Science.gov

Sample records for street landfill site

  1. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  2. 75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...FRL-9157-5] Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County...concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland, Boyd...Site name Cooksey Brothers Landfill Superfund Site by one of the...

  3. Landfill mining reduces site redevelopment costs

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, K.J.; White, J.R.; Mudhar, T.S.

    1994-12-31

    California-based Clean-Up Technology, Inc. teamed with property owners and agencies to execute one of the largest industrial landfill reclamation projects in the US. Site assessments indicated that the 10 acre site in Commerce, California, was used as an uncontrolled landfill from 1941 to 1953 before it was operated as a trucking terminal until the late 1980`s. Beneath a cover layer of soil and asphalt was 200,000 cubic years of a heterogeneous mixture of soil, concrete, rubber, wood, scrap metal, asphalt and other debris. In addition to the unstable nature of the fill, localized contamination of hydrogen and led made the site unsuitable for redevelopment without remediation. Clean-Up Technology designed, engineered and operated a plant to segregate debris by type, size and contamination level. This reduced the amount of contaminated material by as much as 60% and reduced costs by an estimated $5 million. The semi-automated plant performed multiple screening operations, size reduction of oversize material and separation of wood, metal, concrete and soil. The plant was designed to process the material in one pass at an average of 200 tons per hour.

  4. Optimizing landfill site selection by using land classification maps.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, M; Homaee, M; Mahmoodi, S; Pazira, E; Van Genuchten, M Th

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is a major environmental concern throughout the world. Proper landfill siting involves many environmental, economic, technical, and sociocultural challenges. In this study, a new quantitative method for landfill siting that reduces the number of evaluation criteria, simplifies siting procedures, and enhances the utility of available land evaluation maps was proposed. The method is demonstrated by selecting a suitable landfill site near the city of Marvdasht in Iran. The approach involves two separate stages. First, necessary criteria for preliminary landfill siting using four constraints and eight factors were obtained from a land classification map initially prepared for irrigation purposes. Thereafter, the criteria were standardized using a rating approach and then weighted to obtain a suitability map for landfill siting, with ratings in a 0-1 domain and divided into five suitability classes. Results were almost identical to those obtained with a more traditional environmental landfill siting approach. Because of far fewer evaluation criteria, the proposed weighting method was much easier to implement while producing a more convincing database for landfill siting. The classification map also considered land productivity. In the second stage, the six best alternative sites were evaluated for final landfill siting using four additional criteria. Sensitivity analyses were furthermore conducted to assess the stability of the obtained ranking. Results indicate that the method provides a precise siting procedure that should convince all pertinent stakeholders. PMID:25666474

  5. Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

  6. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  7. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.4 Use of site streets. All persons using the streets of the Nevada Test Site shall do so in a careful and safe manner. (a) The Nevada Test Site Traffic... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  8. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.4 Use of site streets. All persons using the streets of the Nevada Test Site shall do so in a careful and safe manner. (a) The Nevada Test Site Traffic... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  9. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.4 Use of site streets. All persons using the streets of the Nevada Test Site shall do so in a careful and safe manner. (a) The Nevada Test Site Traffic... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  10. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.4 Use of site streets. All persons using the streets of the Nevada Test Site shall do so in a careful and safe manner. (a) The Nevada Test Site Traffic... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  11. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.4 Use of site streets. All persons using the streets of the Nevada Test Site shall do so in a careful and safe manner. (a) The Nevada Test Site Traffic... alighting from vehicles, passing a bus on the right, and unlawful riding. (b) The Nevada Test Site...

  12. Site-specific criteria for the completion of landfill aftercare.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

    2012-09-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills need to be managed after closure to assure long-term environmental compatibility. Aftercare can be completed when the authorities consider the landfill not likely to pose a threat to humans and the environment. In this work, a methodology for deriving site-specific aftercare completion criteria is presented and its application is illustrated via a case study. The evaluation method combines models addressing waste emission behavior, long-term barrier performance, and pollutant migration to assess the potential impact of landfill emissions on the environment. Based on the definition of acceptable impact levels at certain points of compliance, scenario- and pollutant-specific aftercare completion criteria are derived. The methodology was applied to a closed MSW landfill in Austria and potential aftercare durations were determined. While landfill gas emissions may become environmentally tolerable within decades at the site, leachate-related aftercare measures were expected to be necessary for centuries (primarily as a result of ammonium). Although the evaluation comes with large uncertainties, it allows for linking aftercare intensity and duration with respect to an environmentally compatible state of the landfill in the absence of aftercare. However, further case studies including regulatory review and acceptance are needed to use the methodology in a decision support tool on aftercare completion. PMID:22993138

  13. The economic and social aspects of sanitary landfill site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in the selection of suitable sites for sanitary land fills are discussed. The economic considerations and problems of social acceptance are considered the most important. The subjects discussed are: (1) accessibility of land, (2) availability of cover material, (3) expected capacity of site, (4) cover material and compaction, (5) fire protection, (6) site location with respect to residential and industrial areas, and (7) land usage after landfill completion.

  14. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (?g) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 ?g in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 ?g, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study area. All samplers in the survey had detections of TPH, but only eight of the samplers had detections of TPH greater than 0.9 mg. Four samplers had TPH detections greater than 9 mg; the only other fuel-related compounds detected in these four samplers included toluene in three of the samplers and undecane in the fourth sampler. Three samplers deployed along the western margin of the northern landfill had detections of both diesel-and gasoline-related compounds; however, the diesel-related compounds were detected at or below method detection levels. Seven samplers in the northern study area had detections of chlorinated compounds, including three perchloroethene detections, three chloroform detections, and one 1,4-dichloro-benzene detection. One sampler on the western margin of the landfill had detections of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-tr-methylbenene below method detection levels.

  15. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, Talib E. Lockley, Elaine; Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K.

    2008-07-01

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches.

  16. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  17. A new method for environmental site assessment of urban solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Fatemeh; Amin Sharee, Farham; Monavari, Masoud; Zaredar, Narges

    2012-03-01

    Regarding various types of pollutant, waste management requires high attention. Environmental site selection study, prior to landfill operation, and subsequently, monitoring and maintaining of the location, are of foremost points in landfill site selection process. By means of these studies, it is possible to control the undesirable impacts caused by landfills. Study ahead aims at examination of effectiveness of a new method called Monavari 95-2 in landfill site assessment. For this purpose, two landfills Rasht and Andisheh, which are, respectively, located on humid and arid areas, were selected as case studies. Then, the results obtained from both sites were compared with each other to find out the weaknesses and strengths of each site. Compared with others similar methods, much more criteria (53 parameters) can be considered within this method, so the results will be more calculable. According to this method, Rasht landfill (site H) is classified as unacceptable landfill site i.e. there is an urgent need for a new suitable site for landfill, while Andishe Landfill (site D) is ranked as acceptable landfill site but needs environmental management program to handle the existing weaknesses. PMID:21494828

  18. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  19. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  20. Choosing a municipal landfill site by analytic network process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banar, Mufide; Kose, Barbaros Murat; Ozkan, Aysun; Poyraz Acar, Ilgin

    2007-04-01

    In this study, analytic network process (ANP), one of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tools has been used to choose one of the four alternative landfill sites for the city of Eskisehir, Turkey. For this purpose, Super Decision Software has been used and benefit opportunity cost and risk (BOCR) analysis has been done to apply ANP. In BOCR analysis, each alternative site has been evaluated in terms of its benefits, costs and risks; the opportunity cluster has been examined under the benefit cluster. In this context, technical, economical and social assessments have been done for the site selection of sanitary landfill. Also, results have been compared with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) which is another MCDM technique used in the study conducted before. Finally, the current site has been determined as the most appropriate site in both methods. These methods have not been commonly used in the discipline of environmental engineering but it is believed to be an important contribution for decision makers.

  1. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-10-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, ?2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  2. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, ?2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  3. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I.; Kontaksakis, M.; Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-11-15

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  4. Landfill mining: Development of a theoretical method for a preliminary estimate of the raw material potential of landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Nispel, Jörg; Sarc, Renato; Aldrian, Alexia; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Pomberger, Roland; Budischowsky, Andreas; Ragossnig, Arne

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential). PMID:26185166

  5. Empirical approach to predict leached nutrients from landfill site.

    PubMed

    Barman, Pranab Jyoti; Kartha, Suresh A; Pradhan, Bulu

    2015-05-01

    An empirical approach is made in this investigation to predict the leached concentrations of sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) in the effluents from a landfill site. Water at certain predetermined inflow filling rate is applied to a specific ponding depth, at the top of an experimental column filled with landfill refuse soil at the top (upper layer) and normal local soil at the bottom (base layer). The water infiltrates into the upper layer soil, percolates through the pores in upper and base layers, and in the process leaches the nutrients from the soils that are collected at the bottom of the column. The experimentations were for different combinations of heights of upper and base layer soils, water ponding depth, and inflow filling rates. The nutrient concentrations in the outflow leachates are measured using flame photometer. The observations showed mixed responses of leaching and trapping of nutrients in the soil layers for the various combinations. The experimental observations also inferred that the nutrient leaching is more for cases involving higher ponding depths and higher inflow filling rates. Empirical relationships with respect to the geometrical parameters, to predict the leached concentrations of Na, Ca, and K, are developed from the experimental observations using nonlinear least squares regressive techniques. Exponential equations gave the best empirical fit among various nonlinear relations in the regression technique. The empirical models also predicted well for each subcategory of independent variables that are substantiated by high correlation coefficients. PMID:25410312

  6. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

  7. Investigating the mechanism behind environmental injustice around municipal landfill sites in Scotland 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Elizabeth

    in Scotland are disproportionately exposed to municipal landfills. Evidence for the mechanism by which this occurred was less clear, although greater evidence was found for the effect of post-siting market dynamics than for discriminatory siting. Results...

  8. Geologic report, Middlesex Municipal Landfill site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This is a report on geologic and hydrologic investigations of the former Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey, conducted during 1982 and 1983 by Bechtel National, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office. The investigations were designed to assess the feasibility of stabilizing the radioactive contamination present on site. The investigations were conducted in two phases: Phase 1 consisted of permeability tests; Phase 2 consisted of tests to ascertain the extent of hydraulic interconnection between various stratigraphic units. The investigations revealed that a complete separation of bedrock and overburden did not exist and that the clay present could not be relied upon to confine vertical migration of contaminants over the long term. 6 references, 27 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Selection of MSW landfill site for Konya, Turkey using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nas, Bilgehan; Cay, Tayfun; Iscan, Fatih; Berktay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Landfill is a common solution for the final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. Landfill siting is an extremely difficult task to accomplish because the site selection process depends on different factors and regulations. To ensure that an appropriate site is chosen, a systematic process should be developed and followed. Unsuccessful landfill siting is typically the result of strong public opposition. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill area in Cumra County of Konya City are determined by using the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). ArcGIS 9.0 software and its extensions were used as the GIS tool since it is able to perform suitability analysis using MCE analysis. To identify appropriate landfill areas in the Cumra district, eight input map layers including proximity to municipal and local wells and irrigational canals, distance from transportation routes and rails, distance from archaeological sites, distance from urban areas, land use/land cover, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identifies regions showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. According to the map, 6.8% of the study area is most suitable, 15.7% is suitable, 10.4% is moderately suitable, 25.8% is poorly suitable, and 41.3% is unsuitable. At the end of the analyses, three candidate sites are determined. The selection of the final MSW landfill site, however, requires further field research. PMID:19169836

  10. Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.

    PubMed

    Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

    2006-07-01

    Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

  11. Landfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, M.; Monavari, S. M.; Omrani, G. A.; Shariat, M.; Hosseini, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Iran. Several environmental pollution and soil degradation problems were found as a consequence of poor planning of landfills. So recognition of the MSW landfill state is required to prevent environmental problems. The objective of this research was to study the suitability of existing municipal landfill sites using geographic information system methods. Tonekabon city in the west area of Mazandaran province, northern Iran, along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, was chosen as a case study. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines were used: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and regional screening guidelines. The results indicate that the landfills were not located in suitable sites and also that there are few suitable locations to install the landfills.

  12. Does Disposing of Construction and Demolition Debris in Unlined Landfills Impact Groundwater Quality? Evidence from 91 Landfill Sites in Florida.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jon T; Jain, Pradeep; Smith, Justin; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2015-08-01

    More than 1,500 construction and demolition debris (CDD) landfills operate in the United States (U.S.), and U.S. federal regulations do not require containment features such as low-permeability liners and leachate collection systems for these facilities. Here we evaluate groundwater quality from samples collected in groundwater monitoring networks at 91 unlined, permitted CDD landfills in Florida, U.S. A total of 460,504 groundwater sample results were analyzed, with a median of 10 years of quarterly or semiannual monitoring data per site including more than 400 different chemical constituents. Downgradient concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, iron, ammonia-nitrogen, and aluminum were greater than upgradient concentrations (p < 0.05). At downgradient wells where sulfate concentrations were greater than 150 mg/L (approximately 10% of the maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in water, which suggests the presence of leachate from the landfill), iron and arsenic were detected in 91% and 43% of samples, with median concentrations of 1,900 ?g/L and 11 ?g/L, respectively. These results show that although health-based standards can be exceeded at unlined CDD landfills, the magnitude of detected chemical concentrations is generally small and reflective of leached minerals from components (wood, concrete, and gypsum drywall) that comprise the bulk of discarded CDD by mass. PMID:26130423

  13. LINERS FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS AND CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report lists addresses of sanitary landfills and chemical and hazardous waste disposal sites and holding ponds with some form of impermeable lining. Liners included are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon R, ethylene propylene diene monomer, butyl rubber, conventional ...

  14. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. PMID:25911065

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  16. Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect the creek. However, most TPH detections were located in and immediately adjacent to a debris field located within the former landfill and in areas where debris was not visible, including the northwestern and southeastern parts of the study area. Two of the four soil-gas samplers installed within a former military training area adjacent to the landfill also had TPH detections above the method detection level. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (as combined BTEX mass) were detected at 0.02 microgram or greater in three soil-gas samplers installed at the northwestern boundary and in five samplers installed in the southeastern part of the study area. There was no BTEX mass detected above the method detection level in samplers installed in the debris field. Toluene was the most frequently detected BTEX compound. Compounds indicative of diesel-range organics were detected above 0.04 microgram in 12 soil-gas samplers and had a distribution similar to that of TPH, including being detected in the debris field. Undecane was the most frequently detected diesel compound. Chloroform and naphthalene were detected in eight and two soil-gas samplers, respectively. Five soil-gas samplers deployed during September 2010 were analyzed for organic compounds classified as chemical agents and explosives, but none exceeded the method detection levels. Five composite soil samples collected from within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill were analyzed for 35 inorganic constituents, but none of the constituents detected exceeded regional screening levels for industrial soils. The sample collected in the debris field exceeded background levels for aluminum, barium, calcium, chromium, lead, nickel, potassium, sodium, and zinc. Three surface-water samples were collected in September 2010 from a stormwater outfall culvert that drains to the creek and from the open channel of the creek at upstream and downstream locations relative to the outfall. Toluene was detected at 0.661 mi

  17. Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Razem, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

  18. Innovative in situ treatment approach selected for the Department of Energy Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.; Knapp, J.

    1994-02-01

    The Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill is an approximate 70-acre site. In 1974, it was a 32-acre site receiving solid waste from a variety of sources. In 1987, the original area reached its capacity and a 16-acre northern expansion and a 22-acre southern expansion were added. The southern expansion is nearing capacity, and the northern expansion opened in 1993. During its operation, the Sanitary Landfill received rags and wipes used with F-listed solvents. In 1988, the Sanitary Landfill became the subject of a RCRA facility investigation and was designated a RCRA solid waste management unit because of recurring evidence of RCRA hazardous constituents in the groundwater. DOE and SCDHEC reached a settlement agreement, outlining the steps DOE would take to comply with RCRA regulations. Principally, DOE would close the portions of the, landfill containing the solvent rags. This paper describes the technology selection process conducted for the SRS Sanitary Landfill site and the innovative in situ treatment alternative selected for the groundwater and the vadose zone associated with the landfill.

  19. Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiqin; Qin, Li; Li, Guoxue; Chen, Lijun

    2009-06-01

    Site selection is an important and necessary issue for waste management in fast-growing regions. Because of the complexity of waste management systems, the selection of the appropriate solid waste landfill site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria. Based on actual conditions of the study area, we considered economic factors, calculated criteria weights using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and built a hierarchy model for solving the solid waste landfill site-selection problem in Beijing, China. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manipulate and present spatial data. All maps are graded from 1 (lowest suitability) to 5 (highest suitability) using spatial information technologies. The candidate sites were determined by aggregation based on the criteria weights. The candidate sites are divided by 'best', 'good' and 'unsuitable' landfill areas. Best landfill areas represent optimal sites; good landfill areas can be used as back-up candidate sites. Our work offers a sitting methodology and provides essential support for decision-makers in the assessment of waste management problems in Beijing and other rapidly developing cities in developing countries. PMID:19375842

  20. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Odusanya, David O.; Okonkwo, Jonathan O. Botha, Ben

    2009-01-15

    The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

  2. LANDFILL RESEARCH AT THE BOONE COUNTY FIELD SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills presently play a significant role in the disposal of solid wastes, and they will probably continue to do so in many areas because of their economic advantages over other methods. However, justifiable concern exists about the environmental effects of sanitary la...

  3. Characterization and control of odorous gases at a landfill site: a case study in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ding; Chuanyu, Cai; Bin, Hu; Yueen, Xu; Xuejuan, Zheng; Yingxu, Chen; Weixiang, Wu

    2012-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are one of the major sources of offensive odors potentially creating annoyance in adjacent communities. At the end of May 2007, an odor pollution incident occurred at the Tianziling landfill site, Hangzhou, China, where the residents lodged complaints about the intense odor from the landfill, which drew a significant attention from the government. In this study, ambient air monitoring was conducted at the Tianziling landfill site. The main odor composition of the gas samples collected on June 1st 2007 and the reduction of various odorous gases from the samples collected on June 1st 2009 due to the applied odor control techniques were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, variations of primary odorous gaseous (NH(3) and H(2)S) concentrations at different locations in the landfill site from July 2007 to June 2009 were also investigated by using classical spectrophotometric methods. Results showed that a total of 68 volatile compounds were identified among which H(2)S (56.58-579.84 ?g/m(3)) and NH(3) (520-4460 ?g/m(3)) were the notable odor components contributing to 4.47-10.92% and 83.91-93.94% of total concentrations, respectively. Similar spatial and temporal shifts of H(2)S and NH(3) concentrations were observed and were significantly affected by environmental factors including temperature, air pressure and wind direction. Odor pollution was worse when high temperature, high humidity, low air pressure, and southeast, northeast or east wind appeared. Moreover, the environmental sampling points of the dumping area and the leachate treatment plant were found to be the main odor sources at the Tianziling landfill site. The odor control technologies used in this project had a good mitigating effect on the primary odorous compounds. This study provides long-term valuable information concerning the characteristics and control of odors at landfill sites in a long run. PMID:22137772

  4. The seasonal distribution of bioaerosols in municipal landfill sites: a 3-yr study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chu-Yun; Lee, Ching-Chang; Li, Fang-Chun; Ma, Yu-Pei; Su, Huey-Jen Jenny

    Landfill is the most common way to dispose waste in many countries, and most landfill sites after closure are often considered for public recreation purposes. It is important that the pollutant levels of closed landfill areas are free of adverse health concerns. However, only limited studies have investigated the airborne biological contamination in closed landfill sites. The objective of this study was to document the bioaerosol levels in a closed landfill site while the temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects were also taken into accounts. Study site was at one sanitary landfill, taking mostly municipal wastes, in southern Taiwan. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected on tryptic soy agar (Difco) and malt extract agar (Difco) by a Burkard impactor (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd.) operating at about 10 l m -3 for 30 s. Air samples were collected sequentially in winter, spring, summer and fall in 1998, winter, spring, summer in 1999, as well as summer and fall in 2000. In addition, sampling was conducted in the morning, at noon, in the evening and the following morning during each field assessment. Levels of airborne bacteria and fungi were all far above 10 3 CFU m -3. The concentrations of culturable bacteria and fungi were higher in winter than in other seasons. The difference of bioaerosol level and fungal percentages between the undergoing-closure and closed areas was obvious, and the concentrations were higher in closed area. We therefore recommend that before any complete investigation can be conducted to assure the safety, the closed area of landfill site is probably not ready for immediate public use.

  5. Limited site investigation of Landfills 1 and 4, Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Eddy, P.A.; Airhart, S.P.; Olsen, K.R.; Raymond, J.R.; Dahl, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The information presented in this report was collected during limited site investigation activities conducted in the vicinity of Landfills 1 and 4 at Fort Lewis. The purpose of this work was to provide a means of detecting and evaluating the impacts of these inactive landfills on ground-water quality and adjacent lands. This effort included the design and construction of ground-water monitoring systems for compliance with applicable federal and state regulations governing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-type landfills. Ground-water samples were collected from both existing (1981 and 1984) wells and the newly installed (1988) wells. The analytical results from the water samples indicate that the ground water in and around Landfill 1 contains limited contamination. Contaminants may include volatile organic compounds and nitrate. The primary concern in the area around Landfill 1 was the determination that ground water from two wells may contain cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. Nitrate levels in the downgradient wells were greater than those in upgradient wells and exceeded drinking water standards in some of the less-representative samples. Analyses of ground-water samples from wells in and around Landfill 4 indicate several contaminants may be present. These include volatile organic compounds (principally cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene), coliform, oil and grease, and perhaps some metals (iron and magnesium). The primary concern in the area around Landfill 4 was the determination that ground water from five wells contained cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. The source of contaminants beneath either landfill cannot yet be identified. Insufficient data exist to disprove or confirm either landfill as possible contributors. 19 refs., 32 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. A methodology for the determination of fugitive dust emissions from landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzaki, Eleftheria; Glytsos, Thodoros; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a methodology for the determination of the contribution of fugitive dust emissions from landfill sites to ambient PM10 concentrations and the subsequent exposure to working personnel. Fugitive dust emissions in landfills mainly originate from resuspension due to truck traffic on paved and unpaved roads and from wind-blown dust from landfill cover soil. The results revealed that exposure to PM10, originating from fugitive dust emissions in the landfill site, was exceeding the health protection standards (50 ?g m(-3)). The higher average daily PM10 concentration (average value) for weekdays was equal to 275 ?g m(-3) and was computed for the areas nearby the unpaved road located inside the landfill facilities that lead to the landfill cell. The percentage contributions of road and wind-blown dust to the PM10 concentrations on weekdays were equal to 76 and 1%, respectively. The influence of the background concentration is estimated close to 23%. PMID:25563337

  7. R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Grassland Restoration on Landfill Sites in the East

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Grassland Restoration on Landfill Sites in the East Midlands, United landfill sites are comparable to reference sites of exist- ing wildlife value. Floral characteristics nine pairs of restored landfill sites and reference sites in the East Mid- lands of the United Kingdom

  8. Combining stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation to select and rank inert landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Geneletti, Davide

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a method based on the combination of stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation (SMCE) to first design possible sites for an inert landfill, and then rank them according to their suitability. The method was tested for the siting of an inert landfill in the Sarca's Plain, located in south-western Trentino, an alpine region in northern Italy. Firstly, stakeholder analysis was conducted to identify a set of criteria to be satisfied by new inert landfill sites. SMCE techniques were then applied to combine the criteria, and obtain a suitability map of the study region. Subsequently, the most suitable sites were extracted by taking into account also thresholds based on size and shape. These sites were then compared and ranked according to their visibility, accessibility and dust pollution. All these criteria were assessed through GIS modelling. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the results to assess the stability of the ranking with respect to variations in the input (criterion scores and weights). The study concluded that the three top-ranking sites are located close to each other, in the northernmost sector of the study area. A more general finding was that the use of different criteria in the different stages of the analysis allowed to better differentiate the suitability of the potential landfill sites. PMID:19853431

  9. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Sumathi, V.R. Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-15

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  10. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, V R; Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-01

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process. PMID:18060759

  11. Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zume, J.T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  12. Factors influencing the establishment of floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Natural revegetation on landfill sites often results in a species poor sward dominated by Elymus repens (Shaw, 1983; Davis, 1988; Wong, 1988). The aim of this study was primarily to investigate the mechanism by which E.repens achieved such apparent domination and secondly to investigate various methods to establish floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site. Low rates of germination and survival were recorded from seeds of Plantago lanceolata, Centaureau nigrand Leucanthemum vulgare sown into a sward of E.repens on a restored landfill site in Essex, even during periods with adequate soil water. Plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L. vulgare were grown in pots and transplanted into the sward of E.repens. Over the following two years a significant decrease in crown cover of these species was recorded. In areas where E.repens had been treated with herbicide or mown, seedlings and introduced plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare increased in cover over two years. Stomatal conductance of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare was reduced when these species were growing with E.repens even during periods with adequate soil water. P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare growing with E.repens on restored landfill has been shown experimentally to result in reduced cover. It is suggested that this is due to competition in combination potentially, with allelochemical effects of E.repens. Successful establishment of a floristically rich grass mix was achieved by the reduction in cover of E.repens by herbicide or mowing. On newly restored landfill a careful balance between soil treatments, fertilizer levels and subsequent management in the form of mowing must be attained in order to establish floristically rich grasslands. The results from this study show that by utilizing various management techniques a floristically rich grass mix could be established on a restored landfill site.

  13. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  14. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  15. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  16. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  17. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  18. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  19. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  20. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Bush Valley Landfill Superfund Site, Harford County, Abingdon, MD, (final remedial action), September 26, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Record of Decision (`ROD`) presents the final remedial action selected for the Bush Valley Landfill Superfund Site (`Site`), located near the town of Abingdon in Hardford County, Maryland. The remedial action selected for this Site is a final remedy which will address the wastes buried in the landfill, contaminated soils, leachate, landfill gas, the adjacent wetlands and streams, and contaminated ground water.

  1. On-site treatment and landfilling of MSWI air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Lundtorp, K; Jensen, D L; Sørensen, M A; Mosbaek, H; Christensen, T H

    2003-02-28

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are difficult to landfill due to substantial leaching of trace metals. An on-site pretreatment prior to landfilling of APC-residues was investigated in terms of bench-scale experiments with a semidry APC-residue and a fly ash. The treatment involved mixing of the residues with a ferrous sulphate solution and subsequent oxidation of the suspension. Afterwards, the suspension was spread on a dedicated landfill section and allowed to drain by gravity through the drainage system of the landfill. The wastewater from the process, collected through the drainage system, contained large concentrations of salts (Cl: 14-30 g/l, Na: 4-9 g/l, K: 5-11 g/l, Ca: 2-12 g/l) but low concentrations of trace metals (e.g. Pb: 14-100 microg/l, Cd: <2-7 microg/l). The treated residues left in the landfills were later subject to leaching by simulated rainfall. The leachate contained low concentrations of trace metals (Pb: <120 microg/l, Cd: <2 microg/l, Cr: <485 microg/l). The leachate concentrations from the treated APC-residues were substantially reduced compared to concentrations in leachate from untreated APC-residues. Particularly in the early stages of the leaching, concentrations of trace metals were reduced by up to four orders of magnitude. PMID:12573829

  2. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  3. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Application of raster-based GIS techniques in the siting of landfills in Trabzon Province, Turkey: a case study.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Volkan

    2012-09-01

    One of the most important steps in solid waste management is the selection of an appropriate landfill site. The site selection process requires the evaluation and analysis of several criteria. However, the traditional evaluation method is not sufficient for the site selection process. Geographical information system (GIS) technologies are effectively used in the process of site selection, which is a spatial problem. This article describes a raster GIS-based landfill site selection (LSS) method. This method utilizes a raster-based spatial database in which the factors affect the landfill site selection. The final product in this method is the cost surface map showing pixel-based values of the appropriate areas. Furthermore, this GIS-based LSS method was applied for the evaluation of two landfill sites in Trabzon Province in Turkey, for which the traditional evaluation method for site selection was used. The suitability values on the cost surface map of these two landfills have shown that these sites are not appropriate for a solid waste landfill. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the method of raster GIS-based site selection gives more effective results than traditional methods. PMID:22605022

  5. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-07-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  6. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  7. Siting MSW landfill using weighted linear combination and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methodology in GIS environment (case study: Karaj).

