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1

Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study.  

PubMed Central

This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is the conclusion of the authors that the adverse effects seen were more likely the result of chemical exposure than of perception of risk.

Hertzman, C; Hayes, M; Singer, J; Highland, J

1987-01-01

2

Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

1995-01-01

3

Selecting the ideal landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of active landfills has decreased by nearly 3000 since 1984 as sites have run out of space and cannot be upgraded to meet tough new environmental requirements. How is the ideal landfill site defined This paper discusses the numerous considerations which would categorize an ideal landfill site. These include deep soils with low hydraulic conductivity; abundant workable soils

1989-01-01

4

Trace gas measurements in landfill gas from closed landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five closed landfill sites in the urban area of Wolverhampton, UK were investigated in order to identify the trace components in landfill gas emitted from each site. 17 different compounds were identified in the gas samples following analysis by gas chromatography?mass spectrometry.It appeared that concentrations of carbon disulphide, xylene and toluene detected at the landfill sites were related to site

P. Giess; A. Bush; M. Dye

1999-01-01

5

Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application  

SciTech Connect

Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

6

Public health assessment for Agriculture Street Landfill, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, Region 6: CERCLIS number LAD981056997. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture Street Landfill (ASL) is a former landfill that has been developed in part for residential use. Site contaminants have been detected in soil, dust, air, and garden produce. Residents may be exposed to site contaminants through ingestion, skin contact, or breathing. The primary contaminants are metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. The undeveloped area of the site has been classified as a public health hazard. The highest levels of contaminants have been detected in the undeveloped area. The majority of the residential area and the Press Park Community Center have been classified as no apparent public health hazard since the levels of contaminants in the soil are generally below levels of health concern. Based on the data reviewed, it is recommended that measures be taken to limit residents' exposure to areas where soil is contaminated at levels of health concern.

Not Available

1999-06-02

7

11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. (BUILDINGS 131, 130, 129, AND 128 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

8

Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill leachate (LL) usually contains low concentrations of heavy metals due to the anaerobic conditions in the methanogenic landfill body after degradation of easily degradable organic matter and the neutral pH of LL, which prevents mobilization and leaching of metals. Low average concentrations of metals were also confirmed in our extensive study on the rehabilitation of an old landfill site

Marija Zupan?i?; Maja Zupan?i? Justin; Peter Bukovec; Vid Simon Šelih

2009-01-01

9

Public opinion and siting solid waste landfills in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siting municipal solid waste landfills in Kuwait had not considered public concerns about the location of such facilities. Kuwait Municipality has disposed urban waste in abandoned sand quarries for the past 20 years in an unplanned fashion. Due to this improper siting criteria, environmental and health problems have risen from old landfills that are located in residential areas. In an

Anwar F. Al-Yaqout; P. A. Koushki; Mohamed F. Hamoda

2002-01-01

10

THE FEASIBILITY OF TREE PLANTING ON LANDFILL CONTAINMENT SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree planting on completed landfill containment sites is a viable alternative to agricultural grassland, which is currently the most common after-use. Because of fears of tree roots penetrating the clay cap and releasing landfill gases and leachate as well as allowing oxygen beneath the surface potentially producing an explosive mix little interest has been shown in the results of research

C. S. Crook

1992-01-01

11

[Bioreactor-landfill site for leaching solution treatment].  

PubMed

The study utilizes the system combined bioreactor with landfill site to treat leachate. The results show that the system helped the degradation of the organic pollutants in the leachate to be divided into two-phases, the hydrolytic fermentation and acid-production phases mainly occurred in the landfill site, the acidification rate was 40%-50%, the methane-production chiefly occurred in the bioreactor(UASB). It treated the leachate significantly and benefits the collection and utilization of methane gas. Also, the system accelerates the process of degrading municipal solid waste and stabilizing landfill site. PMID:11855193

He, R; Shen, D

2001-11-01

12

Modeling biogas production at landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production is characteristic of municipal solid waste landfills. A knowledge of the trend of this production allows an exploitation of this energy source. The here presented model is more accurate than those that already exist as it takes the temperature variation in time and depth and the landfill settlement into account. The obtained model fits experimental data well.

L. Manna; M. C. Zanetti; G. Genon

1999-01-01

13

Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill  

SciTech Connect

This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

1991-04-01

14

Response Action Plan, Project W-025 Landfill, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This Response Action Plan (RAP) has been prepared for the Project W-025 Landfill on the Hanford Site. This landfill is a double-lined facility for disposal of mixed radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes, and is presently (August 1992) in the design and permitting stage. The W-025 Landfill complies with the design and operating requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA, 1976), US Environmental Agency (EPA) technical guidance, and the Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations (Ecology 1991). Among the requirements contained in these regulations is the need to prepare a Response Action Plan.

Evans, G.C.

1992-11-05

15

Leaching of chemical contaminants from a municipal landfill site  

SciTech Connect

In a vast majority of cases solid municipal wastes are disposed through sanitary landfill operations. However, as water percolates through such wastes, it dissolves inorganic and organic components thereby producing contaminated leachates which may constitute a large pollution potential. Such studies show that the organic contaminants emanate at high concentrations during active stages of decomposition and decrease with time as fill stabilizes but the inorganic contaminants on the other hand continue to leach for decades from a site. It is therefore pertinent that the release of chemical contaminants from each municipal landfill operation be established and documented. Such an information in turn can be valuable in the design and long term use of a landfill site. The metropolitan area of the City of Moncton comprises a population base of over 100,000 people and is situated on the bank of the Petitcodiac River. The landfill sites located on the river bank are apt to deliver their chemical contaminants into the river. This may influence the aquatic life and also constitute a potential health hazard for the public at large. The present report describes the physico-chemical data of the leachates of these landfill sites, their inorganic contents and in particular the heavy metals. In addition to leachate analysis, water and sediment samples from the river have also been analyzed for comparison.

Cyr, F.; Mehra, M.C.; Mallet, V.N.

1987-05-01

16

Landfill siting in New York: Case studies confirming the importance of site-specific hydrogeologic investigations  

SciTech Connect

Landfill siting is one of the most problematic environmental issues facing society today for a variety of both technical and political reasons. New York State has approached many of these issues by requiring both generalized siting studies and detailed hydrogeologic evaluation of any proposed landfill site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as an appropriate tool for accumulating information for preliminary decision making. Recently, Goodman and others have suggested the use of a terrain suitability map (land use map) as a mechanism for simplifying landfill siting. They propose the use of existing geologic and morphologic information to eliminate large areas of New York from consideration as potential landfill locations. The study concludes that the Appalachian Plateau region (the Southern Tier), and the Erie-Ontario Plain are the most suitable areas for landfill development in the state. An evaluation of the geology at existing landfills and the impacts that relate to the facilities has shown that suitable sites do indeed exist in areas deemed unacceptable by Goodman and others. Conversely, a number of landfills located in suitable terranes have proven to be developed on less than suitable sites. While evaluation of existing information plays an obvious role in preliminary siting studies, it is not a substitute for detailed hydrogeologic investigation. It is local hydrogeological conditions that are most important in determining the suitability of a site for landfill development rather than the regional geologic context of the site.

Cloyd, K.C.; Concannon, P.W. (New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Avon, NY (United States))

1993-03-01

17

Analysis of odorous compounds at municipal landfill sites.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to determine odorous compounds in the air over the landfill sites in France and Poland. Air samples were collected by passive and dynamic methods of preconcentration analytes and analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The coupling microTD-microGC-MS was also used for on-site analysis of odorous compounds. The achieved results indicated that the concentrations of odorants in the air varied and strongly depended on the sampling site. The highest concentrations were observed at the points situated near biogas wells and above the fresh waste layer. The concentrations were influenced by landfill activities such as failures of the landfill gas collection system, heavy truck traffic, machinery operations and compacting fresh waste. PMID:19710115

Sadowska-Rociek, Anna; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Szczepaniec-Cieciak, Elzbieta; Riesenmey, Caroline; Vaillant, Hervé; Batton-Hubert, Mireille; Piejko, Krzysztof

2009-08-26

18

Risk of Congenital Anomalies after the Opening of Landfill Sites  

PubMed Central

Concern that living near a particular landfill site in Wales caused increased risk of births with congenital malformations led us to examine whether residents living close to 24 landfill sites in Wales experienced increased rates of congenital anomalies after the landfills opened compared with before they opened. We carried out a small-area study in which expected rates of congenital anomalies in births to mothers living within 2 km of the sites, before and after opening of the sites, were estimated from a logistic regression model fitted to all births in residents living at least 4 km away from these sites and hence not likely to be subject to contamination from a landfill, adjusting for hospital catchment area, year of birth, sex, maternal age, and socioeconomic deprivation score. We investigated all births from 1983 through 1997 with at least one recorded congenital anomaly [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), codes 7400–7599; International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), codes Q000–Q999]. The ratio of the observed to expected rates of congenital anomalies before landfills opened was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75–1.00], and this increased to 1.21 (95% CI, 1.04–1.40) after opening, giving a standardized risk ratio of 1.39 (95% CI, 1.12–1.72). Enhanced congenital malformation surveillance data collected from 1998 through 2000 showed a standardized risk ratio of 1.04 (95% CI, 0.88–1.21). Causal inferences are difficult because of possible biases from incomplete case ascertainment, lack of data on individual-level exposures, and other socioeconomic and lifestyle factors that may confound a relationship with area of residence. However, the increase in risk after the sites opened requires continued enhanced surveillance of congenital anomalies, and site-specific chemical exposure studies.

Palmer, Stephen R.; Dunstan, Frank D.J.; Fielder, Hilary; Fone, David L.; Higgs, Gary; Senior, Martyn L.

2005-01-01

19

GEOELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COVERED LANDFILL SITES: A PROCESS-ORIENTED MODEL AND INVESTIGATIVE APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill sites commonly use the space available in disused quarries or special purpose-built structures but not all past landfill\\u000a operations were adequately controlled or documented such that the site boundaries, and the type and volume of fill are unknown\\u000a in some old covered landfill sites. Even in controlled sites, the final form and depth extent of the landfill may not

Maxwell Meju

20

Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.  

PubMed

Landfill leachate (LL) usually contains low concentrations of heavy metals due to the anaerobic conditions in the methanogenic landfill body after degradation of easily degradable organic matter and the neutral pH of LL, which prevents mobilization and leaching of metals. Low average concentrations of metals were also confirmed in our extensive study on the rehabilitation of an old landfill site with vegetative landfill cover and LL recirculation after its treatment in constructed wetland. The only exception was chromium (Cr). Its concentrations in LL ranged between 0.10 and 2.75 mg/L, and were higher than the concentrations usually found in the literature. The objectives of the study were: (1) to understand why Cr is high in LL and (2) to understand the fate and transport of Cr in soil and vegetation of landfill cover due to known Cr toxicity to plants. The total concentration of Cr in LL, total and exchangeable concentrations of Cr in landfill soil cover and Cr content in the plant material were extensively monitored from May 2004 to September 2006. By obtained data on Cr concentration in different landfill constituents, supported with the data on the amount of loaded leachate, amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) during the performance of the research, a detailed picture of time distribution and co-dependency of Cr is provided in this research. A highly positive correlation was found between concentrations of Cr and dissolved organic carbon (r=0.875) in LL, which indicates the co-transport of Cr and dissolved organic carbon through the system. Monitoring results showed that the substrate used in the experiment did not contribute to Cr accumulation in the landfill soil cover, resulting in percolation of a high proportion of Cr back into the waste layers and its circulation in the system. No negative effects on plant growth appeared during the monitoring period. Due to low uptake of Cr by plants (0.10-0.15 mg/kg in leaves and 0.05-0.07 mg/kg in stems of Salix purpurea), the estimated Cr offtake from LL by plants represented only a small proportion of the LL Cr mass load during the observation period, resulting in no dispersion of Cr into the environment through leaf drop. PMID:19138510

Zupancic, Marija; Justin, Maja Zupancic; Bukovec, Peter; Selih, Vid Simon

2009-01-09

21

Siting for a sanitary landfill for Eau Claire, Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

The role of the mediator in the resolution of a case involving the siting of a new sanitary landfill for Eau Claire, Wisconsin, is discussed. The compromise reached did not fulfill any single party's vision of an ideal solution. But it was something each decided he could live with. (JGB)

Bellman, H.S.

1980-01-01

22

Water Budget Analysis of the Norman Landfill site, Oklahoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrology at the Norman Landfill site in Oklahoma is quite complex. This site involves a wetland that controls the groundwater-surface water interaction. This presentation reports a simulation study for better understanding of local water balance at the landfill site using MODFLOW-2000. Inputs to the model are based on local climate, soil, geology, vegetation and seasonal hydrological dynamics of the system to determine the groundwater-surface water interaction, water balance components in various hydrologic reservoirs, and the complexity and seasonality of local/regional hydrological processes. Our model involved a transient two- dimensional hydrogeological simulation of the multi-layered aquifer. The approach was found to be efficient in identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site including evapotranspiration, recharge, and regional groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interaction. Model results indicate that the water balance components reflect the episodic pattern of growing and non-growing seasons.

Farid-marandi, S.; Mohanty, B. P.

2011-12-01

23

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Walsh Landfill Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania (First Remedial Action), June 29, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 7-acre Walsh Landfill site encompasses an approximately 1.5-acre landfill and surrounding area in a heavily wooded region of Honeybrook Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. The landfill reportedly received mixed municipal and industrial wastes for ...

1990-01-01

24

A new method for environmental site assessment of urban solid waste landfills.  

PubMed

Regarding various types of pollutant, waste management requires high attention. Environmental site selection study, prior to landfill operation, and subsequently, monitoring and maintaining of the location, are of foremost points in landfill site selection process. By means of these studies, it is possible to control the undesirable impacts caused by landfills. Study ahead aims at examination of effectiveness of a new method called Monavari 95-2 in landfill site assessment. For this purpose, two landfills Rasht and Andisheh, which are, respectively, located on humid and arid areas, were selected as case studies. Then, the results obtained from both sites were compared with each other to find out the weaknesses and strengths of each site. Compared with others similar methods, much more criteria (53 parameters) can be considered within this method, so the results will be more calculable. According to this method, Rasht landfill (site H) is classified as unacceptable landfill site i.e. there is an urgent need for a new suitable site for landfill, while Andishe Landfill (site D) is ranked as acceptable landfill site but needs environmental management program to handle the existing weaknesses. PMID:21494828

Ghanbari, Fatemeh; Amin Sharee, Farham; Monavari, Masoud; Zaredar, Narges

2011-04-15

25

Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

1990-06-01

26

Selection of MSW landfill site for Konya, Turkey using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill is a common solution for the final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. Landfill siting is an extremely\\u000a difficult task to accomplish because the site selection process depends on different factors and regulations. To ensure that\\u000a an appropriate site is chosen, a systematic process should be developed and followed. Unsuccessful landfill siting is typically\\u000a the result of

Bilgehan Nas; Tayfun Cay; Fatih Iscan; Ali Berktay

2010-01-01

27

[Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].  

PubMed

Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented. PMID:22919857

Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

2012-05-01

28

Statistical trends in ground-water monitoring data at a landfill Superfund site: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of statistical regression models to characterize temporal trends in groundwater monitoring data collected between 1980 and 1990 on 15 wells and 13 parameters (195 cases in all) at the KL Avenue landfill site in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. This site was used as a municipal landfill prior to 1980, then was placed on the Superfund site

Michael R. Stoline; Richard N. Passero; Michael J. Barcelona

1993-01-01

29

Risk of adverse birth outcomes in populations living near landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with residence near landfill sites in Great Britain. Design Geographical study of risks of adverse birth outcomes in populations living within 2 km of 9565 landfill sites operational at some time between 1982 and 1997 (from a total of 19 196 sites) compared with those living further away. Setting Great

Paul Elliott; David Briggs; Sara Morris; Cornelis de Hoogh; Christopher Hurt; Tina Kold Jensen; Ian Maitland; Sylvia Richardson; Jon Wakefield; Lars Jarup

2001-01-01

30

Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

2010-11-15

31

Analysis of Integrated Expert Geographic Information Systems for Secured Landfill Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siting of secured landfill is difficult because of the complexity of technical and social aspects. Technically, the appropriate tool for secured landfill sites analysis should be applied in the siting procedure. This study aims at developing a comprehensive tool to facilitate the analysis of secured landfill sites. It integrates Geographic Information System (GIS), Expert System (ES) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) into a packaged tool. The GIS represents spatial data, ES represents a knowledge base about secured landfill siting, AHP was applied for ranking of candidate sites and a user interface was developed to make this tool a user-friendly graphical system. The use of this tool was illustrated by identifying suitable sites for secured landfill in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

Junggoth, Rittirong; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Pitaksanurat, Somsak; Kane, Kevin

32

Risk of Low Birth Weight near EUROHAZCON Hazardous Waste Landfill Sites in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated the occurrence of both low birth weight (LBW) and congenital anomalies in populations living near hazardous waste landfill sites. The authors investigated the risk of LBW near 10 English hazardous waste landfill sites included in a previous European study, which reported an increased risk of congenital anomalies. Odds ratios, adjusted for sex, deprivation, year of birth,

Oliver W. C. Morgan; Martine Vrijheid; Helen Dolk

2004-01-01

33

Exposure to heavy metals in children and adults living near a former waste landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A follow-up prevalence study was undertaken to determine if people who had lived for at least 1 y near. St. Julien Park (SJP), former waste landfill site in the city of London, Ontario, were absorbing more cadmium, lead, and manganese than residents of two demographically comparable communities that are free of waste landfill sites. All 115 children aged 4-10 y

R. J. Alder; R. Martin; D. Ogilvie; J. D. Pudden; N. J. Tuttle

2008-01-01

34

TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

35

Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected

R. M. Fruland; R. A. Hagan; C. S. Cline; D. J. Bates; J. C. Evans; R. L. Aaberg

1989-01-01

36

EFFECT OF SYNTHETIC LEACHATE ON THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF CLAYEY SOIL IN URMIA CITY LANDFILL SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of synthetic leachate on the hydraulic conductivity of a clayey soil in the Urmia city landfill site, Iran, was investigated using a triaxial permeability apparatus. The bladder accumulators were fabricated for flexible wall triaxial permeability apparatus to facilitate synthetic leachate permeation in the apparatus. The landfill soil was tested and classified as silty clayey sand (SM-SC) and did

K. BADV; A. OMIDI

37

Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.  

PubMed

Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

2006-07-01

38

Geoelectrical investigation of old\\/abandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old\\/abandoned landfill sites where the records of operations are not available. The

Maxwell A. Meju

2000-01-01

39

Fate of saline ions in a planted landfill site with leachate recirculation.  

PubMed

Recirculation of leachate on a covered landfill site planted with willows or other highly evapotranspirative woody plants is an inexpensive option for leachate management. In our study, a closed landfill leachate recirculation system was established on a rehabilitated municipal solid waste landfill site with planted landfill cover. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the sustainability of the system with regard to high hydraulic loads of the landfill leachate on the landfill cover and high concentrations of saline ions, especially potassium (K(+)), sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)), in leachate. The results of intensive monitoring, implemented during May 2004 and September 2007, including leachate, soil and plant samples, showed a high sustainability of the system regarding saline ions with the precipitation regime of the studied region. Saline ion concentrations in leachates varied between 132 and 2592mg Cl(-) L(-1), 69 and 1310mg Na(+) L(-1) and between 66 and 2156mg K(+) L(-1), with mean values of 1010, 632 and 686mg L(-1), respectively. Soil salinity, measured as soil electrical conductivity (EC), remained between 0.17 and 0.38mS cm(-1) at a depth between 0 and 90cm. An average annual precipitation of 1000mm provided sufficient leaching of saline ions, loaded by irrigation with landfill leachate, from the soil of the landfill cover and thus prevented possible salinity shocks to the planted willows. PMID:19796928

Loncnar, Mojca; Zupancic, Marija; Bukovec, Peter; Zupancic Justin, Maja

2009-09-30

40

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

Not Available

1985-09-30

41

Effects and fate of phenol in simulated landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenol was administered to landfill waste in concentrations from 150 to 1,000 ppm via the feed-liquor of lysimeter systems over an 18-week incubation period. Biotic contributions to phenol removal in the landfill waste were of greater significance than abiotic removal. The addition of phenol did not cause the isolation of thermophilic phenol degraders. Plates inoculated from the test lysimeter receiving

Brian Jonathan Tibbles; Albin Alexander Wladyslaw Baecker

1989-01-01

42

Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes near Landfill Sites in Cumbria, Northwest England, 1950-1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several researchers have addressed the risk of congenital anomaly in relation to proximity to landfill sites, few have considered the risks of stillbirth or neonatal death for mothers who reside near landfills. The authors studied all 4,325 stillbirths, 3,430 neonatal deaths, and 1,569 lethal congenital anomalies that occurred among 287,993 births to mothers residing in Cumbria, northwest England, during

Trevor J. B. Dummer; Heather O. Dickinson; Louise Parker

2003-01-01

43

Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill  

SciTech Connect

Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

Fruland, R.M.

1986-10-01

44

Applying Fuzzy logic and the point count system to select landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of solid waste is currently one of the major environmental problems facing municipalities. Thousands of tonnes\\u000a of waste are generated each day, requiring a large area for disposal purposes. It is difficult to find suitable areas for\\u000a the construction of such sanitary landfills as numerous criteria must be met, and landfill sites vary considerably in terms\\u000a of their

C. S. P. Ojha; Manish Kumar Goyal; Sunil Kumar

2007-01-01

45

Woodland establishment on closed old-style landfill sites in N.W. England  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale field experiment on 11 closed old-style landfill sites aims to identify the constraints to tree survival and growth, and the opportunity for restoration to community forestry. This paper analyses survival and growth during the first 3 years. A preliminary site investigation showed that the main environmental constraints to tree growth were soil depth, site exposure, soil compaction, waterlogging

Helen Rawlinson; Nicholas Dickinson; Paul Nolan; Philip Putwain

2004-01-01

46

Engineering geological aspects of replacing a solid waste disposal site with a sanitary landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current solid waste disposal site in the Mamak district of Ankara is being engulfed by the growing city. All varieties of solid wastes, including medical wastes, are stored at the present site in an irregular manner. Topographical and geological conditions at Mamak waste site are favorable for constructing a sanitary landfill. Located at the edge of a topographical depression,

Kamil Kayabali

1996-01-01

47

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa  

SciTech Connect

The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

48

Risk of Congenital Anomalies after the Opening of Landfill Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

government areas where complaints of smells occurred were significantly higher than rates in socioeconomically matched control areas, but this was the case before as well as after the landfill opened (Fielder et al. 2000b). We therefore carried out a new study to test the null hypothesis that the opening of new land- fills in Wales was not associated with increased

Stephen R. Palmer; Frank D. J. Dunstan; Hilary Fielder; David L. Fone; Gary Higgs; Martyn L. Senior

2005-01-01

49

Limited site investigation of Landfills 1 and 4, Fort Lewis, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The information presented in this report was collected during limited site investigation activities conducted in the vicinity of Landfills 1 and 4 at Fort Lewis. The purpose of this work was to provide a means of detecting and evaluating the impacts of these inactive landfills on ground-water quality and adjacent lands. This effort included the design and construction of ground-water monitoring systems for compliance with applicable federal and state regulations governing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-type landfills. Ground-water samples were collected from both existing (1981 and 1984) wells and the newly installed (1988) wells. The analytical results from the water samples indicate that the ground water in and around Landfill 1 contains limited contamination. Contaminants may include volatile organic compounds and nitrate. The primary concern in the area around Landfill 1 was the determination that ground water from two wells may contain cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. Nitrate levels in the downgradient wells were greater than those in upgradient wells and exceeded drinking water standards in some of the less-representative samples. Analyses of ground-water samples from wells in and around Landfill 4 indicate several contaminants may be present. These include volatile organic compounds (principally cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene), coliform, oil and grease, and perhaps some metals (iron and magnesium). The primary concern in the area around Landfill 4 was the determination that ground water from five wells contained cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. The source of contaminants beneath either landfill cannot yet be identified. Insufficient data exist to disprove or confirm either landfill as possible contributors. 19 refs., 32 figs., 17 tabs.

Last, G.V.; Eddy, P.A.; Airhart, S.P.; Olsen, K.R.; Raymond, J.R.; Dahl, D.R.

1990-08-01

50

An estimation of the social costs of landfill siting using a choice experiment.  

PubMed

This paper examines public preferences on siting landfills using a choice experiment. A choice experiment is a method that elicits public preferences directly through questionnaires. This paper focuses on possible negative effects of a hypothetical landfill siting on residents who are assumed to live around the landfill. The results of this analysis clearly show that the residents evaluate accepting waste originating from outside their community quite negatively, especially industrial waste originating from the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Large external costs also are seen for siting landfills near areas that are sources of drinking water. In addition, the results show that the NIMBY syndrome of the residents weakens as the hypothetical landfill site is farther away. Considering three hypothetical siting plans, external costs based on public preferences are estimated. The social costs, which are the sum of the private costs and external costs, are then calculated. The results of the case study indicate that the option with the lowest private cost it is not always the option with the lowest social cost. PMID:15381227

Sasao, Toshiaki

2004-01-01

51

Siting MSW landfills on Lesvos island with a GIS-based methodology.  

PubMed

The siting of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills in Greece is a difficult process due to land resource limitations, the country's mountainous, insular and primarily water permeable terrain as well as an exacerbated public opposition (NIMBY syndrome). A GIS-based methodology is presented here with the goal to identify and rank the candidate landfill sites for the entire island of Lesvos. The initial step of the methodology comprises a GIS-based spatial analysis that uses 10 criteria, by excluding all areas unsuitable for any waste disposal activity. The pre-selected areas are then further assessed by fieldwork and candidate landfill sites are determined. The candidate sites are ranked using 19 criteria with predefined weight coefficients on a 0 to 10 grading scale. The weight coefficients are estimated for each criterion using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), while the grading scheme is based on pre-defined guidelines. An overall suitability index is produced for each candidate site allowing comparison and best case selection. A case study for the island of Lesvos is presented here, in which eight candidate landfill sites were finally selected and ranked. Social factors highly determined the ultimate selection of the site in Lesvos, since the third rather than the first site suggested by the methodology, was finally approved by local authorities. PMID:12870646

Kontos, Themistoklis D; Komilis, Dimitrios P; Halvadakis, Constantinos R

2003-06-01

52

FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PHYTOREMEDIATION ALTERNATIVE FOR THE INDUSTRIAL EXCESS LANDFILL SITE IN STARK COUNTY, OHIO.  

