologic processes in watersheds, yet existing stream maps fail to capture most headwater streams and therefore underestimate stream density. Furthermore, discrepancies between mapped and actual stream length vary between watersheds, confounding efforts to understand the impacts of land use on stream ecosystems. Here we report on research that predicts stream presence from coupled field observations of headwater stream channels and terrain variables that were calculated both locally and as an average across the watershed upstream of any location on the landscape. Our approach used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), a robust method commonly implemented to model species distributions that requires information only on the presence of the entity of interest. In validation, the method correctly predicts the presence of 86% of all 10-m stream segments and errors are low (<1%) for catchments larger than 10 ha. We apply this model to the entire Potomac River watershed (37,800 km(2)) and several adjacent watersheds to map stream density and compare our results with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). We find that NHD underestimates stream density by up to 250%, with errors being greatest in the densely urbanized cities of Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD and in regions where the NHD has never been updated from its original, coarse-grain mapping. This work is the most ambitious attempt yet to map stream networks over a large region and will have lasting implications for modeling and conservation efforts. PMID:24023704

  15. Results of fisheries investigations in Douglas tailwater, August 1987--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Tomljanovich, D.A.; Saylor, C.F.

    1989-05-01

    Releases from Douglas Dam during July, August, and early September are characterized by low dissolved oxygen (DO), increased hydrogen sulfide, and until fall 1987, no minimum flow. Studies are underway to improve water quality in the tailwater. A five-year minimum flow demonstration began October 1, 1987. To achieve a 300 cfs minimum flow at Saffell Island, 2.5 river miles downstream from Douglas Dam, one turbine in the 3200 to 4000 cfs range is pulsed for 35 to 45 minutes every four hours. In addition to minimum flow, surface water pumps and oxygen diffusers in front of the hydro unit intakes are being evaluated as ways to increase DO in the tailwater. During this five-year demonstration water quality monitoring and biological investigations will document changes and responses to increased minimum flow and improved water quality. Objectives of the biological investigations are to document: (1) changes, characteristics, and diversity of the fish community of the tailwater using the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), (2) spawning locations and movement patterns of sauger in the tailwater, (3) reproduction of sauger and other species in the tailwater, and (4) fisherman distribution and creel throughout the tailwater. 10 refs., 3 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Accretion stream mapping with `genetically modified fireflies'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, C. M.; Hakala, Pasi; Cropper, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin

    2004-07-01

    We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fireflies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVRC band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find firefly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two-part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour-band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aqr and EP Dra. We propose that a change in the stream density causes a change in the location of the bright material in the accretion stream in EP Dra.

  17. Flooding in southeastern United States from tropical storm Alberto, July 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Timothy W.; Stamey, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994, parts of Georgia, Alabama and Florida were devastated by floods resulting from rainfall produced by Tropical Storm Alberto. The flooding resulted in 33 human deaths in towns and small communities or near swollen streams. Total damages to public and private property were estimated at nearly $1 billion dollars. This article highlights severe stream flooding resulting from Alberto and describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) efforts to document this event and provide information to those who need it.

  18. Ecological studies of a regulated stream: Huntington River, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Winget, R.N.

    1984-04-30

    A 36.9 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ reservoir constructed on Huntington River, Emery County, Utah, resulted in changes in physical habitat, water quality, temperature, and flow regime. The greatest changes in physical habitat resulted from: (1) sediment additions from dam and road construction plus erosion of reservoir basin during filling; and (2) changing stream flow from a spring high runoff regime to a moderated flow regime. Elimination of spring nutrient concentration peaks and overall reduction of total dissolved nutrient availability in the river plus moderate reductions in pH were the most apparent water quality changes below the reservoir. Water temperature changes were an increased diurnal and seasonal constancy, summer depression, and winter elevation, generally limited to a 10-12 km reach below the dam. Physical and chemical changes altered macroinvertebrate community structure, with changes greatest near the dam and progressively less as distance downstream increased. Below the dam: (1) more environmentally tolerant taxa increased their dominance; (2) relative numbers of smaller sized individuals increased in relation to larger individuals; and (3) filter feeding, collector/gatherers, and scapers gained an advantage over shredders. Macroinvertebrate taxa with small instar larvae present from late summer to early fall were negatively impacted by the unnaturally high July and August flows. The reservoir became a physical barrier to downstream larval drift and upcanyon and downcanyon immigration of adults, resulting in reduced numbers of several species above and below the reservoir. 50 references, 12 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Low-flow characteristics of streams in the Deschutes River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummans, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The streams in the basin usually have their low flows in August and September. Seven-day low flows were smallest in 1952 when annual rainfall at the Olympia airport was also the least during the 1945-75 period of continuous gaging-station records in the basin. The magnitude and frequency of seven-day low flows were estimated for 23 streamflow sites, either from frequency analysis of data at long-term stations or from correlation of measured or computed discharges at a streamflow site with data at a long-term station. Seven-day low flows ranged from no-flow at one tributary of Deschutes River having a drainage area of 1.85 square miles to 98 cubic feet per second for Deschutes River near its mouth, where the drainage was 162 square miles. Mean monthly flows were determined for two long-term stations and estimated for months of July to September for the other streamflow sites. (USGS)

  20. Control efficiency determination of sudden expansion incinerator bldg 348, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 19 July 1995-11 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Compliance emissions testing and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) destruction efficiency determination were conducted on the Sudden Expansion (SUE) Incinerator located at the Kelly AFB Fuel Accessory Test Facility, Bldg 348. The purpose of the Kelly AFB SUE Incinerator is to destroy calibration fluid vapors emitted from fuel accessory test stands located in Bldg 348. The incinerator can also be used to destroy liquid waste calibration fluid by burning it as a supplemental fuel. Emissions testing was conducted during combustion of both vapors and liquid calibration fluid. For purposes of determining the incinerator VOC destruction efficiency, monitoring for Total VOC concentration in the inlet air stream was conducted on 19-20 July 1995. Emissions testing of the incinerator exhaust was conducted on 10-11 January 1996 and included monitoring for Total VOC, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and visible emissions.