    PubMed

    Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Khorasani, Nematollah; Danehkar, Afshin; Darvishsefat, Ali Asghar; Zienalyan, Mehdi

    2010-05-01

    Selection of landfill site is a complex process and needs many diverse criteria. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the suitability of the studied site as landfill for MSW in Karaj. Using weighted linear combination (WLC) method and spatial cluster analysis (SCA), suitable sites for allocation of landfill for a 20-year period were identified. For analyzing spatial auto-correlation of the land suitability map layer (LSML), Maron's I was used. Finally, using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), the most preferred alternative for the landfill siting was identified. Main advantages of AHP are: relative ease of handling multiple criteria, easy to understand and effective handling of both qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, 6% of the study area is suitable for landfill siting and third alternative was identified as the most preferred for siting MSW landfill by AHP. The ranking of alternatives were obtained only by applying the WLC approach showed different results from the AHP. The WLC should be used only for the identification of alternatives and the AHP is used for prioritization. We suggest the employed procedure for other similar regions. PMID:20138748

  8. A comprehensive study on landfill site selection for Kolkata City, India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Koushik; Dutta, Amit; Krishna, A P

    2014-07-01

    Kolkata is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and the capital city of the state of West Bengal. With an area of 187.33 km2 and a population of about 10 million (including a floating population of about 6 million), the city generates about 3500 Metric Ton (MT) of solid waste per day. Currently, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) disposes its waste at Dhapa (21.47 ha), where the disposal rate exceeds 3000 MT/day, and at Garden Reach (3.52 ha), where the disposal rate is 100 MT/day. Considering the exhaustion of Dhapa land space, city planners are urgently searching for an alternate disposal ground. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), under the sponsorship of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), has brought out literature developing the site selection criteria for municipal solid waste disposal ground to suit Indian conditions. The developed criteria encompass environmental conditions, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions, and ecological and societal effects. This paper attempts to locate the most suitable site for disposal of KMC area solid waste using the multicriterion decision analysis as stipulated in CPCB 2003 guidelines and the overlay analysis of geographic information system (GIS). Implications: The paper is based on landfill site selection for dumping of solid waste generated within Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area. The methodology uses GIS/remote sensing, Site Sensitivity Index (an offshoot of pairwise comparison technique developed in CPCB 2003 guidelines, Government of India), and the Delphi technique. Dhapa landfill site, where solid waste of KMC area is currently being disposed, is exhausted; the authors of this article thus found it relevant to carry out a research on the selection of an alternative landfill site. The study undertaken was comprehensive, yet presented in a lucid way so that policymakers will find easy to comprehend. PMID:25122958

  9. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

  10. Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Lee, M.B.; Diffendorf, A.F.; Hagarman, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of the landfill on top of preexisting waste beds on the shores of Onondaga Lake. The results of groundwater monitoring over a one-year period indicate no detectable chromium from the metal-waste leachate escaping through the soda ash wastes. Retention ofhexavalent chromium within the underlying highly alkaline soda ash wastes by adsorption, reduction, and precipitation suggests a viable means for in situ treatment of several metals-manufacturing waste products.

  11. Health assessment for Pigeon Point Landfill Site (New Castle City Landfill), New Castle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980494603. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-11

    The Pigeon Point Landfill 180-acre site includes a former municipal landfill that reportedly received industrial wastes during the period from 1968 to 1985. Initial sampling of groundwater and leachate revealed inorganic and organic chemicals at levels of health concern; however, per anecdotal information received from EPA, subsequent sampling has not confirmed initial sampling results. Only the original sampling data were available for this health assessment and since the data are questionable, they are not reported here. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater and leachate. However, information available on the site at present is of questionable validity. Additional information on contaminants released, populations potentially exposed, and environmental pathways through which the contaminants can reach these populations is needed.

  12. An Evaluation of Techniques to Control Problem Bird Species on Landfill Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques — pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites — at deterring three commonly recorded species — the Black-headed Gull ( Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull ( Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull ( Larus fuscus) — from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used.

  13. Combined chemical and toxicological evaluation of leachate from municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pooja; Gupta, Asmita; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, landfill leachate of three landfill sites of Delhi, India, was toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment. Raw leachate samples were collected from the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills of Delhi lacking liner systems. Samples were characterized with relatively low concentrations of heavy metals while the organic component exceeded the upper permissible limit by up to 158 times. Qualitative analysis showed the presence of numerous xenobiotics belonging to the group of halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, and other emerging contaminants. Quantitative analysis of PAHs showed that the benzo(a)pyrene-toxic equivalence quotient (BaP-TEQ) ranged from 41.22 to 285.557 ng L(-1). The human risk assessment methodology employed to evaluate the potential adverse effects of PAHs showed that the cancer risk level was lower than the designated acceptable risk of 10(-6). However, significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leachates on HepG2 cell line was observed with MTT EC50 value ranging from 11.58 to 20.44 % and statistically significant DNA damage. Thus, although the leachates contained low concentrations of PAHs with proven carcinogenic potential, but the mixture of contaminants present in leachates are toxic enough to cause synergistic or additive cytotoxicity and genotoxicity and affect human health. PMID:25578612

  14. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were[Formula: see text], respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated. PMID:26577215

  15. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenovi? Vasiljevi?, Tamara; Srdjevi?, Zorica; Baj?eti?, Ratko; Vojinovi? Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  16. Basic hydrogeologic and remote sensing data for selection of sanitary landfill sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, H. K.; Ruth, B. E.; Degner, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste disposal were studied in Volusia County to protect the water supply in the area. Highlands in this County are of limited areal extent and, most significantly, the sand hills and ridges are in areas where recharge of the Floridan aquifer occurs. This study proves that well drained soils meeting the current State requirements are of limited areal extent. These areas should not be utilized as sanitary landfill sites! Rather, it is recommended that the Tomoka Farm Road site into the adjacent wetlands be extended. The County site on Rima Ridge recommended by Greenleaf-Telesca as the primary waste burial site in the County should be re-evaluated because of potential danger to the Daytona Beach water supply.

  17. Walnut Street Sansom Street

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Street Walnut Street Sansom Street Chestnut Street Locust Street 41stStreet 42ndStreet Spruce Street Pine StreetSchuylkillExpressway 34thStreet Grays Ferry Avenue Walnut Street Chestnut Street Market Street JFK Boulevard F F F F F F 235 S. 39th F F S F FFF F S 4258 3910 Chestnut Hall International House Ralston House

  18. Siting MSW landfills using MCE methodology in GIS environment (Case study: Birjand plain, Iran).

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Zeynab Karimzadeh; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The rapid municipal solid waste growth of Birjand plain causes to find an appropriate site selection for the landfill. In order to reduce the negative impacts of waste, the use of novel tools and technologies to gain a suitable site for landfill seems imperative. The present paper aimed to exhibits the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) for the landfill site selection of the Birjand plain because till date a suitable action has not been implicated. In the present research, the parameters such as environmental and socio-economical factors have been used. The factors like slope, water resources, soil parameters, landuse, fault and protected areas in the model of effective environmental criteria and the factors viz. distance from road, urban areas, village, airport, historical place, and industries in the model of socio-economic criteria were investigated and with the use of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) models were compounded and according to the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and Fuzzy Linguistic Quantifier (LQ) were aggregated. The paper focuses on the OWA method as well as an approach for integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) and OWA. OWA has been developed as a generalization of multi-criteria combination. In this study we attained comparable data via the technique of ANP and five scenarios of OWA method were used. The results of field studies, fifth scenario for the study area proposed. Based on the research findings, OWA method had a great potential and flexibility in the modeling of the complex decision-making problems. PMID:26321380

  19. Assessing the impact of historical coastal landfill sites on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many coastal and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these sites waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical sites may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test site. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in coastal systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced coastal erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.

  20. Geoelectrical investigation of old/abandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meju, Maxwell A.

    2000-05-01

    Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old/abandoned landfill sites where the records of operations are not available. The main elements of the model are the site boundaries, age and nature of anthropogenic deposits, depth and dip of the layers of refuse and sealing materials, the integrity and shape of the capping zones or separating walls and basal floor slopes, the position of concealed access roads in the site, the water table (or perched water bodies within the refuse) and the presence of leachate. The attendant geotechnical, hydrogeological, and bio-geochemical constraints at such sites are also incorporated in the model for consistency of practical solutions to landfill problems. The nature of anthropogenic deposits and the spatial-temporal characteristics of leachates are reviewed in a geoelectrical context. The analogy between waste degradation and leaching, and the well-known weathering processes of supergene mineral enrichment and saprolite formation in crystalline rocks is explored, and used to develop a conceptual resistivity-vs.-depth model for landfill sites. The main tenet of the model is that vertical conductivity profiles will attain maximum values in the zone of mineral enrichment near the water table and tail-off away from it. This conceptual resistivity model is shown to be consistent with non-invasive observations in landfill sites in different geographical environments. Power-law relationships are found to exist between some geoelectrically important hydrochemical parameters (fluid conductivity, chloride content and total dissolved solids) in leachates and leachate-contaminated groundwater from some landfill sites. Since some chemical parameters of fill are known to vary consistently with time, a plausible hydrochemical and age-deductive scheme for saturated fill is proposed for geoelectrical models of landfills without significant amounts of metal. Practical suggestions are made for a consistent approach in geoelectrical investigation and diagnosis of old landfill sites. A few field examples are used to illustrate the diagnosis approach.

  1. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD072122062. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-20

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in Human Exposure Pathways Section below, human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  2. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeology and water quality in a 4 sq mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, New York, were studied in 1981-83. The 60-acre sanitary landfill at the site was excavated in highly permeable glacial outwash that forms the upper glacial aquifer and is lined with a polyvinyl chloride membrane. Groundwater beneath the site is under water table conditions and flows southeast at approximately 1.1 ft/day. Samples from wells downgradient indicate that leachate has entered the aquifer despite the liner. A plume 3,700 ft long , 2,400 ft wide, and at least 90 ft thick was delineated based on specific conductance data. Water quality in the Magothy aquifer and in Beaverdam Creek, a groundwater fed stream 2,000 ft southeast of the landfill site, does not appear to be affected. (USGS)

  3. Combining AHP with GIS for landfill site selection: a case study in the Lake Bey?ehir catchment area (Konya, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan; Nas, Bilgehan; Karagüzel, Remzi

    2010-11-01

    Landfills are the most common method for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. However, determining the location of landfill sites is a difficult and complex process because it must combine social, environmental and technical parameters. Additionally, it depends on several criteria and regulations. The main objective of this study was to select of a landfill site for the Lake Bey?ehir catchment area. The Bey?ehir Lake is the largest freshwater lake and drinking water reservoir in Turkey, but there is no controlled landfill site in the region. Therefore, the landfill site should be determined such that the lake is protected. To determine the most suitable landfill site, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was combined with a geographic information system (GIS) to examine several criteria, such as geology/hydrogeology, land use, slope, height, aspect and distance from settlements, surface waters, roads, and protected areas (ecologic, scientific or historic). Each criterion was evaluated with the aid of AHP and mapped by GIS. Data were assorted into four suitability classes within the study area, i.e., high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 3.24%, 7.55%, 12.70% and 2.81%, of the study area, respectively. Additionally, 73.70% was determined to be completely unsuitable for a landfill site. As a result, two candidate landfill sites are suggested and discussed. The final decision for landfill site selection will require more detailed field studies. PMID:20594819

  4. Work plan for the radiological survey for the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 site, Knoxville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This work plan establishes the methods and requirements for performing a radiological survey at the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee (DWI 1630 Site) in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The radiological survey will identify the radiological contamination level of the equipment and debris stored at the DWI 1630 Site. The data generated from the survey activities will support the decisions for characterization of the equipment/debris and aid in subsequent disposition and waste handling. The survey activities to be performed under this work plan include an equipment radiological survey, a walkover survey, and an immunoassay testing for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This work plan includes a quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) project plan, a health and safety (H&S) plan, and a waste management plan.

  5. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazoty, A.; Fiandaca, G.; Pedersen, J.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Pedersen, J. K.

    2012-06-01

    A direct current (DC) resistivity and time domain induced polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures compared to DC surveys alone. Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill, and another seven profiles in the surroundings provide a sufficiently dense coverage of the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D laterally constrained inversion scheme, recently implemented for TDIP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model. Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth that correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by borehole data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact of the resolved geological units on the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.

  6. An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

    2012-08-01

    Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155

  7. Walnut Street Sansom Street

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Street Walnut Street Sansom Street Chestnut Street Locust Street 41stStreet 42ndStreet Spruce Street Pine StreetSchuylkillExpressway 34thStreet Grays Ferry Avenue Walnut Street Chestnut Street Market Street JFK Boulevard Filbert Street Lower Walnut Street I J K L M N O P Q R S T I J K L M N O P Q R S T 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 34

  8. Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Kilda, R.; Poskas, G.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

  9. A GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR SELECTION OF LANDFILL SITES: a case study from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, S. M.; Shehhi, B. Al

    2012-07-01

    Landfill sites receive 92% of total annual solid waste produced by municipalities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill location for the Abu Dhabi municipal area are determined by integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) analysis. To identify appropriate landfill sites, eight input map layers including proximity to urban areas, proximity to wells and water table depth, geology and topography, proximity to touristic and archeological sites, distance from roads network, distance from drainage networks, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identified potential areas showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. Results revealed that 30% of the study area was identified as highly suitable, 25% as suitable, and 45% as unsuitable. The selection of the final landfill site, however, requires further field research.

  10. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals. PMID:23528999

  11. The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design.

  12. Combining GIS with fuzzy multicriteria decision-making for landfill siting in a fast-growing urban region.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Parvathinathan, G; Breeden, Jeff B

    2008-04-01

    Landfill siting is a difficult, complex, tedious, and protracted process requiring evaluation of many different criteria. This paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of landfill sites. It employs a two-stage analysis synergistically to form a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for waste management in a fast-growing urban region, south Texas. The first-stage analysis makes use of the thematic maps in Geographical information system (GIS) in conjunction with environmental, biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic variables leading to support the second-stage analysis using the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (FMCDM) as a tool. It differs from the conventional methods of integrating GIS with MCDM for landfill selection because the approach follows two sequential steps rather than a full-integrated scheme. The case study was made for the city of Harlingen in south Texas, which is rapidly evolving into a large urban area due to its vantage position near the US-Mexico borderlands. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of FMCDM method to identify the most suitable site using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to five chosen criteria. Research findings show that the proposed SDSS may aid in recognizing the pros and cons of potential areas for the localization of landfill sites in any study region. Based on initial GIS screening and final FMCDM assessment, "site 1" was selected as the most suitable site for the new landfill in the suburban area of the City of Harlingen. Sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation where the decision weights associated with all criteria were varied to investigate their relative impacts on the rank ordering of the potential sites in the second stage. Despite variations of the decision weights within a range of 20%, it shows that "site 1" remains its comparative advantage in the final site selection process. PMID:17363133

  13. Spatial and multi-criteria decision analysis-based methodology for landfill site selection in growing urban regions.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Hakan; Bulut, Fikri

    2009-08-01

    The construction of landfills is not an alternative option, since a landfill is always a necessary component of the specific waste management system that will be developed. One of the serious and growing potential problems in large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. In solid waste management programmes, use of geographic information systems (GIS) is a very significant tool because the selection of a suitable site is a very time-consuming process. The analytic hierarchy process in GIS provides objective mathematics to process the subjective preferences of individuals or groups and arrive at a decision. The present paper describes a spatial methodology which comprised several methods, such as multi-criteria analysis, that originate in different scientific fields. The final goal of the methodology was to evaluate the suitability of the studied area (Trabzon, NE Turkey) in order to optimally select a landfill site. Different constraint maps were overlaid with spatial analysis modules to obtain a final suitability map for Trabzon City and five suitable areas were identified. An analytic hierarchy process was applied to select the most suitable solid waste disposal site for municipal waste in the city among these alternative candidate sites. The Düzyurt area was found to be the most suitable solid waste disposal site. However, geotechnical investigations indicated that some remedial measures would be needed before this landfill site could be used. PMID:19423606

  14. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians and citizens – all have to be part of the decision process when siting a new waste management facility. The opinions of the young respondents were significantly influenced by their level of environmental knowledge.

  15. Walnut Street Sansom Street

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    Street Walnut Street Sansom Street Chestnut Street Locust Street 41stStreet 42ndStreet Spruce Street Pine Street Drive Health Sciences Drive EastService Drive W estService Drive Walnut Street Chestnut Street Market S F FFF F S 4258 3910 Chestnut Hall International House Ralston House Sheraton University City 3335

  16. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. PMID:25002369

  17. Holocene faulting near closed landfill Pit 6, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Taffet, M.J.; Copland, J.R.; Mateik, R.S.; Wade, W.M.

    1992-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Site 300 test facility, an 11 mi{sup 2} area, is located in the rugged, semiarid Altamont Hills southwest of Tracy, California. Geologic studies conducted at the site in support of environmental assessments of closed landfill Pit 6 reveal the presence of a fault strand showing evidence of repeated movements during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. These studies included airphoto interpretation, geologic mapping, and logging of four exploratory trenches and other exposures. The fault was traced from west of Pit 6 to southeast of the pit, a distance of about 1,500 ft; regional reconnaissance suggests that the fault extends beyond the limits of the area studied in detail. The identified fault strand is not coincident with any previously mapped fault. It occurs within a band of highly deformed Tertiary rocks that is bounded by the Carnegie fault on the north and the Corral Hollow fault on the south. Evidence of Holocene movement within the larger Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone indicates that this fault zone should be considered active and could be a source of future strong earthquake motion. Regressions relating total fault length, segment length, and fault plane area suggest that the Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone may be capable of generating an earthquake in the range of M{sub s} 6.3 to 7.1. Effects of a strong earthquake on closed landfill Pit 6 would be expected to be slight since the identified Holocene fault trace passes at least 100 ft south of the outer limits of the pit area. However, the effects of strong ground shaking from a local source upon buildings, slopes, and other structures within Site 300 and vicinity should receive further consideration.

  18. Holocene faulting near closed landfill Pit 6, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Taffet, M.J. ); Copland, J.R. ); Mateik, R.S.; Wade, W.M. )

    1992-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 test facility, an 11 mi[sup 2] area, is located in the rugged, semiarid Altamont Hills southwest of Tracy, California. Geologic studies conducted at the site in support of environmental assessments of closed landfill Pit 6 reveal the presence of a fault strand showing evidence of repeated movements during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. These studies included airphoto interpretation, geologic mapping, and logging of four exploratory trenches and other exposures. The fault was traced from west of Pit 6 to southeast of the pit, a distance of about 1,500 ft; regional reconnaissance suggests that the fault extends beyond the limits of the area studied in detail. The identified fault strand is not coincident with any previously mapped fault. It occurs within a band of highly deformed Tertiary rocks that is bounded by the Carnegie fault on the north and the Corral Hollow fault on the south. Evidence of Holocene movement within the larger Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone indicates that this fault zone should be considered active and could be a source of future strong earthquake motion. Regressions relating total fault length, segment length, and fault plane area suggest that the Corral Hollow-Carnegie fault zone may be capable of generating an earthquake in the range of M[sub s] 6.3 to 7.1. Effects of a strong earthquake on closed landfill Pit 6 would be expected to be slight since the identified Holocene fault trace passes at least 100 ft south of the outer limits of the pit area. However, the effects of strong ground shaking from a local source upon buildings, slopes, and other structures within Site 300 and vicinity should receive further consideration.

  19. Dispersion of odour: a case study with a municipal solid waste landfill site in North London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ujjaini; Hobbs, Stephen E; Longhurst, Philip

    2003-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are a potential source of offensive odours that can create annoyance within communities. Dispersion modelling was used to quantify the potential odour strength causing an impact on the community around a particular MSW landfill site north of the London area in the United Kingdom. The case studies were completed with the short-term mode of COMPLEX-I, software developed by the US-EPA. The year 1998 was chosen as a source of baseline data. It was observed that by 2004, when the landfill will progress towards the west and a big band of the area towards the north would be partly/fully restored, the maximum contribution of the new sources giving higher odour concentrations would be in the southwesterly regions away from the landfill. Concentrations as high as 25.0 ou(E)/m(3) were observed with 3 min averaging time in the southwesterly areas as compared to concentrations of 20.0 ou(E)/m(3) at 10 min averaging times. However, the percentage frequency of such critical events occurring would be low. All other surrounding farms and small villages would be exposed to the concentration of 3.0 ou(E)/m(3) on certain occasions. In the year 2008, the majority of the filling fronts would be filled with wastes with no contributions from the active and operational cells. The maximum odour concentration around the landfill site for 1 h averaging time would be approximately 3 ou(E)/m(3) about 1.0 km north and 500 m west of the landfill site. For 3 min averaging time, the stretch of 5 ou(E)/m(3) band would be up to 2.5 km towards the north of the landfill site. It is argued that further analysis of the model calculations considering effects of wind direction, frequency of wind direction, stability of the atmosphere, selected odour threshold, integration time of the model, etc. would form a basis for calculating the separation distances of the landfill site from the surrounding community. PMID:12781755

  20. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory. PMID:25784608

  1. Complete genome of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38, an oxalotrophic bacterium isolated from municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yong, Delicia; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-11-20

    Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38 is a bacterium isolated from a former sanitary landfill site. Here, we present the complete genome of P. pnomenusa RB38 in which an oxalate utilization pathway was identified. The genome analysis suggested the potential of this strain as an effective biocontrol agent against oxalate-producing phytopathogens. PMID:26393955

  2. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenovi? Vasiljevi?, Tamara; Srdjevi?, Zorica; Baj?eti?, Ratko; Vojinovi? Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land. PMID:22134738

  3. Work plan for development of a data base on potential landfill-gas utilization sites in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    In an attempt to determine the effects of the criteria established by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Section 4004's Open Dump Inventory (ODI) upon the establishment of landfill gas utilization projects, a national survey of landfills was taken. The project, quantified the gas utilization potential for landfills of various types and sizes across the United States. Preliminary information was collected through telephone or mail surveys of people dealing with solid waste disposal in each of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regional Offices and in each of the 50 states. In addition, visits to eight states were conducted to gather more detailed information and assess the quality of information collected in the preliminary step. The surveys attempted to elicit the following information about the prospective ODI in each state: (1) size, age, and type of each landfill; (2) status of gas control and utilization projects; and (3) location of landfill gas problem sites. In addition, the quality of information in each state's files and the accessibility of those files were evaluated.

  4. Site selection of sanitary landfills on the small island of Mauritius using the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria method.

    PubMed

    Ramjeawon, T; Beerachee, B

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the application of a multi-criteria analysis methodology - the analytical hierarchy process - for the locating of a sanitary landfill on the small island of Mauritius. Four candidate sites were assessed using three main criteria (environmental, technical and socio-economic) and twenty-one sub-criteria. Scores were assigned to each criterion and sub-criterion by stakeholders in the solid waste sector, based on the impact assessment of each site so as to obtain their relative importance. The analytical hierarchy process was then applied, which involved the combination of the weights obtained at the different stages of pair-wise comparisons. The candidate sites were finally ranked to obtain the optimum site. Because of political factors, the second best ranked site was chosen by the authorities for the location of a new landfill on the island. This technique provides a realistic approach for use by small island developing states such as Mauritius for choosing and justifying to all stakeholders the best location for a sanitary landfill site or any other waste management site. PMID:18927063

  5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  6. Field Performance of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final cover At A Humid Site

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Abichou, Tarek; Mcdonald, Eric V.; Tyler, Scott W.; Rock, Steven

    2006-11-01

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA to evaluate how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a landfill final cover changed over a 4-yr service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed CE Database subject headings: landfill, hydrogeology, compacted soils, lysimeters, desiccation continuous monitoring of the water balance. Patterns in the drainage (i.e., flow from the bottom of the cover) record suggest that preferential flow paths developed in the clay barrier soon after construction, apparently in response to desiccation cracking. After four years, the clay barrier was excavated and examined for changes in soil structure and hydraulic conductivity. Tests were conducted in situ with a sealed double-ring infiltrometer and two-stage borehole permeameters and in the laboratory on hand-carved blocks taken during construction and after four years of service. The in situ and laboratory tests indicated that the hydraulic conductivity increased approximately three orders of magnitude (from ? 10-7 to ? 10-4 cm s-1) during the service life. A dye tracer test and soil structure analysis showed that extensive cracking and root development occurred throughout the entire depth of the barrier layer. Laboratory tests on undisturbed specimens of the clay barrier indicated that the hydraulic conductivity of damaged clay barriers can be under-estimated significantly if small specimens (e.g., tube samples) are used for hydraulic conductivity assessment. The findings also indicate that clay barriers must be protected from desiccation and root intrusion if they are expected to function as intended, even at sites in warm, humid locations.

  7. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1979-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water-quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. As part of this study, a water-quality monitoring network was established at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County. Water-quality samples were collected at 27 surface-water sites and 97 ground-water sites at 5 landfills from 1979-92. Samples were analyzed for selected physical and biological characteristics, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, organic compounds, and suspended sediment. Analyses for constituents of concern are presented in tables and as graphical time series plots. Results from all analyses are compiled in tabular form in appendixes.

  8. Walnut Street Sansom Street

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Street Walnut Street Sansom Street Chestnut Street Locust Street 41stStreet 42ndStreet Spruce Street Pine Street Drive Health Sciences Drive EastService Drive W estService Drive Walnut Street Chestnut Street Market F F F F F F F F F 235 S. 39th F F S F FFF F S 4258 3910 Chestnut Hall International House Ralston

  9. Water-quality data from a landfill-leachate treatment and disposal site, Pinellas County, Florida, January 1979-August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Fernandez, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data collected between January 1979 and August 1980 at the landfill leachate treatment site in Pinellas County, Fla., are presented. Data include field and laboratory measurements of physical properties, major chemical constituents , nitrogen and phosphorus species, chemical oxygen demand, trace metals, coliform bacteria, taxonomy of macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton, and chlorophyll analyses. Data were collected as part of a study to determine water-quality changes resulting from aeration and ponding of leachate pumped from landfill burial trenches and for use in determining the rate of movement and quality changes as the leachate migrates through the surficial aquifer. Samples were collected from 81 surficial-aquifer water-quality monitoring wells constructed in January 1975, February 1979, and March 1979, and 8 surface-water quality monitoring sites established in January 1975, February 1978, and November 1978. (USGS)

  10. Indirect measurements of field-scale hydraulic conductivity of waste from two landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Fleming, I R

    2011-12-01

    Management and prediction of the movement and distribution of fluids in large landfills is important for various reasons. Bioreactor landfill technology shows promise, but in arid or semi-arid regions, the natural content of landfilled waste may be low, thus requiring addition of significant volumes of water. In more humid locations, landfills can become saturated, flooding gas collection systems and causing sideslope leachate seeps or other undesirable occurrences. This paper compares results from two different approaches to monitoring water in waste. At the Brock West Landfill in eastern Canada, positive pore pressures were measured at various depths in saturated waste. The downward seepage flux through the waste is known, thus the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the waste at this landfill was determined to be 3 × 10(-7)cm/s. By comparison, the Spadina Landfill in western Canada is predominantly unsaturated. The infiltration of moisture into the waste was measured using moisture sensors installed in boreholes which determined arrival time for moisture fronts resulting from major precipitation events as well as longer-term change in moisture content resulting from unsaturated drainage during winter when frozen ground prevented infiltration. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from these data ranged from approximately 10(-6)cm/s for the slow winter drainage in the absence of significant recharge to 10(-2)cm/s or higher for shallow waste subject to high infiltration through apparent preferential pathways. These two very different approaches to field-scale measurements of vertical hydraulic conductivity provide insight into the nature of fluid movement in saturated and unsaturated waste masses. It is suggested that the principles of unsaturated seepage apply reasonably well for landfilled waste and that the hydraulic behavior of waste is profoundly influenced by the nature and size of voids and by the degree of saturation prevailing in the landfill. PMID:21903374

  11. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  12. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    SciTech Connect

    Spokas, K. . E-mail: spokas@morris.ars.usda.gov; Bogner, J.; Chanton, J.P.; Morcet, M.; Aran, C.; Graff, C.; Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le; Hebe, I.

    2006-07-01

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery.

  13. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Naidu, R

    2013-11-01

    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts>biosolids>biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2-2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) Mg(-1) biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C. PMID:23380138

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, CT. (First remedial action), September 1990. (Supplemental). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 34-acre Beacon Heights Landfill site is on the northwest corner of an 82-acre property in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. The ROD supplements the 1985 ROD by resolving those determinations left open in the 1985 ROD, including the manner and locations of leachate treatment/disposal; cleanup levels for soil deemed impracticable to cap in areas contiguous to the landfill; and the need for air pollution controls on the landfill gas vents. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, ground water, surface water, and air are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  16. Landfill disposal systems.

    PubMed

    Slimak, K M

    1978-12-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated.A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. PMID:738247

  17. Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability. PMID:22878933

  18. Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

  19. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD001145671. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-26

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  20. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  1. Priorities determination using novel analytic hierarchy process and median ranked sample set, case study of landfill siting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, N. E. Ahmad; Basri, H.