EPA Science Inventory

Focused feasibility study of phytoremediation alternative for the Industrial Excess Landfill site in Stark County, Ohio. More information can be found on the NPL Fact Sheet for this site at www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/npl/ohio/OHD000377971.htm...

53

Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1993-02-19

54

Leaching of cadmium from pigmented plastics in a landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following concern over cadmium release to the environment, which has caused a ban on most cadmium-containing products in Sweden since July 1982, a two-phase study was undertaken of the leaching of cadmium from pigmented plastics disposed to landfill. Subjection of several pigmented plastics and related materials to a small-scale standardized leaching test indicated low cadmium releases and suggested that kinetic

David C. Wilson; Peter J. Young; Brinley C. Hudson; Grant Baldwin

1982-01-01

55

Combining stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation to select and rank inert landfill sites.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method based on the combination of stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation (SMCE) to first design possible sites for an inert landfill, and then rank them according to their suitability. The method was tested for the siting of an inert landfill in the Sarca's Plain, located in south-western Trentino, an alpine region in northern Italy. Firstly, stakeholder analysis was conducted to identify a set of criteria to be satisfied by new inert landfill sites. SMCE techniques were then applied to combine the criteria, and obtain a suitability map of the study region. Subsequently, the most suitable sites were extracted by taking into account also thresholds based on size and shape. These sites were then compared and ranked according to their visibility, accessibility and dust pollution. All these criteria were assessed through GIS modelling. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the results to assess the stability of the ranking with respect to variations in the input (criterion scores and weights). The study concluded that the three top-ranking sites are located close to each other, in the northernmost sector of the study area. A more general finding was that the use of different criteria in the different stages of the analysis allowed to better differentiate the suitability of the potential landfill sites. PMID:19853431

Geneletti, Davide

2009-10-22

56

GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill.  

PubMed

The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process. PMID:18060759

Sumathi, V R; Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

2007-12-03

57

Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C

V. A. Kelly; J. A. Beach; W. H. Statham; J. F. Pickens

1993-01-01

58

Municipal solid waste landfill site selection for the city of ?anliurfa-Turkey: an example using MCDA integrated with GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A municipal solid waste (MSW) management system needs solid waste management (SWM) techniques where the presence of a sanitary landfill is vital. One of the most important issues of sanitary landfilling is to locate the facility to an optimal location. Despite the versatility and case-dependent nature of conventional expert-based site selection procedures, the number of sites to be chosen increases

M. Irfan Yesilnacar; M. Lütfi Süzen; Ba?ak ?ener Kaya; Vedat Doyuran

2012-01-01

59

Municipal solid waste landfill site selection for the city of ?anliurfa-Turkey: an example using MCDA integrated with GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A municipal solid waste (MSW) management system needs solid waste management (SWM) techniques where the presence of a sanitary landfill is vital. One of the most important issues of sanitary landfilling is to locate the facility to an optimal location. Despite the versatility and case-dependent nature of conventional expert-based site selection procedures, the number of sites to be chosen increases

M. Irfan Yesilnacar; M. Lütfi Süzen; Ba?ak ?ener Kaya; Vedat Doyuran

2011-01-01

60

Evaluation of methodologies for exposure assessment to atmospheric pollutants from a landfill site.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies around landfill sites are limited by several factors, particularly a lack of accurate exposure assessment. Traditionally, exposure estimates are based on distance between place of residence and the landfill site. However, this measure of exposure ignores the effects that environmental factors may have upon exposure. A previous epidemiological study at a landfill site in the United Kingdom provided the basis for a case study to investigate exposure assessment methodologies that could support ongoing and future epidemiological work. Estimation of relative exposure to atmospheric pollutants near the site was refined using the Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS) 3.1. Annual average concentrations were calculated around the landfill site, which was modeled as an area source with a steady release rate over its entire active surface. Local meteorological and terrain data were used in the assessment. A geographical information system (GIS) was then used to link the results of the modeling to population and other data. Sensitivity studies were included to examine the variation of predicted exposure with several modeling assumptions and hence set other uncertainties in context. No simple relationship existed between the relative individual exposure measured by distance from the site and by dispersion modeling. A reassessment of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies around landfill sites was then undertaken with the refined estimates of exposure. This concluded that use of distance from the site as a proxy for exposure could lead to significant exposure misclassification in comparison with exposure assessment using atmospheric dispersion modeling and GIS. The study also indicated that assessment of peak exposure rates (i.e., extreme concentration levels) might be necessary in some epidemiological work. Optimum strategies for increasing the probability of observing effects in the more highly exposed population can be derived by combining the results of dispersion modeling with population data and, where feasible, knowledge of the toxicology of the substances of interest. PMID:19418822

Mohan, Richard; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Robins, Alan; Jefferis, Stephan; Coy, Joanne; Wight, Jeremy; Murray, Virginia

2009-04-01

61

Assessment of air pollutant emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site (Chania, Greece).  

PubMed

Air pollutants emitted from landfills affect air quality, contribute to the greenhouse effect and may cause serious problems to human health under certain circumstances. The current study was focused on the determination of air emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site which is located in the Akrotiri area (Chania, Greece). The landfill consists of two phases, phase A (first phase) which is currently closed (operational between 2003 and 2007) and phase B (second phase, operation between 2007 and (foreseen) 2013). Three different emission models (the EPA LandGEM model, the triangular model and the stoichiometric model) were used for the quantification of emissions. The LandGEM 3.02 software was further adopted and used in conjunction with the long-term dispersion model ISC3-LT for the evaluation of the dispersion of gaseous chemical components from the landfill. The emission and meteorological conditions under which the models were applied were based on the worst-case emission scenario. Furthermore, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide, vinyl chloride and benzene were determined in and around the landfill site. The concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and benzene were calculated to be far below the limit value proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for human health safety. However, the vinyl chloride concentrations were above the WHO reference lifetime exposure health criteria for the phase B area. PMID:19942647

Chalvatzaki, E; Lazaridis, M

2009-11-26

62

Mathematical modeling of heavy metals contamination from MSW landfill site in Khon Kaen, Thailand.  

PubMed

Kham Bon landfill site is one of many municipality waste disposal sites in Thailand which are in an unsanitary condition. The site has been receiving municipality wastes without separating hazardous waste since 1968. Heavy metals including, Pb, Cr and Cd are found in soil and groundwater around the site, posing a health risk to people living nearby. In this research, contamination transport modelling of Pb, Cr and Cd was simulated using MODFLOW for two periods, at the present (2010) and 20 years prediction (2030). Model results showed that heavy metals, especially Pb and Cr migrated toward the north-eastern and south-eastern direction. The 20 years prediction showed that, heavy metals tend to move from the top soil to the deeper aquifer. The migration would not exceed 500 m radius from the landfill centre in the next 20 years, which is considered to be a slow process. From the simulation model, it is recommended that a mitigation measure should be performed to reduce the risk from landfill contamination. Hazardous waste should be separated for proper management. Groundwater contamination in the aquifer should be closely monitored. Consumption of groundwater in a 500 m radius must be avoided. In addition, rehabilitation of the landfill site should be undertaken to prevent further mobilization of pollutants. PMID:22020476

Tantemsapya, N; Naksakul, Y; Wirojanagud, W

2011-01-01

63

Spatio-temporal evolution of biogeochemical processes at a landfill site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictions of fate and transport of contaminants are strongly dependent on spatio-temporal variability of soil hydraulic and geochemical properties. This study focuses on time-series signatures of hydrological and geochemical properties at different locations within the Norman landfill site. Norman Landfill is a closed municipal landfill site with prevalent organic contamination. Monthly data at the site include specific conductance, ?18O, ?2H, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate) from 1998-2006. Column scale data on chemical concentrations, redox gradients, and flow parameters are also available on daily and hydrological event (infiltration, drainage, etc.) scales. Since high-resolution datasets of contaminant concentrations are usually unavailable, Wavelet and Fourier analyses were used to infer the dominance of different biogeochemical processes at different spatio-temporal scales and to extract linkages between transport and reaction processes. Results indicate that time variability controls the progression of reactions affecting biodegradation of contaminants. Wavelet analysis suggests that iron-sulfide reduction reactions had high seasonal variability at the site, while fermentation processes dominated at the annual time scale. Findings also suggest the dominance of small spatial features such as layered interfaces and clay lenses in driving biogeochemical reactions at both column and landfill scales. A conceptual model that caters to increased understanding and remediating structurally heterogeneous variably-saturated media is developed from the study.

Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

2011-12-01

64

Source Apportionment Of Groundwater Pollution Around Landfill Site In Nagpur, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work attempts statistical analysis of groundwater quality near a Landfill site in Nagpur, India. The objective of the present work is to figure out the impact of different factors on the quality of groundwater in the study area. Statistical analysis of the data has been attempted by applying Factor Analysis concept. The analysis brings out the effect of

Paras R. Pujari; Vijaya Deshpande

2005-01-01

65

Superfund Record of Decision Amendment (EPA Region 5): Metamora Landfill Site, Metamora, MI., August 28, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is changing a portion of the remedy selected in the operable unit one (OU1) Record of Decision (ROD) dated September 30, 1986, for the Metamora Landfill Site. Operable Unit 1 ROD (OU1 ROD) addre...

1996-01-01

66

16S rRNA based T-RFLP analysis of methane oxidising bacteria—Assessment, critical evaluation of methodology performance and application for landfill site cover soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanotrophic bacteria have a ubiquitous distribution in the environment and play an important role in global climate warming by lowering methane emission into the atmosphere. Globally, landfill sites produce about 10% of the methane entering the atmosphere, and soils above landfill sites have been shown to contain methanotrophic populations with the highest methane oxidation capacity measured.Landfill site simulating lysimeters were

Nancy Stralis-Pavese; Levente Bodrossy; Thomas G. Reichenauer; Alexandra Weilharter; Angela Sessitsch

2006-01-01

67

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Duell-Gardner Landfill Site, Muskegon County, MI., September 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Duell-Gardner Landfill Site in Muskegon County, Michigan. This final remedy addresses contaminated groundwater and contaminated soil associated with the Duell-Gardner site.

1993-01-01

68

Health Assessment for Metamora Landfill Site, Lapeer County, Metamora Township, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980506562.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metamora Landfill, listed on the National Priorities List is an 25-acre closed landfill that accepted industrial and municipal waste beginning in 1966 until its closure in 1980. Contaminants in on-site groundwater consists of lead (63 ppb), arsenic (260 p...

1989-01-01

69

Seismic refraction studies at the Painter Street bridge site, Rio Dell, California  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of seismic refraction P- and S-wave measurements, at the site of the Painter Street bridge, in Rio Dell, California. The bridge is spanning highway US 101, 4 miles south of Fortuna, in northwestern California. This study was performed to provide an estimate of material properties for the foundation of the bridge, in support of a seismic stability analysis of the bridge performed at LLNL by D. McCallen. The Rio Dell region is seismically active and the Painter Street bridge is one of only 2 bridges of its type in California, instrumented for strong motion recordings. Measurements were made using a 12-channel Geometric/Nimbus ES 1210 Signal Enhancement Seismograph. 3 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.

1991-09-01

70

Application of raster-based GIS techniques in the siting of landfills in Trabzon Province, Turkey: a case study.  

PubMed

One of the most important steps in solid waste management is the selection of an appropriate landfill site. The site selection process requires the evaluation and analysis of several criteria. However, the traditional evaluation method is not sufficient for the site selection process. Geographical information system (GIS) technologies are effectively used in the process of site selection, which is a spatial problem. This article describes a raster GIS-based landfill site selection (LSS) method. This method utilizes a raster-based spatial database in which the factors affect the landfill site selection. The final product in this method is the cost surface map showing pixel-based values of the appropriate areas. Furthermore, this GIS-based LSS method was applied for the evaluation of two landfill sites in Trabzon Province in Turkey, for which the traditional evaluation method for site selection was used. The suitability values on the cost surface map of these two landfills have shown that these sites are not appropriate for a solid waste landfill. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the method of raster GIS-based site selection gives more effective results than traditional methods. PMID:22605022

Yildirim, Volkan

2012-05-17

71

76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street...County, CO AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...between the United States Environmental Protection Agency...Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms...

2011-02-23

72

Respiratory and general health impairments of workers employed in a municipal solid waste disposal at an open landfill site in Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the respiratory and general health of workers employed in a municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal at an open landfill site in India. Ninety-six landfill workers of Okhla landfill site, Delhi, and 90 controls matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic conditions were enrolled. Health data was obtained from questionnaire surveys, clinical examination and

Manas Ranjan Ray; Sanghita Roychoudhury; Gopeshwar Mukherjee; Senjuti Roy; Twisha Lahiri

2005-01-01

73

Landfill bioreactor design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

Reinhart, D.R. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Townsend, T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-12-31

74

Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to detect any true dose–response effect.

Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

2002-01-01

75

Methane emissions at nine landfill sites in the northeastern United States  

SciTech Connect

Methane emissions were measured at nine US landfill sites using chamber and/or tracer flux techniques. These flux measurement methodologies were compared at two sites, and excellent agreement was observed. Total methane emissions ranged from 540 to 30 100 L min[sup [minus]1]. Expressed on an area basis, methane fluxes ranged from a low of 9.1 g of CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] at a closed 20-ha site with active gas recovery to 130 g of CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] at a 23-ha active site with no gas recovery. Methane emission factors were calculated for seven of the nine sites. The two sites with no active gas recovery exhibited the highest emission factors of 4.8 and 5.1. Values were significantly lower at three sites with partial gas recovery, ranging from 1.6 to 3.7. At the two closed sites with active gas recovery, emission factors were much lower still. It is evident that even partial gas recovery at active landfill sites can significantly reduce methane emissions, and gas recovery at closed, covered sites reduces methane emissions to the atmosphere by as much as a factor of 10.

Mosher, B.W.; Czepiel, P.M.; Harriss, R.C. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Complex Systems Research Center); Shorter, J.H.; Kolb, C.E.; McManus, J.B. (Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Atmospheric and Environmental Chemistry); Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.K. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

1999-06-15

76

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait. PMID:14583244

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-01-01

77

Chemical characterization of odorous gases at a landfill site by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of odorous gases emitted from a municipal landfill in the city of Izmir, Turkey was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and these data were examined in relation with the odor concentrations. Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified and quantified at five sampling sites in May and September 2005. Detected VOCs were monoaromatics (0.09–47.42?gm?3), halogenated compounds (0.001–62.91?gm?3), aldehydes

Faruk Dincer; Mustafa Odabasi; Aysen Muezzinoglu

2006-01-01

78

Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: A synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.  

PubMed

The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700 m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ?4.0 €/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region. PMID:23792820

Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

2013-06-20

79

Radiological survey results for the Peek Street site properties, Schenectady, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Peek Street Industrial Facility, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York, was operated by the General Electric Company for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1947 and 1955. A variety of operations using radioactive materials were conducted at the site, but the main activities were to design an intermediate breeder reactor and to develop a chemical process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent reactor fuel. Nonradioactive beryllium metal was machined on the site for breeder reactor application. The 4.5-acre site was decommissioned and released in October 1955. A radiological survey was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 1989. The survey included scan and grid point measurements of direct radiation levels outdoors on the five properties and inside the factory building, and radionuclide analysis of samples collected from each property. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in outdoor surface and subsurface soil samples from each property and in dust, debris, and structural materials from inside the factory building. Auger holes were logged to assess location and extent of possible subsurface residual soil radioactivity. Radionuclide concentrations were deter-mined in both indoor and outdoor water samples and in selected samples of vegetation. The presence of fixed and transferable surface residual radioactivity was investigated inside the factory building and on discarded materials outdoors on the property. High-volume air samples as well as additional selected indoor and outdoor soil samples were analyzed to determine levels of elemental beryllium.

Foley, R.D.; Cottrell, W.D.; Carrier, R.F.

1992-08-01

80

Geophysical surveys integrated in preremedial site investigations for a landfill in New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Surface geophysical surveys were integrated in a preremedial site investigative program at a landfill in New Mexico belonging to the Bureau of Land Management. The purpose of this program was not only to conduct the investigation but also to establish a sound technical framework for future site investigations in that geologic and hydrogeologic setting. The emphasis was on identifying initial characterization procedures that would decrease the need for sampling and drilling on a random grid. A prior preliminary assessment and site investigation indicated the presence of some hazardous waste compounds but yielded contradictory information about the locations of trenches and pits.

Burton, J.; McGinnis, L.; Walker, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hoekstra, P.; Blohm, M. [Blackhawk Geosciences, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1994-04-01

81

Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay\\/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the

Leif R. Griffin; Thomas L. Rutherford

1994-01-01

82

Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.

2007-04-01

83

Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds  

SciTech Connect

A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of the landfill on top of preexisting waste beds on the shores of Onondaga Lake. The results of groundwater monitoring over a one-year period indicate no detectable chromium from the metal-waste leachate escaping through the soda ash wastes. Retention ofhexavalent chromium within the underlying highly alkaline soda ash wastes by adsorption, reduction, and precipitation suggests a viable means for in situ treatment of several metals-manufacturing waste products.

Rinaldo-Lee, M.B.; Diffendorf, A.F.; Hagarman, J.A.

1983-03-01

84

An Evaluation of Techniques to Control Problem Bird Species on Landfill Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques — pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites — at deterring three commonly recorded species — the Black-headed Gull ( Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull ( Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull ( Larus fuscus) — from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used.

Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

2008-06-01

85

Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL\\/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil,

Jennifer L. Gutzeit; Ellen P. Kennedy; Bruce N. Bjornstad; Michael R. Sackschewsky; James J. Sharpe; Ranae DeMaris; M. Venno; James R. Christensen

2011-01-01

86

Feasibility of direct on-site conversion of landfill gas to electrical energy at Scholl Canyon landfill, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical and economic feasibility of direct onsite conversion of landfill gas into electrical energy for distribution through the municipal company's distribution grid is described. The various approaches are evaluated. Each system looked at the preliminary collection system layout, type of processing, and conversion equipment required, conversion efficiencies, total system costs, total energy output per input landfill gas, and overall economic comparisons between alternatives. This led to the selection of the internal combustion engine. The legal constraints on interdepartmental transfers of money and resources, city procedures for coordination between the public works department and public services, procedures for facility operation, and an environmental assessment of each alternative were investigated.

Lofy, R. J.

1981-06-01

87

GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

Zelenovi? Vasiljevi?, Tamara; Srdjevi?, Zorica; Baj?eti?, Ratko; Vojinovi? Miloradov, Mirjana

2012-02-01

88

Colloid and heavy metal transport at landfill sites in direct contact with groundwater.  

PubMed

Colloids are ubiquitous in aquatic systems and are suspected of facilitating contaminant transport. At sites where the disposed waste is in direct contact with ground water, two main prerequisites for colloidal transport are fulfilled: these two prerequisites are a high concentration of colloids and many different contaminants, some that are very unlikely to be transported in an aqueous solution. In our investigation, three landfill sites with different historical background and hydrogeological conditions were examined. The colloids upstream, downstream, and inside the waste disposal sites were characterized with respect to their size distribution and chemical composition. The particle concentration upgradient and downgradient of the sites were 2-23 and 8-80 mg/L, respectively. Inside the waste disposal sites the particle concentration was 160-870 mg/L. The particles upgradient reflected the mineral composition of the aquifer, with calcareous colloids and silicates dominating the composition. Downgradient of the sites, we saw an increase of iron-precipitates and salt colloids, together with organic colloids. However, the downgradient colloids were significantly different from the colloids and particles inside of the disposal sites with respect to their size and chemical composition. Colloids inside the disposal sites reflected the waste composition and degradation. The association of heavy metal ions to colloids and particles showed a surprisingly high fraction of dissolved metal ions. We determined that the lowest metal ion concentrations (less than 20% of the total concentration) were associated with the colloid size class between 10 nm and 1 microm, which is considered most mobile in porous systems. The association of Fe and Mn to colloids was dominated by the redox conditions inside the disposal sites, where there was a reducing environment, Fe and Mn were dissolved. Outside the disposal sites, where there was an oxidizing environment, these metals formed colloids and particles >1 microm. Together with these particles, As was precipitating. For other metal ions (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), we determined an association to colloids coinciding roughly with the colloid size distribution. The results suggest that the change of hydrochemical conditions at the interface, from a reducing, high ionic strength environment inside of the disposal sites to an oxidizing, low ionic strength environment in the groundwater together with physical filtration effects for the larger particles, is an effective chemical barrier for colloids. Field observations suggest, that the colloids form a rather persistent coating around the aquifer matrix that reduces the hydraulic conductivity and enhances the sorption capacity of the aquifer close to the waste disposal sites. In every case, there was an increase of the contaminant concentrations downstream of the waste disposal sites, but the increase was less than expected from the initial transport calculations, which were under the assumption that there was a direct contact between the waste disposal site and the groundwater. It seems more than likely, that under the given conditions, colloids are contributing to a self sealing layer at the landfill bottom. The results of this study are relevant for the assessment of many landfills without appropriate landfill sealing systems. PMID:16820185

Baumann, Thomas; Fruhstorfer, Peter; Klein, Thorsten; Niessner, Reinhard

2006-07-03

89

Work plan for the radiological survey for the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 site, Knoxville, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This work plan establishes the methods and requirements for performing a radiological survey at the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee (DWI 1630 Site) in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The radiological survey will identify the radiological contamination level of the equipment and debris stored at the DWI 1630 Site. The data generated from the survey activities will support the decisions for characterization of the equipment/debris and aid in subsequent disposition and waste handling. The survey activities to be performed under this work plan include an equipment radiological survey, a walkover survey, and an immunoassay testing for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This work plan includes a quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) project plan, a health and safety (H&S) plan, and a waste management plan.

NONE

1996-07-01

90

An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.  

PubMed

Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155

Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

2012-04-13

91

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce.

Anwar F. Al Yaqout; Anwar F

2003-01-01

92

Detection of novel Fibrobacter populations in landfill sites and determination of their relative abundance via quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Members of the bacterial genus Fibrobacter have long been considered important components of the anaerobic cellulolytic community in the herbivore gut, but their presence and activity in other environments is largely unknown. In this study, a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set, targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Fibrobacter spp., was applied to community DNA from five landfill sites followed by temporal thermal gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of cloned amplification products. Phylogenetic analysis of clone sequences indicated the presence of novel clusters closely related to the genus Fibrobacter. There are two named species, Fibrobacter succinogenes and F. intestinalis, and only two of the 58 sequenced clones were identified with them, and both were F. succinogenes. The clone sequences from landfill were recovered in five distinct clusters within the Fibrobacter lineage, and four of these were novel. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays of reverse-transcribed community RNA from landfill leachates and rumen fluid samples indicated that the abundance of Fibrobacter spp. relative to total bacteria varied from 0.2% to 40% in landfill, and 21% to 32% in the rumen, and these data demonstrate that fibrobacters can be a significant component of the microbial community in landfill ecosystems. This is the first evidence for Fibrobacter spp. outside the gut ecosystem, and as the only cultivated representatives of this group are actively cellulolytic, their diversity and abundance points to a possible role in cellulose hydrolysis in landfill, and perhaps other anaerobic environments also. PMID:18266756

McDonald, James E; Lockhart, Robert J; Cox, Michael J; Allison, Heather E; McCarthy, Alan J

2008-02-05

93

Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach  

SciTech Connect

There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

Poskas, P.; Kilda, R. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania); Poskas, G. [Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2008-07-01

94

The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design.

McMullin, S.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J. [RUST Environment and Infrastructure (United States)

1993-10-01

95

Spatial and multi-criteria decision analysis-based methodology for landfill site selection in growing urban regions.  

PubMed

The construction of landfills is not an alternative option, since a landfill is always a necessary component of the specific waste management system that will be developed. One of the serious and growing potential problems in large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. In solid waste management programmes, use of geographic information systems (GIS) is a very significant tool because the selection of a suitable site is a very time-consuming process. The analytic hierarchy process in GIS provides objective mathematics to process the subjective preferences of individuals or groups and arrive at a decision. The present paper describes a spatial methodology which comprised several methods, such as multi-criteria analysis, that originate in different scientific fields. The final goal of the methodology was to evaluate the suitability of the studied area (Trabzon, NE Turkey) in order to optimally select a landfill site. Different constraint maps were overlaid with spatial analysis modules to obtain a final suitability map for Trabzon City and five suitable areas were identified. An analytic hierarchy process was applied to select the most suitable solid waste disposal site for municipal waste in the city among these alternative candidate sites. The Düzyurt area was found to be the most suitable solid waste disposal site. However, geotechnical investigations indicated that some remedial measures would be needed before this landfill site could be used. PMID:19423606

Ersoy, Hakan; Bulut, Fikri

2009-05-07

96

Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site  

SciTech Connect

Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Griffin, L.R. (Parametrix, Inc., Bremerton, WA (United States)); Rutherford, T.L. (Black Veatch Waste Science Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States))

1994-08-01

97

Assessment of ecological risks at former landfill site using TRIAD procedure and multicriteria analysis.  

PubMed

Old industrial landfills are important sources of environmental contamination in Europe, including Finland. In this study, we demonstrated the combination of TRIAD procedure, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), and statistical Monte Carlo analysis for assessing the risks to terrestrial biota in a former landfill site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and metals. First, we generated hazard quotients by dividing the concentrations of metals and PHCs in soil by the corresponding risk-based ecological benchmarks. Then we conducted ecotoxicity tests using five plant species, earthworms, and potworms, and determined the abundance and diversity of soil invertebrates from additional samples. We aggregated the results in accordance to the methods used in the TRIAD procedure, conducted rating of the assessment methods based on their performance in terms of specific criteria, and weighted the criteria using two alternative weighting techniques to produce performance scores for each method. We faced problems in using the TRIAD procedure, for example, the results from the animal counts had to be excluded from the calculation of integrated risk estimates (IREs) because our reference soil sample showed the lowest biodiversity and abundance of soil animals. In addition, hormesis hampered the use of the results from the ecotoxicity tests. The final probabilistic IREs imply significant risks at all sampling locations. Although linking MCDA with TRIAD provided a useful means to study and consider the performance of the alternative methods in predicting ecological risks, some uncertainties involved still remained outside the quantitative analysis. PMID:22762796

Sorvari, Jaana; Schultz, Eija; Haimi, Jari

2012-07-04

98

Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation.  