  1. Estimating Effective Stream Shade in Riparian Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydow, L.; Link, T. E.; Gravelle, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Concern about the effects of land cover change on stream temperature dynamics necessitates the quantification of effective stream shade for riparian management and water quality modeling. Accurate quantification of stream shade with radiometers is both challenging and expensive over large areas characterized by complex and spatially variable canopies. To address these challenges, a number of shade estimation methods have been developed for rapid stream cover assessments. The main objective of this study was to determine which of four canopy cover estimation methods best characterized effective shade in harvested and unharvested stream reaches. An associated objective was to understand how canopy cover and type affected the accuracy of the methods. The four methods tested were a manual canopy densiometer, analysis of standard imagery from a digital camera, the Solar Pathfinder, and analysis of hemispherical imagery using Hemiview software. These were compared to measurements of percent incoming shortwave radiation quantified with Hukseflux NR-01 radiometers at each location. Four stream reaches in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed were used to assess the estimation methods under different amounts and types of canopy cover: an unharvested area, a partial cut, an open clear cut, and a clear cut with dense understory. All estimation methods were most accurate in the most shaded location (dense understory clear cut) and least accurate in the open clear cut, the least shaded location. The values estimated by Hemiview proved to be the most accurate in all four areas, differing from the true value by ~5% on average; the Solar Pathfinder was the second most accurate with an error of ~8%. The results from the digital camera and canopy densiometer were comparable, at ~15% difference from the true value. While Hemiview is the most expensive and time consuming of the four methods, it was the most accurate for estimating effective stream shade in this study.

  2. Reconnaissance of Pharmaceutical Chemicals in Urban Streams of the Tualatin River Basin, Oregon, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Doyle, Micelis C.; Edwards, Patrick M.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2009-01-01

    A reconnaissance of pharmaceutical chemicals in urban streams of the Tualatin River basin was conducted in July 2002 in an effort to better understand the occurrence and distribution of such compounds, and to determine whether they might be useful indicators of human-related stream contamination. Of the 21 pharmaceutical chemicals and metabolites tested, only 6 (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, and sulfamethoxazole) were detected in filtered stream samples from 10 sites. The concentrations of most of the detected compounds were relatively low (less than 0.05 microgram per liter). The most frequently detected compounds were cotinine (a nicotine metabolite, 8 of 10 samples) and caffeine (a stimulant, 7 of 10 samples). More compounds were detected in urban stream samples than in samples from forested or agricultural drainages. Filtered water samples also were collected from four locations within an advanced wastewater treatment facility to quantify the relative amounts of these chemicals in a municipal waste stream and to determine the degree to which those chemicals are removed by treatment processes. Fifteen pharmaceutical chemicals or metabolites were detected in wastewater treatment facility influent, with concentrations far exceeding those measured in streams. Only five of those compounds, however, were detected in the treated effluent (carbamazepine, cotinine, ibuprofen, metformin, and sulfamethoxazole) and most of those were at concentrations less than 0.2 microgram per liter. The target pharmaceutical chemicals and metabolites showed limited potential for use as tracers of specific types of human-related contamination in Tualatin River basin streams because of widespread sources (caffeine, for example) or extremely low concentrations. Caffeine and cotinine are likely to be good indicators of sources that can occur in urban areas, such as sewage spills or leaks or the widespread use and careless disposal of tobacco products and

  3. Thermal Evolution and Composition of the July 2009 Jupiter Impact Site from 7-25 Micron Imaging and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; Mousis, O.; de Pater, I.; Hammel, H. B.; Golisch, W.; Edwards, M.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Fisher, B.; Greene, Z.; Lai, S.; Otto, E.; Reshetnikov, N.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.

    2009-12-01

    We present analysis of thermal-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the impact site near the south polar region of Jupiter (see Orton et al., AGU 2009). Enhanced thermal emission was first detected on July 20 2009 in 7-25 micron imaging from the MIRSI instrument on NASA’s IRTF. These observations, just two rotations after the impact, indicated the localised, high-temperature thermal signature of the ejecta field, coincident with the location of high-altitude particulate debris observed in the near-IR and visible. The impact feature was most visible in the 9-11 micron range, suggestive of enhanced emission from hydrocarbons and ammonia gas in the lower stratosphere. Subsequent thermal imaging of the impact region reveals the radiative cooling of the impact site and the changing morphology due to the redistribution of material by Jupiter’s zonal and meridional wind field. We acquired Gemini-N/Michelle imaging on July 22, Gemini-S/TReCS imaging on July 24 and August 5 and 9, and an extensive campaign of VLT/VISIR imaging on July 24, 26 and August 5, 10, 15, 16, at which point (4 weeks after the impact) the thermal signature could no longer be reliably distinguished, even with sub-arcsecond diffraction-limited angular resolution. Tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures and aerosol opacity are derived via optimal estimation retrievals (Fletcher et al. 2009, Icarus, 200, p154). Enhancement of hydrocarbons and gaseous ammonia are determined via iterative forward modelling, aided by spectral observations obtained with the slit aligned east-west through the impact feature from Gemini-S/TReCS (July 24) and VLT/VISIR (July 26, August 12-13). Low-resolution N-band (8-13 microns) Gemini-S/TReCS spectra confirm the enhanced emission over a broad range of wavelengths; Q-band (17-25 micron) spectra are used to study upper tropospheric temperatures in the aftermath of the collision and the rate of radiative cooling. VLT/VISIR spectra provide higher spectral resolutions in

  4. Towards quantifying fuzzy stream power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.

    2012-04-01

    Deterministic flow direction algorithms such as the D8 have wide application in numerical models of landscape evolution. These simple algorithms play a central role in quantifying drainage basin area, and hence approximating—via empirically derived relationships from regional flood frequency and hydraulic geometry—stream power or fluvial erosion potential. Here we explore how alternative algorithms that employ a probabilistic choice of flow direction affect quantitative estimates of stream power. We test a probabilistic multi-flow direction algorithm within the MATLAB TopoToolbox in model and real landscapes of low topographic relief and minute gradients, where potentially fuzzy drainage divides are dictated by, among others, alluvial fan dynamics, playa infill, and groundwater fluxes and seepage. We employ a simplistic numerical landscape evolution model that simulates fluvial incision and hillslope diffusion and explicitly models the existence and capture of endorheic basins that prevail in (semi-)arid, low-relief landscapes. We discuss how using this probabilistic multi-flow direction algorithm helps represent and quantify uncertainty about spatio-temporal drainage divide locations and how this bears on quantitative estimates of downstream stream power and fluvial erosion potential as well as their temporal dynamics.