    2015-02-01

    Integrating environmental, social, political, and economical attributes enhances the decision making process. Multi criteria decision making (MCDM) involves ambiguity and uncertainty due to various preferences. This study presents a model to minimize the uncertainty and ambiguity of human judgments by means of integrating the counter stakeholders with median ranked sample set (MRSS) and Analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The model uses landfill site selection as a MCDM problem. Sixteen experts belong to four clusters that are government, private, institution, and non-governmental organisations participated and their preferences were ranked in four by four matrix. Then the MRSS and the AHP were used to obtain the priorities of landfill siting criteria. Environmental criteria have the highest priority that equals to 48.1% and the distance from surface water, and the faults zones are the most important factors with priorities equal to 18% and 13.7% respectively. In conclusion, the hybrid approach that integrates counter stakeholders MRSS, and AHP is capable of being applied to complex decision making process and its outputs are justified.

  2. School StreetMonroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    School Street-Monroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & Monroe Streets, on south by Jefferson Street, on west by Hope Avenue, & on east by Parker Avenue & site of Canal Street, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  3. SSutter Street Bush Street

    E-print Network

    Martin, Gail

    Post Pain Management 1675 Scott Helen Diller Family Cancer Research 2340 Sutter Street Harold Brunn Outpatient Dialysis 1675 Scott Street Osher Building 1545 Divisadero Street Pain Management Center 2255 Post

  4. Site Specific Landfill CH4 Emissions: Shortcomings of National GHG Inventory Guidelines and a New Process-Based Approach Linked to Climate and Soil Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Corcoran, M.

    2012-12-01

    Current (2006) IPCC national GHG inventory guidelines for landfill CH4, which estimate CH4 generation from the mass of waste in place, have high uncertainties, cannot be reliably related to measured emissions at specific sites, and lack comprehensive field validation. Moreover, measured landfill CH4 emissions vary over a wide range from >1000 g/m2/d down to negative values (uptake of atmospheric CH4). Literature over the last decade has emphasized that the major factors controlling emissions in these highly managed soil systems are gaseous transport rates as affected by the thickness and physical properties of cover soils, methanotrophic CH4 oxidation in cover materials as a function of seasonal soil microclimate. and the presence or absence of engineered gas extraction. Thus we developed and field validated a new site specific annual inventory model that incorporates specific soil profile properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5° scale global climatic models. Based on 1D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely available JAVA tool which models a typical annual cycle for CH4 emissions from site specific daily, intermediate, and final landfill cover designs. This new approach, which is compliant with IPCC Tier III criteria, was originally field validated at two California sites (Monterey County; Los Angeles County), with limited field validation at three additional California sites. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist. We report here on improvements and expanded international field validation for CALMIM 5.2 in collaboration with research groups in the U.S., Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.odeled and measured annual cycle of landfill CH4 emissions for Austrian site. Cover consists of 50 cm sand & gravel overlain by 110 cm loam & sandy loam. No gas recovery. Site 100% vegetated.

  5. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  6. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  7. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  8. Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in Thessaloniki, sending thick black

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site by firefighters, officials said. Since Thursday, the fire service had been battling to bring the blaze at the Tagarades dump under control. Efforts had been hampered by the extreme heat as the fire burned plastic items

  9. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1980-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddins, W.H.; Cardinell, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, to study, among other things, the effects of solid waste disposal on the water quality in Mecklenburg County. Water quality samples (747 inorganic and 168 organic) were collected at 20 surface water sites and 53 monitoring wells at four selected landfills from 1980 to 1986. Samples were analyzed for 142 selected physical and biological parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace metals, and (or) organic compounds. Results from all analyses are presented in tabular form in the appendices. Each appendix is divided into a surface water and a groundwater section. Within each water quality table the data is presented in the following order: field measurements, physical properties, biological constituents (if analyzed), major cations, major anions, dissolved and total solids, nutrients, trace inorganic constituents, and organic constituents.

  10. Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    -Section of Closure #12;Schedule III ­ Gazette 19 & 21 Specifications for Landfill Cover Daily cover of 10cm of soil;Post Closure Care-Requirements The Post-closure care of landfill site shall be conducted for at leastMunicipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities Arun

  11. Necessity for Establishment of Inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Landfills and Contaminated Sites for an Evaluation of Mobilisation Risk by Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The landfilling of persistent hazardous compounds with a tendency to migrate, such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a major pollution challenge. Historic dumping and landfilling in badly engineered and unsuitably located sites has resulted in widespread contamination from the landfilling of HCH, HCB and PCB wastes around former production sites. In the case of PCBs this has been exacerbated by subsequent landfilling of contaminated products (oils, capacitors, sealants and other building residues). In most cases locations and amounts are not or vaguely known but impacts are increasingly discovered by monitoring in the most advanced countries with sophisticated monitoring schemes in place. These reveal that entire river systems are being contaminated by these old dumps and contaminated sites and that expensive remediation work is required for to reduce further contamination. In addition more recently other (halogenated) chemicals exhibiting the characteristics of POPs have emerged including e.g. brominated aromatic compounds (e.g. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants) widely used as flame retardants for electronics; textiles, furniture; upholstery; insulation foam etc.) and fluorinated organic pollutants (e.g. PFOS or PFOA used in carpets, textiles, furniture, paper coating etc.). As products containing these chemicals reach the end of their life these hazardous compounds increasingly ended and end up in the waste stream. In most countries a large proportion of these wastes are disposed to landfills. In developing countries and those with economies in transition almost all this waste is landfilled. Consequently the quantities of POPs in municipal waste landfills have increased the last two decades. Therefore in addition to chemical landfills also municipal landfills increasingly become POPs deposits and sources. Because of their persistence and relative mobility, these compounds will persist in landfills for many decades and probably centuries. Over these extended time frames landfill engineering systems, including basal and capping liners, gas and leachate collection systems will inevitably degrade and loose their abilities to contain contamination. Furthermore consideration must now be given to the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. This is likely to result in higher temperatures with increased volatalisation of semi-volatile compounds; longer dry periods with drying of surface caps; together with higher intensity rainfall events and increased flooding risks. These effects will impact on the integrity of the containment systems. It is therefore inevitable that more of the deposited POPs will leach into rivers, lakes and the larger environment via escaping leachate, ground or surface water as well as escaping to atmosphere by volatilisation. At the same time our reliance on water resources is likely to increase. In order to evaluate the associated risks for human exposure and biodiversity, inventories of deposited POPs and other PBTs need to be established, their locations comprehensively mapped and linked to future flooding scenarios for prediction of contamination of the precious water resources. This interdisciplinary task will require the cooperation between POPs experts, geotechnical engineers, contaminated site/landfill experts, water management specialists and geoscientists working on climate change and flooding.

  12. Hydrogeologic framework, arsenic distribution, and groundwater geochemistry of the glacial-sediment aquifer at the Auburn Road landfill superfund site, Londonderry, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate continues to be generated from landfills at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund Site in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Impermeable caps on the three landfills at the site inhibit direct infiltration of precipitation; however, high water-table conditions allow groundwater to interact with landfill materials from below, creating leachate and ultimately reducing conditions in downgradient groundwater. Reducing conditions can facilitate arsenic transport by allowing it to stay in solution or by liberating arsenic adsorbed to surfaces and from geologic sources, such as glacial sediments and bedrock. The site occupies a 180-acre parcel of land containing streams, ponds, wetlands, and former gravel pits located in glacial sediment. Four areas, totaling 14 acres, including three landfills and one septage lagoon, were used for waste disposal. The site was closed in 1980 after volatile organic compounds associated with industrial waste dumping were detected. The site was added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List in 1982, and the landfills were capped in 1996. Although volatile organic compound concentrations in groundwater have declined substantially, some measurable concentrations remain. Temporally variable and persistent elevated arsenic concentrations have been measured in groundwater affected by the landfill leachate. Microbial consumption of carbon found in leachate is a driver of reducing conditions that liberate arsenic at the site. In addition to sources of carbon in landfill leachate, wetland areas throughout the site also could contribute carbon to groundwater, but it is currently unknown if any of the wetland areas have downward or reversing gradients that could allow the infiltration of surface water to groundwater. Red-stained sediments and water indicate iron-rich groundwater discharge to surface water and are also associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic in sediment and groundwater. Ironrich groundwater seeps have been observed in the wetland, streams, and pond downgradient of the landfills. Piezometers were installed in some of these locations to confirm groundwater discharge, measure vertical-flow gradients, and to provide a way to sample the discharging groundwater. Understanding the movement of leachate in groundwater is complicated by the presence of preferential flow paths through aquifer materials with differing hydraulic properties; these preferential flow paths can affect rates of recharge, geochemical conditions, and contaminant fluxes. In areas adjacent to the three capped landfills, infiltration of precipitation containing oxygenated water through permeable deltaic sediments in the former gravel pit area causes increases in dissolved oxygen concentrations and decreases in arsenic concentrations. Layered deltaic sediments produce anisotropic hydraulic characteristics and zones of high hydraulic conductivity. The glacial-sediment aquifer also includes glaciolacustrine sediments that have low permeability and limit infiltration at the surface Discharge of leachate-affected groundwater may be limited in areas of organic muck on the bottom of Whispering Pines Pond because the muck may act as a semiconfining layer. Geophysical survey results were used to identify several areas with continuous beds of muck and an underlying highresistivity layer on top of a layer of low resistivity that may represent leachate-affected groundwater. The high-resistivity layer is likely groundwater associated with oxygenated recharge, which would cause arsenic to adsorb onto aquifer sediments and reduce concentrations of dissolved arsenic in groundwater. Surface and borehole geophysical data collected in 2011 were used to identify potentially high-permeability or contaminated zones in the aquifer (preferential flowpaths) as well as low-permeability zones that may promote contamination through back diffusion. Some groundwater in parts of the glacial-sediment aquifer where the leachate plumes were present had low electrical resistivity, low dissolved oxygen, and high concentrations of a

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Munisport Landfill site, Dade County, North Miami, FL. (First remedial action), July 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-26

    The 291-acre Munisport Landfill site, including a 170-acre, inactive municipal landfill, is within the city of North Miami, Dade County, Florida. The city of North Miami leased 291 acres to Munisport for recreational development in 1971 which began filling low-lying areas of the site with clean fill and construction debris. In 1975, a temporary permit allowed solid waste to be used as fill above the water table. However, in 1976, a State inspection found twelve 55-gallon drums that were leaking wastes onsite; a violation was issued, and these drums were removed offsite by the city. Landfilling operations ceased in 1981, but closure has not yet taken place. Leachate from the landfill waste still poses a significant threat to the aquatic organisms in the Mangrove Preserve. The ground water is no longer used for potable purposes as a result of salt water intrusion. The contaminants of concern affecting the ground water include VOCs such as benzene and toluene; other organics; metals, such as arsenic, chromium, and lead; and other inorganics.

  14. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering a suitable methodology was developed. The feasibility of site selection in the study area based on different criteria was used to obtain the layered data by integrating Remote Sensing and GIS. This methodology is suitable for all practical applications in other cities, also.

  15. Natural attenuation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in shallow aquifer at the Luhuagang's landfill site, Kaifeng, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei Hong; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Xue Yu; Zhang, Yan; Tabouré, Aboubacar

    2015-02-01

    The natural attenuation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) in shallow aquifer was investigated at the Luhuagang's landfill site (LLS), where the subsoil and shallow aquifer have been contaminated by certain chemicals owning to a lack of protective structures and leachate collection systems. Batch natural attenuation experiments and molecular biology experiments were conducted to study the natural attenuation characteristics of 1,2,4-TCB, the relative contributions of the primary natural attenuation processes and the functional microorganisms degrading 1,2,4-TCB, respectively. The results indicated that the relationship between degradation rate and 1,2,4-TCB concentrations was in line with first-order decay kinetics, and the natural attenuation rate of 1,2,4-TCB in the three media followed the order silt>fine sand>medium sand, which was related to the size of the media and the microbial population. The relative contribution of adsorption to natural attenuation was 97.7%, 98.2%, and 95.7% in unsterilized silt, fine sand and medium sand, respectively, and that of biodegradation was 2.3%, 1.8%, and 4.3%, respectively. These properties are related to the characteristics of the pollutants and the specific conditions at the contaminated sites, such as the characteristics of the aquifer media and microbial communities. The functional microorganisms degrading 1,2,4-TCB at the site were proved to be primarily Pseudomonas sp. This study indicates the feasibility of bioremediation (bioaugmentation and biostimulation) by indigenous microorganisms to treat 1,2,4-TCB contamination at the site. PMID:25461023

  16. Results of the radiological and beryllium verification survey at the Peek Street Site, Schenectady, New York (SY001V)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Johnson, C.A.; Carrier, R.F.; Allred, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent verification radiological and non-radioactive beryllium survey at the Peek Street site, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York. The purpose of the survey, conducted during 1993 and continuing through January 1994, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any beryllium concentrations or radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at one meter indoors and outdoors, alpha and beta scans inside the structure, and the collection of soil, dust and debris samples and smears for radionuclide and beryllium analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological and beryllium measurements on the property were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on all data collected, the industrial property at 425 Peek Street and the adjacent state-owned bike path in Schenectady, New York, conforms to all applicable radiological and non-radioactive beryllium guidelines established for this site by DOE and approved by the State of New York.

  17. Wintertime Correlation Between Black Carbon and Particle Size in a Street and Rural Site in Santiago de Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramsch, E. V.; Reyes, F.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the correlation between black carbon and particle size in three sites in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in the winter of 2009 and performed a detailed comparison. Two of the sites are located near busy streets in Santiago de Chile. The other site was located in a rural area about 30 km upwind from downtown with little influence from vehicles, but large influence from wood burning. The particle size distribution was measured with a DMPS (Whalin, 2001) in the range from 10 to 700 nm. Simultaneously, black carbon was measured with an optical monitor developed at the University of Santiago (Gramsch, 2004). It is well known that the smaller particles (~ 10 - 40 nm ) are emitted directly by the engines of vehicles, which later condensate or coagulate in the atmosphere to form larger particles. In our measurements, the street site is mostly influenced by diesel vehicles which emit large amounts of black carbon. We have divided the particle size measurements in four groups (10 - 40 nm, 41- 69 nm, 79 - 157 nm and 190 - 700 nm) in order to compare with the carbon monitor. The highest correlation (0.98) in the site near the street between black carbon and the particles was obtained with the 190 - 700 nm. The correlation with the 79 - 157 nm group was slightly less (0.93). A comparison between the hourly average curves for black carbon and the 190 - 700 nm group show a similar shape during the whole day. In the rural site, the number of particles in the 10 - 40 nm group was 10 times lower than in the street, but the number of particles in the 190 - 700 nm group was only two times smaller. This fact is an indication that wood burning does not generate particles smaller than ~ 80 - 100 nm. The best correlation in the rural site between the black carbon and the particles was also with the 190 - 700 nm group. However, the correlation was lower (0.86) than in the street site. The hourly average curves for black carbon and the 190 - 700 nm group show a similar shape during the night (10 PM - 6 AM), but differ during the day. These measurements indicate that black carbon measurements may be more sensitive to emission from diesel vehicles than wood burning. This work was supported by the University of Santiago (Dicyt), the National Commission for the Environment (CONAMA) and the Regional Government of the Metropolitan Region (GORE).. Gramsch, E., Cereceda-Balic, F., Ormeño, I., Palma, G., Oyola, P., 2004. Use of the light absorption coefficient to monitor elemental carbon and PM2.5. Example of Santiago de Chile. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 54, 799-808 Wahlin, P., Palmgren, F., Van Dingenen, R., 2001. Experimental studies of ultrafine particles in streets and the relationship to traffic. Atmospheric Environment 35 (Suppl. 1), 63-69..

  18. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Syosset Landfill Site, operable unit 2, Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY, March 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for the second operable unit (OU2) for the Syosset Landfill site (the Site), located in the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York. This operable unit addresses the fate and transport of the contaminants in the groundwater emanating from the Site. EPA is consultation with the State of New York has determined that contamination is limited and does not pose a significant threat to human health or the environment; therefore, remediation is not appropriate. This determination is based on the OU2 Remedial Investigation and the expected successful implementation of the OU1 remedy.

  19. Evaluation of borehole geophysical and video logs, at Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, D.J.; Conger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1996 and November 2000, geophysical logging was conducted in 27 open borehole wells in and adjacent to the Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pa., to determine casing depth and depths of water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, and zones of vertical borehole flow. The wells range in depth from 57 to 319 feet below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so that the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, fluid-temperature, and video logs. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, and fluid-resistivity logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy.

  20. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  1. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

  2. Characterization of bacterial diversity at different depths in the Moravia Hill landfill site at Medellin, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was used to assess bacterial diversity at different depths within a former solid waste dump in Medellín, Colombia. Sampling sites included a densely populated area, which is built upon 40 m of solid waste (domestic, industrial, agric...

  3. a New Framework for Geospatial Site Selection Using Artificial Neural Networks as Decision Rules: a Case Study on Landfill Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujayyab, S. K. M.; Ahamad, M. A. S.; Yahya, A. S.; Saad, A.-M. H. Y.

    2015-10-01

    This paper briefly introduced the theory and framework of geospatial site selection (GSS) and discussed the application and framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The related literature on the use of ANNs as decision rules in GSS is scarce from 2000 till 2015. As this study found, ANNs are not only adaptable to dynamic changes but also capable of improving the objectivity of acquisition in GSS, reducing time consumption, and providing high validation. ANNs make for a powerful tool for solving geospatial decision-making problems by enabling geospatial decision makers to implement their constraints and imprecise concepts. This tool offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty. Specifically, ANNs are decision rules implemented to enhance conventional GSS frameworks. The main assumption in implementing ANNs in GSS is that the current characteristics of existing sites are indicative of the degree of suitability of new locations with similar characteristics. GSS requires several input criteria that embody specific requirements and the desired site characteristics, which could contribute to geospatial sites. In this study, the proposed framework consists of four stages for implementing ANNs in GSS. A multilayer feed-forward network with a backpropagation algorithm was used to train the networks from prior sites to assess, generalize, and evaluate the outputs on the basis of the inputs for the new sites. Two metrics, namely, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic tests, were utilized to achieve high accuracy and validation. Results proved that ANNs provide reasonable and efficient results as an accurate and inexpensive quantitative technique for GSS.

  4. Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landfill site selection: a case study using ordered weighted average.

    PubMed

    Gorsevski, Pece V; Donevska, Katerina R; Mitrovski, Cvetko D; Frizado, Joseph P

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis approach for evaluating the suitability for landfill site selection in the Polog Region, Macedonia. The multi-criteria decision framework considers environmental and economic factors which are standardized by fuzzy membership functions and combined by integration of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and ordered weighted average (OWA) techniques. The AHP is used for the elicitation of attribute weights while the OWA operator function is used to generate a wide range of decision alternatives for addressing uncertainty associated with interaction between multiple criteria. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated by different OWA scenarios that report landfill suitability on a scale between 0 and 1. The OWA scenarios are intended to quantify the level of risk taking (i.e., optimistic, pessimistic, and neutral) and to facilitate a better understanding of patterns that emerge from decision alternatives involved in the decision making process. PMID:22030279

  5. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  6. Where Should the Landfill Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Rosario P.; McFaden, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project where students were involved in finding the most suitable site for a landfill in their community. This two-month project was conducted using team teaching. Two twelfth grade geoscience classes were involved. (PR)

  7. Mobile Robots for Localizing Gas Emission Sources on Landfill Sites: Is Bio-Inspiration the Way to Go?

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Neumann, Patrick P.; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully “translated” into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  8. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    PubMed

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action (CAU) 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 5 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs). The corrective action investigation (CAI) of CAU 5 was conducted from October 7, 2002 through January 30, 2003, with geophysical surveys completed from March 6 through May 8, 2002, and topographic surveys conducted from March 11 through April 29, 2003. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified only at CAS 12-15-01. Those COCs included total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following single alternative was developed for consideration. Close in Place with Administrative Controls is the recommended alternative for all of the CASs in CAU 5. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate inadvertent intrusion into landfills at CAU 5.

  10. Impacts of landfill New Source Performance Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, W.G.; McGuigan, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    On May 30, 1991, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a Rule to control landfill gas (LFG) emissions under the authority of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Since that time the Rule has been modified significantly, with an emphasis on regulating large US landfills. To date, landfill owners and operators have not been affected by this new CAA regulation. However, with the Rule promulgated in early 1996 and its subsequent implementation by the states to follow by the end of the year, landfill owners and operators need to understand these new requirements and their associated costs. To this end, the goal of this paper is to provide insight into the impacts of the Rule on individual landfill sites. By performing the emission analyses specified in the Rule on actual landfills, and comparing these sites to others, an understanding can be gained on the potential impacts of the NSPS Rule`s requirements on individual landfills.

  11. Technical assistance to the Ohio Department of Health. Volatile organic compound testing of blood of persons living near the Industrial Excess Landfill NPL site, Uniontown, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The Epidemiology and Medicine Branch (EMB) of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was requested by the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) to assist in evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures of persons residing near the Industrial Excess Landfill site in Uniontown, Ohio, and who had prior privately obtained tests. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate the concern that prior tests might indicate unusual VOC exposures. EMB proposed to perform an investigation that would survey the community near the landfill for self-reported diseases and health complaints and to provide some blood testing. The proposal was declined by a committee representing the affected citizens until a health assessment can be completed wherein routes of contamination from the landfill are established. The blood testing was performed on these privately evaluated people on a voluntary basis, and 13 of the 16 chose to participate. The VOC test results were within established norms for all but two participants. These two had high levels of tetrachloroethene. Also reported was the presence of a 6-carbon, 14-hydrogen compound. The level of the compound could not be quantitated because of the absence of laboratory validation standard materials.

  12. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 2, Simulation of ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.; Maus, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Data on the hydrogeology of a 26-sq-mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in central Suffolk County were collected as part of a hydrologic investigation of solute transport from the site. These data were used to develop a steady-state groundwater flow model of the upper glacial (water table) aquifer in the area. The model accounts for the leakage through confining units underlying the aquifer, seepage to streams, recharge from precipitation, and pumpage and redistribution of water. Refined estimates of aquifer and confining-unit properties were obtained through model calibrations. Water table altitudes generated by the calibrated model were used to determine groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the vicinity of the site under long-term average hydrologic conditions. Groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the study area were calculated from simulated water table altitudes generated by the calibrated flow model. Groundwater at the center of the site flows southeastward at a velocity of 1.1 ft/d. The report is the second in a three part series describing the hydrologic conditions and groundwater quality, groundwater flow, and solute transport in the vicinity of the Brookhaven landfill. (USGS)

  13. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, S.A. . E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. . E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. . E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

    2007-07-01

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

  14. Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ? 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

  15. Landfills in karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.H. ); Memon, B.A.; LaMoreaux, P.E. )

    1994-06-01

    State and Federal regulations have established restrictions for location of hazardous waste and municipal, solid waste landfills. Regulations require owners/operators to demonstrate that the hydrogeology has been completely characterized at proposed landfills, and that locations for monitoring wells have been properly selected. Owners/operators are also required to demonstrate that engineering measures have been incorporated in the design of the municipal solid waste landfills, so that the site is not subject to destabilizing events, as a result of location in unstable areas, such as karst terrains. Karst terrains are typically underlain by limestone or dolomite, and may contain a broad continuum of karst features and karst activity. Preliminary investigation of candidate sites will allow ranking of the sites, rejection of some unsuitable sites, and selection of a few sites for additional studies. The complexity of hydrogeologic systems, in karst terrains, mandates thorough hydrogeologic studies to determine whether a specific site is, or can be rendered, suitable for a land disposal facility. Important components of hydrogeologic studies are: field mapping of structural and stratigraphic units; interpretation of sequential aerial photographs; test drilling and geophysical analyses; fracture analyses; seasonal variation in water-levels; spatial variation of hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and aquiclude; velocity and direction of movement of ground water within aquifers; determination of control for recharge, discharge, and local base level; and evaluation of the effects of man's activities, such as pumping, dewatering and construction.

  16. New landfill technology for an old landfill`s problems: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, T.A.; Warren, V.L.

    1996-11-01

    There are presently 111 solid waste sites in Indiana where groundwater is being monitored on a regular basis. Solid waste regulations passed in 1989 required leachate collection systems (LCS) in all new landfills. Of the 111 monitored solid waste facilities, only about 20 of them have an LCS, either built into the original design or retrofitted into an old design. Furthermore, 42 solid waste sites are presently under Phase 2 or assessment monitoring (suspected of causing groundwater contamination) and 8 are in corrective action with confirmed groundwater contamination. It is significant that none of these sites with suspected or confirmed groundwater contamination have leachate collection systems. It has been the authors` experience that many old landfills without LCSs have problems with leachate breakouts on sideslopes. However, these same landfills are found to have good natural base liners and a low chance of contaminating groundwater. On the other hand, if an old landfill has no LCS, yet is not experiencing leachate breakouts on the sideslopes, the base liner may be suspect and leachate may be exiting the landfill bottom and into underlying groundwater. This paper presents a case study of an old landfill that, until recently, had no leachate control system. The landfill had experienced significant leachate breakouts on sideslopes except for one particular corner of the fill area.

  17. FifteenthStreet Congress Street

    E-print Network

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    TllihegdE SunsetTerrace Cook Drive Peoples Avenue Colvin Circle Peck Drive Sherry Road Sage Avenue Peoples Avenue Sage Avenue Federal Street EighthStreet NinthStreet TenthStreet EleventhStreet SixthAvenue CollegeT GeorgianCourtGeorgianTerrace Sage Avenue GriswoldRoadEatonRoad McLeod Road SunsetTerrace Kellogg

  18. A New IPCC Tier 4 Site-Specific Model for Landfill Methane Emissions Inclusive of Seasonal Methane Oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project was initiated in the U.S. by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in cooperation with the California Integrated Waste Management Board and the California Air Resources Board to develop improved methods for landfill methane emissions for the California greenhouse gas inventory. This 3-...

  19. W. NEW YORK STREET W. VERMONT STREET

    E-print Network

    . MICHIGAN STREET WESTSTREET W. 10th STREET WISHARD BLVD. UNIVERSITYBLVD. BLAKESTREET BARNHILLDRIVE W. WALNUT MARTINLUTHERKINGDR W. WALNUT STREET 11th STREET W. VERMONT STREET HINE STREET HADLEYDRIVE W. MICHIGAN STREET W. ST

  20. 77 FR 67399 - State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... and Training Administration State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including On..., applicable to workers and former workers of State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliation Team, Quincy... Reconciliation Team, Quincy, Massachusetts. The Department has determined that these workers were...

  1. Bringing new life to old landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Rabasca, L.

    1996-01-01

    On the West Coast, Waste Management, Inc. is bringing new life to old landfills. The Bradley Landfill in Sun Valley, CA, just outside of Los Angeles, is being transformed into a recycling park, while a few hundred miles north, in the San Francisco Bay Area, an old landfill is now home to a transfer station and recycling center. WMI began transforming the landfill in the early 1990s.The first change was to process wood and green waste rather than landfilling it. In 1993, WMI added a sorting facility, and in 1994, after the Jan. 17 Northridge earthquake, the company added a construction and demolition debris (C and D) facility. There also is a landfill gas collection facility on the site. In the future, WMI hopes to add the following facilities: composting, railhaul, alternative fuels production, tire processing, and soil remediation. WMI also hopes several companies that use recycled materials as feedstock will build their plants at the landfill.

  2. The Expedited Remedial Action Program: A case study. The Alhambra Front Street manufactured gas plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Padleschat, J.A.; McMahon, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Early in 1995, the Department of Toxic Substances Control asked Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) to enter one of its manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites into the new Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP). SoCalGas initially was not enthusiastic about the new program. Nevertheless, SoCalGas submitted an application for its Alhambra MGP site to be selected for the ERAP. The Alhambra Site was accepted into ERAP in November 1995, and was the first ERAP site to have orphan shares. MGP sites are well suited to the ERAP. They often involve few potentially responsible parties and can be expected to have the same primary contaminants: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, and petroleum hydrocarbons from the crude oil feedstock used to manufacture the gas.