PubMed

The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p<0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders - technicians, politicians and citizens - all have to be part of the decision process when siting a new waste management facility. The opinions of the young respondents were significantly influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. PMID:24054780

Feo, Giovanni De; Williams, Ian D

2013-09-18

99

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Oak Grove Sanitary Landfill Site, Anoka County, Minnesota (First Remedial Action), September 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Grove Sanitary Landfill covers 45 to 50 acres in Oak Grove Township, Anoka County, Minnesota, approximately 38 miles northwest of St. Paul. There are 249 people that live within 1 mile of the site and 6,786 reside within 4 miles. The majority of t...

1988-01-01

100

Ground-Water Quality near a Sewage-Sludge Recycling Site and a Landfill near Denver, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the City and County of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the gro...

S. G. Robson

1977-01-01

101

Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site – Part 1. Planning and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Magenta Shores development fronts 2.3 km of Tuggerah Beach on a formerly sand mined and landfill site in an urban growth area on the central coast of New South Wales. To increase the natural defences against storm waves and mass sand movements, the incipient foredune was retained and the parallel beach ridge landform was re-established by mimicking natural processes.

Pamela Hazelton; AnneMarie Clements

2009-01-01

102

A two-level multicriteria DSS for Landfill Site Selection Using GIS: Case Study in Western Macedonia, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in waste management is concerned with the selection appropriate site for the waste disposal. Leakage from landfills and lagoons usually contain significant amounts of contaminants such as ammonia, nitrate, chloride and metals. These contaminants may reach aquifers, degrade the water resource, and become hazardous to human health. In this paper a two-stage, multicriteria evaluation is

K. Vatalis; O. Manoliadis

2002-01-01

103

Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The

Bruce R. Kinzey; Michael Myer

2009-01-01

104

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Wingate Road Municipal Incinerator Dump amd Landfill Site, Fort Lauderdale, Broward County, FL, May 14, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Wingate Road Site in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This remedy addresses the principal threat remaining at the site by capping the landfill.

NONE

1996-10-01

105

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL  

SciTech Connect

During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

2003-02-27

106

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Commencement Bay - South Tacoma Channel, Tacoma Landfill Site, Tacoma, Washington (Final Remedial Action) March 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commencement Bay/Tacoma site is a 190-acre industrial/municipal landfill located in Tacoma, Pierce County, Washington. The landfill is operated by the City of Tacoma Refuse Utility and is surrounded primarily by residential development and open land, ...

1988-01-01

107

Immunotoxicological properties of airborne particles at landfill, urban and rural sites and their relation to microbial concentrations.  

PubMed

We investigated the immunotoxicological activity of airborne particles in three different environments during 11 months. Specifically, we analyzed the relation of the immunotoxicological activity to microbial concentrations. During the study period, samples from a landfill, an urban and a rural site were collected on filters once a month. The immunotoxicological characteristics of collected particle samples were studied by exposing mouse macrophages (RAW264.7), and measuring the viability and production of inflammatory mediators i.e. nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 after 24 hours. In addition, the results were compared to corresponding microbial concentrations measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the same sites. The particles collected from the landfill caused significantly more toxicity and inflammatory responses than the particles from other sites. The immunotoxicological activity of the samples changed according to the season, being the lowest in all study sites in the winter. In the rural and urban sites the responses peaked during the spring, whereas at the landfill the highest responses were detected towards the fall. All immunotoxic responses correlated strongly with airborne microbial concentrations at the landfill, whereas on the other sites the correlations were weaker. These results indicate that the overall immunotoxicological activity of the particles is increased in waste handling area with a heavy microbial load. The activity of the samples collected from different sites changes according to the season being at their lowest at wintertime. At the waste center, the immunotoxicological responses are related with concentrations of microbes, whereas at rural area and city center other factors seem to govern the toxicity of the sample. PMID:20431840

Huttunen, Kati; Kaarakainen, Pasi; Meklin, Teija; Nevalainen, Aino; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

2010-04-30

108

Field Performance of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final cover At A Humid Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA to evaluate how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a landfill final cover changed over a 4-yr service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed CE Database subject headings: landfill, hydrogeology, compacted soils, lysimeters, desiccation continuous monitoring of

William H. Albright; Craig H. Benson; Glendon W. Gee; Tarek Abichou; Eric V. Mcdonald; Scott W. Tyler; Steven Rock

2006-01-01

109

Development of surface-process models and correspondence principles for geophysical anomalies Geoelectrical investigation of oldrabandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old raban- doned landfill sites where the records of operations are not

Maxwell A. Meju

110

Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

2009-11-01

111

The distributions of BTEX compounds in the ambient atmosphere of the Nan-Ji-Do abandoned landfill site in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the concentrations of major aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which include benzene, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, and ethylbenzene were measured at the Nan-Ji-Do (NJD) landfill site during the spring and fall season of 2000. According to our study, the mean (and median) concentration values for these VOC species were computed to be 1.65 (1.12)ppb for benzene, 9.62

Ki-Hyun Kim; Min-Young Kim

2002-01-01

112

TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

Hasbrouck, J.C.

1993-09-01

113

Leachate Recycle Management and Pollutant Loading Strategy at Codisposal Landfill Sites: A Special Research Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior and fate of selected inorganic and organic priority pollutants codisposed with municipal solid waste in simulated landfills operated with either single pass leaching or leachate recirculation, and, th...

S. F. Tyahla

1989-01-01

114

Assessment of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material for odour control at landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material to reduce the odorous emissions associated with landfill surfaces was investigated. Trials were carried out using landfill gas, a certified sulphurous gas mix and ambient air as a control. Odorous gas was passed through portable test column filled with compost at different densities (590kg\\/m3 and 740kg\\/m3). Gas samples were

Claire Hurst; Philip Longhurst; Simon Pollard; Richard Smith; Bruce Jefferson; Jan Gronow

2005-01-01

115

Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old\\/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas.Previous research

S. A.. Dever; G. E.. Swarbrick; R. M.. Stuetz

2007-01-01

116

Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: what is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?  

PubMed

Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1). Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery. PMID:16198554

Spokas, K; Bogner, J; Chanton, J P; Morcet, M; Aran, C; Graff, C; Golvan, Y Moreau-Le; Hebe, I

2005-09-29

117

Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

2007-04-25

118

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

119

Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application.  

PubMed

Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts>biosolids>biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2-2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha(-1)yr(-1)Mg(-1) biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C. PMID:23380138

Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Naidu, R

2013-02-04

120

National Evaluation of the Safe Kids/Safe Streets Program: Final Report. Volume 2. Case Studies of the Safe Kids/Safe Streets Demonstration Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many studies suggest that child abuse and neglect are risk factors for the development of juvenile delinquency and other problem behaviors. The Safe Kids/Safe Streets (SK/SS) program is designed to break the cycle by funding community collaboratives to un...

D. Schultz F. Gragg K. Eisen R. Cronin

2004-01-01

121

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Commencement Bay - South Tacoma Channel, Tacoma Landfill Site, Tacoma, Washington (final remedial action) March 1988. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Commencement Bay/Tacoma site is a 190-acre industrial/municipal landfill located in Tacoma, Pierce County, Washington. The landfill is operated by the City of Tacoma Refuse Utility and is surrounded primarily by residential development and open land, with some commercial and industrial development. Several utilities (i.e., sewer, water, and storm) pass through the site. An aquifer beneath the site provides drinking water to the Town of Fircrest and the City of Tacoma, both of which have wells near the landfill. The Tacoma landfill began operations in 1960, receiving only nonhazardous wastes and bulk waste. Although the landfill does not accept hazardous wastes for disposal, it did receive wastes in the 1960s and 1970s that have since been designated as hazardous substances. In 1983, investigations by EPA revealed the presence of hazardous compounds in the ground water and soil near the landfill. The primary contaminants affecting the ground water and surface water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, and xylenes. The selected remedial action for this site is given.

Not Available

1988-03-31

122

An Integrated Approach to Determine Ground-water Surface Water Flux in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System at the Norman Landfill Research Site, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area of research in progress at the Norman Landfill Research Site in Oklahoma involves a small wetland that overlies a landfill leachate plume. The wetland-aquifer system actively exchanges contaminants and nutrients. These chemicals move from the wetland to the aquifer and vice versa depending on the ground- water\\/surface-water exchange rate and flow direction. The ground-water\\/surface-water flow has to be

I. Mendoza-Sanchez; M. Phanikumar; J. T. McGuire; J. Masoner; I. Cozzarelli

2008-01-01

123

Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.  

PubMed

Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability. PMID:22878933

Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

2012-08-09

124

Assessment of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material for odour control at landfill sites.  

PubMed

The ability of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material to reduce the odorous emissions associated with landfill surfaces was investigated. Trials were carried out using landfill gas, a certified sulphurous gas mix and ambient air as a control. Odorous gas was passed through portable test column filled with compost at different densities (590 kg/m3 and 740 kg/m3). Gas samples were taken from the inlet, outlet and at varying column depths and examined using a combination of sensory analysis (olfactometry) and a novel analytical method (Transportable Selected Ion Flow Tube--TSIFT). Results for the trials using landfill gas showed a 69% odour reduction (OU/m3) through the column for compost with a bulk density of 590 kg/m3, and a reduction of 97% using compost with a bulk density of 740 kg/m3. TSIFT analysis showed an overall decrease in the concentration of terpenes, and sulphurous compounds in the outlet gas from the column for both bulk densities. No significant trend could be identified for the concentrations at different depths within the column. Results show the ability of compost to reduce landfill odours under differing conditions. The inconclusive data provided by TSIFT analysis may be due to the analysis of compounds that are not contributing to odour, and thus highlights the potential for synergetic effects and the importance of sensory measurement when examining odorous emissions. PMID:15701404

Hurst, Claire; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Smith, Richard; Jefferson, Bruce; Gronow, Jan

2005-05-01

125

Landfill disposal systems  

PubMed Central

The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. ImagesFIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 7.

Slimak, Karen M.

1978-01-01

126

Landfill disposal systems.  

PubMed

The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated.A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. PMID:738247

Slimak, K M

1978-12-01

127

Hydrological Perturbations Drive Biogeochemical Processes in Experimental Soil Columns from the Norman Landfill Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fate and transport of contaminants in saturated and unsaturated zones is governed by biogeochemical processes that are complex and non-linearly coupled to each other. A fundamental understanding of the interactions between transport and reaction processes is essential to better characterize contaminant movement in the subsurface. The objectives of this study are to: i) develop quantitative relationships between hydrological (initial and boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity ratio, and soil layering), geochemical (mineralogy, surface area, redox potential, and organic matter) and microbiological factors (MPN) that alter the biogeochemical processes, and ii) characterize the effect of hydrologic perturbations on coupled processes occurring at the column scale. The perturbations correspond to rainfall intensity, duration of wet and dry conditions, and water chemistry (pH). Soils collected from two locations with significantly different geochemistry at the Norman landfill site are used in this study. Controlled flow experiments were conducted on: i) two homogeneous soil columns, ii) a layered soil column, iii) a soil column with embedded clay lenses, and iv) a soil column with embedded clay lenses and one central macropore. Experimental observations showed enhanced biogeochemical activity at the interface of the layered and lensed columns over the texturally homogeneous soil columns. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important processes were microbial reduction of Fe(III) and SO42-, and oxidation of reduced products in the columns. Modeling results from HP1 indicate least redox activity in the homogeneous sand column while the structurally heterogeneous columns utilize oxygen and nitrate from recharge as well as iron sulfide minerals already present in the columns as electron acceptors. Furthermore, the interface of the layered and lensed soil columns acts as a hotspot of biogeochemical activity due to increased transport timescale as a result of reduced hydraulic conductivity of loam and clay in these columns. Although the coupled HP1 model was able to effectively capture redox dynamics in the experimental soil columns, findings suggest the need to incorporate: i) reduction in hydraulic conductivity due to the formation of iron sulfide precipitates, and ii) transport of aqueous iron sulfide clusters observed in all columns except homogeneous sand in such contaminant fate and transport models. Results indicate that textural differences across the layered, lensed, and macropore columns were directly responsible for redox gradient across these interfaces. Also, quantitative relationships observed between pH and total carbon, pe and redox couples, etc. are most significantly affected by wetting and drying cycles of the soil moisture regime for the different soil columns.

Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

2010-12-01

128

Geologic site evaluation for siting of municipal solid waste landfill in the southeast Missouri seismic impact zone of Stoddard County  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined permit application and design report for a 5 E6 cubic yard (50-ac) private-sector municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) was submitted to Missouri Department of Natural Resources in June 1992. This facility is located in a seismic impact zone (as defined under 40 CFR 257 and 258; the new [Oct. 1992] USEPA Subtitle D regulations). These zones are considered

1993-01-01

129

Landfills in the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

The 21st century landfill will have the proper public and customer image from the environmental standpoint. The landfill of the 21st century will provide diverse services right at the landfill. You will not only have burial of waste, but a bioremediation pad for handling certain petro-chemical soils and a reuse area for concrete and rubble. Landfills will reuse special wastes. The industry now has more than seven specialized industrial wastes approved for landfill cover. So, instead of spending money for landfill cover or alternative cover like foam, landfills will actually get paid for the landfill cover. The landfill of the 21st century will have some level of recycling and composting. The sites will broaden their service base to make sure that the customer will be able to bring the wide variety of waste to one place. All of this technology will be designed to function at the landfill to keep waste out of the landfill. From a regulatory standpoint, obviously 21st century landfills will exceed all of the standards. It will be a given that the landfill will have liners, leachate collection, leachate treatment, and gas recovery and, probably, reuse. The 21st century landfill will receive a very different waste type. It will have less municipal solid waste and a greater volume of special waste-compatible, nonhazardous waste.

Glebs, B. (Superior Environmental Services, Madison, WI (United States))

1994-03-01

130

Remediation System Evaluation (RSE): 10th Street Superfund Site, OU2, Columbus, Nebraska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During fiscal years 2000 and 2001 independent reviews called Remediation System Evaluations (RSEs) were conducted at 20 operating Fund-lead pump and treat (P&T) sites (i.e., those sites with P&T systems funded and managed by Superfund and the States). Due...

2010-01-01

131

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Lord-Shope Landfill site, Erie County, Pennsylvania (first remedial action), Final report, June 29, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The 25-acre Lord-Shope Landfill site is an inactive hazardous waste landfill in Girard Township, Erie County, northwestern Pennsylvania. The site consists of a 4-acre landfill and adjacent areas of contaminated soil, surface water and ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the landfill material, surrounding soil, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, and TCE; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site includes in-situ vapor stripping using vacuum wells to volatize and remove VOCs from the landfill material and the surrounding soil; collection and treatment of gas emissions generated by the vapor stripping process using carbon filtration; ground water pumping and treatment including pretreatment for metal removal, followed by air stripping, to halt plume migration, with final discharge of treated ground water into the nearby surface tributaries; implementation of site access restrictions and institutional controls including ground water use restrictions. The estimated present worth cost for the remedial action is $5,760,000, which includes an annual O and M cost of $420,000 for years 1 - 2 and $310,000 for years 3 - 50.

Not Available

1990-06-29

132

Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

1996-02-01

133

Molecular Biological Detection and Characterization of Clostridium Populations in Municipal Landfill Sites  

PubMed Central

Primer sets specific for 16S rRNA genes were designed for four phylogenetic groups of clostridia known to contain mesophilic cellulolytic species. Specific amplification of these groups from landfill leachate DNA extracts demonstrated the widespread occurrence of clostridia from the Clostridium thermocellum and C. leptum groups. In contrast, the C. botulinum group was never detected, and the C. coccoides-C. lentocellum group was only occasionally detected. Amplification products were analyzed by temporal thermal gel electrophoresis to generate profiles of the clostridial groups and to identify dominant bands. Sequence analysis of 17 landfill clones confirmed that the primers were specific for the clostridial subgroups and that the cloned sequences had a close relationship with known cellulose-degrading clostridia. The primers have therefore been authenticated for use in the rapid identification of clostridia in anaerobic environments.

Van Dyke, M. I.; McCarthy, A. J.

2002-01-01

134

Characterization of trace constituents in landfill gas and a comparison of sites in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because landfill gas (LFG) contains an abundance of methane, the utilization of LFG as a renewable energy source is becoming\\u000a popular in many countries. LFG, however, contains various trace constituents, some of which may pose problems during utilization.\\u000a For example, siloxanes and halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can cause difficulties when present in the fuel of\\u000a gas engines. In addition,

Yuya Takuwa; Tadao Matsumoto; Kazuyuki Oshita; Masaki Takaoka; Shinsuke Morisawa; Nobuo Takeda

2009-01-01

135

APPLICATION OF HH JOINT STEEL PIPE SHEET PILES IN COASTAL LANDFILL SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of new steel pipe sheet piles (SPSP), the H-joint SPSP and the H-H joint SPSP are proposed as a vertical cutoff barrier for application in coastal waste landfill. The H-joint SPSP exhibits excellent waterproof property, because two adjacent steel pipes are rigidly welded together onto a H-steel section. The waterproof property of the H-H joint connection is evaluated

Shinya Inazumi; Makoto Kimura; Yoshikazu Nishiyama; Masashi Kamon

136

Work Plan for Development of a Data Base on Potential Landfill-Gas Utilization Sites in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an attempt to determine the effects of the criteria established by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Section 4004's Open Dump Inventory (ODI) upon the establishment of landfill gas utilization projects, a national survey of landfills wa...

1982-01-01

137

Spectroscopic and wet chemical characterization of solid waste organic matter of different age in landfill sites, southern Germany.  

PubMed

Landfill sites are potential sources of hazardous emissions by degradation and transformation processes of waste organic matter. Its chemical composition and microbial degradability are key factors for risk management, after-care, and estimation of potential emissions. The aim of the study is to provide information about composition and extent of transformation of waste organic matter in four landfill sites in Bavaria, Southern Germany by means of (13)C NMR spectroscopy, acid-hydrolyzable carbohydrates, chloroform-methanol extractable lipids, acid-hydrolyzable proteins, and lignin compounds after CuO oxidation. Ten samples of about 20 to 25 yr, 15 to 20 yr, and 5 to 10 yr of deposition each were taken at 2 m depth intervals by grab drilling till 10-m depth. Increasing temperatures from about 15 degrees C at 2-m depth to >40 degrees C at 10-m depth are found at some of the sites, representing optimum conditions for mesophile methane bacteria. Moisture contents of 160 to 310 g kg(-1) (oven dry), however, provide limiting conditions for anaerobic biodecay. Spectroscopic and chemical variables generally indicate a low extent of biodegradation and transformation at all sites despite a considerable heterogeneity of the samples. Independent of the time and depth of deposition more than 50% of the carbohydrate fraction of the waste organic matter provide a high potential for methane emissions and on-site energy production. There was no significant accumulation of long-chain organic and aromatic compounds, and of lignin degradation products even after more than 25 yr of rotting indicating higher extent of decomposition or stabilization of the waste organic matter. Installation of seepage water cleaning and recirculation systems are recommended to increase suboptimal moisture contents with respect to microbial methanogenesis, energy production, and long-term stabilization of municipal solid waste. PMID:18178887

Bäumler, Rupert; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2008-01-04

138

The distributions of BTEX compounds in the ambient atmosphere of the Nan-Ji-Do abandoned landfill site in Seoul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the concentrations of major aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which include benzene, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, and ethylbenzene were measured at the Nan-Ji-Do (NJD) landfill site during the spring and fall season of 2000. According to our study, the mean (and median) concentration values for these VOC species were computed to be 1.65 (1.12) ppb for benzene, 9.62 (6.63) ppb for toluene, 1.84 (1.08) ppb for m, p-xylene, 0.83 (0.46) ppb for o-xylene, and 1.17 (0.78) ppb for ethylbenzene; large differences in two statistical terms appear to originate from the consistent occurrences of data sets with unusually high concentrations such that they induce eccentricities in the predictable, Gaussian-type patterns of their frequency distribution. The concentration levels of major aromatic species in our study area, when compared with those of other environmental settings, are slightly higher or comparable to those typically found in urbanized areas affected by various anthropogenic source types. The findings of the moderately high concentration levels at NJD may reflect at least partially the effects of efficient mixing at high elevation of 95 m, despite the fact that large quantities of VOCs are emitted from this landfill area. Inspection of our measurement data further indicated that in many occasions these VOCs can be subordinate to different, but distinctive, patterns of periodicity over diurnal or seasonal scale. Results of correlation analysis indicate that toluene is correlated most significantly and abundantly with both VOC and the concurrently determined environmental parameters, while benzene lacks strong correlations even with other aromatic VOCs. In light of the peculiarity in the behavior of benzene, we suggest that the processes affecting BTEX levels in the landfill area may be distinguished from other source processes that can also be important in the urbanized areas.

Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young

139

Taking to the Streets: Dutch Community Theatre Goes Site-Specific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dutch participatory community-based theatre has thus far been largely text-based and quite apprehensive of abstract site-specific performance, which it regarded as the product of "outsider gazing" and exploitative of local residents. Quite recently, the two veteran Dutch community-based companies Stut and RWT were forced by extraordinary…

van Erven, Eugene

2007-01-01

140

Hazardous Pollutants in Class II Landfills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine whether some contaminants, known to exist in landfills licensed to receive industrial wastes (Class I sites), were also found at landfills that receive ordinary trash (Class II sites). The District's Technical Ser...

J. A. Wood M. L. Porter

1986-01-01

141

State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

1992-01-01

142

State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

1992-12-31

143

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

144

Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

2011-02-02

145

Environmental monitoring report for the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill sites, calendar year 1984  

SciTech Connect

During 1984, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and former Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) sites, located in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey. The sites are part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where low-level radioactive contamination remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. The environmental monitoring program is carried out by Bechtel National, Inc., Program Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the MSP and MML measures the uranium and radium concentrations in surface and groundwater, the radon gas concentrations in air, and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public are also calculated. All environmental samples collected are analyzed to determine compliance with applicable environmental quality standards. DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter XI, provides applicable Concentration Guide (CG) limits for radionuclides in controlled and uncontrolled areas. During 1984, average annual concentrations of uranium and radium-226 in groundwater and surface waters monitored for both the MSP and MML remained below the DOE CG for uncontrolled areas. Annual average radon levels in air at both the MSP and MML were below the CG for uncontrolled areas. External gamma monitoring in 1984 showed all monitoring locations at both sites reporting gamma exposure rates below DOE Radiation Protection Standards. All radiation doses to the public were within DOE standards and consistent with 1983 exposure rates. 13 refs., 10figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1985-07-01

146

Controlling Landfill Emissions For Environmental Protection : Mid Auchencarroch Experimental Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the long term behaviour of Mid Auchencarroch experimental landfill site in Scotland, based on characteristic landfill biodegration parameters, making useful conclusions. and analyzes the effects of waste pretreatment and landfill management techniques on landfill emissions and waste biodegradation processes. The biodegradation of Mid Auchencarroch Experimental Landfill Project is studied in four different cells with different waste input

Telemachus C. Koliopoulos; D. M. Georgia Koliopoulou

147

Effective tools for Managing odours from landfill facilities in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management facilities and especially landfill sites produce odours. Like the majority of industries, the operation of landfills, is faced with the issue of preventing odours causing impact to the public at large. Design, operational and management techniques can reduce the impact of odours from landfills. Containment of landfill gas through optimising landfill cover, gas collection systems and management techniques

J. W. Case; B. A. Sheridan; M. Henry

148

Regulatory acceptance of the proposed well abandonment program for the present landfill, Operable Unit 7, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory agencies approved a well abandonment program for the Present Landfill, Operable Unit (OU) 7 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, only three months after preparation. The proposed well abandonment program consists of abandoning 26 of the 54 existing monitoring wells in OU 7 that are currently sampled quarterly as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance wells

Wood

1995-01-01

149

Influence of soil pH on the fractionation of Cr, Cu and Zn in solid phases from a landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of soil pH for engineered Weathered Oxford Clay is described using 35 samples collected from the base of a new cell in an existing landfill. Soil pH variability influences the reactivity of Cr, Cu and Zn in the site. The reactivity of these metals as natural components was determined using a sequential extraction method. The total concentration

G. Muñoz-Meléndez; A. Korre; S. J. Parry

2000-01-01

150

Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1980-86  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, to study, among other things, the effects of solid waste disposal on the water quality in Mecklenburg County. Water quality samples (747 inorganic and 168 organic) were collected at 20 surface water sites and 53 monitoring wells at four selected landfills from 1980 to 1986. Samples were analyzed for 142 selected physical and biological parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace metals, and (or) organic compounds. Results from all analyses are presented in tabular form in the appendices. Each appendix is divided into a surface water and a groundwater section. Within each water quality table the data is presented in the following order: field measurements, physical properties, biological constituents (if analyzed), major cations, major anions, dissolved and total solids, nutrients, trace inorganic constituents, and organic constituents.

Eddins, W. H.; Cardinell, A. P.

1987-01-01

151

Necessity for Establishment of Inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Landfills and Contaminated Sites for an Evaluation of Mobilisation Risk by Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landfilling of persistent hazardous compounds with a tendency to migrate, such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a major pollution challenge. Historic dumping and landfilling in badly engineered and unsuitably located sites has resulted in widespread contamination from the landfilling of HCH, HCB and PCB wastes around former production sites. In the case of PCBs this has been exacerbated by subsequent landfilling of contaminated products (oils, capacitors, sealants and other building residues). In most cases locations and amounts are not or vaguely known but impacts are increasingly discovered by monitoring in the most advanced countries with sophisticated monitoring schemes in place. These reveal that entire river systems are being contaminated by these old dumps and contaminated sites and that expensive remediation work is required for to reduce further contamination. In addition more recently other (halogenated) chemicals exhibiting the characteristics of POPs have emerged including e.g. brominated aromatic compounds (e.g. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants) widely used as flame retardants for electronics; textiles, furniture; upholstery; insulation foam etc.) and fluorinated organic pollutants (e.g. PFOS or PFOA used in carpets, textiles, furniture, paper coating etc.). As products containing these chemicals reach the end of their life these hazardous compounds increasingly ended and end up in the waste stream. In most countries a large proportion of these wastes are disposed to landfills. In developing countries and those with economies in transition almost all this waste is landfilled. Consequently the quantities of POPs in municipal waste landfills have increased the last two decades. Therefore in addition to chemical landfills also municipal landfills increasingly become POPs deposits and sources. Because of their persistence and relative mobility, these compounds will persist in landfills for many decades and probably centuries. Over these extended time frames landfill engineering systems, including basal and capping liners, gas and leachate collection systems will inevitably degrade and loose their abilities to contain contamination. Furthermore consideration must now be given to the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. This is likely to result in higher temperatures with increased volatalisation of semi-volatile compounds; longer dry periods with drying of surface caps; together with higher intensity rainfall events and increased flooding risks. These effects will impact on the integrity of the containment systems. It is therefore inevitable that more of the deposited POPs will leach into rivers, lakes and the larger environment via escaping leachate, ground or surface water as well as escaping to atmosphere by volatilisation. At the same time our reliance on water resources is likely to increase. In order to evaluate the associated risks for human exposure and biodiversity, inventories of deposited POPs and other PBTs need to be established, their locations comprehensively mapped and linked to future flooding scenarios for prediction of contamination of the precious water resources. This interdisciplinary task will require the cooperation between POPs experts, geotechnical engineers, contaminated site/landfill experts, water management specialists and geoscientists working on climate change and flooding.

Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin

2010-05-01

152

Are the closed landfills recovered habitats for small rodents? A case study in a riparian site, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of landfills in urban areas leads to extensive disturbances. Their development after landfill closure depends\\u000a on the characteristics of the soil cover, the surrounding communities and the dispersal of plants and animals. This study\\u000a was carried out in a landfill closed in 2004, surrounded by an urban area, freshwater marshes and a riparian forest. The aim\\u000a of this

María Florencia Carballido; Pablo Arístide; María Busch; Emilio A. Cittadino; Isabel E. Gómez Villafañe

153

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Brunswick Naval Air Station Site 2, Orion Street LF (South), Brunswick, ME, September 29, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected final remedy for Site 2 at NAS Brunswick. Implementation of the Minimal Action Alternative would include: institutional controls, including maintenance of the existing fence, installation of warning signs and land use restrictions; removal of surface debris that is visible in the depression immediately south and east of the landfill; installation of an additional groundwater monitoring well; environmental monitoring, including collection and analysis of samples of groundwater, seeps, surface water and sediment; five-year site reviews; and modifications to the selected remedy, if necessary.

NONE

1999-03-01

154

Analysis of land suitability for the siting of inter-municipal landfills in the Cuitzeo Lake Basin, Mexico.  

PubMed

This paper presents three spatial decision-support models (Boolean logic, binary evidence and overlapping index of multiple class maps) to perform a land suitability analysis for sanitary landfill siting. The study was carried out in the basin of Lake Cuitzeo, Mexico, with the objective of locating areas that comply with environmental regulations and with the inter-municipality criterion, i.e., that are accessible by at least two municipalities. Biophysical and socio-economic data were processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The three models differ in their complexity and restrictiveness. The Boolean logic model is easier to apply and more restrictive than the other two, because it is based on the assessment of single attributes. On the other hand, the binary data and overlapping index methods are relatively more complex because they require attribute weighting. The results showed that 23 of the 28 municipalities included in the basin have at least one area that was classified as highly suitable. The most suitable areas covered from 63.8 to 204.5 km(2) (from 1.5% to 5%), and they are not distributed homogeneously, but clustered around four main sites. The larger and most suitable of these sites is located in the central part of the basin, and it can be accessed by five of the most densely populated municipalities. The proposed approach represents a low-cost alternative to support a common spatial decision-making process in developing countries. PMID:17869499

Delgado, Otoniel Buenrostro; Mendoza, Manuel; Granados, Erna López; Geneletti, Davide

2007-09-14

155

Evaluating pollution potential of leachate from landfill site, from the Pune metropolitan city and its impact on shallow basaltic aquifers.  

PubMed

Leachate produced by municipal solid waste dumping site near the metropolitan city of Pune, India was examined for its pollution potential and impact on surrounding shallow basaltic aquifers. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters during post- and pre-monsoon seasons (Nov 2006 and May 2007) were determined to assess the seasonal variation in the leachate pollution index (LPI) as well as in the groundwater quality. The leachate demonstrated higher LPI value during pre-monsoon, comparable to those at other metropolises outside India. Potentially toxic leachates derived from the dumping site have largely influenced the adjoining basaltic aquifers through two different modes of transport. Despite high contents of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachate, the aquifers in the close proximity of landfill site are least polluted by metallic contaminants possibly due to redox controls. Various geoenvironmental features governing the dispersal of leachate contaminants in the basaltic aquifers under semi-arid climatic regime have been identified and discussed. Although a few remedial measures have been suggested to mitigate the impact of leachate percolation and dispersion, the present study demands for a proper solid waste management in metropolitan cities. PMID:19301138

Kale, Sanjay S; Kadam, Ajay K; Kumar, Suyash; Pawar, N J

2009-03-20

156

FIELD VERIFICATION OF HELP MODEL FOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-term simulations of 17 landfill cells from six sites are performed using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer model. esults are compared with field data from a variety of landfills to verify the model and to identify shortcomings. he sites are lo...

157

Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill annual site environmental report, Middlesex, New Jersey: Calendar year 1986  

SciTech Connect

During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and former Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) sites, located in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey. The MSP and MML sites are part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residential radioactive materials remain from either the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has mandated DOE to remedy. The monitoring program at the MSP and MML measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that sites are in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess their potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenarios described in the report, this individual, at the MSP, would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 10 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house versus a wooden house is about the same. At the MML, the annual external exposure to the maximally exposed individual would be less than 1% of the standard. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the sites that would result from radioactive materials present at the MSP and MML would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the MSP and MML are in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 13 figs., 23 tabs.

Not Available

1987-05-01

158

Energy potential of modern landfills  

SciTech Connect

Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogner, J.E.

1990-01-01

159

Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill

K.. Spokas; J. Bogner; J. P. Chanton; M. Morcet; C. Aran; C. Graff; Y. Moreau-Le Golvan; I. Hebe

2006-01-01

160

Feasibility Study, Primary Designs and Development of Alternative Evapotranspiration Covers for Landfills and Waste Dump Sites in Tropical Locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

People generate a large and ever-increasing volume of waste, which originates in rural and urban areas, industrial operations and other activities. In spite of waste recycling, which is the solution to the huge amount of solid waste, a large part of it is deposited into landfills, dumps, etc.Landfills are, at present, the most widely used waste disposal facilities. Final cover

Francisco Jose Escobar

2010-01-01

161

Health assessment for Lord Shope Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980508931. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Lord Shope Landfill site is located in Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania. Long-term ingestion exposure to lead in private drinking water wells and long-term dermal contact exposure to arsenic in off-site surface water are of public health concern. The absence of adequate background sampling data makes it impossible to determine if these contaminants are attributable to the site. The site is of public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from probable exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects.

Not Available

1989-04-10

162

Energetic and Methane Emission Reduction Potentials from an Unsanitary Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al Akeeder is the largest landfill site in northern Jordan. The site operation started in 1981 by open dumping and combusting then converted to unsanitary landfilling (without biogas and leachate management). The objective of this article is to estimate the energy and methane emission reduction potentials of the landfill. The amount and composition of the landfill gas were estimated by

H. A. Abu Qdais; A. M. Maqableh; L. M. Al Nawayseh; N. M. Al Jamal

2011-01-01

163

Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Bulletin. Volume 1, Number 1. Presumptive remedies for municipal-landfill sites. Bulletin  

SciTech Connect

The bulletin provides an overview of the presumptive remedies initiative. The objective of the presumptive remedies initiative is to use clean-up technologies shown to be effective in the past at similar sites in the future. The use of presumptive remedies will streamline removal actions, site studies, and clean-up actions, thereby improving consistency, reducing costs, and increasing the speed with which hazardous waste sites are remediated.

Not Available

1992-04-01

164

Evaluation of biological remains from two pit fill samples recovered during excavations at the site of the former Pentecostal Church, St Sepulchre Street, Scarborough, North Yorkshire (site code: PC03 - 2003.516)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two sediment samples recovered from medieval pit fills during an excavation at the site of the former Pentecostal Church, St Sepulchre Street, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, were submitted for an evaluation of their bioarchaeological potential. Well-preserved plant and invertebrate material was present in the sample from Context 5015, with rather less well preserved remains (but essentially rather similar) in that

John Carrott; Deborah Jaques; Harry Kenward; Kathryn Johnson

2004-01-01

165

45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

166

Evaluation of the Adequacy of Hazardous Chemical Site Remediation by Landfilling1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultimately, hundreds of billions of dollars of public and private funds will be spent in the US in hazardous chemical site (Superfund and closed RCRA facilities) investigation and remediation. A critical review of the adequacy of remediation of many of these sites that are \\

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

167

National Evaluation of the Safe Kids/Safe Streets Program: Final Report. Volume 1. Cross-Site Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many studies suggest that child abuse and neglect are risk factors for the development of juvenile delinquency and other problem behaviors. The Safe Kids/Safe Streets (SK/SS) program is designed to break the cycle by funding community collaboratives to un...

D. Schultz F. Gragg K. Eisen R. Cronin

2004-01-01

168

Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

Not Available

1992-05-15

169

Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

Nagarajan, Rajkumar; Thirumalaisamy, Subramani; Lakshumanan, Elango

2012-12-27

170

Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

2012-01-01

171

Study of vinyl chloride formation at landfill sites in California. Final report, 16 July 1985-15 January 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if vinyl chloride (VC) detected in air above California landfills is produced in situ. Experiments were performed with N and S California landfill samples and anaerobic-digestor sewage sludge. Test materials were incubated with various chlorocarbons and with ¹³C-trichloroethylene (TCE) to confirm biological production of ¹³C-VC. These experiments confirmed the biological dechlorination of

P. M. Molton; R. T. Hallen; J. W. Payne

1987-01-01

172

Geolectrical methods applied on a contaminated site : the Entressen landfill case study (south-eastern France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redox potential is a controlling parameter in many contaminated site remediation technologies. Its knowledge is crutial to understand the contaminant plume development and risks for groundwater ressources. But, redox potential is very difficult to measure directlly in the field. A geophysical method that could determine the redox potential distribution in a contaminant plume would be particularly welcome. We believe that

V. Naudet; A. Revil; J.-Y. Bottero

2003-01-01

173

Fluorescence of leachates from three contrasting landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill leachates are composed of a complex mixture of degradation products including dissolved organic matter, which includes a wide range of potentially fluorescent organic molecules and compounds. Here we investigate the excitation–emission matrix fluorescence of landfill leachates from three contrasting landfill sites. Landfill fluorescence properties are all characterized by intense fluorescence at ?ex=220–230nm, and ?em=340–370nm which we suggest derives from

Andy Baker; Michael Curry

2004-01-01

174

Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill, annual site environmental report, Middlesex, New Jersey, calendar year 1987: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The monitoring program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the sites are in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess their potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenarios described in the report, this individual, at the MSP, would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 10 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house as opposed to a wooden house is about the same. At the MML, the annual external exposure to the maximally exposed individual would be less than 1 percent of the standard. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the sites that would result from radioactive materials present at the MSP and MML would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1987 monitoring show that the MSP and MML are in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 11 figs., 22 tabs.

Not Available

1988-04-01

175

Characterization of bacterial diversity at different depths in the Moravia Hill landfill site at Medellín, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was used to assess bacterial diversity at different depths within a former solid waste dump in Medellín, Colombia. Sampling sites included a densely populated area, which is built upon 40 m of solid waste (domestic, industrial, agricultural, and medical). The soil and leachate contain high levels of contaminants and the natural soil is highly

Andres M. Gomez; Anthony C. Yannarell; Gerald K. Sims; Gloria Cadavid-Restrepo; Claudia X. Moreno Herrera

2011-01-01

176

Soil vapor survey at the LLNL site 300 general services area, adjacent portions of the Connolly and Gallo Ranches and the site 300 landfill pit 6 area  

SciTech Connect

During October through December 1988, a soil vapor survey was conducted by Weiss Associates at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 General Services Area (GSA), adjacent portions of the Connolly and Gallo Ranches, and at the Site 300 Landfill Pit 6 area. The purpose of the investigation was to aid in identifying the sources and the extent of trichloroethylene (TCE) previously found in ground water and soil at, or near, these sites. Using a soil vapor probe, samples were collected at 133 locations from depths of 2 to 15 ft below the surface. Analyses were initially done in the field using a Photovac portable gas chromatograph with a photoionization detector calibrated to detect TCE. During the later portion of the study a mobile laboratory was used that had a gas chromatograph equipped with both Hall electroconductivity and photoionization detectors. This permitted identification of the spectrum of EPA Method 601 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by a modified EPA Method 8010. Extensive quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures were followed to ensure consistent system performance and no cross-contamination between samples or sites. Soil vapor concentrations were measured in parts per million on a volume to volume basis (ppM/sub v/v/). TCE concentrations detected in the soil vapor ranged from a high of 628 ppM/sub v/v/ to a low of not detected (ND) at less than 0.001--0.005 ppM/sub v/v/. The highest concentration was found next to monitor well W-7F, near a decommissioned drywell (sump) at the southern boundary of the GSA. Several locations exhibited ND concentrations. Fourteen locations analyzed by a mobile laboratory had tetrachloroethylene (PCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) and/or 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) at concentrations considerably lower than the TCE in the same sample. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Vonder Haar, S.; Pavletich, J.; McIlvride, W.; Taffet, M.

1989-04-04

177

Evaluation of on-site biological treatment for landfill leachates and its impact: A size distribution study.  

PubMed

A cost effective and widely applied approach for landfill leachate disposal is to discharge it to a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The recalcitrant nature of leachate organics and the impact on the downstream WWTPs were comprehensively investigated in this study. Size fractionation by ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) was employed in conjunction with various analyses (TOC, COD, nitrogen species and UV(254) absorbance) on raw and biologically treated landfill leachates to provide insight into biological treatability. Overall, landfill leachate organics showed bio-refractory properties. Less than half of the organic matter, measured as total organic carbon (TOC), could be removed in the biological processes examined. Size distribution data showed that the <1 thousand Daltons (kDa) fraction is dominant in most untreated and treated landfill leachates, indicating difficulties for membrane treatment. Also, most removal occurred for the <1 kDa fraction in the biological processes, while the intermediate size fractions increased slightly. This may be caused by bio-flocculation and/or partial degradation of larger molecular weight fractions. Organic nitrogen was investigated in this study as one of the first explorations for landfill leachates. Organic nitrogen in landfill leachates was more bio-refractory than other organic matter. UV quenching by landfill leachates was also investigated since it interferes with the UV disinfection at WWTPs. The combination of activated carbon and activated sludge (PACT) showed some effectiveness for reducing UV quenching, indicating that carbon adsorption is a potential method for removal of UV quenching substances. Fourier transform Infrared (FT/IR) data showed that aromatic groups are responsible for the UV quenching phenomenon. PMID:22591821

Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Goldsmith, C Douglas

2012-04-25

178

Landfill gas energy recovery: Turning a liability into an asset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the past decade, landfill gas (LFG) was viewed as a nuisance at best and a hazard at worst. Today, municipalities and private-sector solid waste management companies are findings ways to put landfill gas to productive use. Landfill gas energy recovery eliminates detrimental air emissions; prevents landfill methane from contributing to global climate change; stops methane from migrating off-site and

1996-01-01

179

Landfill NIMBY and Systems Engineering: A Paradigm for Urban Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid waste management crisis exists in many parts of the US as a result of the inability to site new landfills to replace the consumed capacity of existing landfills. Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills can, and usually do, have a significant adverse impact on the individuals who own property in, reside in, or otherwise use, areas near the landfill.

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee; Frederick Martin

180

Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill. Annual Site Environmental Report, Calendar Year 1985. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monitoring program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) measures uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; and external gamma radiation dose ...

1986-01-01

181

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

182

Public health assessment for Grand Street Mercury Site, Hoboken, Hudson County, New Jersey, Region 2: CERCLIS Number NJ0001327733. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Health Assessment serves to evaluate the public health issues associated with the Grand Street Mercury Site (GSMS), which has recently been proposed for addition to the National Priority List (NPL). The human exposure pathways associated with known contaminated environmental media within or associated with the GSMS have been evaluated and actions have been taken and/or planned that are consistent with the protection of the public health. At the GSMS, the known contaminated media include: soil, indoor air; and building. Access to all buildings on the GSMS has been secured by USEPA and remediation is on-going. The ATSDR and the NJDHSS consider the GSMS to have represented a public health hazard in the past. Based upon the site data, adults and children were likely exposed to mercury in the building at levels of public health concern.

NONE

1998-11-27

183

A New IPCC Tier 4 Site-Specific Model for Landfill Methane Emissions Inclusive of Seasonal Methane Oxidation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This project was initiated in the U.S. by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in cooperation with the California Integrated Waste Management Board and the California Air Resources Board to develop improved methods for landfill methane emissions for the California greenhouse gas inventory. This 3-...

184

Landfill Site Selection by Combining GIS and Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Analysis, Case Study: Bandar Abbas, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill selection in an urban area is a critical issue in the urban planning process because of its enormous impact on the economy, ecology and the environmental health of the region. With the growth of urbanization as well as the desire to live in cities, lager amount of wastes are produced and unfortunately the problem gets bigger everyday. With the

V. Akbari; M. A. Rajabi; S. H. Chavoshi; R. Shams

185

Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial  

SciTech Connect

In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

Dever, S.A. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia) and GHD Pty. Ltd., 10 Bond Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia)]. E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

2007-07-01

186

Landfills in karst terrains  

SciTech Connect

State and Federal regulations have established restrictions for location of hazardous waste and municipal, solid waste landfills. Regulations require owners/operators to demonstrate that the hydrogeology has been completely characterized at proposed landfills, and that locations for monitoring wells have been properly selected. Owners/operators are also required to demonstrate that engineering measures have been incorporated in the design of the municipal solid waste landfills, so that the site is not subject to destabilizing events, as a result of location in unstable areas, such as karst terrains. Karst terrains are typically underlain by limestone or dolomite, and may contain a broad continuum of karst features and karst activity. Preliminary investigation of candidate sites will allow ranking of the sites, rejection of some unsuitable sites, and selection of a few sites for additional studies. The complexity of hydrogeologic systems, in karst terrains, mandates thorough hydrogeologic studies to determine whether a specific site is, or can be rendered, suitable for a land disposal facility. Important components of hydrogeologic studies are: field mapping of structural and stratigraphic units; interpretation of sequential aerial photographs; test drilling and geophysical analyses; fracture analyses; seasonal variation in water-levels; spatial variation of hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and aquiclude; velocity and direction of movement of ground water within aquifers; determination of control for recharge, discharge, and local base level; and evaluation of the effects of man's activities, such as pumping, dewatering and construction.

Hughes, T.H. (Hydrologic Consultants, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)); Memon, B.A.; LaMoreaux, P.E. (P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

1994-06-01

187

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will concentrate on geophysical surveys to confirm the presence or absence of disposed waste within a CAS and verify the boundaries of disposal areas; penetrate disposal feature covers via excavation and/or drilling; perform geodetic surveys; and be used to collect both soil and environmental samples for laboratory analyses. Phase II will deal only with those CASs where a contaminant of concern has been identified. This phase will involve the collection of additional soil and/or environmental samples for laboratory analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

2002-05-28

188

A steady state redox zone approach for modeling the transport and degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds from a landfill site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A redox zonation approach is used as a framework for obtaining biodegradation rate constants of xenobiotic compounds in a landfill plume (Grindsted, Denmark). The aquifer is physically heterogeneous in terms of a complex zonation of different geological units close to the landfill and biogeochemically heterogeneous in terms of a specified redox zonation. First-order degradation rates of six organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m/p-xylene, and naphthalene) were calculated in the methanogenic/sulfate- and Fe-reducing zones. The numerical simulations show that all compounds are anaerobically biodegraded, but at very different rates. High rates of biodegradation of most of the compounds (except benzene) were found in the Fe-reducing zone. These rates generally agree with previously published rates. Only o-xylene and toluene were significantly biodegraded in the methanogenic/sulfate-reducing environment. All rates in this redox zone are generally much lower than previously published rates.

Lønborg, Michael J.; Engesgaard, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L.; Rosbjerg, Dan

2006-10-01

189

Web-based monitoring of year-length deployments of autonomous gas sensing platforms on landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes multiple field deployments of autonomous gas monitoring platforms spanning durations in excess of 12 months. These trials form part of an on-going collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in monitoring landfill migration of greenhouse gases, i.e. methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Target gas concentrations were automatically recorded via infrared (IR) gas sensors calibrated for the

Fiachra Collins; Dylan Orpen; Cormac Fay; Colum Foley; Alan F. Smeaton; Dermot Diamond

2011-01-01

190

Bringing new life to old landfills  

SciTech Connect

On the West Coast, Waste Management, Inc. is bringing new life to old landfills. The Bradley Landfill in Sun Valley, CA, just outside of Los Angeles, is being transformed into a recycling park, while a few hundred miles north, in the San Francisco Bay Area, an old landfill is now home to a transfer station and recycling center. WMI began transforming the landfill in the early 1990s.The first change was to process wood and green waste rather than landfilling it. In 1993, WMI added a sorting facility, and in 1994, after the Jan. 17 Northridge earthquake, the company added a construction and demolition debris (C and D) facility. There also is a landfill gas collection facility on the site. In the future, WMI hopes to add the following facilities: composting, railhaul, alternative fuels production, tire processing, and soil remediation. WMI also hopes several companies that use recycled materials as feedstock will build their plants at the landfill.

Rabasca, L.

1996-01-01

191

Landfill gas recovery: a technology status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill gas, which consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, can be recovered and used as a fuel. Processing will upgrade it to a high-Btu gas of pipeline quality. There are more than a dozen commercial landfill-gas recovery facilities in the US at present, all at relatively large sites. The amount of gas produced by a given site is a

R. E. Zimmermann; G. R. Lytwynyshyn; M. L. Wilkey

1983-01-01

192

Landfill Gas Effects on Evapotranspirative Landfill Covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an evapotranspirative landfill cover can be adversely affected by transport of landfill gases to the plant root zone. Healthy plant communities are critical to the success and effectiveness of these vegetated landfill covers. Poor vegetative cover can result in reduced transpiration, increased percolation, and increased erosion regardless of the thickness of the cover. Visual inspections of landfill

M. A. Plummer; E. Mattson; M. Ankeny; J. Kelsey

2005-01-01

193

W. St. James Street, view looking southwest River Street ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

W. St. James Street, view looking southwest - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

194

W. St. James Street, view looking south River Street ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

W. St. James Street, view looking south - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

195

Feasibility Study for Utilization of Landfill Gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and q...

1983-01-01

196

Evapotranspiration Covers for Landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe disposal or containment of waste continues to be one of the world's largest environmental challenges. If not properly\\u000a handled, wastes from municipal, commercial, industrial, and mining sources can pollute surface and groundwater, and release\\u000a damaging gases. One potentially useful technology is the evapotranspiration (ET) cover for landfills and waste sites. Designed\\u000a to use engineered soil and vegetation layers, an

S. A. Rock

197

Claymax landfill cap  

SciTech Connect

A commercial product called Claymax'' consisting of one-quarter inch of bentonite clay between two geotextile sheets is a candidate landfill cap to replace kaolin caps. A permeability apparatus incorporating a 20 foot water head was operated for 56 days to estimate a Claymax permeability of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec compared with 10{sup {minus}8}, the EPA max for a burial site cap. 1 fig.

Selby, C.L.

1989-12-15

198

GeoChip-based Analysis of Groundwater Microbial Diversity in Norman Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norman Landfill is a closed municipal solid waste landfill located on an alluvium associated with the Canadian River in Norman, Oklahoma. It has operated as a research site since 1994 because it is typical of many closed landfill sites across the U.S. Leachate from the unlined landfill forms a groundwater plume that extends downgradient approximately 250 m from the

Zhenmei Lu; Zhili He; Victoria Parisi; Sanghoon Kang; Ye Deng; Joy Van Nostrand; Jason Masoner; Isabelle Cozzarelli; Joseph Suflita; Jizhong Zhou

2010-01-01

199

Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)  

SciTech Connect

The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

2010-01-07

200

Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

Not Available

1992-05-15

201

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Douglas Road Landfill, Mishawaka, IN., July 13, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the landfill cap operable unit at the Douglas Road Landfill Site (the Site) in Mishawaka, Indiana. It specifically outlines an action to address on-site soil and waste material contamination...

1996-01-01

202

Proximity of Florida sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats. Data on individual landfills  

SciTech Connect

Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The report documents the proximity of sanitary landfills included in the study in Florida to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.). The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory maps. The nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats was determined by drawing three concentric regions around the point representing the location of each landfill. The radii of the concentric regions were: 1/4 mile, 1/2 mile, and 1 mile. A companion report summarizes the statewide results. The data on individual landfills include general facilities/site data and wetlands/deepwater habitat data. The facilities have the potential to adversely affect sensitive ecosystems, such as wetlands and deepwater habitats, either through habitat alterations or through the migration of contaminants from sanitary landfills.

Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Lambou, V.W.; Gebhard, R.L.

1990-01-01

203

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Metamora Landfill, Metamora, Lapeer County, MI. (Second Remedial Action), September 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 160-acre Metamora Landfill site is an inactive, privately owned landfill in Metamora Township, Lapeer County, Michigan. Both wetland and woodland areas are present onsite. Landfill operations began in 1955 as an open dump, and the facility was upgrade...

1990-01-01

204

14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

205

Phytoremediation of landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

Jones, D.L. [School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, Wales (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Williamson, K.L. [School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, Wales (United Kingdom); Owen, A.G. [School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, Wales (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

206

2. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, NORTH ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, NORTH ELEVATION - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

207

5. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, ENTRANCE GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, ENTRANCE GATE - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

208

Methane from landfills: Preliminary assessment workbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System options for developing landfill gas recovery projects are discussed. Factors effecting the economics of each option are reported. Sample calculations and worksheets are included to assist in the process of making preliminary judgments about production and revenue potentials for landfill gas recovery at a specific site.

Wilkey, M. L.; Zimmerman, R. E.; Isaacson, H. R.