  5. 78 FR 42700 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Various Locations AGENCY: Federal Communications... the FM Table of Allotments. DATES: Effective July 17, 2013. ADDRESSES: Federal...

  6. 8. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (original print located in LBNL Photo Lab Collection). Photographer unknown. July 2, 1953. BEV-574. QUADRANT POLE TIP INSTALLATION. B-51. - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  7. 9. Photocopy of engineering drawing (original drawing located in LBNL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of engineering drawing (original drawing located in LBNL Building 90F Architecture and Engineering As-Built Collection). July, 1960. 4BOOQ002. QUADRANT MAP - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  8. Adopt a Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Environmental Education Society of Alberta (Edmonton).

    This environmental education program is designed to increase awareness among junior high school students of stream ecosystems and those habitats which comprise the ecosystems adjacent to streams. The teaching content of the manual is presented in two major sections. The first section provides information and background material for the group…

  9. Citrus waste stream utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waste streams, generated during fruit processing, consist of solid fruit residues in addition to liquid waste streams from washing operations which must be handled in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unsound fruit from packing houses are usually sent off to be processed for juice and the solid ...

  10. MARYLAND BIOLOGICAL STREAM SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) is a multi-year probability-based sampling program designed to assess the status of biological resources in non-tidal streams of Maryland. The MBSS is quantifying the extent to which acidic deposition and other human activities have af...

  11. River and Stream Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollution Dirt Dirt is a big cause of pollution in our rivers and streams. Rain washes dirt into streams and rivers. Dirt can smother fish and other animals that live in the water. If plants can't get enough sunlight because ...

  12. WADEABLE STREAMS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) provides the first statistically defensible summary of the condition of the nation’s streams and small rivers, which are so integrally tied to our history. This report brings the results of this ground-breaking study to the American public....

  13. Recent volcano earthquake swarms at Tongariro volcano, New Zealand and their relation to the 6 August 2012 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A. D.; Sherburn, S.; Hurst, T.; Fournier, N.; Scott, B.; Jolly, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    On 12 July 2012, Tongariro volcano displayed an increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes which occurred at rates unseen for at least a decade. The new activity prompted GeoNet to increase the alert level for Tongariro from Level 0, (usual dormant state), to Level 1 (signs of volcanic unrest) on 20 July 2012. GeoNet also installed 4 temporary portable broadband seismic sensors within the volcanic massif, joining 4 permanent GeoNet seismic sensors that permanently surround the volcano. A range of event types characterised the new activity including classical hybrid, and strongly resonant tornillo type earthquakes. The events have magnitudes in the range of 0.5-2.6 ML and hypocenters which are distributed beneath Te Maari crater and the lower northern flank of Tongariro at depths less than 6 km, a similar location to prior swarm first identified in June 2001. The majority of earthquakes are repetitious in nature with onsets having remarkably similar waveforms from event to event. A small number of earthquakes, occurring mostly at the onset of the swarm, are probably not from the same earthquake family. Hence, the relatively large hypocenter distribution for swarm earthquakes is probably mostly owed to picking errors rather than an excitation of multiple source locations over a wide volume. The codas of the earthquakes are variable with some events having an extended harmonic resonance. Many of the earthquakes are characterised by a low amplitude precursory pulse prior to the main earthquake onset. Three distinct swarms have been recorded in the month of July, with peak event numbers occurring on 13, 20 and 29 July, 2012. The three swarms also display an interesting pattern with the largest magnitude earthquakes occurring towards the end of each swarm. The three swarms culminated in a small eruptive event on 7 August 2012 on the North flank of the volcanic massif. The new activity is discussed in the context of past seismicity at Tongariro, and also by comparison

  14. Environmental controls of wood entrapment in upper Midwestern streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Eric C.; Finlay, J.; Johnson, L.; Newman, R.; Stefan, H.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Wood deposited in streams provides a wide variety of ecosystem functions, including enhancing habitat for key species in stream food webs, increasing geomorphic and hydraulic heterogeneity and retaining organic matter. Given the strong role that wood plays in streams, factors that influence wood inputs, retention and transport are critical to stream ecology. Wood entrapment, the process of wood coming to rest after being swept downstream at least 10 m, is poorly understood, yet important for predicting stream function and success of restoration efforts. Data on entrapment were collected for a wide range of natural wood pieces (n = 344), stream geomorphology and hydraulic conditions in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. Locations of pieces were determined in summer 2007 and again following an overbank stormflow event in fall 2007. The ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio) and the weight of the piece were important in a multiple logistic regression model that explained 25% of the variance in wood entrapment. Entrapment remains difficult to predict in natural streams, and often may simply occur wherever wood pieces are located when high water recedes. However, this study can inform stream modifications to discourage entrapment at road crossings or other infrastructure by applying the model formula to estimate the effective width required to pass particular wood pieces. Conversely, these results could also be used to determine conditions (e.g. pre-existing large, stable pieces) that encourage entrapment where wood is valued for ecological functions. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ramification of stream networks

    PubMed Central

    Devauchelle, Olivier; Petroff, Alexander P.; Seybold, Hansjörg F.; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    The geometric complexity of stream networks has been a source of fascination for centuries. However, a comprehensive understanding of ramification—the mechanism of branching by which such networks grow—remains elusive. Here we show that streams incised by groundwater seepage branch at a characteristic angle of 2π/5 = 72°. Our theory represents streams as a collection of paths growing and bifurcating in a diffusing field. Our observations of nearly 5,000 bifurcated streams growing in a 100 km2 groundwater field on the Florida Panhandle yield a mean bifurcation angle of 71.9° ± 0.8°. This good accord between theory and observation suggests that the network geometry is determined by the external flow field but not, as classical theories imply, by the flow within the streams themselves. PMID:23223562

  16. Rain-driven Biophysical Disturbance and Recovery Response of a Forested Reference Stream Presents an Analog for Watershed Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, R. J.; Wooten, M. S.; Macmannis, K. R.; Fet, E.