  3. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  4. Assessment of DNA Damage by RAPD in Paracentrotus lividus Embryos Exposed to Amniotic Fluid from Residents Living Close to Waste Landfill Sites

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Maurizio; Guida, Marco; De Felice, Bruna; Santafede, Daniela; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Scognamiglio, Marianna; Ferrara, Cinzia; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental chemicals on residents living near landfills. The study was based on samples of amniotic fluid from women living in the intensely polluted areas around the Campania region of Italy compared to a nonexposed control group. We evaluated the genetic effects that this amniotic fluids collected in contaminated sites had on Paracentrotus lividus embryos. DNA damage was detected through changes in RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA) profiles. The absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicated deletions in Paracentrotus lividus DNA exposed to the contaminated amniotic fluids when compared to equal exposure to uncontaminated fluids. These results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate DNA sequences representing genetic alterations induced in P. lividus embryos. Using this method, we identified two candidate target regions for DNA alterations in the genome of P. lividus. Our research indicates that RAPD-PCR in P. lividus embryo DNA can provide a molecular approach for studying DNA damage from pollutants that can impact human health. To our knowledge, this is the first time that assessment of DNA damage in P. lividus embryos has been tested using the RAPD strategy after exposure to amniotic fluid from residents near waste landfill sites. PMID:20706694

  5. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 3, Simulation of solute transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A solute transport model representing a 2.3-sq mi area surrounding and downgradient from a municipal landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, N.Y. was used to simulate migration of a conservative solute (chloride) in the upper glacial aquifer. Aquifer values used in the model were: hydraulic conductivity, 200 ft/day; effective porosity, 0.30; longitudinal dispersivity, 100 ft; transverse dispersivity, 20 ft. Average concentration of chloride was set at 875.0 mg/L in leachate and 10 mg/L in recharge and in ambient groundwater. Entry of leachate into the aquifer was assumed to have begun in 1977. Chloride concentrations in the simulated plume after 6 years of travel matched reasonably well the chloride data collected in October-December 1982. After 12 years of travel, the simulated plume extended 6,200 ft and was 2,600 ft wide. Maximum predicted concentration at the site boundary was 160 mg/L. Additional simulations were made to test the model 's ability to predict the effect of several remedial strategies on the movement of solutes. These included capping the landfill with an impermeable surface, removal of contaminated groundwater through four recovery wells, and a combination of the first two actions. (USGS)

  6. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  7. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  8. Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

    2010-01-07

    The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

  9. Landfills as a biorefinery to produce biomass and capture biogas.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Thangarajan, R; Seshadri, B; Jena, U; Das, K C; Wang, H; Naidu, R

    2013-05-01

    While landfilling provides a simple and economic means of waste disposal, it causes environmental impacts including leachate generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the introduction of gas recovery systems, landfills provide a potential source of methane (CH4) as a fuel source. Increasingly revegetation is practiced on traditionally managed landfill sites to mitigate environmental degradation, which also provides a source of biomass for energy production. Combustion of landfill gas for energy production contributes to GHG emission reduction mainly by preventing the release of CH4 into the atmosphere. Biomass from landfill sites can be converted to bioenergy through various processes including pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the role of landfills as a biorefinery site by focusing on the potential volumes of CH4 and biomass produced from landfills, the various methods of biomass energy conversion, and the opportunities and limitations of energy capture from landfills. PMID:23069612

  10. Movement of unlined landfill under preloading surcharge.

    PubMed

    Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2007-01-01

    As organic solid waste is decomposed in a landfill and mass is lost due to gas and leachate formation, the landfill settles. Settlement of a landfill interferes with the rehabilitation and subsequent use of the landfill site after closure. This study examined the soil/solid waste movement at the Al-Qurain landfill in Kuwait after 15 years of closure as plans are underway for redevelopment of the landfill site that occupies about a km(2) with an average depth of 8-15m. Field experiments were conducted for 6 mo to measure soil/solid waste movement and water behavior within the landfill using two settlement plates with a level survey access, Casagrande-type piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, and magnetic probe extensometers. Previous results obtained indicated that biological decomposition of refuse continued after closure of the landfill site. The subsurface water rise enhanced the biological activities, which resulted in the production of increasing quantities of landfill gas. The refuse fill materials recorded a high movement rate under the imposed preloading as a result of an increase in the stress state. Up to 55% of the total movement was observed during the first 2 weeks of fill placement and increased to 80% within the first month of the 6-mo preloading test. Pneumatic piezometers showed an increase in water head, which is attributed to the developed pressure of gases escaping during the preloading period. PMID:16574394

  11. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Williamson, K L; Owen, A G

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250m(3)ha(-1)yr(-1). However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios. PMID:16168631

  12. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.L. . E-mail: d.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  13. In situ denitrification in controlled landfill systems

    SciTech Connect

    Onay, T.T.; Pohland, F.G.

    1996-11-01

    The characteristics of leachate from landfill disposal sites vary according to the operational stage of the landfill. Leachates from old landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation of nitrogenous fractions of biodegradable refuse substrates. The relative concentration accumulating as stabilization progresses is also influenced by washout as leachate is collected and removed for external treatment. However, in landfills operated as bioreactors with leachate containment, collection and in situ recirculation to accelerate decomposition of readily available organic fractions of the refuse, leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations may accumulate to much higher levels. High leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations in landfill leachate have been reported, resulting in separate treatment challenges if direct discharge to either land or receiving waters is practiced. External treatment options for landfill leachate may involve complex physical-chemical and/or biological processes for removal of both high-strength organic and inorganic fractions, including nitrogen. Such separate leachate treatment systems are often costly and difficult to control on a continuum. Therefore, this study focused on the investigation of landfill ammonia nitrogen generation patterns, and the potential for its in situ attenuation and conversion in landfills constructed to permit sequential nitrification and denitrification using leachate recirculation. Accordingly, the landfill is constructed and operated as a controlled bioreactor system, with opportunity to convert ammonia to nitrate by nitrification and nitrate to nitrogen gas by denitrification. The results presented in this paper focus on in situ landfill denitrification of nitrified ammonia.

  14. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. PMID:22647548

  15. Cleaner Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

  16. WESTLAKE LANDFILL EPA Region 7 03/29/2012 City: Bridgeton

    E-print Network

    # MOD079900932 Other Names: SITE DESCRIPTION The 200-acre Westlake Landfill site is located at 13570 St was quarried on the site. Beginning in 1962, portions of the property were used for landfilling of municipal, was subsequently purchased by the landfill operator. It is considered part of the site and is enclosed within

  17. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  18. Assessment of methane emission and oxidation at Air Hitam Landfill site cover soil in wet tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH?) emissions and oxidation were measured at the Air Hitam sanitary landfill in Malaysia and were modeled using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change waste model to estimate the CH? generation rate constant, k. The emissions were measured at several locations using a fabricated static flux chamber. A combination of gas concentrations in soil profiles and surface CH? and carbon dioxide (CO?) emissions at four monitoring locations were used to estimate the CH? oxidation capacity. The temporal variations in CH? and CO? emissions were also investigated in this study. Geospatial means using point kriging and inverse distance weight (IDW), as well as arithmetic and geometric means, were used to estimate total CH? emissions. The point kriging, IDW, and arithmetic means were almost identical and were two times higher than the geometric mean. The CH? emission geospatial means estimated using the kriging and IDW methods were 30.81 and 30.49 gm(?2) day(?1), respectively. The total CH? emissions from the studied area were 53.8 kg day(?1). The mean of the CH? oxidation capacity was 27.5 %. The estimated value of k is 0.138 year(?1). Special consideration must be given to the CH? oxidation in the wet tropical climate for enhancing CH? emission reduction. PMID:23797636

  19. Methane emissions from MBT landfills.

    PubMed

    Heyer, K-U; Hupe, K; Stegmann, R

    2013-09-01

    Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency ("Umweltbundesamt"), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18-24 m(3)CH(4)/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH(4)/(m(2)h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000-135,000 t CO(2-eq.)/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government. PMID:23756351

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  1. Numerical assessment of a landfill compliance limit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensel, Bruce R.; Keefer, Donald A.; Griffin, Robert A.; Berg, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    The PLASM and Random Walk ground-water flow and contaminant transport models were used to assess the potential impact of various proposed regulatory compliance distances on landfill siting. Contaminant transport modeling was performed for 16 generalized geological sequences representative of hydrogeological conditions over an estimated 90 to 95 percent of Illinois. Results of this modeling indicate that about 50 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable for landfilling of nonhazardous wastes if the compliance distance was 100 feet. With a compliance distance of 500 feet, about 55 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable. This work demonstrates the utility of computer modeling in the development of regulations governing landfill siting.

  2. [Street children].

    PubMed

    Roncevi?, Nevenka; Stojadinovi?, Aleksandra; Batrnek-Antoni?, Daliborka

    2013-01-01

    According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non-governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop-in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street. PMID:24502109

  3. New tool for landfill location.

    PubMed

    Vasiloglou, Vasilios Chr

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper a decision-making process for the potential location of new landfill areas with wide community participation and acceptance is suggested. The main scientific contribution of this work is the elaboration of an independent decision-making tool, which can be used in landfill site selection. Specifically, at a first level it acts as an intermediary between experts (i.e. engineers, technical advisors) and decision-makers (i.e. elected representatives, appointive advisors), helping decision-makers to use experts' knowledge. At a higher level, it acts as an independent processor of decision-makers judgments thereby giving a result that is in accordance with pre-chosen criteria. In this way, the local authorities can effectively participate in the decision-making process and avert the violation of possible agreements. Furthermore, the criteria (pre-selection - evaluation) and the methodology of multicriteria analysis for new landfill location are presented. PMID:15666446

  4. 12. BUILDING AT CORNER OF 11th AND H STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BUILDING AT CORNER OF 11th AND H STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 17. FACING WEST FROM 9th STREET, CLOSER VIEW Convention ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. FACING WEST FROM 9th STREET, CLOSER VIEW - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Application of Bayesian inference methods to inverse modeling for contaminant source identification at Gloucester Landfill, Canada

    E-print Network

    Michalak, Anna M.

    plume at the Gloucester landfill site in Ontario, Canada. This work constitutes the first application MODEL The Gloucester Landfill served as a disposal site for hazardous wastes from 1969 to 1980 the western edge of the landfill. The confined aquifer at the site has been significantly impacted

  8. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. LETTER REPORT. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS OF SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARGYLE STREET SEWER LINE AT THE UNITED NUCLEAR CORPORATION NAVAL PRODUCTS SITE, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Wade C.

    2012-01-24

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated.

  13. Concentration of novel brominated flame retardants and HBCD in leachates and sediments from selected municipal solid waste landfill sites in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olukunle, O I; Okonkwo, O J

    2015-09-01

    In this study leachate and sediment samples were collected from six municipal solid waste landfill sites across Gauteng Province in South Africa to determine the levels of 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5 tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Soxhlet as well as liquid-liquid extraction were employed for sediment and leachates respectively followed by GC-EIMS analysis. Concentrations of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) ranged from below detection (

  14. Sulfate and organic matter concentration in relation to hydrogen sulfide generation at inert solid waste landfill site - Limit value for gypsum.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    In order to suggest a limit value for gypsum (CaSO4) for the suppression of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at an inert solid waste landfill site, the relationship between raw material (SO4 and organic matter) for H2S generation and generated H2S concentration, and the balance of raw material (SO4) and product (H2S) considering generation and outflow were investigated. SO4 concentration should be less than approximately 100mg-SO4/L in order to suppress H2S generation to below 2000ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration should be less than approximately 200mg-C/L assuming a high SO4 concentration. The limit value for SO4 in the ground is 60mg-SO4/kg with 0.011wt% as gypsum dihydrate, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the limit value in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision (560mg-SO4/kg-waste). The limit value for SO4 in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision is high and TOC is strictly excluded. The cumulative amount of SO4 outflow through the liquid phase is much larger than that through the gas phase. SO4 concentration in pore water decreases with time, reaching half the initial concentration around day 100. SO4 reduction by rainfall can be expected in the long term. PMID:26123977

  15. Street sweeping and stormwater regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the role of street sweeping in meeting the requirements of the Clean Water Act stormwater regulations. The article identifies those industrial and municipal activities which are covered by the regulations and cites frequent sweeping of site surfaces for industry and street sweeping for municipalities as an integral part of compliance plans.

  16. Investigations of natural attenuation in groundwater near a landfill and implications for landfill post-closure.

    PubMed

    Hubé, Daniel; Gourcy, Laurence; Gourry, Jean-Christophe; Guyonnet, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The controlled landfill technology is now adopting passive attenuation techniques as an increasing number of landfill sites reach the post-closure phase. During the post-closure phase, landfill operators need to convince environmental authorities that landfills no longer pose a threat to health or the environment. The demonstration of acceptable risk should rely in particular on data collected during environmental monitoring in addition to modelling of possible future evolutions of environmental concentrations. One difficulty that is typically encountered in France is related to the fact that groundwater monitoring systems around landfills are often insufficiently detailed to provide conclusive evidence of natural attenuation mechanisms. This paper presents data on groundwater quality in the vicinity of an old landfill located in a complex aquifer system. While isotopic data show a signature of the landfill leachate in the groundwater in the vicinity of the landfill, chemical analyses do not suggest a strong influence, which could be indicative of natural attenuation mechanisms in the groundwater. However, the complexity of the groundwater system in this area is such that it cannot be excluded that a pollutant flux is being overlooked. Implications of demonstrating natural attenuation during the landfill post-closure phase, with respect to groundwater monitoring, are discussed. PMID:21078693

  17. LANDFILL GAS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane from landfills contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. The development of cost-effective methods for measuring diffuse emissions from landfills remains a difficult issue for regulators and landfill operators. Currently, two major options are available: (1) above-ground methods which quantif...

  18. CRITICAL FACTORS CONTROLLING VEGETATION GROWTH ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study identifies some of the critical factors that affect tree and shrub growth on reclaimed sanitary landfill sites and determines which woody species are adaptable to the adverse growth conditions of such sites. Trees planted at the Edgeboro Landfill, East Brunswick, New J...

  19. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the cost of electricity. Currently, PREPA has an average electric rate of $0.119/kWh. Based on past electric rate increases in Puerto Rico and other islands in the Caribbean, this rate could increase to $0.15/kWh or higher in a relatively short amount of time. In the coming years, increasing electrical rates and increased necessity for clean power will continue to improve the feasibility of implementing solar PV systems at these sites.

  20. Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Kastens, M.K.; Sheader, L.R.L.; Benson, C.H.; Albright, W.H.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant transpiration seasonally return it to the atmosphere. The cover at Monticello uses local soils and a native plant community to mimic the natural soil water balance. The cover is fundamentally an evapotranspiration (ET) design with a capillary barrier. A 3-hectare drainage lysimeter was embedded in the cover during construction of the disposal cell in 2000. The lysimeter consists of a geo-membrane liner below the capillary barrier that directs percolation water to a monitoring system. Soil water storage is determined by integration of point water content measurements. Meteorological parameters are measured nearby. Plant cover, shrub density, and leaf area index (LAI) are monitored annually. The cover performed well over the 7-year monitoring period (2000-2007). The cumulative percolation was 4.2 mm (0.6 mm yr{sup -1}), satisfying an EPA goal of an average percolation of <3.0 mm yr{sup -1}. Almost all percolation can be attributed to the exceptionally wet winter and spring of 2004-2005 when soil water content slightly exceeded the water storage capacity of the cover. The diversity, percent cover, and LAI of vegetation increased over the monitoring period, although the density of native shrubs that extract water from deeper in the cover has remained less than revegetation targets. DOE and EPA are applying the monitoring results to plan for long-term surveillance and maintenance and to evaluate alternative cover designs for other waste disposal sites. (authors)

  1. Landfills in New York City: 1844--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.C.; LaFleur, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Historic topographic maps are reviewed to locate landfills constructed within New York City during four time intervals between 1844 and 1994. A total of 184.75 km{sup 2} (45,650 acres) of landfill are identified (approximately 20% of the study area). Data are not available to determine the fill composition at most sites but literature sources indicate that municipal solid waste (MSW) has been an important source of fill since at least 1891. Qualitative temporal trends in the spatial distribution of landfills and the composition and thickness of MSW landfills are observed. The oldest landfills are clustered in the vicinity of the early urban center (southern New York County) but expand in spatial distribution after the turn of this century. Logs of borings through 10 MSW landfills show that waste landfills built prior to the mid-1950s contain abundant ash (coal ash is common in the oldest landfills) and are relatively thin (3--7 m) with no topographic mounding. In MSW landfills built since that time, uncombusted organic matter is abundant, thicknesses increase greatly (16--27 m), and pronounced topographic mounding is observed. Most landfills identified in this study were built on tidal wetlands. Fine-grained wetland deposits underlying the landfills and close proximity to large surface-water bodies favor lateral transport of leachate from MSW landfills in shallow ground water and local discharge to surface water. The wide distribution of historic landfills and common use of MSW for fill indicates that these sites should be considered in investigations of ground water, surface water, and sediment quality in New York City and other urban areas where extensive historic landfilling has occurred.

  2. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  3. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Because of the many site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design...entire area of the landfill that warrants control...group of cells in the landfill in which the initial...to minimize off-site migration of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Because of the many site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design...entire area of the landfill that warrants control...group of cells in the landfill in which the initial...to minimize off-site migration of...

  5. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Because of the many site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design...entire area of the landfill that warrants control...group of cells in the landfill in which the initial...to minimize off-site migration of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Because of the many site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design...entire area of the landfill that warrants control...group of cells in the landfill in which the initial...to minimize off-site migration of...

  7. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Because of the many site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design...entire area of the landfill that warrants control...group of cells in the landfill in which the initial...to minimize off-site migration of...

  8. Results of the supplementary radiological survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CVP001)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1995-04-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted radiological surveys at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania. The surveys were performed on October 11-13 and November 14-17, 1993, in order to provide a complete characterization prior to site remediation. The surveys included a gamma scan and a scan for surface contamination from alpha and beta-gamma emitters; measurement of direct and removable alpha and beta-gamma levels; systematic FIDLER measurements at the surface of the concrete; and the collection of samples from boreholes for radionuclide analysis. Results of the surveys revealed radionuclide concentrations and surface contamination levels in excess of applicable DOE guidelines for {sup 238}U. Radionuclide distributions were higher than typical background levels for {sup 238}U in the Springdale, Pennsylvania area.

  9. Bioreactor landfills: experimental and field results.

    PubMed

    Warith, Mostafa

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. This paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out to determine the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation and nutrient balance on the rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation. Higher rates of MSW biodegradation eventually cause a reduction of the contaminant life span of the landfill and decrease in the cost of long term monitoring. The study indicated that the smaller the size of the MSW the faster the biodegradation rate of the waste. In addition, the paper presents the results of leachate recirculation on solid waste biodegradation in a full-scale landfill site, which is located in Nepean, Ontario, Canada. The leachate was recirculated into the landfilled solid waste for 8 years through infiltration lagoons. Similar results to those obtained in the laboratory scale experiments were noted. The average pH of the leachate in the early stages of recirculation was on the acidic range of the pH scale, however, the pH value was in the range of 7-8 after 2 years of leachate recirculation. The concentration of chloride remained fairly constant at about 1000 mg/l during the leachate recirculation period. A decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was observed. Recovery of landfill air space was also noted because of the enhanced subsidence and decomposition of the solid waste. PMID:11942706

  10. Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

    In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity to airports, roads, and transmission lines. The result of study showed that there is a range of 29 to 81 locations that are potentially feasible for the placement of large and medium-scale wind turbines in city of Chicago. Twenty nine of these sites were found to be most suitable. The study has limitations in that some of the data used were incomplete and some additional variables that needed to be considered, such as, the effects of passing trains on wind turbines and acceptance of urban dwellers of wind turbines in their city. Despite these limitations, the framework of this research can be applied to improve the study for the city of Chicago by considering additional variables and to extend it to other areas of study, and raise awareness of renewable energy, and the possibilities and flexibility of wind energy.

  11. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CAPILLARY BARRIER FINAL LANDFILL COVERS FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fact sheet provides an overview of two alternative landfill cover designs. It briefly describes advantages and limitations, performance, costs, design and site considerations, and monitoring parameters associated with these cover designs. The document also includes 20 site ...

  12. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Topography. The landfill site shall be located in an area of low to moderate relief to minimize erosion and to help prevent landslides or slumping. (6) Monitoring systems —(i) Water sampling. (A) For all sites receiving PCBs, the ground...

  13. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Topography. The landfill site shall be located in an area of low to moderate relief to minimize erosion and to help prevent landslides or slumping. (6) Monitoring systems —(i) Water sampling. (A) For all sites receiving PCBs, the ground...

  14. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Topography. The landfill site shall be located in an area of low to moderate relief to minimize erosion and to help prevent landslides or slumping. (6) Monitoring systems —(i) Water sampling. (A) For all sites receiving PCBs, the ground...

  15. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Topography. The landfill site shall be located in an area of low to moderate relief to minimize erosion and to help prevent landslides or slumping. (6) Monitoring systems —(i) Water sampling. (A) For all sites receiving PCBs, the ground...

  16. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Topography. The landfill site shall be located in an area of low to moderate relief to minimize erosion and to help prevent landslides or slumping. (6) Monitoring systems —(i) Water sampling. (A) For all sites receiving PCBs, the ground...

  17. The potential for aeration of MSW landfills to accelerate completion

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Charlotte; Gronow, Jan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-07-01

    Landfilling is a popular waste disposal method, but, as it is practised currently, it is fundamentally unsustainable. The low short-term financial costs belie the potential long-term environmental costs, and traditional landfill sites require long-term management in order to mitigate any possible environmental damage. Old landfill sites might require aftercare for decades or even centuries, and in some cases remediation may be necessary. Biological stabilisation of a landfill is the key issue; completion criteria provide a yardstick by which the success of any new technology may be measured. In order for a site to achieve completion it must pose no risk to human health or the environment, meaning that attenuation of any emissions from the site must occur within the local environment without causing harm. Remediation of old landfill sites by aerating the waste has been undertaken in Germany, the United States, Italy and The Netherlands, with considerable success. At a pilot scale, aeration has also been used in newly emplaced waste to accelerate stabilisation. This paper reviews the use of aerobic landfill worldwide, and assesses the ways in which the use of aerobic landfill techniques can decrease the risks associated with current landfill practices, making landfill a more sustainable waste disposal option. It focuses on assessing ways to utilise aeration to enhance stabilisation. The results demonstrated that aeration of old landfill sites may be an efficient and cost-effective method of remediation and allow the date of completion to be brought forward by decades. Similarly, aeration of newly emplaced waste can be effective in enhancing degradation, assisting with completion and reducing environmental risks. However, further research is required to establish what procedure for adding air to a landfill would be most suitable for the UK and to investigate new risks that may arise, such as the possible emission of non-methane organic compounds.

  18. Analysis of Ammonia Toxicity in Landfill Leachates

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Takuya; Nemoto, Keisuke; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Hatano, Ayumi; Shoji, Ryo; Naruoka, Tomohiro; Yamada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and toxicity test with D. magna were conducted on leachates from an industrial waste landfill site in Japan. Physicochemical analysis detected heavy metals at concentrations insufficient to account for the observed acute toxicity. The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. Based on joint toxicity with additive effects of unionized ammonia and ammonium ions, the unionized ammonia toxicity (LC50,NH3(aq)) was calculated as 3.3?ppm, and the toxicity of ammonium ions (LC50,NH4+) was calculated as 222?ppm. Then, the contribution of ammonia toxicity in the landfill leachate toxicity was calculated as 58.7?vol% of the total toxicity in the landfill leachate. Other specific toxicants masked by ammonia's toxicity were detected. Contribution rate of the toxicants other than by ammonia was 41.3?vol% of the total toxicity of the landfill leachate. PMID:23724289

  19. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

    2004-07-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  20. Environmental diagnosis methodology for municipal waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Calvo, F; Moreno, B; Zamorano, M; Szanto, M

    2005-01-01

    A large number of countries are involved in a process of transformation with regard to the management of municipal solid waste. This process is a consequence of environmental requirements that occasionally materialise in legislation, such as the European Council Directive 31/99/EC on waste release in the European Union. In some cases, the remediation of old landfills can be carried out in compliance with environmental requirements; in other cases, it is necessary to proceed with the closure of the landfill and to assimilate it into its own environment. In both cases, it is necessary to undertake a diagnosis and characterisation of the impacted areas in order to develop an adequate action plan. This study presents a new methodology by which environmental diagnosis of landfill sites may be carried out. The methodology involves the formulation of a series of environmental indeces which provide information concerning the potential environmental problems of the landfills and the particular impact on different environmental elements, as well as information related to location, design and operation. On the basis of these results, it would be possible to draw up action plans for the remediation or closure of the landfill site. By applying the methodology to several landfills in a specific area, it would be possible to prioritize the order of actions required. PMID:15905084

  1. Provenance of white marbles from the nabatean sites of Qase Al Bint and colonnaded street baths at Petra, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Jaber, Nizar; al-Saad, Ziad; Shiyyab, Adnan; Degryse, Patrick

    Intercultural relations and trade are important components of understanding of historical interrelationships between regions and cultures. One of the most interesting objects of trade is stone, because of the expense and difficulty of its transport. Thus, the source of marble used in the Nabatean city of Petra was investigated using established petrological, geochemical and isotopic analyses. Specifically, marble from Qasr al Bint and the Colonnaded Street baths were sampled and investigated. The results of these analyses show that the marbles came from sources in Asia Minora and Greece. The most likely sources of the marble are the quarries of Thasos, Penteli, Prokennesos and Dokimeion. The choice of marble followed the desired utilitarian and aesthetic function of the stone. These results show that active trade in stone was part of the cultural interaction of the period.

  2. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Is it safe? > Street drugs and pregnancy Street drugs and pregnancy Now playing: E-mail to a ... Prescription drugs that are abused How can street drugs harm your pregnancy? Using street drugs can cause ...

  3. Hydrogeology of a landfill, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a high water table is subject to tidal flooding. Altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shells; a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay; and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. The rate of lateral movement of ground water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; however, the rate of movement along the boundary of the landfill cells is about 20 feet per year. Vertical movement through the confining layer is about 0.005 foot per year. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Leachate migration downward into the Floridan aquifer is not indicated, but data do indicate leachate is migrating from the oldest section of the landfill site through the surficial aquifer. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of slug-flow leachate. (USGS)

  4. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  5. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMPIRICAL MODEL OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field study of 21 U.S. landfills with gas recovery systems, to gather information that can be used to develop an empirical model of methane (CH4) emissions. Site-specific information includes average CH4 recovery rate, landfill size, tons of refuse (...

  9. Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill

    E-print Network

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill Jorge G. Zornberg, M, Inc. OII Superfund landfill in southern California. This cover system constitutes the first ET cover flow analyses performed for closure design at the OII site show that an ET cover is feasible for a wide

  10. ESTIMATING LEACHATE PRODUCTION FROM CLOSED HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous wastes disposed of in landfills may continue to drain for several years after site closure. The report presents suitable analytical methods for predicting the flow of leachate to underdrains from closed hazardous waste landfills. Leachate sources include waste fluids as...

  11. STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES FOR PLANTING VEGETATION ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manual was developed for those charged with establishing a vegetative cover on completed landfills. Special problems associated with growing plants on these sites are discussed, and step-by-step procedures are given for converting a closed landfill to a variety of end uses requ...

  12. DESIGNING AND SPECIFYING LANDFILL By: Timothy D. Stark,1

    E-print Network

    acres. The landfill site is flat, sandy, with groundwater near the surface. The landfill is unlined of a final cover system is important to reduce groundwater contamination. The Code of Maryland Regulations are located along the panhandle as shown in Figure 1. As placement of soil cover was occurring by Somerset

  13. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...capacity report; and (3) The landfill has a nonmethane organic compound...of this part at each MSW landfill meeting the conditions in...review and approval of the site-specific design plans for...the control of collected MSW landfill emissions through the use...

  14. Digital -domain embedding method for groundwater flow at the industrial waste landfill

    E-print Network

    Sakurai, Takafumi

    (22540113). #12;2 Drilling points and distribution of wastes in the landfill site The drilling surveyDigital - domain embedding method for groundwater flow at the industrial waste landfill on Teshima a numerical method to simulate the groundwater flow at the industrial waste landfill on Teshima Island

  15. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...capacity report; and (3) The landfill has a nonmethane organic compound...of this part at each MSW landfill meeting the conditions in...review and approval of the site-specific design plans for...the control of collected MSW landfill emissions through the use...

  16. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...capacity report; and (3) The landfill has a nonmethane organic compound...of this part at each MSW landfill meeting the conditions in...review and approval of the site-specific design plans for...the control of collected MSW landfill emissions through the use...

  17. N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  18. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE- OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets. The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol, is a 711-acre LEED Neighborhood Development mixed-use, urban infill redevelopment on the site of Austin’s former airport, currently under development through a public-private project between the City of Austin, and Catellus Austin LLC. Currently, Mueller is less than 50% complete and more than 3,500 people live or work at Mueller. At full build-out, the project will include more than 3 million square feet of commercial and institutional space, more than 13,000 residents from approximately 5,700 single-family and multi-family dwelling units. Figure 1 shows a Google Map image of the Mueller community, zoomed in on the residential streets participating in the project.

  19. A decision support system for assessing landfill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, Basak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlue, Kahraman

    2010-01-15

    Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills.