1982-06-01

209

Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses operating a 200-kW phosphoric acid fuel cell using landfill gas (LFG) in Groton, Connecticut. The project is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating, and maintaining a fuel cell operating on LFG at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit (GPU) operation, test modifications to

C. E. Trippel; J. L. Preston; J. C. Trocciola; R. J. Spiegel

1996-01-01

210

Purification of landfill leachate with reverse osmosis and nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

On many landfill sites the most environmentally friendly and economical way to treat landfill leachate is to reduce its volume by 75 to 80% using reverse osmosis and then return the concentrate to the landfill by controlled reinjection. If this procedure is not yet authorized by local authorities then the treatment process must achieve very high rates of recovery by

Thomas A. Peters

1998-01-01

211

A decision support system for assessing landfill performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present

Basak Celik; Sertan Girgin; Adnan Yazici; Kahraman Unlue

2010-01-01

212

In situ nitrogen management in controlled bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of leachate from landfills vary according to site-specific conditions. Leachates from “old” landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation of the nitrogenous fractions of biodegradable substrates, with decreases in concentration mainly attributable to leachate washout. At landfills where leachate containment, collection and recirculation is practiced to accelerate decomposition of readily biodegradable organic

Turgut T. Onay; Frederick G. Pohland

1998-01-01

213

Evaluation of alternatives for extending the life of landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the difficulty, as well as the high cost, of siting and constructing municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills it is incumbent on landfill managers to evaluate all practical measures to extend the useful life of existing landfills. This necessitates not only identifying potential methods to extend their life, but also the means to assess at what time horizons in the

Philip J. Preen; Jerry R. Murphy

2001-01-01

214

Street Address Conversion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the genesis of the Urban Data Center 'Street Address Conversion System,' the prototype street address geocoding system operational in the Seattle, Washington, area. Three basic system concepts are defined: the 'grid block,' the 'stree...

R. B. Dial

1964-01-01

215

Boston Streets: Mapping Directory Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boston Streets Project, developed at Tufts University, combines the use of photographs, maps and city directories to create a digitized online historical atlas of the Boston area. The concept behind Boston Streets is to use metadata and geographical information software to allow access to historical collection material. Among the fascinating material offered at this site are personal stories of people who have lived in Boston, with information about their lives gleaned from the city directories. Other links include Moments (a collection of images of Boston), Places (historical atlases) and Cowpaths, a GIS link that allows one to trace the growth of Boston, which urban myth declares as having streets laid down along cow paths.

216

Street Children in Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

In examining the depiction of street children in three classic films: Kids, Pixote, and Salaam Bombay, I argue that the respective directors play upon our protean concepts of “the street” and “the child” in order to offer social criticism of three types of states: the consumerist state, the authoritarian state, and the neocolonialist state. In each film, street life is

Irving Epstein

1999-01-01

217

Methane generation in landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane gas is a by-product of landfilling municipal solid wastes (MSW). Most of the global MSW is dumped in non-regulated landfills and the generated methane is emitted to the atmosphere. Some of the modern regulated landfills attempt to capture and utilize landfill biogas, a renewable energy source, to generate electricity or heat. As of 2001, there were about one thousand

Nickolas J. Themelis; Priscilla A. Ulloa

2007-01-01

218

Requiem for sanitary landfills. The struggle to build a solid-waste disposal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing landfills outside of many major cities which no longer meet federal and state regulations can become sources of pollution and health hazards. Leaching of refuse at sanitary landfills threatens underground water supplies, while landfills that have been closed and covered have a tendency to produce methane gas. Until a new landfill site becomes necessary, few users understand the environmental

Palmquist

1986-01-01

219

EVALUATION OF NEW GEOPHYSICAL TOOLS FOR INVESTIGATION OF A LANDFILL, CAMP ROBERTS, CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of material changes with depth (profiles) in many landfill sites can be problematic for some conventional geophysical methods. Localized anomalies within the landfill can complicate mapping of underlying layers, and layered-model techniques are inappropriate for imaging laterally discontinuous landfills. Recently-developed geophysical hardware and software tools provide the opportunity to image the vertical structure of a landfill and its geologic

W. E. Doll; T. J. Gamey; TN J. E. Nyquist; W. Mandell; D. Groom; S. Rohdewald

220

Effects of willow stands on heavy metal concentrations and top soil properties of infrastructure spoil landfills and dredged sediment-derived sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of willow stand development on top soil properties of uncontaminated infrastructure spoil landfills (ISL) and contaminated dredged sediment landfills (DSL) were assessed. For the ISL, significant increases in Cd, Zn and organic C levels in the top soil (0–10 cm) were detected more than 20 years after disposal. The increases in Cd and Zn concentrations in the top soil were

Bart Vandecasteele; Paul Quataert; Gerrit Genouw; Suzanna Lettens; Filip M. G. Tack

2009-01-01

221

Practice review of five bioreactor/recirculation landfills.  

PubMed

Five landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor and recirculation landfills in North America from conventional landfills. The bioreactor and recirculation landfills were found to function in much the same manner as conventional landfills, with designs similar to established standards for waste containment facilities. Leachate generation rates, leachate depths and temperatures, and liner temperatures were similar for landfills operated in a bioreactor/recirculation or conventional mode. Gas production data indicate accelerated waste decomposition from leachate recirculation at one landfill. Ambiguities in gas production data precluded a definitive conclusion that leachate recirculation accelerated waste decomposition at the four other landfills. Analysis of leachate quality data showed that bioreactor and recirculation landfills generally produce stronger leachate than conventional landfills during the first two to three years of recirculation. Thereafter, leachate from conventional and bioreactor landfills is similar, at least in terms of conventional indicator variables (BOD, COD, pH). While the BOD and COD decreased, the pH remained around neutral and ammonia concentrations remained elevated. Settlement data collected from two of the landfills indicate that settlements are larger and occur much faster in landfills operated as bioreactors or with leachate recirculation. The analysis also indicated that more detailed data collection over longer time periods is needed to draw definitive conclusions regarding the effects of bioreactor and recirculation operations. For each of the sites in this study, some of the analyses were limited by sparseness or ambiguity in the data sets. PMID:16766174

Benson, C H; Barlaz, M A; Lane, D T; Rawe, J M

2006-06-12

222

Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify what is most important to the quality of life (QoL) of those who experience homelessness by directly soliciting the views of homeless and hard-to-house Canadians themselves. These individuals live within a unique social context that differs considerably from that of the general population. To understand the life areas that are most important to them, it is critical to have direct input from target populations of homeless and hard-to-house persons. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 140 individuals aged 15 to 73?years who were homeless or hard-to-house to explore the circumstances in which they were living and to capture what they find to be important and relevant domains of QoL. Participants were recruited in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Vancouver. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Six major content themes emerged: Health/health care; Living conditions; Financial situation; Employment situation; Relationships; and Recreational and leisure activities. These themes were linked to broader concepts that included having choices, stability, respect, and the same rights as other members of society. Conclusions These findings not only aid our understanding of QoL in this group, but may be used to develop measures that capture QoL in this population and help programs and policies become more effective in improving the life situation for persons who are homeless and hard-to-house. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study.

2012-01-01

223

Numerical assessment of a landfill compliance limit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The PLASM and Random Walk ground-water flow and contaminant transport models were used to assess the potential impact of various proposed regulatory compliance distances on landfill siting. Contaminant transport modeling was performed for 16 generalized geological sequences representative of hydrogeological conditions over an estimated 90 to 95 percent of Illinois. Results of this modeling indicate that about 50 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable for landfilling of nonhazardous wastes if the compliance distance was 100 feet. With a compliance distance of 500 feet, about 55 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable. This work demonstrates the utility of computer modeling in the development of regulations governing landfill siting.

Hensel, Bruce, R.; Keefer, Donald, A.; Griffin, Robert, A.; Berg, Richard, C.

1991-01-01

224

Flooding of municipal solid waste landfills--an environmental hazard?  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills pose a long-lasting risk for humans and the environment. While landfill emissions under regular operating conditions are well investigated, landfill behaviour and associated emissions in case of flooding are widely unknown, although damages have been documented. This paper aims at developing a methodology for determining the proportion of MSW landfills endangered by flooding, and at evaluating the impact flooded landfills might have on the environment during a flood event. The risk of flooding of MSW landfills is assessed by using information about flood risk zones. Out of 1064 landfills investigated in Austria, 312 sites or about 30% are located in or next to areas flooded on average once in 200 years. Around 5% of these landfills are equipped with flood protection facilities. Material inventories of 147 landfill sites endangered by flooding are established, and potential emissions during a flood event are estimated by assuming the worst case of complete landfill leaching and erosion. The environmental relevance of emissions during flooding is discussed on the basis of a case study in the western part of Austria. Although environmental hazards need to be assessed on a site- and event-specific basis, the results indicate that flooded MSW landfills represent in general small environmental risks for the period of flooding. The longer term consequences of flooding are discussed in a next paper. PMID:19345983

Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

2009-04-05

225

Geosynthetics conquer the landfill law  

SciTech Connect

Los Angeles' last operating landfill is undergoing a 4 million m[sup 3] expansion using innovative materials in the liner system to overcome difficult site conditions. The design represents the first approved alternative in California -- and perhaps in the nation -- to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act's Subtitle D regulations for liner systems. This article examines the regulatory journey that led to approval and the liner's design and construction. Steep slopes at Los Angeles' only operating municipal solid-waste landfill (MSW) forced designers to use an innovative geosynthetic liner and leachate collection system. Its use sets a precedent for alternatives to the prescriptive regulations for liner systems present in Subtitle D of the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). To provide uninterrupted service at the landfill, design and construction proceeded concurrently with regulatory approval.

Derian, L.; Gharios, K.M. (Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation, CA (United States). Solid Waste Management Div.); Kavazanjian, E. Jr.; Snow, M.S. (GeoSyntec Consultants, Huntington Beach, CA (United States))

1993-12-01

226

Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates.  

PubMed

The levels of bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates collected in Japan in 1996 were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Bisphenol A was found in seven of 10 sites investigated. All the hazardous waste landfills with leachates contaminated by bisphenol A were controlled. The concentrations of bisphenol A ranged from 1.3 to 17,200 microg/l with a median concentration of 269 microg/l. The source of bisphenol A in landfill leachates may be the waste plastics in waste landfill. The concentrations of bisphenol A in some samples exceeded the EC50 or LC50 levels for aquatic biota. Landfill leachates may be a significant source of bisphenol A found in the environment. PMID:11100793

Yamamoto, T; Yasuhara, A; Shiraishi, H; Nakasugi, O

2001-02-01

227

Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

1992-02-01

228

Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant

W. J. Waugh; M. K. Kastens; L. R. L. Sheader; C. H. Benson; W. H. Albright; P. S. Mushovic

2008-01-01

229

H2S removal and bacterial structure along a full-scale biofilter bed packed with polyurethane foam in a landfill site.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide accumulated under a cover film in a landfill site was treated for 7months by a full-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes. Sampling ports were set along the biofilter bed to investigate H2S removal and microbial characteristics in the biofilter. The H2S was removed effectively by the biofilter, and over 90% removal efficiency was achieved in steady state. Average elimination capacity of H2S was 2.21gm(-3)h(-1) in lower part (LPB) and 0.41gm(-3)h(-1) in upper part (UPB) of the biofilter. Most H2S was eliminated in LPB. H2S concentration varied along the polyurethane foam packed bed, the structure of the bacterial communities showed spatial variation in the biofilter, and H2S removal as well as products distribution changed accordingly. The introduction of odorants into the biofilter shifted the distribution of the existing microbial populations toward a specific culture that could metabolize the target odors. PMID:23989036

Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Yan, Xu; Liu, Junxin

2013-08-06

230

Assessment of plant remains (with notes on other biological remains) from excavations at O'Connell Street, Dublin, Republic of Ireland (site code: 03E0433)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Four bulk sediment samples recovered from deposits encountered during excavations at O'Connell Street, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, were submitted for an assessment of their archaeobotanical potential. Brief notes were also made of other biological remains from the processed subsamples. Four phases of activity were identified related to the rapid development of the area between 1675 and the 1790s. Plant

Allan Hall; Deborah Jaques; Harry Kenward; John Carrott; Kathryn Johnson

2004-01-01

231

Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

1992-02-01

232

Investigations of natural attenuation in groundwater near a landfill and implications for landfill post-closure.  

PubMed

The controlled landfill technology is now adopting passive attenuation techniques as an increasing number of landfill sites reach the post-closure phase. During the post-closure phase, landfill operators need to convince environmental authorities that landfills no longer pose a threat to health or the environment. The demonstration of acceptable risk should rely in particular on data collected during environmental monitoring in addition to modelling of possible future evolutions of environmental concentrations. One difficulty that is typically encountered in France is related to the fact that groundwater monitoring systems around landfills are often insufficiently detailed to provide conclusive evidence of natural attenuation mechanisms. This paper presents data on groundwater quality in the vicinity of an old landfill located in a complex aquifer system. While isotopic data show a signature of the landfill leachate in the groundwater in the vicinity of the landfill, chemical analyses do not suggest a strong influence, which could be indicative of natural attenuation mechanisms in the groundwater. However, the complexity of the groundwater system in this area is such that it cannot be excluded that a pollutant flux is being overlooked. Implications of demonstrating natural attenuation during the landfill post-closure phase, with respect to groundwater monitoring, are discussed. PMID:21078693

Hubé, Daniel; Gourcy, Laurence; Gourry, Jean-Christophe; Guyonnet, Dominique

2010-11-15

233

Learning from Landfills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a project in which students developed an all-class laboratory activity called "The Decomposition of Organic and Inorganic Substances in a Landfill". Explores what conditions are necessary to facilitate decomposition in a landfill. (SAH)|

Galus, Pamela

2000-01-01

234

Is landfill gas profitable  

Microsoft Academic Search

A California study indicates that commercial development of landfill gas (LFG) offers a potential energy source that warrants greater utilization among the nation's 15,000 landfills. The study idicated that landfills receiving only 300 tons per day of typical residential solid wastes could perhaps support a profitable small-scale recovery system. The public lacks knowledge and know-how, however, and landfill owners and

E. J. Daley; M. J. Dean

1981-01-01

235

Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill. Annual site environmental report, calendar year 1985. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). [FUSRAP  

SciTech Connect

The monitoring program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) measures uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; and external gamma radiation dose rates. Potential radiation doses to the public are also calculated. During 1985, the highest annual average radon levels in air at the MML and MSP were 10% and 17%, respectively, of the Derived Concentration Guides (DCG). The highest annual average gamma dose rate at the MSP was 167 mrem/y; at the MML the highest annual average dose rate was 13 mrem/y. The highest average annual concentrations of uranium in surface water monitored at the MSP and MML were 13% and 1%, respectively, of the DOE DCG. The highest annual average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in surface water were 3.3 and 0.8%, respectively, of the applicable DOE DCG. The highest annual average uranium concentration in groundwater at the MSP was about 9% of the DCG; the highest /sup 226/Ra concentration was 0.7% of the respective DCG. The corresponding values for the MML were 0.5 and 3.3%. The highest annual average concentrations of uranium and /sup 226/Ra in sediments at the MSP were 7.7 and 3.5 pCi/g, respectively. The highest uranium concentration at the MML was 3.3 pCi/g, while the highest /sup 226/Ra concentration was 0.7 pCi/g. The calculated total radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual at the MSP, considering several pathways, was 10.5 mrem or 11% of the radiation protection standard; at the MML, it was 0.14 mrem or less than 1% of the radiation protection standard.

Not Available

1986-08-01

236

Street Storm Water Conveyance Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The street hydraulic capacity to convey storm water is dictated by the street gutter geometry and hydraulic characteristics. With the consideration of traffic safety, the street hydraulic conveyance capacity is also subject to a reduction defined by the water velocity and flow depth in the street gutter. In this study, the street hydraulic equa- tion is re-arranged to demonstrate that

James C. Y. Guo

2000-01-01

237

Leaving the Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently thousands of children and adolescents live in the streets of Managua, and this phenomenon is moving rapidly into the smaller cities of Nicaragua. In other countries around the world, civil war is a leading cause of street children, but in Nicaragua, physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, often committed by the father or stepfather, combined with poverty is usually why

Jane Slater

2004-01-01

238

Urban Street Gang Enforcement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

239

Street Youth & AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

240

The Gibbs Street Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Gibbs Street Connection, a professional development program for music educators and a collaborative effort between the Eastman School of Music and the Rochester (New York) Philharmonic Orchestra. Highlights efforts to evaluate the Gibbs Street Connection and the benefits of the program. Offers tips for beginning such programs and…

McCusker, Joan

1999-01-01

241

All About Sesame Street.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The behind-the-scenes story of "Sesame Street" is told from its origin as a "good idea," through the development of the Children's Television Workshop, to the casting of the now familiar characters, Susan, Bob, Gordon, Mr. Hooper, and the Muppets. Details of producing the show are described with anecdotes. The effect of "Sesame Street" on its…

Feinstein, Phylis

242

Guideway along Frankford Avenue between Dyre Street and Pratt Street. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Guideway along Frankford Avenue between Dyre Street and Pratt Street. Looking northeast. Pratt Street station in right mid-ground. - Frankford Elevated, 52100-5400 Frankford Avenue (guideway & stations), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

243

1. The intersection of Central Street with Main Street. Franklin ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. The intersection of Central Street with Main Street. Franklin Grocery Company building at left center. View looking west. - Franklin Grocery Company Building, 1 South Main Street, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

244

4. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF FENCE - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

245

3. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. ANDERSON STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF NORTH ELEVATION - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

246

Methane from landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery and utilization of methane generated in sanitary landfills provides the nation with an opportunity to simultaneously develop an alternative energy source and negate potential hazards. Utilization as a fuel of the combustible gas generated in sanitary landfills has been found to virtually eliminate the twin hazards of explosion and asphyxiation that have long been associated with landfill operations.

R. E. Zimmerman; M. L. Wilkey

1979-01-01

247

MUNICIPAL LANDFILL GAS CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

New regulations relative to air emissions from municipal landfills may require the installation of gas collection systems at landfills. As landfill gas (LFG) is collected, water and other vapors in the gas condense in the system or are purposely removed in the normal treatment of...

248

Landfill gas energy recovery: Turning a liability into an asset  

SciTech Connect

Until the past decade, landfill gas (LFG) was viewed as a nuisance at best and a hazard at worst. Today, municipalities and private-sector solid waste management companies are findings ways to put landfill gas to productive use. Landfill gas energy recovery eliminates detrimental air emissions; prevents landfill methane from contributing to global climate change; stops methane from migrating off-site and becoming a safety hazard or odor problem; and provides local utilities, industry, and consumers with a competitive, local source of power. In other words, LFG-to-energy facilities provide a unique form of recycling--solid waste is hauled to the landfill as refuse and returned to the consumer in the form of energy. US EPA`s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) and new EPA regulations for control of landfill gas emissions work together to encourage greater use of LFT at many facilities across the US.

Nichols, M. [EPA, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-08-01

249

Progressive street networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-scale representation model and the corresponding generalization method for constructing it are two key issues involved in the progressive transmission of vector map data. In this paper, the characteristics of existing approaches to the generalization of streets are summarized based on an analysis of the literature. A progressive street network representation model is introduced. Information theory has been applied for a better understanding of why and when to generalize. The metric information, topological information and thematic information are quantified for the street network. A progressive generalization algorithm of street network based on information theory is investigated. An experiment is also conducted on an urban street network map from the Compilation specifications for 1:25000 1:50000 topographic maps (GB 12343-90). This paper tries to state that progressive representation needs the support from corresponding progressive generalization algorithm and tries to introduce information theory to solve the problem of "how to generalize".

Tian, J.; Guo, Q. S.; Zhan, T.

2008-10-01

250

Landfills in New York City: 1844--1994  

SciTech Connect

Historic topographic maps are reviewed to locate landfills constructed within New York City during four time intervals between 1844 and 1994. A total of 184.75 km{sup 2} (45,650 acres) of landfill are identified (approximately 20% of the study area). Data are not available to determine the fill composition at most sites but literature sources indicate that municipal solid waste (MSW) has been an important source of fill since at least 1891. Qualitative temporal trends in the spatial distribution of landfills and the composition and thickness of MSW landfills are observed. The oldest landfills are clustered in the vicinity of the early urban center (southern New York County) but expand in spatial distribution after the turn of this century. Logs of borings through 10 MSW landfills show that waste landfills built prior to the mid-1950s contain abundant ash (coal ash is common in the oldest landfills) and are relatively thin (3--7 m) with no topographic mounding. In MSW landfills built since that time, uncombusted organic matter is abundant, thicknesses increase greatly (16--27 m), and pronounced topographic mounding is observed. Most landfills identified in this study were built on tidal wetlands. Fine-grained wetland deposits underlying the landfills and close proximity to large surface-water bodies favor lateral transport of leachate from MSW landfills in shallow ground water and local discharge to surface water. The wide distribution of historic landfills and common use of MSW for fill indicates that these sites should be considered in investigations of ground water, surface water, and sediment quality in New York City and other urban areas where extensive historic landfilling has occurred.

Walsh, D.C. [NYSDEC, Long Island City, NY (United States); LaFleur, R.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences

1995-07-01

251

Assessment of biological remains from excavations at 14-16 and 48-50 Newmarket Street, Dublin, Republic of Ireland (site code: 02E1692)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Twenty-one bulk sediment samples from deposits of medieval and post-medieval date, encountered during excavations at 14-16 and 48-50 Newmarket Street, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, were submitted to for an assessment of their bioarchaeological potential. Plant remains were usually present and in some cases preservation was excellent, though overall proportions of organic material were generally quite low. Wood fragments of

Allan Hall; Deborah Jaques; Harry Kenward; John Carrott; Kathryn Johnson

2004-01-01

252

Accelerated landfill waste decomposition by external leachate recirculation from an old landfill cell.  

PubMed

This research is focused on the management of moisture regime for a young landfill site in terms of leachate recirculation which entails the containment, collection and reinjection of leachate back into the landfill to promote in situ anaerobic biological treatment. Moreover, an innovative leachate management strategy was developed by using leachate recirculation from a mature landfill site into a young landfill site to provide accelerated waste stabilization. For this purpose, two reactors simulating young and old landfills were used in the laboratory. These reactors were loaded with shredded and compacted municipal solid waste with a typical composition determined for Istanbul Region. Both reactors were operated in a constant temperature room at 32 degrees C to enhance the growth of anaerobic microorganisms. Moreover, water was added to the reactors in order to simulate the annual rainfall. The reactor having the properties of old landfills was used as a control reactor. The reactor which represented the characteristics of young landfill was operated under four operational stages to enhance the activity of methanogenic population and accelerate waste stabilization. Results of this study indicated that the utilization of leachate recirculation enhanced waste stabilization in the young landfill by increasing the uniformity, and providing additional substrate and nutrients. Additions of buffer solutions of KOH and Na2CO3 together with leachate recirculation enhanced further waste stabilization and prevented possible acid inhibition. The utilization of external leachate recycled from the old landfill having desired acclimated anaerobic microorganisms, low organic content and higher buffer capacity into a young landfill could be a promising leachate management strategy for faster and controlled waste stabilization. PMID:12926691

Suna Erses, A; Onay, T T

2003-01-01

253

CRITICAL FACTORS CONTROLLING VEGETATION GROWTH ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study identifies some of the critical factors that affect tree and shrub growth on reclaimed sanitary landfill sites and determines which woody species are adaptable to the adverse growth conditions of such sites. Trees planted at the Edgeboro Landfill, East Brunswick, New J...

254

Street & Smith's Preservation Access Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For thousands of Americans throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, dime novels and pulp magazines were their first experiences with the emerging world of mass-produced material culture. One such purveyor was the Street & Smith publishing house, which began in 1855 and published a wide variety of popular literature (such as homemaking magazines, comics, and dime novels) for over 100 years. These products didn't often have a great deal of originality, as the company viewed fiction as a commodity, and editors dictated plots and characters to writers, a list that included Horatio Alger, Upton Sinclair, and Jack London. This Web site, an online exhibit presented by the Syracuse University Library, pays homage to this publishing house with a number of scanned digitized images of the Street & Smith dime novels, a cover art gallery, and a collection of images immortalizing that most famous comic strip character, the Yellow Kid.

255

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

Bechtel Nevada

1998-08-31

256

Collection and utilization of landfill gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since early 1977 the recovery of landfill gas has been studied on a 40-acre portion of a 2908-acre landfill in Staten Island, New York. During the 1st 2 phases of this project, withdrawal tests were conducted, and the results indicate that the optimum withdrawal rate for this site is 50 cubic feet 550-Btu gas\\/min with a spacing of 1 well\\/acre.

Guiliani

1981-01-01

257

Landfill gas recovery: An analysis of results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of landfill gas recovery including the range of gas recovery, production rates, corrosion, medium-Btu industrial applications, and conversion to electricity via an internal combustion engine were investigated. It is estimated that the landfill site studied is capable of producing more than 2.17 x 10 to the 13th power Btu's of gas per year for a period of over eight years.

Peterson, J. M.

1982-02-01

258

The mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in arid environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies and systems. The comparison will include the cost, efficiency, risk, and feasibility of using these innovative technologies at other sites.

Burford, T.D.; Williams, C.V.

1994-05-01

259

Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates collected in Japan in 1996 were determined by gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer (GC\\/MS). Bisphenol A was found in seven of 10 sites investigated. All the hazardous waste landfills with leachates contaminated by bisphenol A were controlled. The concentrations of bisphenol A ranged from 1.3 to 17,200 ?g\\/l with a median concentration

Takashi Yamamoto; Akio Yasuhara; Hiroaki Shiraishi; Osami Nakasugi

2001-01-01

260

Methane Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane oxidation in the cover soil of the Khmet'evo municipal landfill in Moscow oblast was investigated. Methane emission from the experimental site of the landfill was highly heterogeneous. At a depth of 45–60 cm, the pore gas mainly consisted of CH4 (60–70%) and CO2 (30–40%). In the upper layers of the cover soil, the concentration of these gases sharply decreased.

A. Yu. Kallistova; M. V. Kevbrina; V. K. Nekrasova; M. V. Glagolev; M. I. Serebryanaya; A. N. Nozhevnikova

2005-01-01

261

Seminar Publication: Requirements for Hazardous Waste Landfill Design, Construction, and Closure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of Minimum Technology Guidance and Regulations for Hazardous Waste Landfills; Liner Design: Clay Liners; Flexible Membrane Liners; Elements of Liquid Management at Waste Containment Sites; Securing a Completed Landfill; Construction, Qu...

1989-01-01

262

A new landfill system for cheaper landfill gas purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new landfill design and system for landfill gas containment and air ingress prevention. The new system offers more control over the processes of anaerobic digestion and biogas extraction than conventional landfills. As the new system reduces the air ingress the landfill gas purification process becomes cheaper. The new system can be implemented on existing landfills, as

Viktor Popov

2005-01-01

263

Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County, with majority funding provided by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified.