    2013-12-01

    Time series biophysical surveys of a small, forested reference stream document a pulsed disturbance-recovery trajectory that coincided with a record rainfall year. Physical dynamics of the channel cross section, profile and bed material composition were moderate from November 2008 through May 2010, coinciding with one 10-year recurrence interval rain event in June 2009; however, substantial variability was captured with the July 2011 survey--a period that included a 1.5-, 4-, and 42-year event. This was followed by a period of lower rainfall intensity (one 1.7-year event) and nominal channel change through August 2012. Across all dimensions, the absolute value of rates of inter-annual variability (as measured by a Mean Stream Channel Dynamics metric (mSCD)) averaged 17 %/yr, 46 %/yr, and 5 %/yr during the 2010, 2011, and 2012 surveys, respectively. Concomitant with the rainfall pulses and physical dynamics, annually-repeated macroinvertebrate samples documented that the Kentucky macroinvertebrate bioassessment index (MBI) dropped from 61 (excellent) to 53 (good), 30 (poor), and 43 (fair) from 2009 through 2012 and was positively correlated to the number of days since disturbance by large storm events. Community richness was highest in the year immediately following the large disturbance pulse implying that a naturally-dynamic balance of disturbance may be necessary to maintain biotic diversity in flashy, rain-driven systems. Because watershed urbanization tends to increase the erosivity of the flow regime, the amplified flows in this record rainfall year could be seen as an experimental study analogous to urbanization. The analog departs in 2012, however, when the rainfall and disturbance rates returned to more typical levels and biotic integrity exhibits a recovery trajectory, whereas, in an urbanized watershed, streams have little time before incurring additional disturbance. These results imply that managing elements of the flow regime that cause physical

  17. ANALYZING CORRELATIONS BETWEEN STREAM AND WATERSHED ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivariate correlation analysis has been widely used to explore relationships between stream and watershed attributes that have all been measured on the same set of watersheds or sampling locations. Researchers routinely test H0: =0 for each correlation in a large table and then ...

  18. Stream temperature response to variable glacier coverage in coastal watersheds of northern southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E. W.; Fellman, J. B.; Nagorski, S. A.; Vermilyea, A.; Pyare, S.; Scott, D.

    2012-12-01

    Glaciers in southeast Alaska are experiencing high rates of ice thinning and retreat. These ongoing changes in glacier volume are altering the proportion of streamflow derived from glacial runoff, which can be an important control on the thermal regime of streams in the region. We measured stream temperature continuously during the 2011 summer runoff season (May through October) in nine watersheds of southeast Alaska that provide spawning habitat for Pacific salmon. Six of the nine watersheds have glacier coverage ranging from 2 to 63%. Our goal was to determine how air temperature and watershed land cover, particularly glacier coverage, influence stream temperature across the seasonal hydrograph. Multiple linear regression identified mean watershed elevation, which is tied to glacier extent, and watershed lake coverage (%) as the strongest landscape controls on mean monthly stream temperature, with the weakest (May) and strongest (July) models explaining 86% and 97% of the temperature variability, respectively. Mean weekly stream temperature was significantly related to mean weekly air temperature in seven of the nine streams; however, the relationships were weak to non-significant in the streams dominated by glacial runoff. Peak summer stream temperatures occurred much earlier in the glacial streams (typically around late May) and glaciers also had a cooling effect on monthly mean stream temperature during the summer (July through September) equivalent to a decrease of 1.1°C for each 10% increase in glacier coverage. Streams with >30% glacier coverage demonstrated decreasing stream temperatures with rising summer air temperatures, while those with <30% glacier coverage exhibited summertime warming. The maximum weekly average temperature (MWAT, an index of thermal suitability for salmon species) in the six glacial streams was substantially below the lower threshold for optimum salmonid growth. This finding suggests that, while glaciers are important for

  19. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing-capacity streams

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  20. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States, 2, Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlihy, Alan T.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Mitch, Mark E.

    1991-04-01

    We examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small (<30 km2) forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  1. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2001 (September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002).

    SciTech Connect

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Baldwin, Casey; Woller, Heather

    2003-03-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP

  2. Application of the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process for Missouri Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Henriksen, James A.; Heasley, John; Cade, Brian S.; Terrell, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Natural flow regime concepts and theories have established the justification for maintaining or restoring the range of natural hydrologic variability so that physiochemical processes, native biodiversity, and the evolutionary potential of aquatic and riparian assemblages can be sustained. A synthesis of recent research advances in hydroecology, coupled with stream classification using hydroecologically relevant indices, has produced the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process (HIP). HIP consists of (1) a regional classification of streams into hydrologic stream types based on flow data from long-term gaging-station records for relatively unmodified streams, (2) an identification of stream-type specific indices that address 11 subcomponents of the flow regime, (3) an ability to establish environmental flow standards, (4) an evaluation of hydrologic alteration, and (5) a capacity to conduct alternative analyses. The process starts with the identification of a hydrologic baseline (reference condition) for selected locations, uses flow data from a stream-gage network, and proceeds to classify streams into hydrologic stream types. Concurrently, the analysis identifies a set of non-redundant and ecologically relevant hydrologic indices for 11 subcomponents of flow for each stream type. Furthermore, regional hydrologic models for synthesizing flow conditions across a region and the development of flow-ecology response relations for each stream type can be added to further enhance the process. The application of HIP to Missouri streams identified five stream types ((1) intermittent, (2) perennial runoff-flashy, (3) perennial runoff-moderate baseflow, (4) perennial groundwater-stable, and (5) perennial groundwater-super stable). Two Missouri-specific computer software programs were developed: (1) a Missouri Hydrologic Assessment Tool (MOHAT) which is used to establish a hydrologic baseline, provide options for setting environmental flow standards, and compare past and