  20. Investigating landfill leachate as a source of trace organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Anumol, Tarun; Barlaz, Morton; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Landfill leachate samples (n=11) were collected from five USA municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and analyzed for ten trace organic pollutants that are commonly detected in surface and municipal wastewater effluents (viz., carbamazepine, DEET, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, PFOA, PFOS, primidone, sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). Carbamazepine, DEET, PFOA and primidone were detected in all leachate samples analyzed and gemfibrozil was detected in samples from four of the five-landfill sites. The contaminants found in the highest concentrations were DEET (6900-143000 ng L(-1)) and sucralose (<10-621000 ng L(-1)). Several compounds were not detected (fluoxetine) or detected infrequently (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and PFOS). Using the average mass of DEET in leachate amongst the five landfills and scaling the mass release from the five test landfills to the USA population of landfills, an order of magnitude estimate is that over 10000 kg DEET yr(-1) may be released in leachate. Some pharmaceuticals have similar annual mean discharges to one another, with the estimated annual discharge of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, primidone equating to 53, 151 and 128 kg year(-1). To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that primidone has been included in a landfill leachate study. While the estimates developed in this study are order of magnitude, the values do suggest the need for further research to better quantify the amount of chemicals sent to wastewater treatment facilities with landfill leachate, potential impacts on treatment processes and the significance of landfill leachate as a source of surface water contamination. PMID:25753851

  1. A decision support tool for landfill methane generation and gas collection.

    PubMed

    Emkes, Harriet; Coulon, Frédéric; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a decision support tool (DST) to enhance methane generation at individual landfill sites. To date there is no such tool available to provide landfill decision makers with clear and simplified information to evaluate biochemical processes within a landfill site, to assess performance of gas production and to identify potential remedies to any issues. The current lack in understanding stems from the complexity of the landfill waste degradation process. Two scoring sets for landfill gas production performance are calculated with the tool: (1) methane output score which measures the deviation of the actual methane output rate at each site which the prediction generated by the first order decay model LandGEM; and (2) landfill gas indicators' score, which measures the deviation of the landfill gas indicators from their ideal ranges for optimal methane generation conditions. Landfill gas indicators include moisture content, temperature, alkalinity, pH, BOD, COD, BOD/COD ratio, ammonia, chloride, iron and zinc. A total landfill gas indicator score is provided using multi-criteria analysis to calculate the sum of weighted scores for each indicator. The weights for each indicator are calculated using an analytical hierarchical process. The tool is tested against five real scenarios for landfill sites in UK with a range of good, average and poor landfill methane generation over a one year period (2012). An interpretation of the results is given for each scenario and recommendations are highlighted for methane output rate enhancement. Results demonstrate how the tool can help landfill managers and operators to enhance their understanding of methane generation at a site-specific level, track landfill methane generation over time, compare and rank sites, and identify problems areas within a landfill site. PMID:26168873

  2. 72. Crown Street, Chapel Street, Court Street & Grand Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Crown Street, Chapel Street, Court Street & Grand Avenue Bridges. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 72.63/. 71/.80/.94. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.42 Approval of site-specific flexibility...SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development...Application Salt River Landfill,” dated September...and to what extent the site is progressing in...

  4. 40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.42 Approval of site-specific flexibility...SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development...Application Salt River Landfill,” dated September...and to what extent the site is progressing in...

  5. 40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.42 Approval of site-specific flexibility...SRPMIC), Salt River Landfill Research, Development...Application Salt River Landfill,” dated September...and to what extent the site is progressing in...

  6. Assessment of subsurface chlorinated solvent contamination using tree cores at the front street site and a former dry cleaning facility at the Riverfront Superfund site, New Haven, Missouri, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.; Struckhoff, Garrett C.; Burken, Joel G.

    2004-01-01

    Tree-core sampling has been a reliable and inexpensive tool to quickly assess the presence of shallow (less than about 30 feet deep) tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in soils and ground water at the Riverfront Superfund Site. This report presents the results of tree-core sampling that was successfully used to determine the presence and extent of chlorinated solvent contamination at two sites, the Front Street site (operable unit OU1) and the former dry cleaning facility, that are part of the overall Riverfront Superfund Site. Traditional soil and ground-water sampling at these two sites later confirmed the results from the tree-core sampling. Results obtained from the tree-core sampling were used to design and focus subsequent soil and ground-water investigations, resulting in substantial savings in time and site assessment costs. The Front Street site is a small (less than 1-acre) site located on the Missouri River alluvium in downtown New Haven, Missouri, about 500 feet from the south bank of the Missouri River. Tree-core sampling detected the presence of subsurface PCE contamination at the Front Street site and beneath residential property downgradient from the site. Core samples from trees at the site contained PCE concentrations as large as 3,850 mg-h/kg (micrograms in headspace per kilogram of wet core) and TCE concentrations as large as 249 mg-h/kg. Soils at the Front Street site contained PCE concentrations as large as 6,200,000 mg/kg (micrograms per kilogram) and ground-water samples contained PCE concentrations as large as 11,000 mg/L (micrograms per liter). The former dry cleaning facility is located at the base of the upland that forms the south bank of the Missouri River alluvial valley. Tree-core sampling did not indicate the presence of PCE or TCE contamination at the former dry cleaning facility, a finding that was later confirmed by the analyses of soil samples collected from the site. The lateral extent of PCE contamination in trees was in close agreement with the extent of subsurface PCE contamination determined using traditional soil and ground-water sampling methods. Trees growing in soils containing PCE concentrations of 60 to 5,700 mg/kg or larger or overlying ground water containing PCE concentrations from 5 to 11,000 mg/L generally contained detectable concentrations of PCE. The depth to contaminated ground water was about 20 to 25 feet below the land surface. Significant quantitative relations [probability (p) values of less than 0.05 and correlation coefficient (r2) values of 0.88 to 0.90] were found between PCE concentrations in trees and subsurface soils between 4 and 16 feet deep. The relation between PCE concentrations in trees and underlying ground water was less apparent (r2 value of 0.17) and the poor relation is thought to be the result of equilibrium with PCE concentrations in soil and vapor in the unsaturated zone. Based on PCE concentrations detected in trees at the Front Street site and trees growing along contaminated tributaries in other operable units, and from field hydroponic experiments using hybrid poplar cuttings, analysis of tree-core samples appears to be able to detect subsurface PCE contamination in soils at levels of several hundred micrograms per liter or less and PCE concentrations in the range of 8 to 30 mg/L in ground water in direct contact with the roots. Loss of PCE from tree trunks by diffusion resulted in an exponential decrease in PCE concentrations with increasing height above the land surface in most trees. The rate of loss also appeared to be a function of the size and growth characteristics of the tree as some trees exhibited a linear loss with increasing height. Diffusional loss of PCE in small (0.5-inch diameter) trees was observed to occur at a rate more than 10 times larger than in trees 6.5 inches in diameter. Concentrations of PCE also exhibited directional variability around the tree trunks and concentration differe

  7. LincolnStreet WhitneyAvenue

    E-print Network

    Devoret, Michel H.

    Street Woodland Street Canal Street Sachem Street WhitneyAvenue Edwards Street Bishop Street Humphrey.RonanStreet Canner Street Cottage Street Bradley Street Audubon Street Lawrence Street ProspectStreet Edwards Street E A B C D E P P P yaleuniversitycampusnorth Sloane Physics Lab John Harris, WNSL-West Room 311

  8. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  9. FIELD VERIFICATION OF LINERS FROM SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liner specimens from three existing landfill sites were collected and examined to determine the changes in their physical properties over time and to validate data being developed through laboratory research. Samples examined included a 15-mil PVC liner from a sludge lagoon in Ne...

  10. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  11. 46. FACING EAST FROM N.Y. AVE. AND 11th STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. FACING EAST FROM N.Y. AVE. AND 11th STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 13. BUILDING AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND H STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND H STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management. PMID:20935025

  15. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  16. Variability in the concentration of indicator bacteria in landfill leachate--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Umar, Muhammad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2015-03-01

    Leachate collected from the collection ponds of four landfill sites was investigated and compared for total coliforms and E. coli concentration as representatives of fecal pollution. Concentration of total coliforms and E. coli was comparable for leachate obtained from Kulim Landfill Site (KLS) and Ampang Landfill Site (ALS) with little variations. However, the level of indicator bacteria was significantly lower for Kuala Sepetang Landfill Site (KSLS), whereas Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS) had the lowest concentration for both total coliforms and E. coli. Considering the landfills are currently operational, with the exception of ALS, the presence of indicator bacteria implies their inactivation prior to discharge. High concentration of indicator bacteria in ALS is attributed to the run-off entering the leachate pond. Greater concentration of ammonia and salinity level were partly responsible for lower concentration of indicator bacteria in leachate from KSLS and PBLS, indicating that salinty and ammonia could significantly affect the survival of indicator bacteria. PMID:25842532

  17. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C[sub 1]C[sub 4] hydrocarbons; the C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  18. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons; the C{sub 5}-C{sub 10} normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  19. [Dispersion and analysis of odor pollution in landfill area under the enclosed operation condition].

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Wu, Shi-Xing; Dai, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Dai, Zhan-Guo; Lu, Xu-Fei; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Kai; Wei, Pan-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Odor pollution of landfill site is a serious problem accompanied with the urbanization process that influences city life. Generally, odor emission points in landfill boundary are detected by experience, but the pollution intensity, distribution and variation in the scope of landfill boundary are difficulty to describe. In this research, odor emission points were disclosed with equal odor concentration curves that were delineated using electric nose and GPS instrument. The leakage of landfill gas and exhaust emission from biogas incineration torch was the main cause of the odor pollution in landfill area. Gas production evaluation suggested that the improvement of landfill gas consumption is the key point to control the odor pollution at the landfill site. PMID:23745385

  20. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  1. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  2. 626628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626628 North Eutaw Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    626-628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626-628 North Eutaw Street & 400-412 Druid Hill Avenue on a block bounded by North Eutaw Street, George Street, Jaspar Street, & Druid Hill Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. W. St. James Street, view looking southwest River Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    W. St. James Street, view looking southwest - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  4. W. St. James Street, view looking south River Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    W. St. James Street, view looking south - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  5. Toxicological evaluation of the chemical oxidation methods for landfill stabilization.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-ah; Tameda, Kazuo; Hanashima, Masataka; Yamada, Tatsuyoshi; Higuchi, Sotaro

    2009-03-01

    As the stabilization criteria for landfill sites, only chemical criteria for the leachate discharges from the landfill sites have been used in Japan and many other countries. Recently, chemical oxidation has been developed as a method for the early-stabilization of landfills. However, by-products that are difficult to detect by chemical analysis can be produced by this method. Therefore, toxicity tests are useful tools for detecting the changes of leachate quality after application of this method. The heat source in the A landfill was analyzed by organic position inquiry technology, and ozone-treated leachate was sprayed back to the heat source in the landfill. Toxicity changes of the leachate after the spray were monitored using Microtoxtrade mark, ToxScreen-II, and DaphTox tests. The hardly-degradable organic matter was efficiently removed and toxicities of the leachate in the heat source decreased after the application. These toxicity results were significantly related to chemical oxygen demand (COD) changes. Thus, it was concluded that the toxicity tests were effective for monitoring the leachate quality after applying the chemical oxidation method for landfill stabilization, and its incorporation to establish the criteria for early-stabilization of landfill sites needs to be considered. PMID:18838260

  6. 1 Rogers Street 1 Charles Park

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Daniel

    St. 158 Mass. Ave. Lot N10 Lot N10 Annex Lot Kendall Lot Amherst St. (E51) Lot Hayward St. Lot Main STREET ERIE STREET STREET CHALK STREET HENRY STREET HASTINGS SQUARE ROCKINGHAM STREET BIN N EY STR EET M STREET ALBANY STREET VASSAR STREET STR EET REARDON STREET STREET GROVE AVENUE STREET PETERS STREET HENRY

  7. Johnston Gate MOUNT AUBURN STREET

    E-print Network

    Liu, X. Shirley

    AVENUE JOHN F.KENNEDYSTREET HARVARD STREET GR.SCHOOL OF EDUCATION MOUNT AUBURN STREET GRANT STREET COWPERTHWAITE STR GREEN ST PUTNAMAVENUE PLYMPTONSTREET FARW ELL PLACE PEABODYSTREET WINTHROP STREET UNIVERSITY PL. MIFFLIN PLACE BRATTLE STREET LINDENSTREET MILL STREET WINTHROP STREET SOUTH STREET Holyoke Place

  8. Evaluation of Fresh Kills landfill gas for industrial applications. Final report, August 1977-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Briceland, C.; Bortz, S.; Khinkis, M.J.; Abassi, H.; Waibel, R.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report describes a combined laboratory and field test program carried out at the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island to determine the acceptability of landfill gas as a replacement for natural gas and imported fuels in industrial processes. Landfill gas, created by the natural breakdown of organic materials, is about 50 percent methane. The Fresh Kills gas was tested to gauge its performance, characteristics and heat value, especially in relation to natural gas. The result of the tests were so favorable, that an aggressive program has been initiated statewide to identify landfill sites and potential industrial users for the landfill gas.

  9. Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities. PMID:10417373

  10. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-09-01

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  11. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  12. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  13. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  14. Municipal landfill leachate management

    SciTech Connect

    Kusterer, T.; Willson, R.; Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

  15. LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

  16. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  17. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method.

    PubMed

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h(-1), corresponding to 0.7-13.2 g m(-2)d(-1), with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41-81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y(-1). This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y(-1), which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y(-1) estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for 2011. PMID:25442105

  18. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-01

    According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH4 produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH4/CO2 ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3-1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0-2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH4+CO2% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills. PMID:25488731

  19. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills - Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. PMID:26347181

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-09-30

    This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

  1. BLACKFORDSTREET WEST MICHIGAN STREET

    E-print Network

    & TECHNOLOGY BUILDING SCIENCE BUILDING INDIANA CANCER PAVILION RILEY HOSPITAL TECHNOLOGY BUILDING VERMONT INSTITUTE FOR FITNESS & SPORT BLACKFORD STREET PARKING GARAGE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL CAVANAUGH HALL JOSEPH T STREET PARKING GARAGE PHYSICAL PLANT ROTARY BUILDING RILEY RESEARCH UNIVERISITY HOSPITAL PARKING GARAGE

  2. BLAKESTREET W. VERMONT STREET

    E-print Network

    Cancer Pavillion Riley Hospital for Children Simon Family Tower Engineering & Technology Vermont Street for Fitness and Sport Blackford Street Parking Garage IU Health University Hospital Business/SPEA Hine Hall Tower Garage North Street Parking Garage Engineering Science & Technology Science Building Indiana

  3. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates.

  4. Development of computer simulations for landfill methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.; Sykes, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs simulating methane recovery systems in landfills have been developed. These computer programs model multicomponent combined pressure and diffusional flow in porous media. Each program and the processes it models are described in this report. Examples of the capabilities of each program are also presented. The two-dimensional program was used to simulate methane recovery systems in a cylindrically shaped landfill. The effects of various pump locations, geometries, and extraction rates were determined. The three-dimensional program was used to model the Puente Hills landfill, a field test site in southern California. The biochemical and microbiological details of methane generation in landfills are also given. Effects of environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, temperature, and nutrients on methane generation are discussed and an analytical representation of the gas generation rate is developed.

  5. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  6. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  7. The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers.

    SciTech Connect

    David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

    2001-10-18

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (within the last 50 years) and have been selected for the evaluation of processes and changes on ET covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when cover maintenance would be discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end (1,000 years or more) of the compliance period. The late to mid-Holocene surfaces are both abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminescence analysis. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites is being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified and the mode of disturbance, to help set baseline conditions. Similar to the other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water-balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time. Results of analog site work and resultant modifications to design, monitoring and maintenance of ET covers on the NTS will be compared with results of a similar study being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), where ET cover closures are planned as well. The comparison will help to distinguish potential regional differences needed in ET cover design. Although both sites are at similar latitudes, the NTS is located in a transition zone between the Mojave and southern Great Basin deserts, while SNL is located in the northern Chihuahuan desert. Differences in vegetation and seasonality of precipitation between the sites are significant.

  8. Geohydrologic site characterization of the municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1996-01-01

    Geohydrologic conditions of the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army. The 106.03-acre MSWLF has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The MSWLF, located about 1,200 feet east of the nearest occupied structure, is estimated to receive an average of approximately 56 tons of municipal solid waste per day and, at a fill rate of 1-4 acres per year, is expected to reach its capacity by the year 2004. The MSWLF is located in the Hueco Bolson, 4 miles east of the Franklin Mountains. Elevations at the MSWLF range from 3,907 to 3,937 feet above sea level. The climate at the MSWLF and vicinity is arid continental, characterized by an abundance of sunny days, high summer temperatures, relatively cool winters typical of arid areas, scanty rainfall, and very low humidity throughout the year. Average annual temperature near the MSWLF and vicinity is 63.3 degrees Fahrenheit and annual precipitation is 7.8 inches. Potential evaporation in the El Paso area was estimated to be 65 inches per year. Soils at and adjacent to the MSWLF are nearly level to gently sloping, have a fine sandy loam subsoil, and are moderately deep over caliche. The MSWLF is underlain by Hueco Bolson deposits of Tertiary age and typically are composed of unconsolidated to slightly consolidated interbedded sands, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. Individual beds are not well defined and range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to about 100 feet. The primary source of ground water in the MSWLF area is in the deposits of the Hueco Bolson. A relatively thick vadose zone of approximately 300 feet overlies the aquifer of the Hueco Bolson deposits in the vicinity of the MSWLF. A deep water table prevails for all of the study area. Whether any perched water zones exist below the MSWLF is unknown. Under current conditions, extensive ground-water development by the City of El Paso encompasses the MSWLF. Hydraulic characteristics of the Hueco Bolson vary significantly as a result of the nonuniform nature of the individual beds. Wells in the vicinity of the MSWLF range in depth from about 600 feet to greater than 1,200 feet. Recharge resulting from direct infiltration of precipitation is minor due to the high evaporation and low precipitation rates. The hydraulic gradient in the vicinity of the MSWLF is generally to the south but may vary due to pumpage of a well located on the northeast corner of the perimeter boundary. Ground-water monitoring data for the MSWLF vicinity show a water-level decline of 55.65 feet from November 1958 to December 1987. Depth to water at the northeast corner of the MSWLF as of July 26, 1994, was 325.8 feet below land surface. The city-operated Shearman Well Field, located north of the MSWLF, is a primary source of ground water for the City of El Paso. The test-pumping rate of well JL-49-05-914 (the well nearest to the MSWLF having test-pumping data) was 1,972 gallons per minute on July 20, 1992; the static water level prior to pumping was 317.54 feet below land surface. El Paso Water Utilities reports that the pumping level after 8 hours of pumping was 367.80 feet below land surface, resulting in a drawdown of 50.26 feet, transmissivity of 22,200 feet squared per day (166,000 gallons per day per foot), and specific capacity of 39.2 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. After the well was shut off, the well recovered to a static water level of 317.46 feet below land surface on July 21, 1992. Ground wat

  9. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 mT of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 mT was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the pathway analysis for the onsite and near-site resident scenarios, the radiation dose rates and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater would be below the regulatory requirements for both the short-term and long-term scenarios. Hence, the potential health risks to maximally exposed individuals due to radioactive releases from the Middlesex landfill would be insignificant.

  10. Aerobic in situ stabilization of Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher: leachate quality after 1 year of operation.

    PubMed

    Öncü, G; Reiser, M; Kranert, M

    2012-12-01

    Modern landfill understanding points out controlled operation of landfills. Emissions from landfills are caused mainly by anaerobic biodegradation processes which continue for very long time periods after landfill closure. In situ landfill stabilization aims controlled reduction of emissions towards reduced expenditures as well as aftercare measures. Since April 2010, a new in situ stabilization technique is being applied at a pilot scale landfill (BAIV) within Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher. This new method utilizes intermittent aeration and leachate recirculation for waste stabilization. In this study, influence of this technique on leachate quality is investigated. Among many other parameters, leachate analyses were conducted for COD, BOD(5), NH(4)-N, NO(2)-N, NO(3)-N, TKN and chloride besides continuously on site recorded pH, electrical conductivity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). Results from leachate quality analyses showed that biological activity in the landfill was accelerated resulting in initial higher leachate strength and reduced emission potential of landfill. During full scale in situ aeration, ambient conditions differ from optimized laboratory scale conditions which mainly concern temperature increase and deficient aeration of some landfill parts (Ritzkowski and Stegmann, 2005). Thus, as a field application results of this study have major importance on further process optimization and application. PMID:22938814

  11. Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México.

    PubMed

    Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches

    2008-01-01

    In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:18595685

  12. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...with the lessee and users of the landfill concerning site management and a review of all...of solid waste deposited at the landfill; (iii) A visual inspection of the leased site; and (iv) An appropriate...

  13. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...with the lessee and users of the landfill concerning site management and a review of all...of solid waste deposited at the landfill; (iii) A visual inspection of the leased site; and (iv) An appropriate...

  14. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...with the lessee and users of the landfill concerning site management and a review of all...of solid waste deposited at the landfill; (iii) A visual inspection of the leased site; and (iv) An appropriate...

  15. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...with the lessee and users of the landfill concerning site management and a review of all...of solid waste deposited at the landfill; (iii) A visual inspection of the leased site; and (iv) An appropriate...

  16. VERIFICATION OF THE HYDROLOGIC EVALUATION OF LANDFILL PERFORMANCE (HELP) MODEL USING FIELD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study conducted to verify the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer model using existing field data from a total of 20 landfill cells at 7 sites in the United States. Simulations using the HELP model were run to compare the predicted...

  17. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulation (40CFR Part 258) went into effect. hese regulations are applicable to landfills reclining solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operations, and closure of MSW landfills. hese regulat...

  18. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

  19. AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB AFTER REMEDIAL CLEANUP OF TWO LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of two landfills at which interim remedial cleanup measures have been performed. The landfill sites are in the Bloomington, Indiana area. The sampling locations and methods used were ...

  20. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS ON UNDERLYING SOILS AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three municipal landfill sites in the eastern and central United States were studied to determine the effects of the disposal facilities on surrounding soils and groundwater. Borings were made up the groundwater gradient, down the groundwater gradient and through the landfill. So...

  1. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  2. OUTER LOOP LANDFILL CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the interim data reaulting from a CRADA between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. at the outer Loop Landfill Bioreactor research project located in Louisville, KY. Recently updated data will be presented covering landfill solids, gas being collecte...

  3. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

  4. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia. PMID:22455994

  5. 18. Contextual view of Hunnicutt Street from Venable Street facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Contextual view of Hunnicutt Street from Venable Street facing east. Buildings A-2 and C-5 at left, Building J-12 at right. Replicates historic viedw at GA-2309-9. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. Landfill-impact evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-08

    The Army proposes expansion of the building complex and development of the outdoor training area at the Milwaukee USAR Center Complex and Training Area located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Land use history indicates that the Milwaukee Sanitation Department disposed of approximately 500,000 cubic yards of solid wastes on the present complex site between 1957 and 1966. In September of 1984 evaluations were conducted to determine the impact of the landfill on the nearby soils and ground water. Monitoring wells were installed to determine the water quality of the groundwater near the surface of the water table and at depth. During soil borings operations, soil samples were analyzed in the field to determine the presence of hydrocarbons. The air in the bore hole was also analyzed to determine the presence of methane or other hydrocarbons. The impact of the existing landfill on groundwater and surface water quality is small. The higher than expected concentrations of hardness, total dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in some wells which may be due to the landfill, do not warrant recovery or remedial action to cleanup the ground water.

  7. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Lindberg; M.J. Hartman

    1999-08-17

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters.

  8. Photochemistry of reduced sulfur compounds in a landfill environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun

    This study examines the distribution characteristics of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs such as DMS, CS 2, H 2S, DMDS, and CH 3SH) and their photochemical reactions in landfill air. The photochemical conversions of RSCs to a further oxidized form, SO 2 were evaluated in the landfill site using a photochemical box model. Measurements of RSCs were carried out from landfill areas in Daegu, Korea, during a wintertime period (e.g., 13-16 Jan 2004). This study indicated that H 2S was the most dominant RSC in the landfill, with the concentrations of 4.2±5.8 ppbv. The chemical species of RSCs, which may exert influences on the SO 2 production depending on sampling conditions, were found to include DMS, DMDS, and H 2S. In general, the RSC contribution to the observed SO 2 levels was insignificant in the sampling sites investigated. Overall, the extent of the RSC oxidation to the observed SO 2 varied dramatically during the sampling period. The photochemical conversion of the RSCs in the landfill environment can account for about 15% of the observed SO 2, on average. There was a strong correlation between DMS and SO 2 concentration levels during the study period.

  9. Hazard ranking of landfills using fuzzy composite programming

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemeister, M.E.; Jones, D.D.; Woldt, W.E.

    1996-04-01

    The environmental and health risks posed by unregulated landfills are concerns that must be addressed. These concerns have been highlighted with the recent reauthorization of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle D, which requires the closure of all unregulated landfills by October 1993. Most communities with unregulated landfills do not have the financial resources to conduct full-scale risk assessments. This paper proposes the use of a multicriteria assessment system as a tool for screening and prioritizing unregulated disposal sites according to their level of environmental and health hazard. This multicriteria assessment system uses a technique termed composite programming and allows for the use of imprecise information through fuzzy set theory. Using this methodology in landfill hazard assessment allows for the consideration of uncertainty associated with parameters that impact the hazard assessment. Additionally, the user can specify hazards that are most detrimental. The complexity of input parameters (first level indicators) were selected to minimize the time required to collect and/or analyze site-specific data. The result obtained in the assessment is a fuzzy number that indicates the most likely range of hazard and the largest likely range of hazard relative to the best and worst case scenarios. A case study, in which this method is applied to a small rural landfill, is presented to illustrate the methodology.

  10. Report: landfill alternative daily cover: conserving air space and reducing landfill operating cost.

    PubMed

    Haughey, R D

    2001-02-01

    Title 40, Part 258 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria, commonly referred to as Subtitle D, became effective on October 9, 1993. It establishes minimum criteria for solid waste disposal facility siting, design, operations, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, and closure and postclosure maintenance, while providing EPA-approved state solid waste regulatory programs flexibility in implementing the criteria. Section 258.21(a) [40 CFR 258.21(a)] requires owners or operators of municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) units to cover disposed solid waste with 30cm of earthen material at the end of the operating day, or at more frequent intervals, if necessary, to control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging. This requirement is consistent with already existing solid waste facility regulations in many states. For many MSWLFs, applying daily cover requires the importation of soil which increases landfill operating costs. Daily cover also uses valuable landfill air space, reducing potential operating revenue and the landfill's operating life. 40 CFR 258.21 (b) allows the director of an approved state to approve alternative materials of an alternative thickness if the owner or operator demonstrates that the alternative material and thickness will control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging without presenting a threat to human health and the environment. Many different types of alternative daily cover (ADC) are currently being used, including geosynthetic tarps, foams, garden waste, and auto shredder fluff. These materials use less air space than soil and can reduce operating costs. This paper discusses the variety of ADCs currently being used around the country and their applicability to different climates and operating conditions, highlighting the more unusual types of ADC, the types of demonstrations necessary to obtain approval of ADC, and the impact on landfill air space and operating costs of ADC use. PMID:11525478

  11. All About Sesame Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Phylis

    The behind-the-scenes story of "Sesame Street" is told from its origin as a "good idea," through the development of the Children's Television Workshop, to the casting of the now familiar characters, Susan, Bob, Gordon, Mr. Hooper, and the Muppets. Details of producing the show are described with anecdotes. The effect of "Sesame Street" on its…

  12. Widening Sesame Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, T. Kay

    1979-01-01

    Traces the developmental history of Sesame Street from the initial efforts to obtain funding and set goals to present day importation of programs to other countries. It is recommended that Sesame Street producers incorporate Piagetian theories on cognitive development in order to realize learning gains. (Author)

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the geohydrology and water quality of the Greenacres Landfill area, Spokane County, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, W.E.; Turney, G.L.; Alvord, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Greenacres Landfill, located about 11 mi east of the city of Spokane, Washington, was used for the disposal of waste from 1951 to 1972. Materials in the landfill include household and industrial waste materials, and various hazardous wastes. In 1983 the landfill was designated by the US EPA as a Superfund site. The purposes of this investigation were to gather, describe, and interpret all the existing data concerning the hydrology and groundwater quality of the area surrounding the landfill, and to identify any additional data needed to describe the hydrology of the area. The quantity of water flow through the landfill as a result of precipitation on the landfill and in the drainage basin above the landfill probably ranges from 21,000 to 85,000 gal/day. This water movement may be creating a leachate and transporting some of the wastes out of the landfill. The plume would encompass an area where groundwater provides most of the water used for municipal, industrial, irrigation, and domestic purposes. Water, quality analyses of water from numerous wells in the area which are open to the Spokane aquifer are available, but well 25/45-16K1 is the only well where groundwater contamination was consistently apparent. This well is only 500 ft from the landfill. Contamination of water in this well was indicated by high concentrations of dissolved mineral constituents and several organic compounds, including trans-dichloroethene. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  15. Leachate plumes in ground water from Babylon and Islip landfills, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimmel, Grant E.; Braids, O.C.