Not Available

1992-05-15

264

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): City Disposal Sanitary Landfill, Dane County, WI. (First Remedial Action), September 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 38-acre City Disposal Sanitary Landfill site is an inactive landfill located in Dane County, Wisconsin. From 1966-1977, City Disposal Corporation, and later Acme Services, Inc., used the site for disposal of household, construction, debris, and indust...

1992-01-01

265

Methane recovery from sanitary landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane recovery from sanitary landfills is surveyed. Anaerobic digestion converts organic materials in the waste to methane and carbon dioxide. Landfill gas recovery wells use the methane for process heat. Eleven examples of landfill recovery in California are surveyed. The Fresh Kills, Staten Island landfill is the largest recovery program. The steps to be taken by a landfill owner\\/operator to

M. L. Wilkey; J. J. Walsh

1983-01-01

266

Safe Streets in Tacoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Tacoma, Washington, the Safe Street Campaign united the schools, government agencies, labor groups, community and religious organizations, businesses, youth, and substance abuse agencies in responding to gangs and drugs. (MLF)|

Nebgen, Mary

1990-01-01

267

The stability of dolomite in landfill leachate-collection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses several approaches to examine whether calcium-containing aggregate such as dolostone is a suitable drainage material for landfill leachate-collection systems. The thermodynamic stability of carbonate drainage materials has been assessed using published leachate data from landfills in the United Kingdom and leachate sampled from four large landfill sites of variable age in southern Ontario. Electron-microbeam techniques have been

Peter J. Bennett; Frederick J. Longstaffe; R. Kerry Rowe

2000-01-01

268

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ, operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

Venner, L.

2008-11-01

269

Report: management problems of solid waste landfills in Kuwait.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates current operational practices in municipal solid waste landfills in Kuwait to provide existing knowledge on uncontrolled landfilling and associated problems of solid waste disposal in developing countries. The current landfilling practices are safe neither for humans nor for the environment. The landfill sites receive all kinds of wastes such as food wastes, oil products, debris, dead animals, agricultural wastes, chemical wastes, wastewater and sewage sludge. The wastes are dumped, spread and compacted in an uncontrolled manner and cover material is not applied regularly. Dust created within the landfill site and gas emissions cause a public nuisance. The characteristics of leachate formed indicate high organic content and presence of heavy metals, salts and nutrients. There are no provisions for leachate or landfill gas collection at the landfill sites. Recommendations for adjustment in landfill operation have been made in recognition of the transition period that is experienced in proceeding from the past and present to the future management of landfills in Kuwait to safeguard the public health and protect the environment. PMID:12363092

Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

2002-08-01

270

18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING NORTH, For the purpose of clarity and simplicity, directions relate to the nearly north-south orientation of the Naval Supply Center, and not to true north. The alignment of streets and buildings in the NSC are roughly related to magnetic north, and are thus about 10 degrees clockwise from true north. WITH BUILDINGS 222 AND 221 ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

271

7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. The tall, narrow building in the middle of the photo is 10 North Warren Street. Signs saying 'Saddlery,' 'Carriage,' and 'Hardware' on the building indicate that the photo was taken during the tenancy of Claffery & Slack (1888-1914). - 10 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), 10 North Warren Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

272

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CAPILLARY BARRIER FINAL LANDFILL COVERS FACT SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The fact sheet provides an overview of two alternative landfill cover designs. It briefly describes advantages and limitations, performance, costs, design and site considerations, and monitoring parameters associated with these cover designs. The document also includes 20 site ...

273

The Street and Its Image.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied development of identity as street children in Montevideo, Uruguay. Found that children without income-generating activity lack self-definition as street children but recognize the street as a place of apprenticeship, knowing they can return to institutions or to parents. Working children view the street as a workplace and meeting place,…

Lucchini, Riccardo

1996-01-01

274

Utilization of landfill gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill gas is produced by the anaerobic decay of organic matter present in municipal solid waste. Raw landfill gas is composed primarily of carbon dioxide (45 vol percent) and methane (55 vol percent) with part-per-million levels of numerous chemical impurities. The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that over 200 billion cubic feet of methane are generated in landfills every year.

Golden

1990-01-01

275

Methane from landfills  

SciTech Connect

A review on the feasibility and status of recovering CH4 from landfills. A typical landfill gas recovery program is described and includes tests to quantify the recoverable volume of gas and an evaluation of economic feasibility based on factors such as the location of the customers for the gas, legal restrictions, and the technology required to upgrade the raw gas. Planned commercial ventures to recover landfill gas are discussed briefly.

Catell, R.B.

1982-01-01

276

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

2000-02-15

277

Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

278

Methane gas recovery from sanitary landfills in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts in Southern California to utilize methane gas as a new energy source in an economical and environmentally acceptable way are reviewed. Four basic approaches to utilizing methane gas from landfills are discussed: (1) delivery of low BTU (500 BTU) gas to adjacent interruptible gas consumers, (2) on-site treatment of landfill gas to produce pipeline quality synthetic natural gas,

K. K. Hekimian; W. J. Lockman; J. H. Hirt

1976-01-01

279

STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES FOR PLANTING VEGETATION ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

A manual was developed for those charged with establishing a vegetative cover on completed landfills. Special problems associated with growing plants on these sites are discussed, and step-by-step procedures are given for converting a closed landfill to a variety of end uses requ...

280

Technical and economic assessment of power generation from landfill gas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on the technical, economic and environmental assessment of stand-alone and grid connected electricity generation from landfill gas in South Africa. Theoretical models are developed in Matlab to calculate the methane production potential of three Western Cape landfill sites in order to assess their suitability for landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects. Then Homer package is used to

K. Sekgoele; S. P. Chowdhury

2011-01-01

281

Transformation of a Landfill Covering Amended with Municipal Waste Compost, Perugia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research deals with the transformation of an anthropomor- phous landfill covering composed of a fill soil mixed with mechanically separated municipal waste compost. The study site was a municipal landfill near Perugia, Italy. Throughout the years, waste disposal in the landfill was performed by burial in horizontal layers, each one representing a yearly disposal. The external front of the

Mario Businelli; Rolando Calandra; Marcello Pagliai; Daniela Businelli; Giovanni Gigliotti; Olga Grasselli; Daniel Said-Pullicino; Angelo Leccese

2007-01-01

282

A statistical model for landfill surface emissions.  

PubMed

Landfill operators require a rapid, simple, low-cost, and accurate method for estimation of landfill methane surface emissions over time. Several methods have been developed to obtain instantaneous field measurements of landfill methane surface emissions. This paper provides a methodology for interpolating instantaneous measurements over time, taking variations in meteorological conditions into account. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of three factors on landfill methane surface emissions: air temperature, pressure gradient between waste and atmosphere, and soil moisture content of the cover material. On the basis of a statistical three-factor and two-level full factorial design, field measurements of methane emissions were conducted at the City of Montreal landfill site during the summer of 2004. Three areas were measured: test area 1 (4800 m2), test area 2 (1400 m2), and test area 3 (1000 m2). Analyses of variance were performed on the data. They showed a significant statistical effect of the three factors and the interaction between temperature and soil moisture content on methane emissions. Analysis also led to the development of a multifactor correlation, which can be explained by the underlying processes of diffusive and advective flow and biological oxidation. This correlation was used to estimate total emissions of the three test areas for July and August 2004. The approach was validated using a second dataset for another area adjacent to the landfill. PMID:20222535

Héroux, Martin; Guy, Christophe; Millette, Denis

2010-02-01

283

PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF SOIL COVER FIELD TRIALS AT THE REGINA MUNICIPAL LANDFILL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Regina Fleet Street Landfill, located north-east of Regina, Saskatchewan, is approaching its maximum capacity after a 48-year operating life. As part of closure planning, four large-scale test plots encompassing two alternate cover system designs (an evapotranspiration cover and a capillary break type cover) were constructed on north and south-facing slopes of the landfill in the summer of

Randi L. Strunk; Bonnie S. Dobchuk; Gary Nieminen; S. Lee Barbour; Mike A. O'Kane

284

Developing and testing a street audit tool using Google Street View to measure environmental supportiveness for physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Walking for physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits for adults. Increasingly research has focused on associations between walking behaviours and neighbourhood environments including street characteristics such as pavement availability and aesthetics. Nevertheless, objective assessment of street-level data is challenging. This research investigates the reliability of a new street characteristic audit tool designed for use with Google Street View, and assesses levels of agreement between computer-based and on-site auditing. Methods The Forty Area STudy street VIEW (FASTVIEW) tool, a Google Street View based audit tool, was developed incorporating nine categories of street characteristics. Using the tool, desk-based audits were conducted by trained researchers across one large UK town during 2011. Both inter and intra-rater reliability were assessed. On-site street audits were also completed to test the criterion validity of the method. All reliability scores were assessed by percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Results Within-rater agreement was high for each category of street characteristic (range: 66.7%-90.0%) and good to high between raters (range: 51.3%-89.1%). A high level of agreement was found between the Google Street View audits and those conducted in-person across the nine categories examined (range: 75.0%-96.7%). Conclusion The audit tool was found to provide a reliable and valid measure of street characteristics. The use of Google Street View to capture street characteristic data is recommended as an efficient method that could substantially increase potential for large-scale objective data collection.

2013-01-01

285

Emissions of Nonmethane Organic Compounds at an Illinois (USA) Landfill: Preliminary Field Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Current US regulatory models for estimating emissions of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require field validation to determine if the models are realistic. A project was initiated to begin to develop a field method for direct measurement of landfill NMOC emissions and, concurrently, develop improved sampling and analysis methods for individual NMOCs in landfill gas matrices. Two contrasting field sites at the Greene Valley Landfill, DuPage County, Illinois, USA, were established.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Niemann, M.; Niemann, L. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Oak Brook, IL (United States); Baker, J. [WMX Technology Center, Geneva, IL (United States)

1997-08-01

286

"Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

2009-01-01

287

"Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

2009-01-01

288

Simplified Sanitary Landfill Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report surveys and summarizes state-of-the-art practices in the design and operation of sanitary landfills. This information is intended to be used as guidelines for Facilities Engineers at Army installations. All aspects of sanitary landfills are co...

G. L. Gerdes B. A. Donahue

1979-01-01

289

1. General oblique view from south side of Canal Street ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. General oblique view from south side of Canal Street showing Paper Machine Building at southwest corner of site; view to northeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

290

3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME LEFT CENTER; 21 AT MID-LEFT CENTER; 4 AT LEFT CENTER; RUNDBOGENSTIL TOWER AT CENTER; BUILDING 3 RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 2 AT EXTREME RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 3 IS THE OLDEST BUILDING ON SITE AND WAS BUILT CIRCA 1850 - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

291

52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water Company site, along covered Dundee Canal prism, toward Dayton Avenue and Botany Worsted Mills - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

292

Shouts of the street: Identity and the spaces of authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time the street has occupied a cherished place in the lexicon of urbanism. Romanticised as the site of authentic political action, celebrated and reviled as the font of ‘low’ culture or feared as a signifier of dangerous territorialisation, the street can be gazed at, walked through and appropriated time and again in representations of the city. This

Michael Keith

1995-01-01

293

Biostabilization of landfill waste  

SciTech Connect

In November 1991, the city of Albany, N.Y., together with the principals of Landfill Service Corp. (Apalachin, N.Y.), proposed to demonstrate the successful practice of biostabilized solid waste placement in the newly constructed, double-composite-lined Interim Landfill located in the city of Albany. The small landfill covers just 12 acres and is immediately adjacent to residential neighbors. The benefits of this biostabilization practice include a dramatic improvement in the orderliness of waste placement, with significant reduction of windblown dust and litter. The process also reduces the presence of typical landfill vectors such as flies, crows, seagulls, and rodents. The physically and biologically uniform character of the stabilized waste mass can result in more uniform future landfill settlement and gas production properties. This can allow for more accurate prediction of post-closure conditions and reduction or elimination of remedial costs attendant to post-closure gross differential settlement.

Hansen, D.L. [Landfill Service Corp., Apalachin, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

294

INTERSECTION OF EAST AND SOUTH NATIONAL STREETS WITH STREET SIGNS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERSECTION OF EAST AND SOUTH NATIONAL STREETS WITH STREET SIGNS, CANNON, SMALL OBELISK, FLAGS, AND CONTEXT. VIEW TO EAST. - Fort Scott National Cemetery, 900 East National Avenue, Fort Scott, Bourbon County, KS

295

1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., RI. sec. 4215, mp 141.67/.77. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

296

5. ROADSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF STARK STREET BETWEEN STARK STREET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. ROADSCAPE LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF STARK STREET BETWEEN STARK STREET BRIDGE AND TROUTDALE. UNIDENTIFIED ARCH HALF VIADUCT WITH CONCRETE RAIL AND LAMPPOSTS TO LEFT. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

297

A decision support system for assessing landfill performance.  

PubMed

Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills. PMID:19836225

Celik, Ba?ak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlü, Kahraman

2010-01-01

298

Coping with Street Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide to coping with street gangs is aimed at the young person who may be considering gang membership or who is afraid of gang violence. Understanding gangs leads to the ability to cope with the problems they pose. Part I explores "What Gangs Are," explaining characteristics of gangs and why young people join them. It is essential that…

Webb, Margot

299

Saving Mango Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

Van Winkle, Katie

2012-01-01

300

Saving Mango Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

Van Winkle, Katie

2012-01-01

301

"Sesame Street" Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the basis of a reevaluation of earlier data, doubts are raised about how much economically-disadvantaged children have learned from the educational television series, Sesame Street, and whether the program is widening the gap that separates the academic achievement of disadvantaged pre-schoolers from that of their more affluent counterparts.…

Cook, Thomas D.; And Others

302

Energy potential of modern landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control.

Bogner

1990-01-01

303

Public Health Assessment for Raleigh Street Dump, Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida, January 20, 2006. EPA Facility ID: FLD984227249.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Raleigh Street Dump is at the end of Raleigh Street, about 12 mile west of U.S. Highway 41 in Tampa (Hillsborough County), Florida. Raleigh Street divides the site into two parcels, which together form the Raleigh Street Dump. Heavy brush, trees, and ...

2006-01-01

304

The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management. PMID:20935025

Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

2010-10-08

305

The Effective Illumination of Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mentions the dependence of effectiveness in street lighting upon municipal appropriations and efficient lamps, but discusses more particularly those aspects of effectiveness which are dependent upon skilful utilization of the light to produce the most effective illumination. There are included a classification of streets, a statement of the objects of street lighting and the elements of vision under

Preston S. Mllar

1915-01-01

306

Street Youth: Coping and Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review of research into interventions among street youth is presented along with the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 80 street youth on the topic of coping. Themes arising from the qualitative analysis include street youths' negative and positive experiences with social support; and attitudes and beliefs such as self-worth, decreased reactivity to other's opinions, hope

Sean A. Kidd

2003-01-01

307

LANDFILL GAS PRODUCTION FROM LARGE LANDFILL SIMULATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two sizes of landfill simulators or test cells; one set containing approximately 320 kg wet weight of municipal solid wastes (MSW) and the other set containing 2555 kg wet weight of MSW were used to measure the amount and composition of gases produced from MSW under typical landf...

308

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

309

Cyclic characterization of OII landfill solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of predesign studies for closure of the Operating Industries, Inc. (OII) landfill Superfund site, field and laboratory studies were combined with back analyses of strong motion data to characterize the behavior of the OII solid waste when subjected to strong earthquake shaking. Small strain shear modulus values for the solid waste material were established on the basis of

Neven Matasovic?; Edward Kavazanjian Jr.

1998-01-01

310

Radioactive Material in the West Lake Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. The report ...

1988-01-01

311

FIELD VERIFICATION OF LINERS FROM SANITARY LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Liner specimens from three existing landfill sites were collected and examined to determine the changes in their physical properties over time and to validate data being developed through laboratory research. Samples examined included a 15-mil PVC liner from a sludge lagoon in Ne...

312

Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from landfills  

SciTech Connect

Methanogenic bacteria were isolated from landfill sites in the United Kindgom. Strains of Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, several different immunotypes of Methanobacterium bryantii, and a coccoid methanogen distinct from the reference immunotypes were identified.

Fielding, E.R.; Archer, D.B.; De Macario, E.C.; Macario, A.J.L.

1988-03-01

313

Nitrous oxide emissions from landfill cover soils in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of nitrous oxide measured at 4 landfill sites were found to be higher where sewage sludge was used as a landfill cover, ranging from 0.011 to 35.7mg N2O-N m2h1. From landfill sites covered with mineral soils, N2O-emissions ranged from -0.0017 to 1.07mg N2O-N m2h1. However, extrapolation to the national level showed that sewage sludge could only be a minor

G. Börjesson; Bo H. Svensson

1997-01-01

314

Methane from Landfills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recovery and utilization of methane generated in sanitary landfills provides the nation with an opportunity to simultaneously develop an alternative energy source and negate potential hazards. Utilization as a fuel of the combustible gas generated in ...

R. E. Zimmerman M. L. Wilkey

1979-01-01

315

Sanitary landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews landfill leachate treatment methods. Contamination of groundwater, streams, and ponds by noxious materials from landfills in particular, leachate is a problem going back to the first dump''. However, it has only relatively recently received the attention it deserves. Leachate, soluble chemical compounds removed from degrading solid waste materials, is produced when water (usually from precipitation) passes through a landfill. Its quality varies with its source, among other factors, and reported values of leachate constituents vary over a wide range. The quantity produced is primarily a function of climate, but it is also affected by landfill cover and the collection system's configuration. Because uncollected leachate may contaminate ground-water or surface water, current regulations require containment, collection, treatment, and leachate disposal.

Shams-Khorzani, R.; Knox, T.D.; Brockway, R.C. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States))

1994-06-01

316

Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill  

SciTech Connect

A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons; the C{sub 5}-C{sub 10} normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

1992-07-01

317

Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill  

SciTech Connect

A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C[sub 1]C[sub 4] hydrocarbons; the C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

1992-07-01

318

Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

NONE

1996-04-01

319

Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.  

PubMed Central

The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities.

Taylor, D

1999-01-01

320

Electrochemical treatability of refractory pollutants in landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

Landfill leachate treatment is the most troublesome aspect of the landfill management. Investigation of leachate characteristics at two landfill sites in Taiwan showed that the biological processes were inefficient for the treatment of leachate, regardless of whether an anaerobic or aerobic process was used. In addition, conventional flocculation/sedimentation processes were also ineffective for post-treatment of leachate effluents from biological treatment processes. The discharged leachate still contained lots of refractory pollutants and it failed to meet the effluent quality standards of the R.O.C. (COD < 500 mg/L, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N < 20 mg/L). In an attempt to improve leachate effluent quality, in this study, an electrochemical oxidation process was applied to treat the landfill leachate after biodegradation. Results from both batch and continuous experiments indicate that over 90% of COD and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N in the landfill leachate are removed by the electrochemical oxidation process. In addition, the electrochemical oxidation process also demonstrated a good efficacy for the removal of refractory compounds. After electrolysis, the chlorinated organic matters (as TOX) in the landfill leachate was reduced from 19.4 to less than 2 mg Cl/L and the BOD/COD ratio of the landfill leachate was also improved from 0.05 to 0.71. These results indicate that the electrochemical oxidation process is a promising process for the treatment of landfill leachate. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Chiang, Li-Choung; Chang, Juu-En; Wen, Ten-Chin [National Cheng Kung Univ. (Taiwan, Province of China)

1995-12-31

321

When life is “difficult”: A comparison of street children's and non-street children's priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on street children has typically described the phenomenon and examined the risks of street life to healthy development. Thus far, research has not contextualized street children's psychosocial lives by comparing them with non-street children or street children undergoing rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to assess how the life priorities of Tanzanian street children, former street children and

Priya G. Nalkur

2009-01-01

322

Greenhouse gas reduction by recovery and utilization of landfill methane and CO technical and market feasibility study, Boului Landfill, Bucharest, Romania. Final report, September 30, 1997September 19, 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project is a landfill gas to energy project rated at about 4 megawatts (electric) at startup, increasing to 8 megawatts over time. The project site is Boului Landfill, near Bucharest, Romania. The project improves regional air quality, reduces emission of greenhouse gases, controls and utilizes landfill methane, and supplies electric power to the local grid. The technical and economic

W. J. Cook; W. R. Brown; L. Siwajek; W. I. Sanders; I. Botgros

1998-01-01

323

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): H. O. D. Landfill, Antioch, IL, September 28, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedy for the H.O.D. Landfill (the Site) in Antioch, Illinois. The selected remedy addresses the sources of the contamination by containment of the landfill and contaminated soils, and treatment of leachate and landfill gas. The major components of the selected remedy for the Site are: waste cap improvements; enhanced gas collection and treatment; enhanced leachate collection; leachate treatment; groundwater monitored natural attenuation; and institutional controls.

NONE

1998-11-01

324

Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the medium grain-size fraction was nearly the same for streets within both land-use types at 0.004 p

Sorenson, Jason R.

2013-01-01

325

Numerical simulation of landfill gas pressure distribution in landfills.  

PubMed

Landfill gas emissions are recognized as one of the three major concerns in municipal solid waste landfills. There are many factors that affect the generation of landfill gas when the landfill is capped. In this article, a model has been developed based on the theory of porous media flow. The model could predict the pressure distribution of landfill gas in landfill, coupling the effect of landfill settlement. According to the simulation analysis of landfill, it was found that: (a) the landfill gas pressure would reach a peak after 1.5 years, then begin to decline, and the rate of decay would slow down after 10 years; (b) the influence radius of the gas wells is limited; (c) the peak value of landfill gas pressure is larger, it appears later and the rate of decay is slower when the landfill settlement is considered in the model; (d) the calculation of excess gas pressure in landfill under different negative pressures of the extraction well is compared between this model and another model, and the results show that the relative pressure distribution form and range are almost the same. PMID:24019384

Xi, Yonghui; Xiong, Hao

2013-09-09

326

Studies of soil gas, gas generation, and shallow microbial activity at Mallard North Landfill, Dupage County, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of investigations at the Mallard North Landfill during the last five years have led to the development of useful field and laboratory techniques for better understanding gas generation, gas migration, and shallow microbial processes at any landfill. This paper summarizes the techniques with reference to representative results from Mallard North and discusses their general applicability to landfill site

J. E. Bogner; M. Vogt; R. M. Miller

1990-01-01

327

Effect of an uncontrolled fire and the subsequent fire fight on the chemical composition of landfill leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill leachates sampled during and after an accidental landfill fire were analysed and the levels of selected metals and chemical compounds compared to those occurring in the leachate under normal conditions. The fire at the landfill site was put out by excavation and cooling by use of water. The investigation during the fire and fire fight revealed a moderate increase

Joar Karsten Øygard; Amund Måge; Elin Gjengedal; Tore Svane

2005-01-01

328

Municipal landfill leachate management  

SciTech Connect

From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

Kusterer, T.; Willson, R. [Montgomery County Div. of Solid Waste Services, Rockville, MD (United States); Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J. [Roy F. Weston Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

329

Suitability of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental Protection Agency for the simulation of the water balance of landfill cover systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover systems are widely used to safeguard landfills and contaminated sites. The evaluation of the water balance is crucial\\u000a for the design of landfill covers. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental\\u000a Protection Agency was developed for this purpose. This paper discusses some limitations of version 2 of this model and some\\u000a operational difficulties for

K. Berger; S. Melchior; G. Miehlich

1996-01-01

330

Method for treating landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for removing contaminants from leachate of a landfill which produces landfill gas, comprising the steps of: (a) combusting the landfill gas to produce combustion products; (b) heating the leachate with said combustion products; (c) removing contaminants from the leachate by gas stripping; and (d) reducing the pH of the leachate with said combustion products.

Singhvi, S.S.

1993-08-24

331

Measured gas emissions from four landfills in south africa and some implications for landfill design and methane recovery in semi-arid climates.  

PubMed

The magnitude of annual global emissions of methane from municipal solid waste landfills without landfill gas control systems implies that these landfills are significant contributors to the atmospheric load of greenhouse gases. There have been a number of field studies undertaken internationally to measure actual fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from landfills, with a view to corroborating modelled predictions of the contribution of landfills to the global greenhouse gas budget. The vast majority of these studies have been undertaken in more temperate climates and in developed countries. This paper reports a study of landfill gas emissions from four large landfills located in the semi-arid interior of South Africa. A static accumulation chamber was used and measurements were made at each site over a period of two to three days. The results were analysed by three different methods, all of them leading to the same general conclusion that landfill gas emission rates were lower than expected. A common conclusion based on results from all four sites was that capping of landfills in semi-arid climates with low permeability covers would probably significantly retard the already low rate of waste degradation and thus gas generation. While this may be regarded as advantageous in the short term, it cannot be relied upon in perpetuity as clayey landfill covers will inevitably desiccate and crack in a semiarid environment. In addition, reasonable after-care periods for such landfills are likely to extend well beyond the currently stipulated 30-year period, and efforts to encourage energy recovery from landfills may be hampered because gas generation rates decrease as the waste dries out under conditions of minimal recharge from precipitation. A landfill cover that allows small amounts of percolation of rainfall into the waste may therefore in fact be beneficial in semiarid climates, although care would need to be taken to carefully regulate this infiltration. PMID:15666447

Fourie, A B; Morris, J W F

2004-12-01

332

Trace metal geochemistry of peat under a sanitary landfill-a reconnaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core samples were taken at two sites from a peat deposit buried by a sanitary landfill operated by the city of Vancouver since the 1960s and from a third site where the same peat bed is not covered by landfill. Twenty-nine subsamples from the three cores were analyzed by a variety of techniques to determine the concentration of as many

W. H. Mathews; R. M. Bustin

1994-01-01

333

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Metamora Landfill, Metamora, Lapeer County, Michigan, September 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Metamora Landfill site is located in Metamora Township, Lapeer County, MI. The 80-acre landfill was previously used for gravel mining and in 1966 as a privately owned, unregulated dump. The site accepted both municipal and industrial waste until its c...

1986-01-01

334

Wet landfill decomposition rate determination using methane yield results for excavated waste samples.  