  3. Variability in stream flow and specific discharge along three headwater streams in central Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payn, R. A.; Gooseff, M. N.; Jencso, K.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2008-12-01

    Specific discharge is commonly used to quantify the runoff at a watershed outlet with respect to the watershed area. However, little is known about how specific discharge is distributed along stream valleys within watersheds. Analyses of stream flow and specific discharge distributions may provide insight into the interactions of runoff generating processes and stream-subsurface exchange. We compare longitudinal distributions of stream channel flow and specific discharge in 3 mountain headwater streams of the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in central Montana, comprising 2.6-, 1.4-, and 2.3-km valley lengths with 5.5, 4.0, and 4.5 km2 of total contributing area, respectively. We performed an instantaneous tracer release every 100 m along each valley, and used dilution gauging to estimate stream channel flow from each release. Multiple series of tracer tests were performed during the summer baseflow recession following snowmelt. We used topographic analysis of digital elevation models to quantify sub-basin contributing areas to each location where flow was measured. We then calculated specific discharges by normalizing each estimate of stream channel flow by its corresponding sub-basin contributing area. The study streams demonstrated substantial variability in specific discharge in both space and time. For example, a 1300-m upstream segment showed consistently lower specific discharges than an 800-m downstream segment in the same stream, where the ratio of specific discharges in the upstream segment to specific discharges in the downstream segment generally ranged from 0.7 at higher baseflows to 0.3 at lower baseflows. The differences in specific discharges over the segments were likely driven by both the variability in source water input from contributing areas and the variability in the importance of segment-scale stream-subsurface exchange relative to stream channel flow. We compare the stream flow and specific discharge distributions across space and time

  4. Report about the Solar Eclipse on August 11, 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    This webpage provides information about the total eclipse on Wednesday, August 11, 1999, as it was seen by ESO staff, mostly at or near the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Bavaria, Germany). The zone of totality was about 108 km wide and the ESO HQ were located only 8 km south of the line of maximum totality. The duration of the phase of totality was about 2 min 17 sec. The weather was quite troublesome in this geographical area. Heavy clouds moved across the sky during the entire event, but there were also some holes in between. Consequently, sites that were only a few kilometres from each other had very different viewing conditions. Some photos and spectra of the eclipsed Sun are displayed below, with short texts about the circumstances under which they were made. Please note that reproduction of pictures on this webpage is only permitted, if the author is mentioned as source. Information made available before the eclipse is available here. Eclipse Impressions at the ESO HQ Photo by Eddy Pomaroli Preparing for the Eclipse Photo: Eddy Pomaroli [JEG: 400 x 239 pix - 116k] [JPEG: 800 x 477 pix - 481k] [JPEG: 3000 x 1789 pix - 3.9M] Photo by Eddy Pomaroli During the 1st Partial Phase Photo: Eddy Pomaroli [JPEG: 400 x 275 pix - 135k] [JPEG: 800 x 549 pix - 434k] [JPEG: 2908 x 1997 pix - 5.9M] Photo by Hamid Mehrgan Heavy Clouds Above Digital Photo: Hamid Mehrgan [JPEG: 400 x 320 pix - 140k] [JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 540k] [JPEG: 1280 x 1024 pix - 631k] Photo by Olaf Iwert Totality Approaching Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 320 pix - 149k] [JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 380k] [JPEG: 1280 x 1024 pix - 536k] Photo by Olaf Iwert Beginning of Totality Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 236 pix - 86k] [JPEG: 800 x 471 pix - 184k] [JPEG: 1280 x 753 pix - 217k] Photo by Olaf Iwert A Happy Eclipse Watcher Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 311 pix - 144k] [JPEG: 800 x 622 pix - 333k] [JPEG: 1280 x 995 pix - 644k] ESO HQ Eclipse Video Clip [MPEG-version] ESO HQ Eclipse Video

  5. Moonwatch - July 14, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Leroy E.; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1988-01-01

    The Moonwatch program using amateur astronomers to obtain a wide range of naked-eye sightings of the new moon to test a mathematical model for predicting first visibilty of the new moon is discussed. The algorithm takes physical effects such as brightness of the twilight sky, clarity of the atmosphere at the observing site, and the physiology of the human eye into account. A 1987 test of visibility prediction obtained poor results due to weather conditions. Observers across North and Central America, the Caribbean, and northern South America are asked to record information about the time and location where they first see the crescent of the new moon appear on the horizon.

  6. Modeling Streambed Heating in Shallow Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annear, R. L.; Wells, S. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality is moving forward to develop TMDLs to address water quality concerns and threatened and endangered species habitat requirements in water bodies throughout Oregon. Approximately 940 water body segments are listed as water quality limited for stream temperature. CE-QUAL-W2 Version 3 is a two-dimensional water quality and hydrodynamic model capable of modeling watersheds with interconnected rivers, reservoirs and estuaries and accounts for the impact of riparian vegetative and topographic shading on stream temperature. One important aspect of modeling stream temperature is how to model the short-wave solar radiation that penetrates the water surface and impacts the channel bed or substrate, which can significantly affect temperature predictions under low-flow stream conditions. Algorithms were added to CE-QULA-W2 incorporating dynamic vegetative and topographic stream-side shading and dynamic three-dimensional streambed heating. The Bull Run River-Reservoir system is a 264 km2 watershed located 41.8 km east of downtown Portland serves as the city's primary drinking water source. The watershed consists of two reservoirs, Bull Run Lake and river sections above and below the reservoirs. Fieldwork was conducted in the Bull Run River during the summer of 2002 to monitor streambed temperatures, meteorological conditions, and stream temperatures.