    1977-01-01

    Landfills operated by the towns of Babylon and Islip in southwest and central Suffolk County, N.Y., contain urban refuse , incinerated garbage, and scavenger (cesspool) waste; some industrial refuse is deposited at the Babylon site. The Islip landfill was started in 1933, the Babylon landfill in 1947. The landfills are in contact with and discharge leachate into the highly permeable upper glacial aquifer hydraulic conductivity 190 to 500 ft/d. The aquifer is 74 feet thick at the Babylon landfill and 170 feet thick at the Islip landfill. The leachate-enriched water occupies the entire thickness of the aquifer beneath both landfills, but hydrologic boundaries retard downward migration of the plumes to deeper aquifers. The Babylon plume is 1,900 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to about 700 feet near its terminus 10,000 feet from the landfill. The Islip plume is 1,400 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to 500 feet near its terminus 5,000 feet from the landfill. Hydrochemical maps and sections show the distribution of the major chemical constituents of the plumes. The most highly leachate-enriched ground water obtained was from the Babylon site; it contained 860 mg/liter sodium, 110 mg/liter potassium, 565 mg/liter calcium, 100 mg/liter magnesium, 2,700 mg/liter bicarbonate, and 1,300 mg/liter chloride. Simulation of the movement and dispersion of the Babylon plume with a mathematical dispersion model indicated the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion to be about 60 feet squared per day and the ground-water velocity to be 1 ft/d. However, the velocity determined from the hydraulic gradient and public-supply wells in the area was 4 ft/d, which would cause a plume four times as long as that predicted by the model. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT REGION I LANDFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a new measurement technology for characterizing emissions from large area sources. This work was funded by EPA's Monitoring and Measurement for the 21st Century Initiative, or 21M2. The site selected for demonstrating this technology is a superfund landfil...

  17. The landfill methane balance: Model and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1995-10-01

    A rational mass-balance framework is described for improved quantification of landfill methane processes at a given site. The methane balance model examines the partitioning of methane generated into methane recovered (via extraction systems), methane emitted, methane oxidized, methane migrated, and methane storage. This model encourages use of field-based data to better quantify rates of methane recovery and emissions.

  18. Field Performance Of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m ), instrumen...

  19. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE AT PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project investigated the discharge of landfill leachate into a municipal waste water collection system with subsequent treatment at the municipal treatment plant. The research article points out that leachates from disposal sites can be mixed with municipal wastewater and tre...

  20. TACOMA LANDFILL ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING DATA: JULY 1983 TO JANUARY 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data set contains both ground water and surface water data from environmental sampling at the Tacoma Landfill, a National Priority List (NPL) Superfund site in Washington State. It contains a complete set of analytical chemistry and other sampling parameters associated with t...

  1. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Ayalon, O. . E-mail: agofira@tx.technion.ac.il; Becker, N.; Shani, E.

    2006-07-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park.

  2. An Archaeological Survey of the Polk County Landfill Expansion in Central Polk County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-23

    A Phase I archaeological survey of approximately 60 acres at the site of a proposed landfill expansion in central Polk County, Texas was conducted in July 2001 by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) under antiquities permit 2636 issued...

  3. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...an off-site permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with the requirements...remediation. (d) Applicable hazardous waste management requirements in this part, including...this section, for CAMU-eligible waste must be incorporated into...

  4. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...an off-site permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with the requirements...remediation. (d) Applicable hazardous waste management requirements in this part, including...this section, for CAMU-eligible waste must be incorporated into...

  5. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...an off-site permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with the requirements...remediation. (d) Applicable hazardous waste management requirements in this part, including...this section, for CAMU-eligible waste must be incorporated into...

  6. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...an off-site permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with the requirements...remediation. (d) Applicable hazardous waste management requirements in this part, including...this section, for CAMU-eligible waste must be incorporated into...

  7. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...an off-site permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with the requirements...remediation. (d) Applicable hazardous waste management requirements in this part, including...this section, for CAMU-eligible waste must be incorporated into...

  8. Release and conversion of ammonia in bioreactor landfill simulators.

    PubMed

    Lubberding, Henk J; Valencia, Roberto; Salazar, Rosemarie S; Lens, Piet N L

    2012-03-01

    Bioreactor landfills are an improvement to normal sanitary landfills, because the waste is stabilised faster and the landfill gas is produced in a shorter period of time in a controlled way, thus enabling CH(4) based energy generation. However, it is still difficult to reach, within 30 years, a safe status of the landfill due to high NH(4)(+) levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate and NH(4)(+) is extremely important when defining the closure of landfill sites, due to its potential to pollute aquatic environments and the atmosphere. The effect of environmental conditions (temperature, fresh versus old waste) on the release of NH(4)(+) was assessed in experiments with bench (1 L) and pilot scale (800 L) reactors. The NH(4)(+) release was compared to the release of Cl(-) and BOD in the liquid phase. The different release mechanisms (physical, chemical, biological) of NH(4)(+) and Cl(-) release from the solid into the liquid phase are discussed. The NH(4)(+) level in the liquid phase of the pilot scale reactors starts decreasing after 100 days, which contrasts real-scale observations, where the NH(4)(+) level increases or remains constant. Based on the absence of oxygen in the simulators, the detectable levels of hydrazin and the presence of Anammox bacteria, it is likely that Anammox is involved in the conversion of NH(4)(+) into N(2). Nitrogen release was shown to be governed by physical and biological mechanisms and Anammox bacteria are serious candidates for the nitrogen removal process in bioreactor landfills. These results, combined with carbon removal and improved hydraulics, will accelerate the achievement of environmental sustainability in the landfilling of municipal solid waste. PMID:20884112

  9. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described, resulting in a separate flowsheet for every contractor. The resulting fractions and materials were described in detail to obtain an inventory of the bulk material. Based on the characteristics from the obtained fractions, all possible valorisation pathways are listed, suggesting a Waste to Material (WtM) or a Waste to Energy (WtE) valorisation pathway. Fractions that needed further treatment were also discussed. The results of the separation tests proved to be very promising and delivered well sorted waste streams. The composition of the waste material, on the other hand, proved to be less beneficial to be economically feasible. Due to the high amount of sand and clay (up to 90wt%) in the Zuienkerke landfill the share of instant recoverable materials proved to be very limited. Due to the limited number of tests concerning the separation and valorisation of landfilled waste, the feasibility of ELFM in the short term is not fully described yet. Based on the first experiences, the main drivers to introduce the ELFM concept on these type of landfills are the necessity of urgent remediation actions and the reclamation of land. The added value of land reuse for the future might close the financial gap in a significant way, making the implementation of ELFM feasible on former landfills. 1 Jones et al.,2010: "the safe conditioning, excavation and integrated valorisation of landfilled waste streams as both materials and energy, using innovative transformation technologies and respecting the most stringent social and ecological criteria".

  10. LANDFILL CONTAINMENT AND COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its research and field experiences has developed control strategies for hazardous and municipal solid waste landfills and surface impoundments. hese control strategies include liner and cover systems. he liner systems include doubl...

  11. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

  12. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills.

    PubMed

    Gharabaghi, B; Singh, M K; Inkratas, C; Fleming, I R; McBean, E

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use "generic" published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects. PMID:17897819

  13. Reclamation of sanitary landfills: A case study in Shelby County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Riddick, P.M.; Kirsch, S.; Kung, Hsiang-Te )

    1992-07-01

    Approximately 30,000 sanitary landfills were in operation in the United States in 1976; today, there are <7,000. The remaining 23,000 closed sites can be reclaimed to actually enhance the surrounding community; cost is the only limiting factor. Abandoned sanitary landfill sites do have problems, namely leachates, methane build-up, and subsidence. However, with modern techniques and planning, these problems can be overcome. Across the nation, old landfills have been converted into golf courses, parks, ski resorts, libraries, and even methane power plants. In some cases, a community's property value has actually increased after reclamation of the local landfill. Shelby County, in southwestern Tennessee, currently has four closed sanitary landfills. Only one site has been fully utilized as a recreational facility. At this site, four soccer fields are home to over 150 league soccer teams. Two sites are home to airplane radio-control clubs, although most land at these sites is currently unused. The fourth site is completely unused and up for sale. All of these closed sanitary landfills have potential use as recreation areas, but, as is often the case, lack of money and initiative is preventing development. 7 refs.

  14. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  18. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  19. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  20. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  1. Tips for profitable landfill acquisitions

    SciTech Connect

    Nangunoori, R.K.; Duffy, D.P.

    1994-05-01

    There is a gap between the amount of solid wastes generated and te landfill capacity. The acquisition of existing facilites and their remaining disposal space are a good option. The acquisitions by large firms have slowed down, but those by secondary and regional firms have increased. This paper presents information which could aid the prospective buyer and related staffing in making a feasible decision to acquire a sanitary landfill.

  2. Implementation of the semi-aerobic landfill system (Fukuoka method) in developing countries: a Malaysia cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Theng Lee; Matsufuji, Yasushi; Hassan, Mohd Nasir

    2005-01-01

    Most of the existing solid waste landfill sites in developing countries are practicing either open dumping or controlled dumping. Proper sanitary landfill concepts are not fully implemented due to technological and financial constraints. Implementation of a fully engineered sanitary landfill is necessary and a more economically feasible landfill design is crucial, particularly for developing countries. This study was carried out by focusing on the economics from the development of a new landfill site within a natural clay area with no cost of synthetic liner up to 10 years after its closure by using the Fukuoka method semi-aerobic landfill system. The findings of the study show that for the development of a 15-ha landfill site in Malaysia with an estimated volume of 2,000,000 m(3), the capital investment required was about US 1,312,895 dollars, or about US 0.84 dollars/tonne of waste. Assuming that the lifespan of the landfill is 20 years, the total cost of operation was about US 11,132,536 dollars or US 7.15 dollars/tonne of waste. The closure cost of the landfill was estimated to be US 1,385,526 dollars or US 0.89 dollars/tonne of waste. Therefore, the total cost required to dispose of a tonne of waste at the semi-aerobic landfill was estimated to be US 8.89 dollars. By considering an average tipping fee of about US 7.89 dollars/tonne of waste in Malaysia in the first year, and an annual increase of 3% to about US 13.84 dollars in year-20, the overall system recorded a positive revenue of US 1,734,749 dollars. This is important information for the effort of privatisation of landfill sites in Malaysia, as well as in other developing countries, in order to secure efficient and effective landfill development and management. PMID:16009304

  3. Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1991-12-31

    Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

  4. Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1991-01-01

    Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

  5. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ustohalova, Veronika . E-mail: veronika.ustohalova@uni-essen.de; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-07-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section.

  6. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling.

    PubMed

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-01-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section. PMID:16406761

  7. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  8. Developing and testing a street audit tool using Google Street View to measure environmental supportiveness for physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking for physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits for adults. Increasingly research has focused on associations between walking behaviours and neighbourhood environments including street characteristics such as pavement availability and aesthetics. Nevertheless, objective assessment of street-level data is challenging. This research investigates the reliability of a new street characteristic audit tool designed for use with Google Street View, and assesses levels of agreement between computer-based and on-site auditing. Methods The Forty Area STudy street VIEW (FASTVIEW) tool, a Google Street View based audit tool, was developed incorporating nine categories of street characteristics. Using the tool, desk-based audits were conducted by trained researchers across one large UK town during 2011. Both inter and intra-rater reliability were assessed. On-site street audits were also completed to test the criterion validity of the method. All reliability scores were assessed by percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Results Within-rater agreement was high for each category of street characteristic (range: 66.7%-90.0%) and good to high between raters (range: 51.3%-89.1%). A high level of agreement was found between the Google Street View audits and those conducted in-person across the nine categories examined (range: 75.0%-96.7%). Conclusion The audit tool was found to provide a reliable and valid measure of street characteristics. The use of Google Street View to capture street characteristic data is recommended as an efficient method that could substantially increase potential for large-scale objective data collection. PMID:23972205

  9. 52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water Company site, along covered Dundee Canal prism, toward Dayton Avenue and Botany Worsted Mills - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  10. 3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME LEFT CENTER; 21 AT MID-LEFT CENTER; 4 AT LEFT CENTER; RUNDBOGENSTIL TOWER AT CENTER; BUILDING 3 RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 2 AT EXTREME RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 3 IS THE OLDEST BUILDING ON SITE AND WAS BUILT CIRCA 1850 - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  11. 1. General oblique view from south side of Canal Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General oblique view from south side of Canal Street showing Paper Machine Building at southwest corner of site; view to northeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  12. Parametric sensitivity analysis of leachate transport simulations at landfills.

    PubMed

    Bou-Zeid, E; El-Fadel, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in simulating leachate generation and transport at a 2000 ton/day landfill facility and assesses leachate migration away from the landfill in order to control associated environmental impacts, particularly on groundwater wells down gradient of the site. The site offers unique characteristics in that it is a former quarry converted to a landfill and is planned to have refuse depths that could reach 100 m, making it one of the deepest in the world. Leachate quantity and potential percolation into the subsurface are estimated using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. A three-dimensional subsurface model (PORFLOW) was adopted to simulate ground water flow and contaminant transport away from the site. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis to leachate transport control parameters was also conducted. Sensitivity analysis suggests that changes in partition coefficient, source strength, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and dispersivity have the most significant impact on model output indicating that these parameters should be carefully selected when similar modeling studies are performed. PMID:15288300

  13. Impact of changes in barometric pressure on landfill methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla; McDermitt, Dayle

    2014-07-01

    Landfill methane emissions were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Our results show that landfill methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission, a phenomenon called barometric pumping. There was up to a 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions due to changes in barometric pressure. Wavelet coherence analysis revealed a strong spectral coherency between variations of barometric pressure and methane emission at periodicities ranging from 1 day to 8 days. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that at least 10 days of continuous measurements was needed in order to capture 90% of the total variance in the methane emission time series at our landfill site. From our results, it is clear that point-in-time measurements taken at monthly or longer time intervals using techniques such as the trace plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method will be subject to large variations in measured emission rates because of the barometric pumping phenomenon. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions from landfills based on such measurements could yield uncertainties, ranging from 28.8% underestimation to 32.3% overestimation. Our results demonstrate a need for continuous measurements to quantify annual total landfill emissions. This conclusion may apply to the study of methane emissions from wetlands, peatlands, lakes, and other environmental contexts where emissions are from porous media or ebullition. Other implications from the present study for hazard gas monitoring programs are also discussed.

  14. Analysis of Street Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stuart H.; Bhatt, Sudhir

    1972-01-01

    A study of the content of street drugs available to a college campus and a community is presented. Emphasis is given to the adulterants and substitutions encountered in the illicit preparations. (Author)

  15. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  16. 7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. The tall, narrow building in the middle of the photo is 10 North Warren Street. Signs saying 'Saddlery,' 'Carriage,' and 'Hardware' on the building indicate that the photo was taken during the tenancy of Claffery & Slack (1888-1914). - 10 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), 10 North Warren Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  17. 18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING NORTH, For the purpose of clarity and simplicity, directions relate to the nearly north-south orientation of the Naval Supply Center, and not to true north. The alignment of streets and buildings in the NSC are roughly related to magnetic north, and are thus about 10 degrees clockwise from true north. WITH BUILDINGS 222 AND 221 ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. Potential for enhanced phytoremediation of landfills using biosolids--a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Despite the use of recyclable materials increasing worldwide, waste disposal to landfill remains the most common method of waste management because it is simple and relatively inexpensive. Although landfill disposal is an effective waste management system, if not managed correctly, a number of potential detrimental environmental impacts have been identified including soil and ground water contamination, leachate generation, and gas emissions. In particular, improper post-closure treatment of landfills or deterioration of the conventional clay landfill capping were shown to result in land degradation which required remediation to secure contaminants within the landfill site. Phytoremediation is an attractive technology for landfill remediation, as it can stabilize soil and simultaneously remediate landfill leachate. In addition, landfill phytoremediation systems can potentially be combined with landfill covers (Phytocapping) for hydrological control of infiltrated rainfall. However, for the successful application of any phytoremediation system, the effective establishment of appropriate, desired vegetation is critical. This is because the typically harsh and sterile nature of landfill capping soil limits the sustainable establishment of vegetation. Therefore, the physicochemical properties of landfill capping soils often need to be improved by incorporating soil amendments. Biosolids are a common soil amendment and will often meet these demanding conditions because they contain a variety of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, as well as a large proportion of organic matter. Such amendment will also ameliorate the physical properties of the capping soils by increasing porosity, moisture content, and soil aggregation. Contaminants which potentially originate from biosolids will also be remediated by activities congruent with the establishment of plants and bacteria. PMID:19939550

  19. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Hassayampa Landfill, AZ. (First remedial action), August 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-06

    The Hassayampa Landfill site is a 10-acre area of a 47-acre municipal landfill that was previously used for hazardous waste disposal. Land use in the area is predominantly desert and is sparsely cultivated. The Hassayampa Landfill lies within the Hassayampa River drainage area, but outside of the 100-year floodplain. The estimated 1,100 people who reside within a 3-mile radius of the site use the aquifer underlying the site for their drinking water. From 1961 to the present, the Maricopa County Landfill Department owned and operated the site. Waste disposed of at the landfill consisted chiefly of municipal garbage, tree trimmings, and other plant refuse. In 1979, the state requested that Hassayampa Landfill accept hazardous waste as an alternate waste disposal site during a prohibition at City of Phoenix landfills. In the 18 months that the landfill accepted hazardous waste, up to 3.28 million tons of liquid waste and approximately 4,150 tons of solid waste were deposited.

  1. Uncontrolled methane emissions from a MSW landfill surface: influence of landfill features and side slopes.

    PubMed

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Viviani, Gaspare

    2013-10-01

    Sanitary landfills for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal have been identified as one of the most important anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4) emissions; in order to minimize its negative effects on the environment, landfill gas (LFG) recovery is a suitable tool to control CH4 emissions from a landfill site; further, the measurement of CH4 emissions can represent a good way to evaluate the effectiveness of LFG recovering systems. In general, LFG will escape through any faults in the landfill capping or in the LFG collection system. Indeed, some areas of the capping can be more permeable than others (e.g. portions of a side slope), especially when considering a temporarily capped zone (covered area that is not expected to receive any further waste for a period of at least 3 months, but for engineering reasons does not have a permanent cap yet). These areas, which are characterized by abnormal emissions, are usually defined as "features": in particular, a feature is a small, discrete area or an installation where CH4 emissions significantly differ from the surrounding zones. In the present study, the influence that specific features have on CH4 emissions has been investigated, based on direct measurements carried out in different seasons by means of a flux chamber to the case study of Palermo (IT) landfill (Bellolampo). The results showed that the flux chamber method is reliable and easy to perform, and the contoured flux maps, obtained by processing the measured data were found to be a suitable tool for identifying areas with abnormal (high) emissions. Further, it was found that a relationship between methane emission rates and landfill side slope can be established. Concerning the influence of the temporary HDPE cover system on CH4 recovery efficiency, it contributed to a significant decrease of the free surface area available for uncontrolled emissions; this aspect, coupled to the increase of the CH4 volumes collected by the LFG recovery system, led to a significant increase of the recovery efficiency. PMID:23465313

  2. Building Name Street Number Street Prefix Direction Street Name Suffix Street Direction Community 1901 1901 INNOVATION DR VIRGINIA TECH

    E-print Network

    Building Name Street Number Street Prefix Direction Street Name Suffix Street Direction Community 1901 1901 INNOVATION DR VIRGINIA TECH 1971 1971 KRAFT DR VIRGINIA TECH Ag Engineering Building 120 OLD MILL RD VIRGINIA TECH Agronomy Service Building 1008 OLD MILL RD VIRGINIA TECH Agronomy Storage

  3. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, Old Douglas County Landfill (a/k/a Douglas County/Cedar Mountain Landfill), Douglasville, Douglas County, Georgia, Region 4: CERCLIS Number GAD984279232. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-11

    The Old Douglas County Landfill in Douglasville, Georgia, operated from 1973 until 1987 as a municipal waste landfill. Existing landfill records specify that household wastes were received, however, industrial wastes are suspected to have been disposed at this landfill. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concludes that private well water near the landfill is safe to drink. The surface water from Gothard`s Creek and the settling ponds on the landfill do not have chemicals present at levels of public health concern. The settling ponds on the landfill and parts of Gothard`s Creek contain elevated levels of lead, manganese, and iron in the sediment that are not harmfull to humans under typical exposure conditions. The soil located on- and off-site also had elevated levels of lead, manganese, and iron, however, these metals do not pose a threat to human health under typical exposure conditions. Currently, human contact with contaminants in soil, sediment, and surface water associated with Old Douglas County Landfill is not expected to result in adverse health effects. ATSDR determined that the methane monitoring locations and frequency at the landfill are inadequate to fully evaluate conditions at the perimeter of the landfill or near adjacent houses.

  4. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH(4) flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188±0.014, 0.224±0.012 and 0.237±0.008 l CH(4)/m(2) hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m(2) hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m(2) hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m(2) hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L(0)) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m(3)/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste. PMID:22265005

  5. Comparison study of landfill gas emissions from subtropical landfill with various phases: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Chen, Zhulei; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Yanyan; Xie, Ying

    2015-08-01

    The compositions and annual variations of landfill gas (LFG) were studied at two large-scale sites of Chen-Jia-Chong Landfill. Seventy-six wells were built and used for the collection and measurement of LFG. The investigation revealed the similarities and differences of LFG components and variations at two sites with different phases. It was found that ambient temperature and rainfall exhibited strong correlations with LFG components at both sites. Methane (CH?) contents showed excellent correlations with CO?at both sites. Notable correlations between hydrogen sulfide (H?S) and major components (CH?and carbon dioxide [CO?]) were only observed in unstable methane phase. Especially, the CH?/CO?volumetric ratio could act as an excellent indicator for anaerobic reaction stage by judging its phasic variations. The study is beneficial for the efficient operation of LFG collection system and could shed light on gas purification and utilization. PMID:26030713

  6. Variation in organic matter characteristics of landfill leachates in different stabilisation stages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhinav; Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Goldsmith, C Douglas

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of landfill age on landfill leachate characteristics; two aspects are focused here. One is ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)) property, as the discharge of landfill leachates to publically owned treatment works can cause interference with UV(254) disinfection. The other is biorefractory organic nitrogen in leachates, as it can contribute to effluent nitrogen making it difficult to meet stringent effluent nitrogen regulations. To study variation in UV(254)-absorbing organic carbon and organic nitrogen, leachate samples ranging from cells with ages 2 to 30 y from a large landfill in Kentucky, were collected and fractionated on a basis of their molecular weight and chemical nature into humic acids, fulvic acids and a hydrophilic fraction. The effectiveness of long term landfilling and membrane treatment for organic matter and organic nitrogen removal was examined. Humic materials, which were the major UV(254)-absorbing substances, were mainly >1 kDa and they degraded significantly with landfill age. The hydrophilic organic fraction, which was the major contributor to organic nitrogen, was mainly <1 kDa and it became increasingly recalcitrant with landfill age. This study provides insight into the characteristics of the different leachate fractions with landfilling age that might aid the design of on-site leachate treatment techniques. PMID:25245294

  7. Beneficial application of landfill mining Millersville Landfill, Anne Arundel County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Vanetti, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Several studies and investigations have been completed for the Millersville Sanitary Landfill in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The studies and reports range from detailed hydrogeologic investigations through review of closure alternatives for the individual refuse disposal cells located at the landfill. As a result of the evaluations and studies, one recommendation that was put before Anne Arundel County is the excavation and relocation of refuse from Cell 3 to: (1) create an infiltration basin; and (2) reduce the overall refuse footprint at the site, resulting in reduce long term environmental impacts and closure costs. Subsequent to this recommendation, several preliminary reviews have been held between Anne Arundel County, regulatory agencies and their consultants, Stearns & Wheler. These discussions indicated that it would be feasible, and the concept acceptable, to relocate the refuse in Cell 3 to ultimately create an infiltration basin. Subsequent to the preliminary meetings, a project plan and construction Contract Documents and Drawings were developed by Stearns & Wheler. The Project Plan was submitted to the State regulatory agencies (Maryland and Department of Environment (MDE) and Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR)), Millersville Landfill Citizen`s Advisory Committee, and Anne Arundel County (Department of public Works (DPW), Permit Acquisition and Code Enforcement (PACE) and Soil Conservation District (SCD)) for review and comment prior to undertaking the relocation of refuse in Cell 3.

  8. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. PMID:26445364

  9. Landfill mining for resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reith, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    Landfills are repositories of subeconomic resources. Landfill mining is an important enterprise that will someday return these resources to productive use, closing the loop on finite resources and stimulating economic development in communities near landfills. Secondary development of interred resources (landfill waste) will become economically viable as the environmental externalities of primary resource development -- e.g., the destruction of pristine habitat -- are more fully accounted for in programs of ecological design and design for environment. It is important to take an integrated and holistic approach to this new endeavor, which will be a complex assemblage of disciplines. Component disciplines include: resource economics, characterization, and excavation; contaminant control, and protection of environmental safety and health; material sorting, blending, and pretreatment; resource conversion, recovery, storage, and distribution; and reclamation for long-term land use. These technical elements must be addressed in close combination with compelling social issues such as environmental justice that may be especially critical in economically depressed communities surrounding today`s landfills.

  10. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  11. Long-Range Radar Station and Landfill

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This oblique aerial photograph from 2006 shows the Barter Island long-range radar station landfill threatened by coastal erosion. The landfill was subsequently relocated further inland, however, the coastal bluffs continue to retreat. ...

  12. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE AND CLINOPTILOLITE ZEOLITE FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE: LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are tens of thousands of closed landfills in the United States, many of whicih are unlined and sited on alluvial deposits. Landfills are of concern because leachate contains a variety of pollutants that can contaminate ground and surface water. Data from chemical analysis...

  13. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  14. A process-based inventory model for landfill CH4 emissions inclusive of seasonal soil microclimate and CH4 oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed and field-validated an annual inventory model for California landfill CH4 emissions that incorporates both site-specific soil properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5o scale global climatic models. Based on 1-D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventor...

  15. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ...Commission [Docket No. ER10-2268-000] FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That...above-referenced proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based...There is an eSubscription link on the web site that enables subscribers to receive...

  16. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  17. Impact of Changes in Barometric Pressure on Landfill Methane Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermitt, Dayle; Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla

    2013-04-01

    Landfill methane emissions were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska USA. Methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission. Emission rates were systematically higher in December than during the summer period. Higher methane emission rates were associated with changes in barometric pressure that were larger in magnitude and longer in duration in winter than in summer, and with lower mean temperatures, which appeared to reduce methane oxidation rates. Sharp changes in barometric pressure caused up to 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that continuous measurements over a period of at least 10 days were needed in order to capture 90% of total variance in the methane emission time series at our site. Our results suggest that point-in-time methane emission rate measurements taken at monthly or even longer time intervals using techniques such as the tracer plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method may be subject to large variations because of the strong dependence of methane emissions on changes in barometric pressure. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions from landfills based on such measurements will inevitably yield large uncertainties. Our results demonstrate the value of continuous measurements for quantifying total annual methane emission from a landfill.

  18. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill. PMID:11720268

  19. Street youth and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bond, L S; Mazin, R; Jiminez, M V

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize the population of homeless street youth who are living marginally and to describe aspects of this population's dynamics, motivations, values, and aspirations. Street youth, ranging in age from birth to 21, are on the street for one reason or another--dire poverty in the home, which necessitates their working on the street to supplement the family income, because they have been rejected by parents or guardians, because they have left home due to violence in the home, drug or alcohol use by family members, or because of lack of a place where they feel they can be "themselves." These conditions make street youths particularly vulnerable to HIV infection, not to mention malnutrition, stress, and drug use. Their violently accelerated emotional maturation, ignorance, alcohol- and drug-induced confusion, together with the exploitation and sexual abuse of which they are often victims, are additional factors that contribute to sexual practices that may lead to HIV infection. PMID:1389867

  20. RECLAMATION EFFORTS AT THE LOCKWOOD LANDFILL STATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reclamation of disturbed arid rangelands is a monumental task under the best of conditions. The Lockwood Landfill located 17 km east of Reno, Nevada is a Regional Landfill of some 8800 ha in area. This landfill services all of northern Nevada as well as much of northern California. Returning la...

  1. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  2. APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

  3. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  4. Mining landfills for space and fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Flosdorf, H.W.; Alexieff, S.

    1993-03-01

    Lancaster County, Pennsylvania`s experiments with landfill reclamation are helping the county remain self-sufficient in managing its solid waste stream. Landfill mining is proving to be a worthwhile approach to extending landfill life and obtaining fuel for the county`s waste-to-energy plant.