PubMed

An increasing number of landfills are operated to accelerate waste decomposition through liquids addition (e.g., leachate recirculation) as a wet landfill. Landfill design and regulation often depend on utilizing landfill gas production models that require an estimate of a first-order gas generation rate constant, k. Consequently, several studies have estimated k using collected gas volumes from operating wet landfills. Research was conducted to examine an alternative approach in which k is estimated not from collected landfill gas but from solid waste samples collected over time and analyzed for remaining gas yield. To achieve this goal, waste samples were collected from 1990 through 2007 at two full-scale landfills in Florida that practiced liquids addition. Methane yields were measured from waste samples collected over time, including periods before and after leachate recirculation, and the results were applied to a first-order decay model to estimate rate constants for each of the sites. An initial, intensive processing step was conducted to exclude non-biodegradable components from the methane yield testing procedure. The resulting rate constants for the two landfills examined were 0.47 yr(-1) and 0.21 yr(-1). These results expectedly exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency's rate constants for dry and conventional landfills (0.02-0.05 yr(-1)), but they are comparable to wet landfill rate constants derived using landfill gas data (0.1-0.3 yr(-1)). PMID:22516100

Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy G

2012-04-17

335

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1988-04-01

336

Post-closure landfill development: Is there life after closure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 10, 1995, the Colma, Calif., Home Depot opened for business on the site of an old landfill. The 102,000-square-foot hardware store was the first in which the California Integrated Waste Management Board and Regional Water Quality Control Board allowed developers to pile through a landfill by demonstrating that the engineering design sealed the top and bottom of the

Keech

1996-01-01

337

Ammonium removal from landfill leachate by anodic oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of removing ammonium from landfill leachates by electrochemical oxidation was studied. Raw leachates and biologically\\/physico-chemically pretreated leachates from a municipal landfill site were treated. Boron doped diamond was used as anode and stainless steel as cathode, both electrodes with an area of 70cm2. The effects of the applied current density (15–90mAcm?2), the initial ammonium concentration (480–2000mgL?1), and the

Adelaida Cabeza; Ane Urtiaga; María-José Rivero; Inmaculada Ortiz

2007-01-01

338

Coping Strategies of Street Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street children are usually failures and drop outs at school, but their skill and creativity in surviving and entertaining themselves in the streets show that they do not lack intellig ence. Most of them will admit that they have felt the lack of an adult \\

Matthew Foley

1983-01-01

339

21. 3RD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH G STREET, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. 3RD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH G STREET, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH WEST SIDES OF WAREHOUSES 331, 332, 333, ETC. ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

340

29. 4TH STREET FROM NEAR ITS INTERSECTION WITH J STREET, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. 4TH STREET FROM NEAR ITS INTERSECTION WITH J STREET, LOOKING NORTH, WITH WAREHOUSE 333 AT LEFT AND WAREHOUSES 433, 432 & 431 AT RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

341

General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment intersects at left, 9th street segment intersects alley at right. View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

342

66. View underneath Green Street station looking North ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. View underneath Green Street station - looking North - along Washington Street at corner of Green Street. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

343

Landfills: Building Them Better  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waste disposal has been an ongoing societal problem since medieval times. In this lesson, students learn about the three methods of waste disposal in use by modern communities. They also investigate how engineers design sanitary landfills to prevent leachate from polluting the underlining groundwater.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

344

HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface ...

345

MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

346

Attenuation of landfill leachate at two uncontrolled landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation characteristics of landfill leachate were examined for two uncontrolled landfills in Korea. The two landfills containing municipal wastes without appropriate bottom liner and leachate treatment system have different landfill age, waste volume, and most importantly different hydrogeologic settings. One landfill (Cheonan landfill) is situated in an open flat area while the other (Wonju landfill) is located in a valley. Variations of various parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO{3/-}), sulfate (SO{4/2-}), and chloride (Cl-) were examined along groundwater flow path. All these parameters were analyzed every month for a year. In the interior of the landfills, typical anaerobic conditions revealed by low DO and NO3 concentrations, negative ORP values, high NH3, alkalinity, and Cl- concentrations were observed. Generally, higher levels of contaminants (DOC, NH3, and Cl-) were detected in the dry season while they were greatly lowered in the wet season. Significantly, large decrease of Cl- concentration in the wet season indicates that the dilution or mixing is one of dominant attenuation mechanisms of leachate. But detailed variation behaviors in the two landfills are different and they were largely dependent on permeability of surface and subsurface layers. The intermediately permeable surface of the landfills receives part of direct rainfall infiltration but most rainwater is lost to fast runoff. The practically impermeable surface of clayey silt (paddy field) at immediately adjacent to the Cheonan landfill boundary prevented direct rainwater infiltration and hence redox condition of the ground waters were largely affected by that of the upper landfill and the less permeable materials beneath the paddy fields prohibited dispersion of the landfill leachate into down gradient area. In the Wonju landfill, there are three different permeability divisions, the landfill region, the sandy open field and the paddy field. Roles of the landfill and paddy regions are very similar to those at the Cheonan. The very permeable sandy field receiving a large amount of rainwater infiltration plays a key role in controlling redox condition of the down gradient area and contaminant migration. This paper reports details of the attenuation and redox conditions of the landfill leachates at the two uncontrolled landfills.

Lee, Jin-Yong; Cheon, Jeong-Yong; Kwon, Hyung-Pyo; Yoon, Hee-Sung; Lee, Seong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Joung-Ku; Kim, Chang-Gyun

2006-12-01

347

Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: results of Australian field trial.  

PubMed

A field scale trial was undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia (2004-2008), to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions from low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a passive landfill gas drainage and biofiltration system at treating landfill gas under field conditions, and to identify and evaluate the factors that affect the behaviour and performance of the system. The trial results showed that passively aerated biofilters operating in a temperate climate can effectively oxidise methane in landfill gas, and demonstrated that maximum methane oxidation efficiencies greater than 90% and average oxidation efficiencies greater than 50% were achieved over the 4 years of operation. The trial results also showed that landfill gas loading was the primary factor that determined the behaviour and performance of the passively aerated biofilters. The landfill gas loading rate was found to control the diffusion of atmospheric oxygen into the biofilter media, limiting the microbial methane oxidation process. The temperature and moisture conditions within the biofilter were found to be affected by local climatic conditions and were also found to affect the behaviour and performance of the biofilter, but to a lesser degree than the landfill gas loading. PMID:21147522

Dever, Stuart A; Swarbrick, Gareth E; Stuetz, Richard M

2010-12-13

348

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

Bechtel Nevada

1998-09-30

349

Street Love”: How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. Born African men, to document\\u000a how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. Born African men between the ages of 16–65, frame and use “street life”\\u000a as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; Journal of Black Psychology 34(1):3–31, 2008). Qualitative data was

Yasser Arafat Payne; Hanaa A. Hamdi

2009-01-01

350

Characteristics of landfill leachates in central Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complex nature of landfill leachates, the leachate treatment plants have difficulty to meet the current Taiwan EPA's effluent standards. Three typical types of landfills, closed landfill A, mixed landfill B (disposal of MSW with bottom ashes from MSW incinerators) and direct MSW landfill C, (disposal of MSW only), are investigated in this research in order to have

Huan-jung Fan; Hung-Yee Shu; Hsin-Sin Yang; Wen-Ching Chen

2006-01-01

351

Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in

T. G. Townsend; W. L. Miller; Hyung-Jib Lee; J. F. K. Earle

1996-01-01

352

Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Hercules 009 Landfill, Brunswick, GA, August 14, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This memorandum serves to present the Hercules 009 Landfill Superfund Site Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for concurrence. The Record of Decision (ROD) was signed on March 25, 1993 (PB94-964070). The ESD amends the ROD by changing the type of cover to be placed on the treated landfill soils and sludges. The ESD also explains EPA`s justification for determining the appropriate treatment depth in the landfill cells.

NONE

1999-03-01

353

Mathematical modelling of landfill gas migration in MSW sanitary landfills.  

PubMed

The laws that govern the displacement of landfill gas in a sanitary landfill are analysed. Subsequently, a 2-D finite difference flow model of a fluid in a steady state in a porous medium with infinite sources of landfill gas is proposed. The fact that landfill gas is continuously generated throughout the entire mass of the landfill differentiates this model from others extensively described in the literature and used in a variety of different applications, such as oil recovery, groundwater flow, etc. Preliminary results are then presented of the application of the model. Finally, the results obtained employing data from the literature and experimental assays carried out at the La Zoreda sanitary landfill (Asturias, Spain) are discussed and future lines of research are proposed. PMID:11954728

Martín, S; Marañón, E; Sastre, H

2001-10-01

354

The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term

D. S. Shafer; J. J. Miller; M. H. Young; S. C. Edwards; S. E. Rawlinson

2002-01-01

355

The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term

David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

2001-01-01

356

Dynamic interactions between Main Street and Wall Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the time-varying relationship between Main Street and Wall Street (proxied by the Dow–Jones industrial index and the Standard & Poor’s 500 index) using cointegration and error-correction techniques. Preliminary results reveal that each pair of series is bounded by a long-run, common stochastic trend and is characterized by significant short-run interactions. The results point to significant inverse effects

Nikiforos T. Laopodis; Bansi L. Sawhney

2002-01-01

357

Development of computer simulations for landfill methane recovery  

SciTech Connect

Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs simulating methane recovery systems in landfills have been developed. These computer programs model multicomponent combined pressure and diffusional flow in porous media. Each program and the processes it models are described in this report. Examples of the capabilities of each program are also presented. The two-dimensional program was used to simulate methane recovery systems in a cylindrically shaped landfill. The effects of various pump locations, geometries, and extraction rates were determined. The three-dimensional program was used to model the Puente Hills landfill, a field test site in southern California. The biochemical and microbiological details of methane generation in landfills are also given. Effects of environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, temperature, and nutrients on methane generation are discussed and an analytical representation of the gas generation rate is developed.

Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.; Sykes, R.M.

1981-12-01

358

Strategy in landfilling solid wastes: Different solutions in practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two main strategies for landfill design and operation: 1) the dilute-and- attenuate strategy 2) the containmment strategy. The dilute-and-attenuate strategy depends for its effectiveness on controlled and reliable chemical, physical, and biological processes which operate within the wastes themselves, and on the predictable attenuation processes in the underlying rock strata. On a site- by- site basis, detailed and professional site assessment, followed by a high quality, engineered landfill design are necessary. Relevant properties of the strata which are important to know include particle size distribution, clay content, cation exchange capacity, unsaturated zone thickness, and carbonate content.

Stief, Klaus

359

Approach for Estimating Global Landfill Methane Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. T...

R. L. Peer A. E. Leininger B. B. Emmel S. K. Lynch

1991-01-01

360

THE USEPA'S LANDFILL RESEARCH AND REGULATORY STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The priorities and initiatives of Environmental Protection Agency's landfill research and regulatory program over the next five years will be described. This will include municipal solid waste landfills as well as abandoned hazardous waste landfills. Regarding municipals s...

361

Aerobic in situ stabilization of Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher: leachate quality after 1 year of operation.  

PubMed

Modern landfill understanding points out controlled operation of landfills. Emissions from landfills are caused mainly by anaerobic biodegradation processes which continue for very long time periods after landfill closure. In situ landfill stabilization aims controlled reduction of emissions towards reduced expenditures as well as aftercare measures. Since April 2010, a new in situ stabilization technique is being applied at a pilot scale landfill (BAIV) within Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher. This new method utilizes intermittent aeration and leachate recirculation for waste stabilization. In this study, influence of this technique on leachate quality is investigated. Among many other parameters, leachate analyses were conducted for COD, BOD(5), NH(4)-N, NO(2)-N, NO(3)-N, TKN and chloride besides continuously on site recorded pH, electrical conductivity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). Results from leachate quality analyses showed that biological activity in the landfill was accelerated resulting in initial higher leachate strength and reduced emission potential of landfill. During full scale in situ aeration, ambient conditions differ from optimized laboratory scale conditions which mainly concern temperature increase and deficient aeration of some landfill parts (Ritzkowski and Stegmann, 2005). Thus, as a field application results of this study have major importance on further process optimization and application. PMID:22938814

Öncü, G; Reiser, M; Kranert, M

2012-08-29

362

Street Gang Crime in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

revenge, while another may be associated with expansion of a drug business into new territory. Consequently, street gangs and the crimes in which they engage can- not be viewed as monolithic in nature. This Research in Brief describes these and other patterns of street gang-related vio- lence in a major U.S. city-Chicago. All available information, including Chicago police records of

R. Block; Carolyn Rebecca Block

1993-01-01

363

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

364

Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A site-specific unsaturated flow investigation was undertaken for the design of an evapotranspirative ~ET! cover system at the Operating Industries, Inc. ~OII! Superfund landfill in southern California. This cover system constitutes the first ET cover approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency for construction at a Superfund site. Percolation control in an ET cover system relies on the storage of

Jorge G. Zornberg; Lester LaFountain

2003-01-01

365

Post-closure landfill development: Is there life after closure?  

SciTech Connect

On October 10, 1995, the Colma, Calif., Home Depot opened for business on the site of an old landfill. The 102,000-square-foot hardware store was the first in which the California Integrated Waste Management Board and Regional Water Quality Control Board allowed developers to pile through a landfill by demonstrating that the engineering design sealed the top and bottom of the piles. This negated the potential of additional leachate production and groundwater contamination. The developer was Bocci-Schneider Interests and the civil engineering firm was Brian Kangas Foulk (Redwood City, Calif.). The article on the design of site infrastructures on closed landfill sites is adapted from a February presentation by Max Keech at the Waste Tech Conference in Orlando, Fla., sponsored by the Environmental Industry Associations` National Solid Wastes Management Association (Washington, D.C.).

Keech, M. [Brian Kangas Foulk, Redwood City, CA (United States)

1996-04-01

366

11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

367

6. South El Paso St., street view from 615 South ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. South El Paso St., street view from 615 South El Paso Street showing west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

368

40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

369

Superfund record of decision (EPA region 6): Monroe Auto Equipment (Paragould Pit), AKA: Monroe Finch Road Landfill, AKA: Monroe Auto Pit Superfund Site, Paragould, AR, September 26, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Monroe Auto Pit Superfund site, in Paragould, Arkansas. The function of the soil and sludge remedy is to reduce the risks associated with exposure to contaminated materials and prevent potential ground water and surface water contamination.

NONE

1997-03-01

370

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT LADWP MAIN STREET SERVICE CENTER  

SciTech Connect

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from September 2003 to August 2004. The data for the month of September 2004 was not available at the time this report was prepared. An addendum to this report will be prepared and transmitted to the Department of Energy once this data becomes available. This fuel cell power plant was originally intended to be installed at an American Airlines facility located at Los Angeles International Airport, however, due to difficulties in obtaining a site, the plant was ultimately installed at the LADWP's Distributed Generation Test Facility at it's Main Street Service Center.

William W. Glauz

2004-09-10

371

Landfill Gas Management Plan for the Barycz Municipal Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the result of a feasibility study conducted for the Barycz Municipal Landfill, located near the City of Krakow in the Republic of Poland. The feasibility study report describes the alternative methods of LFG (Landfill Gas) management, the su...

1992-01-01

372

Surface emission of landfill gas from solid waste landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface emission of landfill gas (LFG) was studied to estimate the amount of LFG efflux from solid waste landfills using an air flux chamber. LFG efflux increased as atmospheric temperature increased during the day, and the same pattern for the surface emission was observed for the change of seasons. LFG efflux rate decreased from summer through winter. The average

Jin-Won Park; Ho-Chul Shin

2001-01-01

373

Quantifying Uncontrolled Landfill Gas Emissions from Two Florida Landfills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate fugitive loss from two different municipal landfills which were reported to be operating as a wet or bioreactor landfill and have an area regarded as a control cell (where no additional liquid was added). Fugitive ...

2009-01-01

374

Landfill disposal of limestone dual-alkali flue-gas-desulfurization waste. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landfill disposal test program was undertaken to demonstrate the addition of fly ash and lime to calcium sulfite-sulfate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes and to establish design and operating guidelines for an environmentally acceptable waste disposal system. A lined, diked landfill disposal site was partially filled with waste mixtures of FGD filter cake, fly ash, and lime. Field samples

L. K. Fox; E. D. Gibson; J. F. Pierson; D. M. Brown

1982-01-01

375

INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC, INORGANIC AND SYNTHETIC ADSORBENTS FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate, generated by the City of Ottawa Trail Road Landfill, was carried out. The purpose of this project was to reduce the concentration of contaminants in order to meet the local Sewer Use By?Laws, prior to transporting the leachate from the generating site to

H. Shahriari; L. Fernandes; F. H. Tezel

2008-01-01

376

Geophysical identification of leachate levels and refuse characterization in a landfill at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic and electrical geophysical techniques were used to survey the 800 Area landfill at Argonne National Laboratory as part of an environmental site assessment. This landfill was opened in 1966 and has accepted non-radioactive laboratory, office, food service and construction wastes. Magnetic profiles and electrical resistivity surveys using Wenner, Schlumberger and dipole-dipole arrays were made primarily over the northern portion

P. J. Carpenter; Y. Xi; I. W. El-Hussain; L. Moos

1991-01-01

377

Health Assessment for Syosset Landfill, Nassau County, Syosset, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD000511360.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Syosset Landfill, located in the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York is approximately forty-four acres in size. From 1936 to 1974 the landfill received mixed municipal refuse, cesspool pump-out wastes and industrial wastes. Groundwater on-site...

1989-01-01

378

Decline of Citrus due to presence of landfill gases in the soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of years, the decline of citrus has been noted near sites located on or near landfill areas where aerobic or anaerobic decomposition is taking place. The symptoms of these declines in vigor are: growth reduction, leaf abscission, wilting, dieback, and eventual death of the tree. Similar declines have occurred in peach (Prunus persica Batsch.) orchards near landfills

Michael G. Bausher

1991-01-01

379

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulation (40CFR Part 258) went into effect. hese regulations are applicable to landfills reclining solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operations, and closure of MSW landfills. hese regulat...

380

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

381

Health Assessment for Metamora Landfill, Metamora, Lapeer County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980506562.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Metamora Landfill site was listed on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) on September 21, 1984. The landfill, located 1 mile east of the Village of Metamora, in Metamora Township, Lapeer County, ...

1992-01-01

382

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Helen Kramer Landfill, Mantua Township, New Jersey, September 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Helen Kramer Landfill is located in Mantua Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey. The site encompasses a 66-acre refuse area and an 11-acre stressed area between the refuse and Edwards Run which is located immediately east of the landfill. The Helen...

1985-01-01

383

Toxicity of leachates: comparison of extraction procedure extracts and landfill leachates  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to sample priority landfills with known biohazards and to compare contaminant concentrations in the solid waste extracts with the concentrations found in the ground water, surface runoff, or sump leachate collected at the various landfills. In this report, the water samples obtained are collectively referred to as landfill leachates. Six landfill sites receiving a variety of industrial and municipal solid wastes were sampled. The extracts and landfill leachates for each site were analyzed for the elements and compounds listed in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR) (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag, four pesticides (Endrin, Lindane, Methoxychlor, and Toxaphene), and two herbicides (2,4-D and 2,4,5-TP)), which are used to define toxic solid wastes. Either the extract or landfill leachate from five of the six landfills were found to contain at least one toxic element in excess of the NIPDWR concentrations. The only elements found in concentrations exceeding the NIPDWR were As, Ba, and Cr. None of the samples contained the pesticides or herbicides listed in the NIPDWR. Only one site was found to contain an element in excess of the regulation concentrations for both the extract and leachate. Three of the sites showed higher concentrations in the landfill leachate.

Brown, D.K.; Francis, C.W.; Maskarinec, M.P.; Larimer, F.W.

1981-06-01

384

Health Assessment for Centralia Landfill, Centralia, Lewis County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD980936662.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Centralia Landfill, an active landfill located on 80 acres of land in Centralia, Lewis County, Washington, has been proposed for addition to the National Priorities List. Wastes have been deposited on about 50 acres of the site. Historically, the land...

1990-01-01

385

AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB AFTER REMEDIAL CLEANUP OF TWO LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of two landfills at which interim remedial cleanup measures have been performed. The landfill sites are in the Bloomington, Indiana area. The sampling locations and methods used were ...

386

Applying guidance for methane emission estimation for landfills.  

PubMed

Quantification of methane emission from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Both the United Nations and the European Union have adopted protocols to ensure quantification of methane emission from individual landfills. The purpose of these protocols is to disclose emission data to regulators and the general public. Criteria such as timeliness, completeness, certainty, comparability, consistency and transparency are set for inclusion of emission data in a publicly accessible database. All methods given as guidance to landfill operators to estimate landfill methane emissions are based on models. In this paper the consequences of applying six different models for estimates of three landfills are explored. It is not the intention of this paper to criticise or validate models. The modelling results are compared with whole site methane emission measurements. A huge difference in results is observed. This raises doubts about the accuracy of the models. It also indicates that at least some of the criteria previously mentioned are not met for the tools currently available to estimate methane emissions from individual landfills. This will inevitably lead to compiling and comparing data with an incomparable origin. Harmonization of models is recommended. This may not necessarily reduce uncertainty, but it will at least result in comparable, consistent and transparent data. PMID:16442791

Scharff, Heijo; Jacobs, Joeri

2006-01-26

387

Applying guidance for methane emission estimation for landfills  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of methane emission from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Both the United Nations and the European Union have adopted protocols to ensure quantification of methane emission from individual landfills. The purpose of these protocols is to disclose emission data to regulators and the general public. Criteria such as timeliness, completeness, certainty, comparability, consistency and transparency are set for inclusion of emission data in a publicly accessible database. All methods given as guidance to landfill operators to estimate landfill methane emissions are based on models. In this paper the consequences of applying six different models for estimates of three landfills are explored. It is not the intention of this paper to criticise or validate models. The modelling results are compared with whole site methane emission measurements. A huge difference in results is observed. This raises doubts about the accuracy of the models. It also indicates that at least some of the criteria previously mentioned are not met for the tools currently available to estimate methane emissions from individual landfills. This will inevitably lead to compiling and comparing data with an incomparable origin. Harmonisation of models is recommended. This may not necessarily reduce uncertainty, but it will at least result in comparable, consistent and transparent data.

Scharff, Heijo [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl; Jacobs, Joeri [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.jacobs@afvalzorg.nl

2006-07-01

388

Detailed internal characterisation of two Finnish landfills by waste sampling.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterise the internal structure and composition of landfilled waste at two Finnish landfills to provide information for active and post-landfill operations. The two sites, Ammässuo and Kujala, have been in operation for 17 and 48 years, respectively. Waste was sampled (total 68 samples) and analysed for total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), biological methane potential (BMP) and leaching of organic material (determined as chemical oxygen demand, COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N). The results showed high vertical and horizontal variability, which indicated that both the waste composition and state of degradation varied greatly in both landfills. Ammässuo was characterised by 2- to 4-fold higher BMP, NH(4)-N and COD leaching than Kujala. Moreover, the ratio of VS to TS was higher at Ammässuo, while TS content was lower. The highest mean BMPs (68 and 44 m(3)/t TS), TKN content (4.6 and 5.2 kg/t dry weight) and VS/TS ratio (65% and 59%) were observed in the middle and top layers; and the lowest mean BMP (21 and 8 m(3)/t TS), TKN content (2.4 kg/t dry weight, in both landfills) and VS/TS ratio (55% and 16% in Ammässuo and Kujala, respectively) in the bottom layers. In conclusion, waste sampling is a feasible way of characterising the landfill body, despite the high variation observed and the fact that the minimum number and size of samples cannot easily be generalized to other landfills due to different methods of waste management and different landfilling histories. PMID:17350245

Sormunen, Kai; Ettala, Matti; Rintala, Jukka

2007-03-09

389

OUTER LOOP LANDFILL CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will describe the interim data reaulting from a CRADA between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. at the outer Loop Landfill Bioreactor research project located in Louisville, KY. Recently updated data will be presented covering landfill solids, gas being collecte...

390

MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

391

MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

392

Landfill Gas Emissions Model, version 2.0., user`s manual. Final report, September 1993--September 1997  

SciTech Connect

Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) estimates air pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The model can be used to estimate emission rates for methane, carbon dioxide, nonmethane organic compounds, and individual air pollutants from landfills. It can also be used by landfill owners and operators to determine if a landfill is subject to the control requirements of the federal New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for new MSW landfills or the emission guidelines for existing MSW landfills. The model is based on a first order decay equation and can be run using site-specific data are available, using default values: one set based on the requirements of the NSPS and emission guidelines, and the other based on emission factors in EPA`s Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42.

Pelt, R.; Bass, R.; Heaton, R.; White, C.; Blackard, A.

1998-05-01

393

Quantifying urban street configuration for improvements in air pollution models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many built-up urban areas, tall buildings along narrow streets obstruct the free flow of air, resulting in higher pollution levels. Input data to account for street configuration in models are difficult to obtain for large numbers of streets. We describe an approach to calculate indicators of this "urban canyon effect" using 3-dimensional building data and evaluated whether these indicators improved spatially resolved land use regression (LUR) models. Concentrations of NO2 and NOx were available from 132 sites in the Netherlands. We calculated four indicators for canyon effects at each site: (1) the maximum aspect ratio (building height/width of the street) between buildings on opposite sides of the street, (2) the mean building angle, which is the angle between the horizontal street level and the line of sight to the top of surrounding buildings, (3) median building angle and (4) "SkyView Factor" (SVF), a measure of the total fraction of visible sky. Basic LUR models were computed for both pollutants using common predictors such as household density, land-use and nearby traffic intensity. We added each of the four canyon indicators to the basic LUR models and evaluated whether they improved the model. The calculated aspect ratio agreed well (R2 = 0.49) with aspect ratios calculated from field observations. Explained variance (R2) of the basic LUR models without canyon indicators was 80% for NO2 and 76% for NOx, and increased to 82% and 78% respectively if SVF was included. Despite this small increase in R2, contrasts in SVF (10th-90th percentile) resulted in substantial concentration differences of 5.56 ?g m-3 in NO2 and 10.9 ?g m-3 in NOx. We demonstrated a GIS based approach to quantify the obstruction of free air flow by buildings, applicable for large numbers of streets. Canyon indicators could be valuable to consider in air pollution models, especially in areas with low- and high-rise canyons.

Eeftens, Marloes; Beekhuizen, Johan; Beelen, Rob; Wang, Meng; Vermeulen, Roel; Brunekreef, Bert; Huss, Anke; Hoek, Gerard

2013-06-01

394

Method for testing and monitoring for producing landfill gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of withdrawing landfill gas from a landfill without drawing air into the landfill comprises providing a well in the landfill and withdrawing landfill gas from the well at a plurality of different withdrawal rates. The pressure at a selected region within the landfill is detected while the landfill gas is being withdrawn. A relationship is then established between

R. D. Johnson; R. S. Altmann

1977-01-01

395

Fungi immobilization for landfill leachate treatment.  