  7. Io Revealed in the Jovian Dust Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graps, A. L.; Gruen, E.; Krueger, H.; Horanyi, M.; Svedhem, H.; Galileo Dust Team; Cassini Dust Team

    2001-11-01

    The Jovian dust streams are high-speed bursts of submicron-sized particles travelling in the same direction from a source in the Jovian system. Since their discovery in 1992, they have been observed by three spacecraft: Ulysses, Galileo and Cassini. The work presented here describes an emerging electrodynamical picture of the Jovian dust streams. The source of the Jovian dust streams is Jupiter's moon, Io, in particular, dust from Io's volcanoes. Charged Io dust, travelling on trajectories from Io's location, is shown to have some particular signatures in frequency space and in real space. The frequency-transformed Galileo dust stream measurements show different signatures, varying, orbit-to-orbit during Galileo's first 29 orbits around Jupiter. Time-frequency analysis demonstrates that Io is a localized source of charged dust particles. In real space, aspects of the particles' dynamics can be seen in the December 2000 joint Galileo-Cassini dust stream measurements. To match the travel times, the smallest dust particles could have the following range of parameters: radius: 6 nm, density: 1.35-1.75 g-cm-3, sulfur charging conditions, which produce dust stream speeds: 220/450 km-sec-1 (Galileo/Cassini) and charge potentials: 5.5/6.3 V (Galileo/Cassini). Funding provided by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt E.V. (DLR), and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  8. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  9. Twitter Stream Archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2014-07-01

    The Twitter Archiver system allows a user to enter their Twitter developer account credentials (obtained separately from the Twitter developer website) and read from the freely available Twitter sample stream. The Twitter sample stream provides a random sample of the overall volume of tweets that are contributed by users to the system. The Twitter Archiver system consumes the stream and serializes the information to text files at some predefined interval. A separate utility reads the text files and creates a searchable index using the open source Apache Lucene text indexing system.

  10. Twitter Stream Archiver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-07-01

    The Twitter Archiver system allows a user to enter their Twitter developer account credentials (obtained separately from the Twitter developer website) and read from the freely available Twitter sample stream. The Twitter sample stream provides a random sample of the overall volume of tweets that are contributed by users to the system. The Twitter Archiver system consumes the stream and serializes the information to text files at some predefined interval. A separate utility reads themore » text files and creates a searchable index using the open source Apache Lucene text indexing system.« less

  11. Mariner 9 control net of Mars, August 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented for a planet-wide geodetic control net of Mars which is based on Mariner 9 pictures as of August 1972. Aerocentric and aerographic coordinate of 809 control points were computed from 407 television frames. Photogrammetric parameters and methodology used in the computations are discussed. The coordinates of the features are given and figures that show the locations of the control points on the surface of Mars are included.

  12. Congressional District Visits in August

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Fushcia

    2014-08-01

    In preparation for the U.S. congressional recess, AGU Public Affairs hosted an instructional webinar about meeting with legislators and their staff at their district offices. Congress is on recess, with most members back in their districts to reconnect with their constituents. The August recess is a great opportunity for AGU members to schedule meetings with their legislators to talk about the importance of their research and the value of science funding. In these meetings, members can initiate a connection with their senator or representative that will allow them to build a relationship as a valuable resource.

  13. Truth in Testing Act of 1979; The Education Testing Act of 1979. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session on H.R. 3564 and H.R. 4949 (Washington, D.C., July 31, August 1, September 10, September 24, and October 10-11, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Testimony and exhibits presented at subcommittee hearings held in Washington, D.C., from July 31, 1979 through October 11, 1979, are compiled with reference to two proposed bills concerned with standardized admissions tests. The first, the Truth in Testing Act of 1979, H.R. 3564, requires all educational admissions testing conducted through…

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "NEW SAND AND GRAVEL BIN AND CONCRETE MIXING PLANT" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  15. 231. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) MINING CAPTAIN WHITTLE'S HOUSE, MAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    231. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) MINING CAPTAIN WHITTLE'S HOUSE, MAY 19, 1899, DWELLING HOUSE NO. 62. FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATION. FIRST, SECOND, BASEMENT PLAN DETAILS; CONSTRUCTION PLANS. LOCATED SECOND HOUSE NORTH SIDE OF QMC MINING OFFICE. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  16. 150. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated July 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    150. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated July 29, 1930 (from Record Group 115, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver). 60 x 12 SPILLWAY RING GATE; CONTROL AND PIPING INSTALLATION AND ANCHOR BOLT LOCATION (SHEET 3 OF 8). - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  17. 157. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated July 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated July 29, 1930 (from Record Group 115, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver). OWYHEE DAM; 60 X 12 SPILLWAY RING GATE; CONTROL AND PIPING INSTALLATION AND ANCHOR BOLT LOCATION (SHEET 2 OF 8). - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  18. 222. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 July 1971 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    222. Photocopy of photograph, Denver Post photographer, 20 July 1971 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). EMPTY MUSTARD TON CONTAINER PRIOR TO PUNCHING AND INSERTION INTO FURNACE. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  20. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  1. Effects of human presence on chimpanzee nest location in the Lebialem-Mone forest landscape, Southwest Region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Last, Cadell; Muh, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    In several areas of Africa, great apes experience increasing predation pressure as a result of human activities. In this study, terrestrial and arboreal nest construction among chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) populations was investigated in the Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape (LMFL), Southwest Region, Cameroon, to examine the anthropogenic effects on nest location. Data on the height, distribution and approximate age of chimpanzee night nests were collected during two 4-week primate field surveys (July to August 2010; July 2011) at two field sites (Bechati and Andu) within the LMFL. Data were collected using the line transect method. Chimpanzee night nests were categorized by their location: arboreal versus terrestrial. During the two field surveys, arboreal night nests were the most frequently constructed nest type at both sites, and the only type of night nest constructed at Bechati. Terrestrial night nests were also constructed at Andu. The main difference between these two sites is the level of human predation and agricultural development. At Bechati chimpanzees inhabit forest regions around dense, expanding villages and are regularly hunted by humans. However, at Andu the chimpanzee populations are not under the same threat. Therefore, terrestrial night nest construction in the LMFL appears to be a behavior exhibited where there is less human presence. PMID:23406888