  5. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  6. 5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH DOWN SIXTH STREET AT THE INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH DOWN SIXTH STREET AT THE INTERSECTION WITH CENTRAL AVENUE. AS PART OF THE INITIAL SITE DEVELOPMENT, A RAILROAD SPUR, ACCESS ROADS, POWER LINES, AND TELEPHONE LINES WERE BUILT. ALL FACILITIES WERE HEATED BY STEAM GENERATED IN BUILDING 443 AND PIPED THROUGHOUT THE SITE. THE BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS BUILDING 664, A LOW - LEVEL WASTE STORAGE FACILITY. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Article in Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2008, (U.S. News,p.3) (excerpt also at

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Article in Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2008, (U.S. News,p.3) (excerpt also at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122851537257083869.html#articleTabs%3Darticle Cities Give Waste-to-Energy Plants a Second Look Higher U.S. Landfill

  8. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  9. Landfill monitoring using remote sensing: a case study of Glina, Romania.

    PubMed

    Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Landfill monitoring is one of the most important components of waste management. This article presents a case study on landfill monitoring using remote sensing technology. The study area was the Glina landfill, one of the largest municipal waste disposal sites in Romania. The methodology consisted of monitoring the differences of temperature computed for several distinct waste disposal zones with respect to a ground reference area, all of them located within the landfill site. The remote sensing data used were Landsat satellite multi-temporal data. The differences of temperature were computed using Landsat thermal infrared data. The study confirmed the use of multi-temporal Landsat imagery as a complementary data source. PMID:23660748

  10. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  11. 22. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 41.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 21. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 41.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 24. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 41.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 23. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Washington Street and South Main Street Bridge. Norwalk, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 41.28. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., RI. sec. 4215, mp 141.67/.77. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  16. INTERSECTION OF EAST AND SOUTH NATIONAL STREETS WITH STREET SIGNS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF EAST AND SOUTH NATIONAL STREETS WITH STREET SIGNS, CANNON, SMALL OBELISK, FLAGS, AND CONTEXT. VIEW TO EAST. - Fort Scott National Cemetery, 900 East National Avenue, Fort Scott, Bourbon County, KS

  17. Health assessment for Welsh Landfill, Honeybrook, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980829527. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-24

    The Welsh Landfill site (AKA Welsh Road/Barkman Landfill) National Priorities List site is located near the top of Welsh Mountain, Honey Brook Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. The landfill was operated as an unpermitted solid waste disposal facility from 1963-1977 and is currently operated as a waste transfer station. Environmental pathways for the migration of site-contaminants to off-site areas include those associated with groundwater and surface and subsurface soil. Human exposure to site contaminants may occur through ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, dusts or volatilized contaminants. The proposed remediation of the site by EPA should eliminate or significantly reduce the potential for the completion of human exposure pathways to site contaminants by capping the site and supplying public water to affected residences. This site is considered a public health hazard because of past exposure to site contaminants by individuals.

  18. Knowledge based ranking algorithm for comparative assessment of post-closure care needs of closed landfills.

    PubMed

    Sizirici, Banu; Tansel, Berrin; Kumar, Vivek

    2011-06-01

    Post-closure care (PCC) activities at landfills include cap maintenance; water quality monitoring; maintenance and monitoring of the gas collection/control system, leachate collection system, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water management system; and general site maintenance. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated data and knowledge based decision making tool for preliminary estimation of PCC needs at closed landfills. To develop the decision making tool, 11 categories of parameters were identified as critical areas which could affect future PCC needs. Each category was further analyzed by detailed questions which could be answered with limited data and knowledge about the site, its history, location, and site specific characteristics. Depending on the existing knowledge base, a score was assigned to each question (on a scale 1-10, as 1 being the best and 10 being the worst). Each category was also assigned a weight based on its relative importance on the site conditions and PCC needs. The overall landfill score was obtained from the total weighted sum attained. Based on the overall score, landfill conditions could be categorized as critical, acceptable, or good. Critical condition indicates that the landfill may be a threat to the human health and the environment and necessary steps should be taken. Acceptable condition indicates that the landfill is currently stable and the monitoring should be continued. Good condition indicates that the landfill is stable and the monitoring activities can be reduced in the future. The knowledge base algorithm was applied to two case study landfills for preliminary assessment of PCC performance. PMID:21324663

  19. Knowledge based ranking algorithm for comparative assessment of post-closure care needs of closed landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Sizirici, Banu; Tansel, Berrin; Kumar, Vivek

    2011-06-15

    Post-closure care (PCC) activities at landfills include cap maintenance; water quality monitoring; maintenance and monitoring of the gas collection/control system, leachate collection system, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water management system; and general site maintenance. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated data and knowledge based decision making tool for preliminary estimation of PCC needs at closed landfills. To develop the decision making tool, 11 categories of parameters were identified as critical areas which could affect future PCC needs. Each category was further analyzed by detailed questions which could be answered with limited data and knowledge about the site, its history, location, and site specific characteristics. Depending on the existing knowledge base, a score was assigned to each question (on a scale 1-10, as 1 being the best and 10 being the worst). Each category was also assigned a weight based on its relative importance on the site conditions and PCC needs. The overall landfill score was obtained from the total weighted sum attained. Based on the overall score, landfill conditions could be categorized as critical, acceptable, or good. Critical condition indicates that the landfill may be a threat to the human health and the environment and necessary steps should be taken. Acceptable condition indicates that the landfill is currently stable and the monitoring should be continued. Good condition indicates that the landfill is stable and the monitoring activities can be reduced in the future. The knowledge base algorithm was applied to two case study landfills for preliminary assessment of PCC performance.

  20. Leachate plumes in ground water from Babylon and Islip landfills, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimmel, Grant E.; Braids, O.C.

    1980-01-01

    Landfills operated by the towns of Babylon and Islip in southwest and central Suffolk County, N.Y., contain urban refuse incinerated garbage, and scavenger (cesspool) waste; some industrial refuse is deposited at the Babylon site. The Islip landfill was started in 1933, the Babylon landfill in 1947. The landfills are in contact with and discharge leachate into the highly permeable upper glacial aquifer (hydraulic conductivity 190 and 500 ft/d). The aquifer is 74 feet thick at the Babylon landfill and 170 feet thick at the Islip landfill. The leachate-enriched water occupies the boundaries retard downward migration of the plumes to deeper aquifers. The Babylon plume is 1,900 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to about 700 feet near its terminus 10,000 feet from the landfill. The Islip plume is 5,000 feet from the landfill. Hydrochemical maps and sections show the distribution of the major chemical constituents of the plumes. The most highly leachate-enriched ground water obtained was from the Babylon site; it contained 860 mg/L sodium, 110 mg/L potassium, 565 mg/L calcium, 100 mg/L magnesium, 2,7000 mg/L bicarbonate, and 1,300 mg/L chloride. Simulation of the movement and dispersion of the Babylon plume with a mathematical dispersion model indicated the coefficient of the longitudinal dispersion to be about 60 feet squared per day and the ground-water velocity to be 1 ft/d. However, the velocity determined from the hydraulic gradient and public-supply wells in the area was 4 ft/d, which would cause a plume four times as long as that predicted by the model. (Kosco-USGS)

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Colbert Landfill, Washington (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-29

    The Colbert Landfill, a 40-acre county-owned sanitary landfill is located in Spokane County, Washington. From 1968 through 1986, the landfill received both municipal and commercial wastes. During five years, from 1975 to 1980, a local electronics manufacturing company, Key Tronic Corporation, disposed of several hundred gallons per month of spent organic solvents, mainly methylene chloride and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) at the landfill. These wastes were typically brought to the landfill in drums and poured down the sides of open trenches to mix with the soil or ordinary municipal refuse already in the trench. During the same period, Fairchild Air Force Base, disposed of various solvent wastes at the site. Pesticides and refinery tar residues were also disposed on site, but to date, these contaminants have not been detected in the ground water. In 1980, nearby residents complained to the Eastern Regional Office of the Washington Department of Ecology about these disposal practices.

  2. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  3. LANDFILL OPERATOR APPLICATION FOR RECERTIFICATION

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    a copy of your certificate) Employed By: Job Title: Facility Name: Address: City: State: Zip: Phone: Fax by retaking the Landfill Operator Certification Training Course at The University of Georgia Center: _____________________________Certification No: Date of Original Certification: ______________ Date of Last Recertification: (Please provide

  4. whitneyavenue wall street

    E-print Network

    James Gamble Rogers (1867­1947, b.a. 1889, m.a.h. 1921) Gate by Samuel Yellin (1885­1940) 10 Street Hall and Morse Colleges, 1962 Eero Saarinen (1910­1961, 21 Payne Whitney Gymnasium, 1932 John Russell Pope 22

  5. Saving Mango Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

  6. [Company Name] [Street Address

    E-print Network

    [Company Name] [Street Address] [City, ST ZIP Code] Phone [phone] FIXED PRICE INVOICE INVOICE #[100 Building Baltimore, MD 21218-2685 PAYMENT TO: [Recipient Name] [Address] [City, ST and ZIP Code] [Phone FOR QUESTIONS CONCERNING THIS INVOICE ­ NAME, PHONE AND FAX NUMBER AND E-ADDRESS. Certification

  7. Acceleration of aged-landfill stabilization by combining partial nitrification and leachate recirculation: a field-scale study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jinwook; Kim, Seungjin; Baek, Seungcheon; Lee, Nam-Hoon; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Junghun; Lee, Heechang; Bae, Wookeun

    2015-03-21

    Leachate recirculation for rapid landfill stabilization can result in the accumulation of high-strength ammonium. An on-site sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was therefore, applied to oxidize the ammonium to nitrite, which was then recirculated to the landfill for denitrification to nitrogen gas. At relatively higher ammonium levels, nitrite accumulated well in the SBR; the nitrite was denitrified stably in the landfill, despite an insufficient biodegradable carbon source in the leachate. As the leachate was recirculated, the methane and carbon dioxide contents produced from the landfill fluctuated, implying that the organic acids and hydrogen produced in the acid production phase acted as the carbon source for denitrification in the landfill. Leachate recirculation combined with ex-situ partial nitrification of the leachate may enhance the biodegradation process by: (a) removing the nitrogen that is contained with the leachate, and (b) accelerating landfill stabilization, because the biodegradation efficiency of landfill waste is increased by supplying sufficient moisture and its byproducts are used as the carbon source for denitrification. In addition, partial nitrification using an SBR has advantages for complete denitrification in the landfill, since the available carbon source is in short supply in aged landfills. PMID:25531070

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Johnson County Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, Kansas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Citizens of Shawnee, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Kansas that are particularly well suited for grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. This report assesses the Johnson County Landfill for possible grid-tied PV installations and estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. The report findings are applicable to other landfills in the surrounding area.

  9. Landfills in Jiangsu province, China, and potential threats for public health: Leachate appraisal and spatial analysis using geographic information system and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Kun; Zhou Xiaonong Yan Weian; Hang Derong; Steinmann, Peter

    2008-12-15

    Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr{sup 6+} and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria.

  10. Sesame Street: Socialization by Surrogate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    This paper reviews some of the controversy surrounding "Sesame Street's" treatment of the socialization progress of preschool television viewers. Examined in detail are those portions of "Sesame Street" programs which contribute to children's learning of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Some comparisons are made between "Sesame Street"…

  11. Street Children in Contemporary Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altanis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the problem of street children in Greece, within the context of global research on street children. The article draws on preliminary findings from recent research on street children in the urban centre of Athens. This is an under-researched area, with weak policy responses to a problem associated with recent…

  12. A performance-based system for the long-term management of municipal waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy W F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-04-01

    Landfills have been the dominant alternative for disposal of solid waste and there are tens of thousands of closed landfills throughout the world that require a long-term management strategy. In contrast to approaches based on time or target values, this paper describes a performance-based methodology for evaluation of post-closure care (PCC). Using the methodology, critical components of PCC at a landfill, including leachate and gas management, groundwater monitoring and cover integrity, are considered to determine whether a landfill meets defined conditions for functional stability and can transition from regulated PCC to a post-regulatory custodial care program representing de minimus care activities only. The methodology is predicated on understanding the biological, chemical, and physical behavior of a landfill and the presence of sufficient data to verify expected trends in landfill behavior. If an evaluation suggests that a change can be made to PCC, the landfill owner must perform confirmation monitoring and then surveillance monitoring at a decreasing frequency to verify that the change is protective of human health and the environment. A hypothetical case study showed that using the methodology to evaluate site-specific PCC requirements could result in increased environmental protection at comparable cost by spending available funds where they are most needed. PMID:21186115

  13. Certification report for final closure of Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report represents the Geotek Engineering Company, Inc., (Geotek) record of activities to support certification of final closure Of the subject Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II. Ex as noted herein, final closure of the landfill was completed in accordance with the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill 11 Closure/Post Closure Plan, Revision 2, submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on April 14, 1992, and approved by TDEC on May 27, 1994 (the ``Closure Plan``). minor modification to the Closure Plan allowing partial closure of the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II (Phase 1) was approved by TDEC on August 3, 1994. The Phase I portion of the closure for the subject landfill was completed on March 25, 1995. A closure certification report entitled Certification Report for Partial Closure of Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was submitted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (LMES) on March 28, 1995. The final closure represents the completion of the closure activities for the entire Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II Site. The contents of this report and accompanying certification are based on observations by Geotek engineers and geologists during closure activities and on review of reports, records, laboratory test results, and other information furnished to Geotek by LMES.

  14. Life-cycle inventory and impact evaluation of mining municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Powell, Jon T; Smith, Justin L; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-01-01

    Recent research and policy directives have emerged with a focus on sustainable management of waste materials, and the mining of old landfills represents an opportunity to meet sustainability goals by reducing the release of liquid- and gas-phase contaminants into the environment, recovering land for more productive use, and recovering energy from the landfilled materials. The emissions associated with the landfill mining process (waste excavation, screening, and on-site transportation) were inventoried on the basis of diesel fuel consumption data from two full-scale mining projects (1.3-1.5 L/in-place m(3) of landfill space mined) and unit emissions (mass per liter of diesel consumption) from heavy equipment typically deployed for mining landfills. An analytical framework was developed and used in an assessment of the life-cycle environmental impacts of a few end-use management options for materials deposited and mined from an unlined landfill. The results showed that substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions can be realized in both the waste relocation and materials and energy recovery scenarios compared to a "do nothing" case. The recovery of metal components from landfilled waste was found to have the greatest benefit across nearly all impact categories evaluated, while emissions associated with heavy equipment to mine the waste itself were found to be negligible compared to the benefits that mining provided. PMID:24512420

  15. A Preliminary evaluation of hydrology and water quality near the Tacoma Landfill, Pierce County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W.E.; Turney, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Tacoma landfill, located in western Pierce County, Washington, has been used for the disposal of waste since about 1960. Disposal operations are planned to continue at this site until at least 1990. Data were compiled and interpreted to help understand the possible effects of the landfill on water quality in the surrounding area. Data were collected from published and unpublished reports of the U.S. Geological Survey, and from predominantly unpublished data in the files of other government agencies. The Tacoma landfill is underlain by unconsolidated, glacially derived deposits that consist of a wide variety of mixtures of clay to boulder-sized materials. Ground water is mostly the result of rainfall on the land surface, and moves through artesian aquifers (under the landfill) that are tapped for both domestic and municipal use. Hazardous liquid and dissolved wastes are probably present in the landfill, and potential flow paths for waste migration exist. An undetermined number of single-family domestic wells and 18 public-supply wells are within 3 miles of the landfill, three as close as 0.2 miles. There is only limited evidence indicating ground- and surface-water contamination. Further investigations of the geology, hydrology and water quality are needed to characterize the impact the landfill has on ground- and surface-water of the surrounding area. (USGS)

  16. Using observed data to improve estimated methane collection from select U.S. landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Nagpure, Ajay S; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-04-01

    The anaerobic decomposition of solid waste in a landfill produces methane, a potent greenhouse gas, and if recovered, a valuable energy commodity. Methane generation from U.S. landfills is usually estimated using the U.S. EPA's Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM). Default values for the two key parameters within LandGEM, the first-order decay rate (k) and the methane production potential (L0) are based on data collected in the 1990s. In this study, observed methane collection data from 11 U.S. landfills and estimates of gas collection efficiencies developed from site-specific gas well installation data were included in a reformulated LandGEM equation. Formal search techniques were employed to optimize k for each landfill to find the minimum sum of squared errors (SSE) between the LandGEM prediction and the observed collection data. Across nearly all landfills, the optimal k was found to be higher than the default AP-42 of 0.04 yr(-1) and the weighted average decay for the 11 landfills was 0.09 - 0.12 yr(-1). The results suggest that the default k value assumed in LandGEM is likely too low, which implies that more methane is produced in the early years following waste burial when gas collection efficiencies tend to be lower. PMID:23469937

  17. Modified biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to assess biodegradation potential of landfilled refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.; Rose, C.; Piorkowski, R.

    1989-01-01

    Modified Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays were used to assess biogas production potential of solid landfill samples. In landfill samples with visible soil content, moisture addition alone was generally as effective at stimulating biogas production as the addition of a comprehensive nutrient media. In a variety of samples from humid and semiarid landfills, addition of an aqueous nutrient media was the most effective stimulant for biogas production; however, moisture addition was almost as effective for most samples, suggesting that water addition would be the most cost-effective field approach. Onset of methanogenesis was slower in fresh refuse samples (even when inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge) than in landfill samples, indicating that the soil into which materials are landfilled is a major source of microorganisms. High volatile solids loading in fresh refuse and landfill assays retarded methanogenesis. A comparison of anaerobic and aerobic sample handling techniques showed no significant differences with regard to onset of methanogenesis and total gas production. The technique shows initial promise with regard to replication and reproducibility of results and could be a meaningful addition to landfill site evaluations where commercial gas recovery is anticipated. The BMP technique could also be adapted to assess anaerobic biodegradability of other solid waste materials for conventional anaerobic digestion applications. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste. PMID:25453319

  19. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Ordot Landfill, GU. (first remedial action), September 1988. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-28

    The Ordot Landfill site is located on the Island of Guam. The landfill is in a volcanic upland region, where site runoff flows directly into the adjacent Lonfit River. There is concern, however, that a suspected fault near the landfill may provide a hydrologic connection between the contaminants at Ordot Landfill and Guam's major drinking-water acquifer located in the northern limestone province of Guam. Because it is the only major public waste-disposal site on Guam it has received some hazardous waste during its history, including spent industrial and commercial chemicals, PCB-contaminated oils from transformers, and perhaps munitions. The selected remedial action for this site is the no-action alternative.

  1. Health assessment for Colesville Municipal Landfill Colesville, Broome County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980768691

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-19

    The Colesville Landfill is an inactive municipal landfill which received about 68,500 gallons of drummed industrial wastes between 1973 and 1975. The 113-acre site is located in a rural region of Broome County, New York, approximately one mile north of the Hamlet of Doraville, within the Town of Colesville. In 1983, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were found in drinking water supplies of homes near the landfill property. Subsequent site investigations led to the closure of the landfill in December 1984. The Colesville Landfill was accepted to the National Priorities List in June 1986. A Remedial Investigation of the landfill area was completed in 1988 and identified ground water as the primary mechanism for off-site migration of contaminants. Existing and potential human exposure routes include: ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption of VOCs in potable water; direct contact with soil, surface water and stream sediments; direct contact and inhalation of contaminants in surficial leachate seeps and ingestion of wild animals (e.g., deer and turkey) which may have been exposed to site contaminants. Based on the information reviewed, the Colesville Landfill is a public health hazard because of the risk to human health from past exposures and possible future exposures to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health impacts.

  2. Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico (Second Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a solar photovoltaics (PV) system on landfill sites in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). The report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system. The landfills and sites considered in this report were all determined feasible areas in which to implement solar PV systems.

  3. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-01

    Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a 'safety net' in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills. PMID:24999096

  4. Evaluation of methane emissions from Palermo municipal landfill: Comparison between field measurements and models

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bella, Gaetano; Di Trapani, Daniele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2011-08-15

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) diffuse emissions from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills represent one of the most important anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas. CH{sub 4} is produced by anaerobic biodegradation of organic matter in landfilled MSW and constitutes a major component of landfill gas (LFG). Gas recovery is a suitable method to effectively control CH{sub 4} emissions from landfill sites and the quantification of CH{sub 4} emissions represents a good tool to evaluate the effectiveness of a gas recovery system in reducing LFG emissions. In particular, LFG emissions can indirectly be evaluated from mass balance equations between LFG production, recovery and oxidation in the landfill, as well as by a direct approach based on LFG emission measurements from the landfill surface. However, up to now few direct measurements of landfill CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions have been reported in the technical literature. In the present study, both modeling and direct emission measuring methodologies have been applied to the case study of Bellolampo landfill located in Palermo, Italy. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions, based on direct measurements carried out with the flux accumulation chamber (static, non-stationary) method, as well as to obtain the CH{sub 4} contoured flux map of the landfill. Such emissions were compared with the estimate achieved by means of CH{sub 4} mass balance equations. The results showed that the emissions obtained by applying the flux chamber method are in good agreement with the ones derived by the application of the mass balance equation, and that the evaluated contoured flux maps represent a reliable tool to locate areas with abnormal emissions in order to optimize the gas recovery system efficiency.

  5. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the medium grain-size fraction was nearly the same for streets within both land-use types at 0.004 p

  6. One-dimensional Seismic Analysis of a Solid-Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, Francesco; Lentini, Valentina; Maugeri, Michele

    2008-07-08

    Analysis of the seismic performance of solid waste landfill follows generally the same procedures for the design of embankment dams, even if the methods and safety requirements should be different. The characterization of waste properties for seismic design is difficult due the heterogeneity of the material, requiring the procurement of large samples. The dynamic characteristics of solid waste materials play an important role on the seismic response of landfill, and it also is important to assess the dynamic shear strengths of liner materials due the effect of inertial forces in the refuse mass. In the paper the numerical results of a dynamic analysis are reported and analysed to determine the reliability of the common practice of using 1D analysis to evaluate the seismic response of a municipal solid-waste landfill. Numerical results indicate that the seismic response of a landfill can vary significantly due to reasonable variations of waste properties, fill heights, site conditions, and design rock motions.

  7. 8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE MARCHION HARDWARE BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY W.W. HISLOP, AND BUILT IN 1895. THE GROUND FLOOR WAS RENOVATED SOME TIME IN THE 1930s. IN THE CENTER IS THE IMPERIAL BLOCK (ca. 1920), AND THE FULLER DRUG COMPANY (1918-1932).THE FULLER SITE WAS OCCUPIED BY THE HIGHLAND THEATER FROM 1932 TO 1972, AND RETAINS MUCH OF THE INTERIOR DECORATION FROM THAT PERIOD - Anaconda Historic District, Park & Commercial Streets, Main Street vicinity, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  8. Oppenheimer's Box of Chocolates: Remediation of the Manhattan Project Landfill at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 12283

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Donald L.; Ramsey, Susan S.; Finn, Kevin P.; Chaloupka, Allan B.

    2012-07-01

    Material Disposal Area B (MDA B) is the oldest radioactive waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Operated from 1944-48, MDA B was the disposal facility for the Manhattan Project. Recognized as one of the most challenging environmental remediation projects at Los Alamos, the excavation of MDA B received $110 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to accelerate this complex remediation work. Several factors combined to create significant challenges to remediating the landfill known in the 1940's as the 'contaminated dump'. The secrecy surrounding the Manhattan Project meant that no records were kept of radiological materials and chemicals disposed or of the landfill design. An extensive review of historical documents and interviews with early laboratory personnel resulted in a list of hundreds of hazardous chemicals that could have been buried in MDA B. Also, historical reports of MDA B spontaneously combusting on three occasions -with 50-foot flames and pink smoke spewing across the mesa during the last incident in 1948-indicated that hazardous materials were likely present in MDA B. To complicate matters further, though MDA B was located on an isolated mesa in the 1940's, the landfill has since been surrounded by a Los Alamos commercial district. The local newspaper, hardware store and a number of other businesses are located directly across the street from MDA B. This close proximity to the public and the potential for hazardous materials in MDA B necessitated conducting remediation work within protective enclosures. Potential chemical hazards and radiological inventory were better defined using a minimally intrusive sampling method called direct push technology (DPT) prior to excavation. Even with extensive sampling and planning the project team encountered many surprises and challenges during the project. The one area where planning did not fail to meet reality was safety. There were no serious worker injuries and the minor injuries recorded were those common to construction type activities. Extensive monitoring along the site boundary demonstrated that no hazardous chemicals were released and radiological dose to the public was within administrative limits. More than three years of effort by the LANL project team went into the planning for remediation of Material Disposal Area B. Hundreds of historical documents were reviewed; retired personnel were extensively interviewed and noninvasive techniques were used to characterize the site. The information collected was incorporated into the safety requirements, cost estimate, schedule and primary execution plan for the project. Ultimately the waste volume managed by the project approached 40000 m{sup 3}, more than double the original project estimate. This increase had a major impact on both project cost and schedule. Nuclear safety requirements for the project were based on an estimated MDA B radionuclide inventory of 12 PE-Ci. When excavation was complete over 123 PE-Ci had been removed from the trenches. The radionuclide inventory at MDA B was an order of magnitude higher than estimated. Work at MDA B could not have proceeded without the safety basis exemption from DOE-HQ. The one area where planning did not fail to meet reality was safety. There were no serious worker injuries and the minor injuries recorded were those common to construction type activities. Extensive monitoring along the site boundary demonstrated that no hazardous chemicals were released and radiological dose to the public was within administrative limits. (authors)

  9. Methodology of environmental diagnosis for construction and demolition waste landfills: a tool for planning and making decisions.

    PubMed

    Garrido, E; Calvo, F; Ramos, A F; Zamorano, M

    2005-11-01

    Current legislation in the European Union regarding landfills provides measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce, insofar as possible, negative effects on the environment. This means that Member States must take measures so that landfills cannot operate unless the operator first presents a plan for the site, which includes the implementation of improvements considered necessary by the engineer for compliance with regulations. Researchers at the University of Granada have developed a method to ascertain the degree of environmental impact that a construction and demolition waste landfill may produce on its immediate surroundings. This methodology is based on environmental indexes; its objective is to give crucial information concerning possible environmental problems produced by a landfill. The data thus obtained will permit the elaboration of guidelines for improvements in the location, design, and operation of landfills, or in extreme cases, their dosing, sealing, and rehabilitation. PMID:16335598

  10. Sanitary Landfill. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson is an introduction to disposal of sludge by landfill. A brief explanation of the complete process is provided, including discussions of sludge suitability, site selection, method selection and operation, site closure, and ultimate reuse. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's guide contains a…

  11. REMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Norman Landfill is the field site for this project. It was reported that ground water toxicity at this site was due to ammonia, and napthalene was the only ASOC present at high concentrations. Thus, batch and column studies will be used to evaluate reactive materials with the...