PubMed

This paper investigated treatment of landfill leachate collected from Nonthaburi landfill site, Thailand, by using immobilized white rot fungi, namely, Trametes versicolor BCC 8725 and Flavodon flavus BCC 17421. Effects of pH and co-substrates were investigated at different contact times. Three types of co-substrates as carbon source used in this study are glucose, corn starch and cassava. Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on color, BOD, and COD removal. Initial BOD and COD were found to be 5,600 and 34,560?mg/L, respectively. The optimum pH was found to be 4, the optimum co-substrate concentration (glucose, corn starch and cassava) was 3?g/L and the optimum contact time was 10 days for both types of fungi. Addition of glucose, corn starch and cassava as co-substrate at optimum conditions could remove 78, 74, and 66% of color, respectively for T. versicolor and 73, 68, and 60%, respectively, for F. flavus. Moreover, for T. versicolor, BOD and COD reduction of 69 and 57%, respectively, could be achieved at optimum conditions when using glucose as a co-substrate. For F. flavus, BOD and COD reduction of 66 and 52%, respectively were obtained when using glucose as a co-substrate. White rot fungi can be considered potentially useful in the treatment of landfill leachate as they can help in removing color, BOD and COD due to their biodegradative abilities. PMID:20861536

Saetang, Jenjira; Babel, Sandhya

2010-01-01

396

Instrumentation of Two Experimental Sanitary Landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the behavior of sanitary landfills is reported. Two facilities are described: a simulated land-fill operated under laboratory conditions and a field landfill operated under natural environmental conditions. This paper emphasizes environmental control and temperature monitoring, although the complete study includes evaluation of liquid and gas pollutant generation. The simulated landfill is a laboratory lysimeter 6 feet

A. A. Fungaroli

1970-01-01

397

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Strasburg Landfill, Newlin Township, Chester County, PA. (Second Remedial Action), June 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 22-acre Strasburg Landfill site is an inactive landfill located within a 220-acre tract of land in Newlin and West Bradford Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania. The 201 single-family residences that surround the site use ground water as a source o...

1991-01-01

398

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Howe Valley Landfill, Howe Valley, KY. (First Remedial Action), September 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 11-acre Howe Valley Landfill site is an inactive landfill in Howe Valley, Hardin County, Kentucky. A Class IIA aquifer underlies the site, but is not currently used as a drinking water source. Ground water flow is southeasterly toward Boutwell Spring ...

1990-01-01

399

Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

Rasmussen, P. P.; Shockley, J. C.; Hargadine, D. A.

1994-01-01

400

Hazard ranking of landfills using fuzzy composite programming  

SciTech Connect

The environmental and health risks posed by unregulated landfills are concerns that must be addressed. These concerns have been highlighted with the recent reauthorization of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle D, which requires the closure of all unregulated landfills by October 1993. Most communities with unregulated landfills do not have the financial resources to conduct full-scale risk assessments. This paper proposes the use of a multicriteria assessment system as a tool for screening and prioritizing unregulated disposal sites according to their level of environmental and health hazard. This multicriteria assessment system uses a technique termed composite programming and allows for the use of imprecise information through fuzzy set theory. Using this methodology in landfill hazard assessment allows for the consideration of uncertainty associated with parameters that impact the hazard assessment. Additionally, the user can specify hazards that are most detrimental. The complexity of input parameters (first level indicators) were selected to minimize the time required to collect and/or analyze site-specific data. The result obtained in the assessment is a fuzzy number that indicates the most likely range of hazard and the largest likely range of hazard relative to the best and worst case scenarios. A case study, in which this method is applied to a small rural landfill, is presented to illustrate the methodology.

Hagemeister, M.E. [Terracon Environmental, Inc., Omaha, NE (United States); Jones, D.D.; Woldt, W.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-04-01

401

Report: landfill alternative daily cover: conserving air space and reducing landfill operating cost.  

PubMed

Title 40, Part 258 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria, commonly referred to as Subtitle D, became effective on October 9, 1993. It establishes minimum criteria for solid waste disposal facility siting, design, operations, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, and closure and postclosure maintenance, while providing EPA-approved state solid waste regulatory programs flexibility in implementing the criteria. Section 258.21(a) [40 CFR 258.21(a)] requires owners or operators of municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) units to cover disposed solid waste with 30cm of earthen material at the end of the operating day, or at more frequent intervals, if necessary, to control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging. This requirement is consistent with already existing solid waste facility regulations in many states. For many MSWLFs, applying daily cover requires the importation of soil which increases landfill operating costs. Daily cover also uses valuable landfill air space, reducing potential operating revenue and the landfill's operating life. 40 CFR 258.21 (b) allows the director of an approved state to approve alternative materials of an alternative thickness if the owner or operator demonstrates that the alternative material and thickness will control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging without presenting a threat to human health and the environment. Many different types of alternative daily cover (ADC) are currently being used, including geosynthetic tarps, foams, garden waste, and auto shredder fluff. These materials use less air space than soil and can reduce operating costs. This paper discusses the variety of ADCs currently being used around the country and their applicability to different climates and operating conditions, highlighting the more unusual types of ADC, the types of demonstrations necessary to obtain approval of ADC, and the impact on landfill air space and operating costs of ADC use. PMID:11525478

Haughey, R D

2001-02-01

402

Landfill gas-fired power plant pays cost of operating landfill  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on recovery of energy from refuse that has become increasingly attractive in the past decade. The continuing urbanization of our society has created major challenges in the disposal of our waste products. Because of public concern over the potential presence of toxins, and for other environmental reasons, management and regulation of active and inactive landfills have become much more stringent and costly. Palos Verdes landfill, owned jointly by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts and Los Angeles County, is located about three miles from the Pacific Ocean in the city of Rolling Hills Estates, Calif. The landfill was closed in 1980. The garbage was covered with six to eight feet of soil, and the area was landscaped. Part of this area has already been developed as the South Coast Botanical Gardens and Ernie Howlett Park. The remainder is scheduled to become a golf course. As refuse decays within a landfill, the natural anaerobic biological reaction generates a low-Btu methane gas along with carbon dioxide, known as landfill gas (LFG). The gas also contains other less desirable trace components generated by the decomposing garbage. Uncontrolled, these gases migrate to the surface and escape into the atmosphere where they generate environmental problems, including objectionable odors. The Sanitation Districts have installed a matrix of gas wells and a gas collection system to enable incineration of the gas in flares. This approach reduced aesthetic, environmental and safety concerns. However, emissions from the flares were still a problem. The Sanitation Districts then looked at alternatives to flaring the gas, one of which was electrical generation. Since the Sanitation Districts have no on-site use for thermal energy, power generation for use in the utility grid was deemed the most feasible alternative.

Wallace, I.P.

1991-01-01

403

CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

404

VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED BY CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH & ASSOCIATES AND BUILT IN 1972 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

405

Street Gang Violence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels and descriptors of violence among European street gangs are summarized from studies reported primarily under the aegis of the Eurogang Program initiated in 1997 and continuing still. European gang violence is placed in the context of its American counterpart, of European non-gang youth violence, and of the definitional and structural components of the Eurogang Program. European gangs in over

Malcolm W. Klein; Frank M. Weerman; Terence P. Thornberry

2006-01-01

406

The Great Learning Street Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nair discusses the "Learning Street," a now-frequent concept of modern school planning and design in terms of the multiple modalities of learning that today's schools must nurture. The author lists 18, including: (1) Independent study; (2) Peer tutoring; (3) Team collaborative work in small and mid-sized groups; (4) One-on-one learning with the…

Nair, Prakash

2005-01-01

407

A Ride Down Mango Street.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

O'Malley, Thomas F.

1997-01-01

408

Occupational Hazards of Street Prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 200 women street prostitutes documents extremely high levels of on-the-job victimization. Subjects reported being physically abused and beaten by both customers and pimps. Other forms of victimization included customer rape, forced perversion, non-payment, robbery, violence, clients going beyond the prostitution contract, and unfair split of money with pimps.

Mimi H. Silbert; Ayala M. Pines

1981-01-01

409

Performance-based landfill design: development of a design component selection matrix using GIS and system simulation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing environmentally safe and economically feasible landfills can be a challenging task due to complex interactions that need to be taken into account between landfill size, waste and site characteristics. The main focus of this study is, by interfacing the geographic information systems (GIS) with system simulation models (SSM), to develop a methodology and a landfill design component selection matrix that can enable the determination of landfill design components providing the desired performance with minimal design details. In this paper, the conceptual framework and applications of the developed methodology demonstrating the selection of landfill design components that are suitable for the existing site conditions are presented. The conceptual model defines design variables, performance criteria and design components of a landfill. GIS and SSM are used to handle the site-specific data and to evaluate the landfill performance, respectively. Results indicate that the landfills having the same design characteristics show different performance under different site conditions; therefore, a landfill design that is technically and economically feasible should be selected on the basis of performance.

Tarhan, Ba?ak; Ünlü, Kahraman

2005-11-01

410

Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux. PMID:18574960

Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong

2008-01-01

411

Interior, looking southeast. Market Street Elevated Railway, Allison Substation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, looking southeast. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Allison Substation, Intersection of Market & Allison Streets between Fifty-fifth & Fifty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

412

Interior, looking northwest. Market Street Elevated Railway, Allison Substation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, looking northwest. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Allison Substation, Intersection of Market & Allison Streets between Fifty-fifth & Fifty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

413

Center and south platforms. Looking east from Pratt Street Station ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Center and south platforms. Looking east from Pratt Street Station toward Bridge Street Station. - Frankford Elevated, Pratt Street Station, 5200-5201 Frankford Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

414

South and center platforms. Looking west from Bridge Street Station ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South and center platforms. Looking west from Bridge Street Station toward Pratt Street Station. - Frankford Elevated, Pratt Street Station, 5200-5201 Frankford Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

415

Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

1991-05-01

416

A Profile of Juvenile Street Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to fill the need for empirically derived information to determine the most salient factors which differentiate street gang youths from youths in comparable neighborhoods who remain independent of the street gang. (Author)|

Friedman, C. Jack; And Others

1975-01-01

417

Release and conversion of ammonia in bioreactor landfill simulators.  

PubMed

Bioreactor landfills are an improvement to normal sanitary landfills, because the waste is stabilised faster and the landfill gas is produced in a shorter period of time in a controlled way, thus enabling CH(4) based energy generation. However, it is still difficult to reach, within 30 years, a safe status of the landfill due to high NH(4)(+) levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate and NH(4)(+) is extremely important when defining the closure of landfill sites, due to its potential to pollute aquatic environments and the atmosphere. The effect of environmental conditions (temperature, fresh versus old waste) on the release of NH(4)(+) was assessed in experiments with bench (1 L) and pilot scale (800 L) reactors. The NH(4)(+) release was compared to the release of Cl(-) and BOD in the liquid phase. The different release mechanisms (physical, chemical, biological) of NH(4)(+) and Cl(-) release from the solid into the liquid phase are discussed. The NH(4)(+) level in the liquid phase of the pilot scale reactors starts decreasing after 100 days, which contrasts real-scale observations, where the NH(4)(+) level increases or remains constant. Based on the absence of oxygen in the simulators, the detectable levels of hydrazin and the presence of Anammox bacteria, it is likely that Anammox is involved in the conversion of NH(4)(+) into N(2). Nitrogen release was shown to be governed by physical and biological mechanisms and Anammox bacteria are serious candidates for the nitrogen removal process in bioreactor landfills. These results, combined with carbon removal and improved hydraulics, will accelerate the achievement of environmental sustainability in the landfilling of municipal solid waste. PMID:20884112

Lubberding, Henk J; Valencia, Roberto; Salazar, Rosemarie S; Lens, Piet N L

2010-09-29

418

Implementation of the semi-aerobic landfill system (Fukuoka method) in developing countries: a Malaysia cost analysis.  

PubMed

Most of the existing solid waste landfill sites in developing countries are practicing either open dumping or controlled dumping. Proper sanitary landfill concepts are not fully implemented due to technological and financial constraints. Implementation of a fully engineered sanitary landfill is necessary and a more economically feasible landfill design is crucial, particularly for developing countries. This study was carried out by focusing on the economics from the development of a new landfill site within a natural clay area with no cost of synthetic liner up to 10 years after its closure by using the Fukuoka method semi-aerobic landfill system. The findings of the study show that for the development of a 15-ha landfill site in Malaysia with an estimated volume of 2,000,000 m(3), the capital investment required was about US 1,312,895 dollars, or about US 0.84 dollars/tonne of waste. Assuming that the lifespan of the landfill is 20 years, the total cost of operation was about US 11,132,536 dollars or US 7.15 dollars/tonne of waste. The closure cost of the landfill was estimated to be US 1,385,526 dollars or US 0.89 dollars/tonne of waste. Therefore, the total cost required to dispose of a tonne of waste at the semi-aerobic landfill was estimated to be US 8.89 dollars. By considering an average tipping fee of about US 7.89 dollars/tonne of waste in Malaysia in the first year, and an annual increase of 3% to about US 13.84 dollars in year-20, the overall system recorded a positive revenue of US 1,734,749 dollars. This is important information for the effort of privatisation of landfill sites in Malaysia, as well as in other developing countries, in order to secure efficient and effective landfill development and management. PMID:16009304

Chong, Theng Lee; Matsufuji, Yasushi; Hassan, Mohd Nasir

2005-01-01

419

Gas production from sanitary landfills as a potential energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in the cost of energy has increased interest in the recovery and utilization of sanitary landfill gas at locations throughout the World. These solid waste disposal sites are considered untapped sources of methane gas. If methane is not recovered and utilized, it forms an explosive mixture with oxygen and causes environmental damages. The amount of recoverable gas

Alzuydi

1980-01-01

420

TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE AT PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The project investigated the discharge of landfill leachate into a municipal waste water collection system with subsequent treatment at the municipal treatment plant. The research article points out that leachates from disposal sites can be mixed with municipal wastewater and tre...

421

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

422

Landfill odour: assessment of emissions by the flux footprint method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will focus on the development of an innovative method for estimating odour fluxes and the contributing source areas from a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill site. A micrometeorological model has been developed based on the estimation of footprints of scalar odour concentration measurements in the atmospheric surface layer. The model is based on an analytical solution of the

Ujjaini Sarkar; Stephen. E. Hobbs

2003-01-01

423

Occurrence of Phthalate Esters in MSW Landfill Area, Wuhan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of groundwater, leachates, surface water and soils were collected from 22 sites in the Municipal solid waste landfill area in Wuhan, Central China. Sixteen phthalate esters (PAEs) were detected by gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that there were one or several PAEs in all the samples and the concentrations of total PAEs in groundwater, leachates, surface water, and

Ying Liang; Hui Liu; Dan Zhang; Cheng Wang; Hecheng Liang; Hesheng Cai

2008-01-01

424

Field Performance of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m), instru- mented drainage lysimeters for 2 to 4 yr. Initial drainage at the Iowa and California

William H. Albright; Craig H. Benson; Glendon W. Gee; Tarek Abichou; Scott W. Tyler; Steven A. Rock

2006-01-01

425

Radioactive Material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. The report ...

1988-01-01

426

Kern Valley Sanitary Landfill Erosion Evaluation and Drop Structure Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kern Valley Waste Management Facility (KVWMF), which consists of the Kern Valley Sanitary Landfill (KVSL) and Recycling\\/Transfer Station, is located southeast of Kernville on Cyrus Canyon in Kern County, California. The site is upstream of the Lake Isabella reservoir, in a mountainous region with high intensity storms. Unmitigated flood flows have the potential to cause extensive damage to the

Bryan A. Stirrat; Michael A. Cullinane

2002-01-01

427

The landfill methane balance: Model and practical applications  

SciTech Connect

A rational mass-balance framework is described for improved quantification of landfill methane processes at a given site. The methane balance model examines the partitioning of methane generated into methane recovered (via extraction systems), methane emitted, methane oxidized, methane migrated, and methane storage. This model encourages use of field-based data to better quantify rates of methane recovery and emissions.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1995-10-01

428

PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF LEACHATE FROM MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS: SUMMARY AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An assessment was made to evaluate production and management of leachate from municipal landfills for purposes of identifying practical information and techniques which may be useful to design engineers and site operators. Also assessed were: advantages, limitations, and comparat...

429

Alternatives for Upgrading or Closing Army Landfills Classified as Open Dumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some landfills on Army Installations may be classified 'open dumps' during the land disposal site inventory mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Therefore, Facilities Engineers (FEs) will have to choose among several technologies...

C. Wiegand G. Gerdes B. Donahue

1982-01-01

430

40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an off-site permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with the requirements...remediation. (d) Applicable hazardous waste management requirements in this part, including...this section, for CAMU-eligible waste must be incorporated into...

2013-07-01

431

CONNECTICUT MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of municipal solid waste sites in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes ash landfills, bulky waste landfills, waste volume reduction facilities, transfer stations, leaf compost facilities, and sludge compost facilities. Each site i...

432

Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

Chase, J.A.

1995-08-01

433

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

Chase, J.

1999-12-08

434

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1988-06-01

435

Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

Chase, J.

1999-07-29

436

Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

Not Available

1993-05-01

437

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

NONE

1996-08-01

438

Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

Not Available

1993-11-01

439

Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report represents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

Not Available

1993-08-01

440

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

NONE

1996-11-01

441

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

NONE

1995-11-01

442

Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

Not Available

1994-08-01

443

Operations Manual for Street Address Conversion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an evaluation of a set of preciously developed computer programs which convert ordinary street addresses to Cartesian grid coordinates. The purpose of this process is to endow the street address, and thereby all data referenced by street add...

H. W. Calkins

1965-01-01

444

THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF STREET TREE ATTRIBUTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factor analysis of 816 householder evaluations of street trees showed a general benefits factor and discrete annoyance factors in such areas as ground disturbance, disease, reduced visibility, and debris from fallen tree parts. Benefits were more highly related than annoyances to overall satisfaction with the street tree. The findings have implications for management of street trees and for future

Robert Sommer; Barbara A. Sommer

1989-01-01

445

Researching Street-living and Working Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research among street-living and working children has contributed to informed practice, which in turn has aided children living out very difficult lifestyles either living or working on the street. The following document highlights the important task of careful and reliable research among this population by focusing on several participatory methodologies. Among the methods that are presented are: Street Ethnography, followed

Greg W. Burch

446

Nutritional Aspects of Street Foods in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street foods provide a source of affordable nutrients to the majority of the people especially the low- income group in the developing countries. Street foods are ready-to-eat food items retailed by vendors and can be snacks, main meals, or beverages. They are usually sold from pushcarts or baskets, or stalls or shops. Urban Street food vending provides employment and income

2003-01-01

447

Substance abuse among street children in Mumbai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent street boys are a highly mobile population and difficult to reach. They are recognized to be vulnerable to substance, physical and sexual abuse. Our objective was to conduct a study among adolescent street boys of Mumbai City to assess substance, physical and sexual abuse and the factors associated with them. Most of the studies on adolescent street boys were

Abhay M. Gaidhane; Quazi Syed Zahiruddin; Lalit Waghmare; Sunita Shanbhag; Sanjay Zodpey; Sudhakar R. Joharapurkar

2008-01-01

448

Topological Patterns of Spatial Urban Street Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the structural properties of four urban street networks in China based on GIS and complex networks theory. We consider the street networks as spatial networks and use the primal approach to turn the GIS data into graph. The urban street networks display similar topological patterns and deviate from random networks and central planned networks, despite

Yihong Hu; Qinmin Wu; Daoli Zhu

2008-01-01

449

Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-12-31

450

Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-01-01

451

Nitrogen management in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

One scenario for long-term nitrogen management in landfills is ex situ nitrification followed by denitrification in the landfill. The objective of this research was to measure the denitrification potential of actively decomposing and well decomposed refuse. A series of 10-l reactors that were actively producing methane were fed 400 mg NO3-N \\/l every 48 h for periods of 19–59 days.

G. Alexander Price; Morton A. Barlaz; Gary R. Hater

2003-01-01

452

VIEW NORTHEASTELMER STREET CENTERBUILDING 102ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHTBUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTHEAST-ELMER STREET CENTER-BUILDING 102-ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHT-BUILDING 101-CLARK STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

453

How Do Brazilian Street Youth Experience "The Street"? Analysis of a Sentence Completion Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated how homeless Brazilian youth experience the street and examined factors linked to positive and negative feelings about the street. Found great diversity in youths' views of the street. Findings support the value of the sentence completion task in exploring the subjective experiences of street youth. (Author)|

Raffaelli, Marcela; Koller, Silvia H.; Reppold, Caroline T.; Kuschick, Mateur B.; Drum, Fernanda M.B.; Bandeira, Denise R.

2001-01-01

454

Beginning street life: Factors contributing to children working and living on the streets of Khartoum, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding why some children work on the streets while others live there, and how causal factors differ by gender, is important in developing effective services for them. This study examined these questions in Sudan using participant observation, qualitative interviews, and surveys of working boys (n=1025), working girls (n=192), street boys (n=397), and street girls (n=35). Street children were less likely

Mary L. Plummer; Mustafa Kudrati; Nassrin Dafalla El Hag Yousif

2007-01-01

455

22. I STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH 5TH STREET, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. I STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH 5TH STREET, LOOKING WEST, WITH SOUTH SIDE OF WAREHOUSE 432 ON RIGHT, AND NORTH SIDES OF WAREHOUSES 433 AND 333 ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

456

FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND WEST BACKSIDES OF JOHN BREUNER AND COMPANY BUILDING IN CENTER (BACKGROUND), SURROUNDING STRUCTURES ON CLAY, JEFFERSON AND 15TH STREETS AT LEFT, RIGHT, AND FOREGROUND - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

457

Analysis of factors affecting methane-gas recovery from six landfills. Final report Jul 90-Jul 91  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. (NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical model of CH4 generation based on those variables. The field test program development, in turn, is part of EPA/AEERL's research program aimed at improving global landfill CH4 emissions estimates.) To evaluate the effects of climate on CH4 production and recovery, the six sites represented a variety of moisture and temperature patterns (i.e., hot and wet, cool and wet, hot and dry). Landfill gas was tested at each landfill to evaluate the quality of the gas recovery data available at each. The testing included assessing the adequacy of on-site instrumentation and scanning the landfill surfaces for organic vapors that would indicate emissions of CH4. In addition, information on waste composition and landfill characteristics was sought for each landfill. Except for flow measurements, the test procedures selected were well suited to the types of gas recovery installations encountered at the landfills visited. Based on comparisons between EPA Reference Method 3C and instrument analyses of the landfill gas compositions, all on-site analysis instruments appeared to be operating with reasonable accuracy.

Campbell, D.; Epperson, D.; Davis, L.; Peer, R.; Gray, W.

1991-09-01

458

Combined purification and reuse of landfill leachate by constructed wetland and irrigation of grass and willows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Due to low biodegradability, high nitrogen content and other possible toxic components of the leachate, the co-treatment of leachate on conventional municipal wastewater (WW) treatment plants is undesirable. Low-cost on-site treatment methods as well as possibilities of leachate reuse as a fertiliser for the growth of energy crops

Maja Zupan?i? Justin; Marija Zupan?i?

2009-01-01

459

Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect

Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

Nixon, W.B.

1995-05-01

460

Public Health Assessment for Old City of York Landfill, Seven Valleys, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980692420.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Old City of York Landfill National Priority List (NPL) site is adjacent to South Road, approximately two miles southeast of the borough of Seven Valleys in Springfield Township, York County, Pennsylvania. Site soils, groundwater, springs, seeps, and c...

1992-01-01

461

Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

Pavelka, C. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Maryland Heights, MO (United States)); Loehr, R.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. (Remediation Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

462

Landfill operation for carbon sequestration and maximum methane emission control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conventional waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas gener...

D. Augenstein

1999-01-01

463

PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

464

Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, Old Douglas County Landfill (a/k/a Douglas County/Cedar Mountain Landfill), Douglasville, Douglas County, Georgia, Region 4: CERCLIS Number GAD984279232. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Old Douglas County Landfill in Douglasville, Georgia, operated from 1973 until 1987 as a municipal waste landfill. Existing landfill records specify that household wastes were received, however, industrial wastes are suspected to have been disposed at this landfill. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concludes that private well water near the landfill is safe to drink. The surface water from Gothard`s Creek and the settling ponds on the landfill do not have chemicals present at levels of public health concern. The settling ponds on the landfill and parts of Gothard`s Creek contain elevated levels of lead, manganese, and iron in the sediment that are not harmfull to humans under typical exposure conditions. The soil located on- and off-site also had elevated levels of lead, manganese, and iron, however, these metals do not pose a threat to human health under typical exposure conditions. Currently, human contact with contaminants in soil, sediment, and surface water associated with Old Douglas County Landfill is not expected to result in adverse health effects. ATSDR determined that the methane monitoring locations and frequency at the landfill are inadequate to fully evaluate conditions at the perimeter of the landfill or near adjacent houses.

NONE

1998-12-11

465

Effects of fulvic substances on the distribution and migration of Hg in landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) distribution and migration in different landfill stabilization processes were evaluated in this study. Wide ranges of Hg concentrations were observed because of the heterogeneity and variability of landfill refuse. In addition, temporally variable conditions, including pH, organic matter, and vegetation cover, which influence Hg migration in landfills, may also affect the temporal distribution of Hg in landfill refuse. The main fraction of Hg, elemental Hg, decreased with time, while the stable fractions of Hg increased. The fulvic acid (FA) extracted from the landfill leachate had much lower overall Hg-complexation stability constants, which suggests that organic S groups might have been rapidly saturated by small amounts of Hg while leaving oxygen functional groups, such as carboxylic functional or phenolic groups, acting as the primary binding sites for Hg. PMID:21468428

Xiaoli, Chai; Guixiang, Liu; Jun, Wu; Huanhuan, Tong; Rong, Ji; Youcai, Zhao

2011-04-06

466

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Northside Sanitary Landfill (Enviro-Chem), Zionsville, IN. (First Remedial Action), (Amendment), June 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Northside Sanitary Landfill site is a hazardous and solid waste disposal facility in Boone County, Indiana. Adjacent to the Northside Sanitary Landfill (NSL) site is another Superfund site, Enviro-Chem which, prior to the Record of Decision (ROD) amen...

1991-01-01