  2. Rotenone persistence model for montane streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Peter J.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient and effective use of rotenone is hindered by its unknown persistence in streams. Environmental conditions degrade rotenone, but current label instructions suggest fortifying the chemical along a stream based on linear distance or travel time rather than environmental conditions. Our objective was to develop models that use measurements of environmental conditions to predict rotenone persistence in streams. Detailed measurements of ultraviolet radiation, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), substrate composition, amount of organic matter, channel slope, and travel time were made along stream segments located between rotenone treatment stations and cages containing bioassay fish in six streams. The amount of fine organic matter, biofilm, sand, gravel, cobble, rubble, small boulders, slope, pH, TDS, ORP, light reaching the stream, energy dissipated, discharge, and cumulative travel time were each significantly correlated with fish death. By using logistic regression, measurements of environmental conditions were paired with the responses of bioassay fish to develop a model that predicted the persistence of rotenone toxicity in streams. This model was validated with data from two additional stream treatment reaches. Rotenone persistence was predicted by a model that used travel time, rubble, and ORP. When this model predicts a probability of less than 0.95, those who apply rotenone can expect incomplete eradication and should plan on fortifying rotenone concentrations. The significance of travel time has been previously identified and is currently used to predict rotenone persistence. However, rubble substrate, which may be associated with the degradation of rotenone by adsorption and volatilization in turbulent environments, was not previously considered.

  3. Stochastic ice stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  4. Stream-gaging cableways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, C. Russell

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides a series of standard designs for stream-gaging cableways used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). It provides helpful information on construction, inspection, and maintenance of cableways.

  5. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution. PMID:27457960

  6. Urban Stream Ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban watersheds characteristically have high impervious surface cover, resulting in high surface runoff and low infiltration following storms. In response, urban streams experience “flashy” stormflows, reduced baseflows, bank erosion, channel widening, and sedimentation. Urban ...

  7. Replay-Stream

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-12-01

    For testing and demonstration purposes, it is often necessary to replay saved network and log data. This library facilitates replaying these saved data streams. This module will take in a stream of JSON strings, read their specified timestamp field, and output according to the given criteria. This can include restricting output to a certain time range, and/or outputting the items with some delay based on their timestamp.

  8. Chaos and stellar streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Valluri, Monica; Pearson, Sarah; Kupper, Andreas Hans Wilhelm; Hogg, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological simulations predict that dark matter halos around galaxies should be triaxial in shape with universal density profiles. A significant number of orbits in such systems are chaotic, though it is commonly assumed that chaos is not dynamically relevant for galaxy halos because the timescales over which chaos is computed to be important are generally long relative to the dynamical time. In recent work, we showed that even when chaos is not important for restructuring the global structure of a galaxy, chaos can greatly enhance the density evolution and alter the morphologies of stellar streams over just a few orbital times by causing streams to 'fan out.' This occurs because the orbits of the stars in stellar streams have small distributions of fundamental frequencies and are therefore sensitive to mild chaos that modulates the frequencies on small-scales over much faster timescales. This suggests that the morphology of tidal streams alone can be used to estimate the significance of chaos along the orbits of the progenitor systems, thereby placing constraints on the global properties of the gravitational potential. I will explain our theoretical understanding of this phenomenon and discuss implications for a recently discovered stellar stream (the Ophiuchus stream) that may be on a chaotic orbit in the inner Milky Way due to the influence of the time-dependent, triaxial potential of the Galactic bar.

  9. THE AQUATIC INSECTS, WITH EMPHASIS ON TRICHOPTERA, OF A COLORADO STREAM AFFECTED BY COAL STRIP-MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic sampling was conducted year-round over a 2 year period (July 1975-June 1977) on Trout Creek, a mountain stream in northwestern Colorado, to assess the effects of coal mine drainage on the stream insect community. Samples were taken monthly from rubble riffles above and be...

  10. 78 FR 37775 - Notice of July 9 President's Global Development Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of July 9 President's Global Development Council Meeting AGENCY: United States Agency for International Development. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Development Council (GDC). Date: Tuesday, July 9, 2013. Time: 10:00 a.m.-11:30 a.m. Location:...

  11. A Calculated Gamble Pays Off: Villa Julie College's Leasing of Off-Campus Apartments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2007-01-01

    Officials at Villa Julie College marvel at how quickly the institution's transformation took place, from serving commuters to becoming a much more residential campus. As recently as the 2003-2004 academic year, Villa Julie, located in an affluent suburb of Baltimore, was leasing off-campus apartments to house more than 300 students because zoning…

  12. 94. Photocopied August 1978. THE FURNACE ROOM ON THE SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. Photocopied August 1978. THE FURNACE ROOM ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE POWER HOUSE AT SAULT STE. MARIE. THE ROWS OF ROTARY FURNACES SHOWN HERE WERE REPLACED C. 1915-1920 BY 10,000 TO 20,000 H.P. TAPPING FURNACES. ONE TAPPING FURNACE WAS LOCATED TO THE WEST OF THE ROW OF HORRY FURNACES, THE OTHER WAS LOCATED IN A SEPARATE FURNACE HOUSE BUILT ON THE EAST OF THE POWER HOUSE. (E) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. Observations of fine and coarse particle nitrate at several rural locations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Ayres, Benjamin; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    Nitrate comprises an important part of aerosol mass at many non-urban locations during some times of the year. Little is known, however, about the chemical form and size distribution of particulate nitrate in these environments. While submicron ammonium nitrate is often assumed to be the dominant species, this assumption is rarely tested. Properties of aerosol nitrate were characterized at several IMPROVE monitoring sites during a series of field studies. Study sites included Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (July/August 2004). Nitrate was found predominantly in submicron ammonium nitrate particles during the Bondville and San Gorgonio (April) campaigns. Coarse mode nitrate particles, resulting from reactions of nitric acid or its precursors with sea salt or soil dust, were more important at Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains. Both fine and coarse mode nitrate were important during the studies at Brigantine and San Gorgonio (July). These results, which complement earlier findings about the importance of coarse particle nitrate at Yosemite and Big Bend National Parks, suggest a need to more closely examine common assumptions regarding the importance of ammonium nitrate at non-urban sites, to include pathways for coarse mode nitrate formation in regional models, and to consider impacts of coarse particle nitrate on visibility. Because coarse particle nitrate modes often extend well below 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter, measurements of PM 2.5 nitrate in these environments should not automatically be assumed to contain only ammonium nitrate.

  14. Observations of Fine and Coarse Particle Nitrate at Several Rural Locations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Ayres, Benjamin; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2008-04-01

    Nitrate comprises an important part of aerosol mass at many non-urban locations during some times of the year. Little is known, however, about the chemical form and size distribution of particulate nitrate in these environments. While submicron ammonium nitrate is often assumed to be the dominant species, this assumption is rarely tested. Properties of aerosol nitrate were characterized at several IMPROVE monitoring sites during a series of field studies. Study sites included Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (July/August 2004). Nitrate was found predominantly in submicron ammonium nitrate particles during the Bondville and San Gorgonio (April) campaigns. Coarse mode nitrate particles, resulting from reactions of nitric acid or its precursors with sea salt or soil dust, were more important at Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains. Both fine and coarse mode nitrate were important during the studies at Brigantine and San Gorgonio (July). These results, which complement earlier findings about the importance of coarse particle nitrate at Yosemite and Big Bend National Parks, suggest a need to more closely examine common assumptions regarding the importance of ammonium nitrate at non-urban sites, to include pathways for coarse mode nitrate formation in regional models, and to consider impacts of coarse particle nitrate on visibility. Because coarse particle nitrate modes often extend well below 2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter, measurements of PM2.5 nitrate in these environments should not automatically be assumed to contain only ammonium nitrate.

  15. Spectroscopic Coronal Observations During the Total Solar Eclipse of 11 July 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgaris, A. G.; Gaintatzis, P. S.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Economou, T. E.

    2012-05-01

    The flash spectra of the solar chromosphere and corona were measured with a slitless spectrograph before, after, and during the totality of the solar eclipse of 11 July 2010, at Easter Island, Chile. This eclipse took place at the beginning of Solar Cycle 24, after an extended minimum of solar activity. The spectra taken during the eclipse show a different intensity ratio of the red and green coronal lines compared with those taken during the total solar eclipse of 1 August 2008, which took place toward the end of Solar Cycle 23. The characteristic coronal emission line of forbidden Fe xiv (5303 Å) was observed on the east and west solar limbs in four areas relatively symmetrically located with respect to the solar rotation axis. Subtraction of the continuum flash-spectrum background led to the identification of several extremely weak emission lines, including forbidden Ca xv (5694 Å), which is normally detected only in regions of very high excitation, e.g., during flares or above large sunspots. The height of the chromosphere was measured spectrophotometrically, using spectral lines from light elements and compared with the equivalent height of the lower chromosphere measured using spectral lines from heavy elements.

  16. Neutron scattering studies in the actinide region. Progress report, August 1, 1992--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Prompt fission neutron energy spectra for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu; Two-parameter measurement of nuclear lifetimes; ``Black`` neutron detector; Data reduction techniques for neutron scattering experiments; Inelastic neutron scattering studies in {sup 197}Au; Elastic and inelastic scattering studies in {sup 239}Pu; and neutron induced defects in silicon dioxide MOS structures.

  17. Neutron scattering studies in the actinide region. Progress report, August 1, 1988--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Beghian, L.E.; Kegel, G.H.R.

    1991-08-01

    During the report period we have investigated the following areas: Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering measurements on {sup 14}N, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu; Prompt fission spectra for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu; Theoretical studies of neutron scattering; Neutron filters; New detector systems; and Upgrading of neutron target assembly, data acquisition system, and accelerator/beam-line apparatus.

  18. Neutrons scattering studies in the actinide region. Progress report, August 1, 1991--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.

    1992-09-01

    During the report period were investigated the following areas: prompt fission neutron energy spectra measurements; neutron elastic and inelastic scattering from {sup 239}Pu; neutron scattering in {sup 181}Ta and {sup 197}Au; response of a {sup 235}U fission chamber near reaction thresholds; two-parameter data acquisition system; ``black`` neutron detector; investigation of neutron-induced defects in silicon dioxide; and multiple scattering corrections. Four Ph.D. dissertations and one M.S. thesis were completed during the report period. Publications consisted of three journal articles, four conference papers in proceedings, and eleven abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. There are currently four Ph.D. and one M.S. candidates working on dissertations directly associated with the project. In addition, three other Ph.D. candidates are working on dissertations involving other aspects of neutron physics in this laboratory.

  19. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) reports, July, August, September 1989. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This volume contains AFRRI Scientific Reports SR 89-26 through SR89-39 and Technical Report TR89-1 for Jul-Sep 1989. Partial contents include: Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents; Cell-cycle radiation response: Role of intracellular factors; Characteristics of radiation-induced performance changes in bar-press avoidance with and without a preshock warning cue; Norepinephrine-induced phosphorylation of a 25 kd phosphoprotein in rat aorta is altered in intraperitoneal sepsis; Quantitative measurement of radiation-induced base products in DNA using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Tropism of canine neutrophils to xanthine oxidase; Effects of acute sublethal gamma radiation exposure on aggressive behavior in male mice: A dose-response study; Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells; Stomach nodules in pigeons; An assessment of the behavioral toxicity of high-energy iron particles compared to other qualities of radiation; L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester treatment of canine marrow and peripheral blood cells; Localization of cyclo-oxygenase and prostaglandin E2 in the secretory granule of the mast cell; Radioprotection of mice with interleukin-1: Relationship to the number of spleen colony-forming units; Survival after total-body irradiation. I. Effects of partial small-bowel shielding; Laboratory x-ray irradiator for cellular radiobiology research studies: Dosimetry report.

  20. Gender and Outcomes. Data Notes. Volume 5, Number 4, July/August 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John

    2010-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count, this issue of "Data Notes" looks at student developmental education and gateway course outcomes by gender. The data show that more than half of students were referred to developmental math, with female students being more likely to be referred than male students. Females were more…