  12. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

    Landfill leachate emanating from old "dilute and disperse" sites represents a potential (and in many cases actual) threat to the integrity of groundwater. Indeed, this concern has been included in EU legislation (80/86/EEC), where key contaminants (e.g. ammonia, various toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) are explicitly highlighted in terms of their impact on groundwater. In the UK, whilst there are a substantial number of unlined landfills sited on major aquifers, many of these are in locations where there is a substantial unsaturated zone. Thus, there exists the opportunity for the modification and attenuation of contaminants prior to it encountering the water table. An understanding of likely changes in leachate content and concentrations at such sites will enable a more comprehensive assessment of the potential risks and liabilities posed by such sites to be evaluated. The Burntstump landfill, situated 8 km north of Nottingham (UK), is sited on an outcrop of Sherwood sandstone. The fine friable sand has been quarried since the 1960s and the excavated volume used to store municipal waste. Filling at the site commenced in the mid 1970s and originally was unlined. In 1978 the first of what was to become a series of boreholes was installed within an area of roughly 5 m radius over one of the original waste cells. Cores of the waste and underlying sandstone were extracted and analysed for a range of physical and chemical parameters. The most recent set of analyses were obtained in 2000. The series of investigations therefore provide an important record of leachate migration and modification through the unsaturated zone for over twenty years. The progression of the leachate front is clearly delineated by the chloride concentration profile with an average velocity of around 1.6 m.yr-1. Combining this value with an average (and reasonably uniform) measured moisture content of about 7% gives a mean inter-granular specific discharge of 110 mm.yr-1. An interesting feature of the sequences of porewater concentration profiles is the sharp leading front of the Cl plume. Thus indicating that very little solute dispersion appears to be occurring. This is probably to be due to the relatively uniform particle size of the sand matrix combined with the low moisture content, which has greatly constrained the available pore sizes in which flow occurs. A marked reduction in the mass of the chloride plume has been observed over the last 13 years. Analyses of core sample taken in 2000 show that the Cl profile has continued to lose mass and has now also separated into two peaks. The leading peak was located at a depth of 36 m below ground level (28 m below the base of the landfill) and in line with model predictions. The trailing peak was at a depth of 27 m bgl and was associated with a 0.3 m layer of marl and clay bands. Thus there is an indication that the changes in chloride mass are possibly due to the effects of heterogeneity, although other processes which could account for chloride removal from solution are also under consideration. The location of the TOC front up to 1992 was commensurate with that of Cl, indicating no effective retardation. This is consistent with the very low levels of organic carbon present in the sandstone. However, marked reductions in contaminant mass (substantially greater than those of Cl) have been observed. Analyses of volatile fatty acids has indicated a progressive breakdown of VFA components leading to simpler products so that by 1991 the dominant component was ethanoic acid (56% by mass). By 2000 the entire leading front of the TOC was absent. TOC was only found to be present at relatively low concentrations ( 100 mg.l-1) above the marl/clay band. Analyses of gas concentrations at the site have indicated that there has been a change in the redox potential in the volume of contaminated unsaturated sandstone below the waste cells during the last 10 years. With predominantly anaerobic conditions giving way to aerobic. This change appears to be related to the introduction of a landfill gas ex

  13. EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

  14. Livingston Parish Landfill Methane Recovery Project (Feasibility Study)

    SciTech Connect

    White, Steven

    2012-11-15

    The Woodside Landfill is owned by Livingston Parish, Louisiana and is operated under contract by Waste Management of Louisiana LLC. This public owner/private operator partnership is commonplace in the solid waste industry today. The landfill has been in operation since approximately 1988 and has a permitted capacity of approximately 41 million cubic yards. Based on an assumed in-place waste density of 0.94 ton per cubic yard, the landfill could have an expected design capacity of 39.3 million tons. The landfill does have an active landfill gas collection and control system (LFGCCS) in place because it meets the minimum thresholds for the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The initial LFGCS was installed prior to 2006 and subsequent phases were installed in 2007 and 2010. The Parish received a grant from the United States Department of Energy in 2009 to evaluate the potential for landfill gas recovery and utilization at the Woodside Landfill. This includes a technical and economic feasibility study of a project to install a landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) plant and to compare alternative technologies. The LFGTE plant can take the form of on-site electrical generation, a direct use/medium Btu option, or a high-Btu upgrade technology. The technical evaluation in Section 2 of this report concludes that landfill gas from the Woodside landfill is suitable for recovery and utilization. The financial evaluations in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this report provide financial estimates of the returns for various utilization technologies. The report concludes that the most economically viable project is the Electricity Generation option, subject to the Parish’s ability and willingness to allocate adequate cash for initial capital and/or to obtain debt financing. However, even this option does not present a solid return: by our estimates, there is a 19 year simple payback on the electricity generation option. All of the energy recovery options discussed in this report economically stressed. The primary reason for this is the recent fundamental shift in the US energy landscape. Abundant supplies of natural gas have put downward pressure on any project that displaces natural gas or natural gas substitutes. Moreover, this shift appears long-term as domestic supplies for natural gas may have been increased for several hundred years. While electricity prices are less affected by natural gas prices than other thermal projects, they are still significantly affected since much of the power in the Entergy cost structure is driven by natural gas-fired generation. Consequently, rates reimbursed by the power company based on their avoided cost structure also face downward pressure over the near and intermediate term. In addition, there has been decreasing emphasis on environmental concerns regarding the production of thermal energy, and as a result both the voluntary and mandatory markets that drive green attribute prices have softened significantly over the past couple of years. Please note that energy markets are constantly changing due to fundamental supply and demand forces, as well as from external forces such as regulations and environmental concerns. At any point in the future, the outlook for energy prices may change and could deem either the electricity generation or pipeline injection project more feasible. This report is intended to serve as the primary background document for subsequent decisions made at Parish staff and governing board levels.

  15. Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

    2006-08-29

    A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

  16. Screening for organotin compounds in European landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Mersiowsky, I; Brandsch, R; Ejlertsson, J

    2001-01-01

    As industrial chemicals, organotin compounds are predominantly applied as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) stabilizers and biocides. They are widely encountered in environmental samples and may be introduced into landfills by disposal of municipal solid waste or sewage sludge. In the present study, leachate samples were obtained from several sanitary landfill sites in Sweden, Italy, and Germany. These samples were analyzed by means of a highly sensitive and species-selective method for methyltin, butyltin, and octyltin species. In total, twelve samples from eight different landfill sites at various ages were investigated. The findings of all target compounds range between less than the limit of detection at 0.1 microg/L and, at maximum, 4 microg/L. Only octyltin compounds can be attributed to PVC products with any certainty, whereas for methyltin and butyltin compounds alternative and less distinct sources exist. Organotin compounds are subject to microbial transformation, such as dealkylation and methylation processes. Consequently, caution should be exercised when attributing findings to potential sources and deriving any predicted environmental concentrations. PMID:11577866

  17. Public health assessment for Munisport landfill, North Miami, Dade County, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD084535442. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-28

    The Munisport Landfill site is an inactive landfill in, and owned by, the City of North Miami, Florida. The site is an urban area adjacent to the Oleta River Recreational Area, a state mangrove preserve, and Biscayne Bay. Soil, sediments, surface water, and ground water are contaminated. The authors selected ammonia, benzene, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, carbon disulfide, chloromethane, coliform bacteria, dieldrin, lead, methylene chloride, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), styrene, vanadium, and zinc as contaminants of concern. Accidentally ingesting contaminated soil and surface water, and breathing contaminated smoke are completed human exposure pathways. Children who swam in the landfill lakes risked bacterial and viral infections. Based on the available data, the authors categorize the Munisport Landfill site as an indeterminate public health hazard.

  18. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  19. Monitoring of landfill leachate dispersion using reflectance spectroscopy and ground-penetrating radar.

    PubMed

    Splajt, T; Ferrier, G; Frostick, L E

    2003-09-15

    The utility of ground-penetrating radar and reflectance spectroscopy in the monitoring of landfill sites has been investigated. Strong correlations between red edge inflection position and chlorophyll and heavy metal concentrations have been demonstrated from grassland species affected by leachate contamination of the soil adjacent to the landfill test site. This study demonstrated that reflectance spectroscopy can identify vegetation affected by leachate-contaminated soil at a range of spatial resolutions. To identify the vegetation affected by leachate contamination, the spectroradiometer must have contiguous bands at sufficient spectral resolution over the critical wave range that measures chlorophyll absorption and the red edge (between 650 and 750 nm). The utility of ground-penetrating radar data to identify leachate escaping from breakout points in the contaminant wall has also been demonstrated. An integrated approach using these techniques, combined with field and borehole sampling and contaminant migration modeling, offers a possible cost-effective monitoring approach for landfill sites. PMID:14524467

  20. Assessing the performance of gas collection systems in select Chinese landfills according to the LandGEM model: drawbacks and potential direction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Yue, Dongbei; Li, Rundong; Yang, Ting; Liu, Shiliang

    2015-12-01

    In China, municipal solid waste (MSW) is primarily treated by landfilling. Landfill gas (LFG) collection effectively reduces methane emission from MSW landfills. An accurate system of LFG collection is important in landfill planning, design, and operation. However, China has not developed such systems. In this study, the efficiency of methane collection is calculated in three Chinese landfills with different collection systems (A: vertical wells for MSW before 2010; combined horizontal trenches and under-membrane pipes for MSW from 2011 onwards; B: combined horizontal trenches and vertical wells; C: vertical wells only). This efficiency was computed by dividing the quantity of methane obtained from landfill operation records by the quantity estimated based on the LandGEM model. Results show that the collection efficiencies of landfills with vertical wells and/or horizontal pipes ranged from 8.3% to 27.9%, whereas those of a system equipped with geomembrane reached 65.3%. The poor performance of the landfills was attributed to the open burning of early-stage LFG, LFG release from cracks in high-density polyethylene covers, and high levels of leachate within a landfill site. Therefore, this study proposes an integrated LFG collection system that can remove leachate and collect gas from landfills that accept waste with high moisture content. PMID:26510610

  1. Remote real-time monitoring of subsurface landfill gas migration.

    PubMed

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E; Smeaton, Alan F; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

  2. Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

  3. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. PMID:24656422

  4. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Old Bethpage Landfill, Old Bethpage, New York (first remedial action), March 1988. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-17

    The Old Bethpage landfill, covering approximately 65 acres, is located in Old Bethpage, Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau Country, New York. Two public drinking-water wells, a residential community, an industrial park, and a state park, exist within the site's general vicinity. Beginning in 1958, the Town of Oyster Bay operated the landfill as a municipal landfill. In addition to accepting municipal wastes and garbage, local industrial wastes were disposed of on the landfill during the late 1960s and early 1970s. A system designed to collect, store, treat, and dispose of leachate has been operating at the site since 1983. There are three remedial actions currently underway at the site. They include: leachate collection, methane gas collection, and landfill capping. The primary contaminants of concern affecting ground water include: VOCs, TCE, benzene, toluene, inorganics, chromium, and lead. Air is contaminated with methane gas and VOCs.

  6. The Efficiency of an Integrated Program Using Falconry to Deter Gulls from Landfills.

    PubMed

    Thiériot, Ericka; Patenaude-Monette, Martin; Molina, Pierre; Giroux, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Gulls are commonly attracted to landfills, and managers are often required to implement cost-effective and socially accepted deterrence programs. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive program that integrated the use of trained birds of prey, pyrotechnics, and playback of gull distress calls at a landfill located close to a large ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) colony near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We used long-term survey data on bird use of the landfill, conducted behavioral observations of gulls during one season and tracked birds fitted with GPS data loggers. We also carried out observations at another landfill located farther from the colony, where less refuse was brought and where a limited culling program was conducted. The integrated program based on falconry resulted in a 98% decrease in the annual total number of gulls counted each day between 1995 and 2014. A separate study indicated that the local breeding population of ring-billed gulls increased and then declined during this period but remained relatively large. In 2010, there was an average (±SE) of 59 ± 15 gulls/day using the site with falconry and only 0.4% ± 0.2% of these birds were feeding. At the other site, there was an average of 347 ± 55 gulls/day and 13% ± 3% were feeding. Twenty-two gulls tracked from the colony made 41 trips towards the landfills: twenty-five percent of the trips that passed by the site with falconry resulted in a stopover that lasted 22 ± 7 min compared to 85% at the other landfill lasting 63 ± 15 min. We concluded that the integrated program using falconry, which we consider more socially acceptable than selective culling, was effective in reducing the number of gulls at the landfill. PMID:26479231

  7. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; Anderson, E.P.; Walker, B.L.; Burrows, D.B.

    1998-08-01

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and/or measurements. This paper summarizes speciated nonmethane organic compound (NMOC) measurement data collected during an intensive, short-term field program. Over 250 separate landfill gas samples were collected from emission sources at the Fresh Kills landfill in New York City and analyzed for approximately 150 different analytes. The average total NMOC value for the landfill was 438 ppmv (as hexane) versus the regulatory default value of 4,000 ppmv (as hexane). Over 70 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected and quantified in the landfill gas samples. The typical gas composition for this landfill was determined as well as estimates of the spatial, temporal, and measurement variability in the gas composition. The data for NMOC show that the gas composition within the landfill is equivalent to the composition of the gas exiting the landfill through passive vents and through the soil cover.

  8. Landfill surface runoff and its effect on water quality on river Yamuna.

    PubMed

    Zafar, M; Alappat, B J

    2004-01-01

    During 2000, the estimated quantity of solid waste generated in Delhi, India was more than 9000 tones per day. This is one of the biggest sources of environmental degradation in capital city of India. Since 1950's over 12 large landfill have been packed with all kinds of nonbiodegradable and toxic waste of Delhi. The area covered is at least 1% (14.83 square kilometer) of total Delhi's area. All the landfill sites except Tilak Nagar, Hastal, and Chattarpur are located very closely (0.5-6 km) to the river Yamuna. It contributes the pollution to river Yamuna in a significant way in a form of surface runoff from landfill site especially in rainy season. The chemical analysis of leachate produced by these landfill sites and corresponding river section (at five river points) has been performed for 16 selected parameter (Temperature, Odor, pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, COD, Total Solids, Sulphide, Chloride, Nitrate, Iron) in the first stage and for 8 parameters (pH, Conductivity, COD, Total Solids, Chloride, Nitrate, Iron) in second stage. The study was conducted between August to October, 2000 (rainy season). It is clear from the study that the river water quality is affected by the presence of landfill surface runoff. Its impact can be seen in the region where the drains are meeting the river. This is one of the causes of river pollution apart from other major municipal and industrial sources. PMID:15027821

  9. Sulfide oxidation and nitrate reduction for potential mitigation of H2S in landfills.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Du, Yao; Feng, Huan; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Because H2S emitted by landfill sites has seriously endangered human health, its removal is urgent. H2S removal by use of an autotrophic denitrification landfill biocover has been reported. In this process, nitrate-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria use a reduced sulfur source as electron donor when reducing nitrate to nitrogen gas and oxidizing sulfur compounds to sulfate. The research presented here was performed to investigate the possibility of endogenous mitigation of H2S by autotrophic denitrification of landfill waste. The sulfide oxidation bioprocess accompanied by nitrate reduction was observed in batch tests inoculated with mineralized refuse from a landfill site. Repeated supply of nitrate resulted in rapid oxidation of the sulfide, indicating that, to a substantial extent, the bioprocess may be driven by functional microbes. This bioprocess can be realized under conditions suitable for the autotrophic metabolic process, because the process occurred without addition of acetate. H2S emissions from landfill sites would be substantially reduced if this bioprocess was introduced. PMID:25680916

  10. Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

  11. Survival, reproduction, and recruitment of woody plants after 14 years on a reforested landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.; Schmalhofer, Victoria R.

    1992-03-01

    With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest. However, among woody species that have been screened for use on landfills, these ecological potentials have not yet been investigated. We examined a 14-yr-old landfill plantation in New Jersey, USA, established to test tolerance of 19 species of trees and shrubs to landfill environments. We measured survivorship, reproduction, and recruitment within and around the experimental installation. Half of the original 190 plants were present, although survival and growth rates varied widely among species. An additional 752 trees and shrubs had colonized the plantation and its perimeter, as well as 2955 stems of vines. However, the great majority (>95%) of woody plants that had colonized were not progeny of the planted cohort, but instead belonged to 18 invading species, mostly native, bird-dispersed, and associated with intermediate stages of secondary plant succession. Based on this evidence, we recommend that several ecological criteria be applied to choices of woody species for the restoration of municipal landfills and similar degraded sites, in order to maximize rapid and economical establishment of diverse, productive woodlands.

  12. Characterization of uncertainty in estimation of methane collection from select U.S. landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Nagpure, Ajay S; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas generated from the anaerobic decomposition of waste in landfills. If captured, methane can be beneficially used to generate electricity. To inventory emissions and assist the landfill industry with energy recovery projects, the U.S. EPA developed the Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) that includes two key parameters: the first-order decay rate (k) and methane production potential (L0). By using data from 11 U.S. landfills, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify the effect of uncertainty in gas collection efficiency and municipal solid waste fraction on optimal k values and collectable methane. A dual-phase model and associated parameters were also developed to evaluate its performance relative to a single-phase model (SPM) similar to LandGEM. The SPM is shown to give lower error in estimating methane collection, with site-specific best-fit k values. Most of the optimal k values are notably greater than the U.S. EPA's default of 0.04 yr(-1), which implies that the gas generation decreases more rapidly than predicted at the current default. We translated the uncertainty in collectable methane into uncertainty in engine requirements and potential economic losses to demonstrate the practical significance to landfill operators. The results indicate that landfill operators could overpay for engine capacity by $30,000-780,000 based on overestimates of collectable methane. PMID:25604252

  13. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, C.J.; Shaddoan, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  14. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  15. LANDFILL GAS AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of the current understanding of methane emissions from landfills that contribute to global climate change. The factors affecting landfill emissions are described and the uncertainties are identified. There appears to be a consensus in the international co...

  16. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SPECIAL TYPES OF LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality was monitored for one year at a hillfill, a balefill, a millfill, a strip mine landfill, and a permitted sanitary landfill to determine the impact of each on water quality. The leachate generated by the hillfill was the strongest during initial decomposition. Howeve...

  18. Ground penetrating radar characterization of a landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochim, April Theresa

    Ground penetrating radar was investigated in an active landfill to determine if the in-situ water content could be measured. Water content is an important parameter in predicting the generation of landfill gas (LFG), an important renewable energy source. Unfortunately, predicting the quantity of LFG is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in a landfill and the lack of in-situ input parameters. GPR is a non-invasive, near-surface geophysical technique that provides high resolution images of dielectric properties in the earth's subsurface. A transmitter emits high frequency (10 - 1000 MHz) electromagnetic pulses through the subsurface, with the receiver recording the echo. Specialized software is then used to create images of the subsurface. The challenge with using GPR in landfills is the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the clay cap linear covering landfills, both affecting the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses. The use of GPR in a landfill was evaluated at the Region of Waterloo's Waste Management Centre. Measurements were completed using both the surface and the borehole approach. The results indicated that a borehole GPR can be used, with successful measurement of water content a function of borehole separation distance and frequency of the electromagnetic pulses. The developed approach was confirmed at the City of Hamilton's Glanbrook Landfill. The successful comparison of in-situ water content values to laboratory determined values at both landfills shows that GPR can be used to measure in-situ water content.

  19. Capture and Utilisation of Landfill Gas

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    . In his 2003 review of energy recovery from landfill gas, Willumsen1 reported that as of 2001, there were estimated6 that biomass materials such as paper, food and wood, constitute about 70% of the MSW, compiles the Methane Recovery from Landfills Yearbook9 . The data presented in Table 3 is from the 1999

  20. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  1. General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment intersects at left, 9th street segment intersects alley at right. View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  3. The Application Of Biofilter System For Reduction Of Methane Emissions From Modern Sanitary Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, K.; Park, S.

    2007-12-01

    Increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by anthropogenic activities has been related to global climate change. Methane, the second most important GHG after CO2, is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Therefore, methane emission control is of utmost importance for global warming reduction. To minimize leachate production and protect groundwater resources, modern sanitary landfills are equipped with composite covers and gas collection systems. Methane from modern sanitary landfills is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills where it is recovered as energy and burned at the site. However, the efficiency of energy recovery systems in larger landfills is reduced as the amount of CH4 generated from landfill begins to decrease. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system was investigated to treat CH4 gas emitted from modern sanitary landfills by conducting batch and column experiments using landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast as the filter bed medium. From the batch experiments to measure the influence of moisture content and temperature of the filter medium on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system, the optimum moisture content and temperature were found to be 10-15% by weight and 25-35°C, respectively. The column experiment was conducted to measure the influence of inlet CH4 concentration and CH4 loading rate on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system. As the inlet CH4 concentration decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. Up to a CH4 loading rate of 2785 g CH4 m3 h- 1 (EBRT = 7.7 min), the CH4 removal efficiency of the biofilter was able to reach 100%. Based on the results of the study, the installation of a properly managed biofilter system should be capable of achieving a reduction in atmospheric CH4 emissions from modern sanitary landfills at low CH4 generation stage.

  4. Gas generation as a function of leachate management: Mid Auchencarroch experimental landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, C.W.; Fleming, G.; Gronow, J.

    1997-12-31

    Sustainable development is becoming a goal within most of the developed world. In terms of waste management, and specifically landfill, the goal is to progress the waste mass to a non-polluting state, within the relatively short period of 30--50 years. The flushing bioreactor landfill is seen potentially as a method of achieving this goal. The second experimental landfill at the Mid Auchencarroch Landlab facility builds on the success and experience gained on the first site, completed some three years ago. Phase 2 of Mid Auchencarroch Landlab seeks to evaluate methods of managing and controlling the biodegradation processes of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW). The US$ 500,000 experiment, financed by the landfill industry and UK government research funds, comprises four cells each containing approximately 4000 tonnes of MSW. The main variables of this experiment are pre-treatment of waste by wet pulverization, leachate recirculation at optimum rates, and co-disposal of inert materials with MSW. The manipulation of the moisture regime within the landfill is seen as a key control parameter. Leachate recirculation, via a novel sub cap irrigation system, seeks to develop the concept of the flushing bioreactor, in which the aims of recirculation are not only to homogenize moisture content in order to enhance degradation, but further to flush soluble pollutants from the waste mass. The project moved into the monitoring stage in November 1995, when the cells were capped. A comprehensive regime of data collection operates, including full time gas flow monitoring, with a new type of flowmeter specifically developed for landfill gas. Thus, results presented are both quantitative and qualitative, and in the future will attempt to put a meaningful time scale on landfill gas production curves under various controlling regimes.

  5. Using multivariate regression modeling for sampling and predicting chemical characteristics of mixed waste in old landfills.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Christian; Laner, David; Prantl, Roman; Fellner, Johann

    2014-12-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills pose a threat on environment and human health, especially old landfills which lack facilities for collection and treatment of landfill gas and leachate. Consequently, missing information about emission flows prevent site-specific environmental risk assessments. To overcome this gap, the combination of waste sampling and analysis with statistical modeling is one option for estimating present and future emission potentials. Optimizing the tradeoff between investigation costs and reliable results requires knowledge about both: the number of samples to be taken and variables to be analyzed. This article aims to identify the optimized number of waste samples and variables in order to predict a larger set of variables. Therefore, we introduce a multivariate linear regression model and tested the applicability by usage of two case studies. Landfill A was used to set up and calibrate the model based on 50 waste samples and twelve variables. The calibrated model was applied to Landfill B including 36 waste samples and twelve variables with four predictor variables. The case study results are twofold: first, the reliable and accurate prediction of the twelve variables can be achieved with the knowledge of four predictor variables (Loi, EC, pH and Cl). For the second Landfill B, only ten full measurements would be needed for a reliable prediction of most response variables. The four predictor variables would exhibit comparably low analytical costs in comparison to the full set of measurements. This cost reduction could be used to increase the number of samples yielding an improved understanding of the spatial waste heterogeneity in landfills. Concluding, the future application of the developed model potentially improves the reliability of predicted emission potentials. The model could become a standard screening tool for old landfills if its applicability and reliability would be tested in additional case studies. PMID:25218084

  6. Degradability of Chlorinated Solvents in Landfill Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Litman, M.

    2002-12-01

    The use of landfills as an in situ remediation system represents a cost-effective alternative for groundwater remediation in the source area. This research was conducted to investigate the intrinsic bioattenuation capacity of the landfill ecosystem for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). This research, using excavated refuse samples, studied how the reductive dechlorination of CAHs is linked to the decomposition of solid waste in landfills. Most research effort in groundwater remediation has focused on the contaminant plumes beneath and downgradient from landfills, while the source area remediation has received increasing attention. Bioreactor landfill and leachate recirculation projects have been planned and implemented by the USEPA and some states. However, the use of bioreactor landfill has primarily been considered only to expedite refuse decomposition. This research provides an understanding of the biological fate of CAHs in landfills, an understanding that can lead to the bioreactor landfill system designed to promote the degradation of pollutants right at the source. The research was conducted in two complementary systems: simulated landfill bioreactors and batch degradation experiment in serum bottles. Refuse samples were excavated from a municipal solid waste landfill located in Wayland, Massachusetts, USA. Bioreactors were designed and operated to facilitate refuse decomposition under landfilling conditions. For each reactor, leachate was collected and recirculated back to the reactor and gas was collected into a gas bag and the methane production rate was monitored. Target CAHs, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), were added to selected reactors and maintained at about 20 uM each in leachate. The design is to study the effect of long-term exposure of refuse microorganisms to CAHs on the degradation potential of these chemicals in landfills. Changes of biochemical conditions in bioreactors, including leachate pH, leachate COD, and methane production, were monitored throughout the refuse decomposition process. At two different stages of refuse decomposition, active refuse decomposition representing young landfills and maturation phase representing aged landfills, anaerobic microbial cultures were derived from selected bioreactors and tested in serum bottles for their abilities to biodegrade target CAHs. Complementary to the bioreactor experiment, the serum bottle experiment was designed to investigate specific conditions that potentially control or limit the reductive dechlorination of CAHs in landfills. The conditions tested include 1) inhibited refuse methanogenesis, 2) enhanced methanogenic refuse decomposition, 3) presence of other organic carbons commonly found in landfills such as cellulose, lactate, ethanol, and acetate and 4) presence of yeast extract and humic acids which are commonly found in aged landfills. This research investigated the degradability, the degradation rate, and the extent of dechlorination of CAHs in a landfill ecosystem as the refuse decomposition progresses. The results can lead to a broader application of the intrinsic bioattenuation capacity of landfills. An in situ remedial strategy directly tackling the contaminant source can minimize the risk of future impact and achieve a significant saving in remediation cost. The information of contaminant fate in landfills can also help regulatory agencies formulate risk-based guidelines for post-closure monitoring programs and potential re-development projects.

  7. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo; Jacobs, Joeri

    2010-02-01

    The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1 tonne of wet waste landfilled and the environmental aspects were evaluated for a 100-year period after disposal. The data utilized in the LCA-calculations to model the first 10-20 years of landfilling of the two low-organic waste scenarios make extensive use of site-specific data from the Nauerna Landfill (The Netherlands), but average data from other comparable, existing landfills were used too. As data from full-scale landfills do not cover more than 30-40 years of landfilling, data from laboratory simulations and accelerated tests of limited scale were also utilized. The life-cycle impact assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed by the European Union Landfill Directive: Council Directive 1999/31/EC, EU, Brussels, 1999) can be a successful approach to decrease the environmental loads in several impact categories in comparison with landfilling of waste with significant organic content. However, when utilization of landfill gas is accounted for in the life-cycle impact assessment calculation, the small gas generation in low-organic waste landfills reduced the actual potential for energy generation and therefore the environmental savings obtained were reduced proportionally. Groundwater pollution from input of leachate was also evaluated and the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; WHO, Geneva, 2006) guideline for drinking water quality was assumed as reference. The results show that low-organic waste landfills pose a smaller risk of groundwater contamination, but the impact potentials estimated still remain a lot higher than estimated in other categories. PMID:19710111

  8. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged over fivefold the "typical" values for comparable landfill waste. In terms of "greenhouse benefit," fractional VOC and methane energy recovery are estimated to exceed 90%, with corresponding methane and VOC emission reductions. Analyses done for the greenhouse gas mitigation program of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory indicate favorable economics justified on landfill life extension, as well as environmental benefits. The "controlled landfill" project findings suggest potential for low-cost mitigation of waste greenhouse methane emissions, maximum landfill carbon sequestration, and maximization of beneficial energy capture from landfills. Details and results obtained since 1994 will be presented.

  9. Yellow Zone Streets (Patrolled by the City of Manchester) Arms Street (right side).

    E-print Network

    Yellow Zone Streets (Patrolled by the City of Manchester) Arms Street (right side). Bedford Street (both sides) from Waumbec Street south of UNHM to Bridge Street Bridge. MILLYARD Yellow Zone Lots ZONE STREETS and the YELLOW ZONE Millyard LOTS. Permits are required Monday-Friday, 8am ­ 5:30pm

  10. Children's Recollections of "Sesame Street."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bempechat, Janine; And Others

    This report presents a pilot study which collected preadolescents' retrospective reports of their preschool experiences with the television program, "Sesame Street." One-hundred-five fifth and sixth graders ranging from 9 to 12 years of age were asked to think back to when they viewed "Sesame Street" in their younger years and to respond to…

  11. Climate change & street trees project

    E-print Network

    Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values Group as part of the Climate change and street trees project, funded by the Forestry Commission with changing socio-economics and/or demographics, but little evidence exists relating

  12. Issues with, and suggested improvements to, Method 25C -- Determination of nonmethane organic compounds in MSW landfill gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.; Curro, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA issued a new sampling and test method for landfill gas with the promulgation, on March 12, 1996, of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfills (40 CFR 60 Subparts WWW and Cc). Method 25C was developed for collecting landfill gas samples through probes driven into the waste, and then having the gas sample analyzed in a laboratory by a gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for the concentration of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC). The NSPS require that the NMOC emission rate be calculated for landfills affected by the rule. The NMOC emission rate can be calculated with a formula in the rule, and either very conservative Tier 1 default values, or with actual site-specific NMOC concentration data collected and analyzed in accordance with Method 25C. The use of site-specific NMOC concentration data is referred to as Tier 2.

  13. The dependence of the methylation of mercury on the landfill stabilization process and implications for the landfill management.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Li, Zhonggen; Zhu, Wei; Zhao, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Mercury species and other chemical characteristics of the leachate from anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills were analyzed to investigate the factors that control mercury methylation during the landfill stabilization process. At the early landfill stage, the total mercury (THg) and the monomethyl mercury (MMHg) released rapidly and significantly, the THg concentration of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate was obviously higher than that of the anaerobic landfill leachate, while compared with the semi-aerobic landfill, the MMHg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was higher. As the landfill time increased, both of THg and MMHg concentration decreased quickly, the THg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was much higher than that in semi-aerobic landfill, while the MMHg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was lower than that in the semi-aerobic landfill. Generally, the concentrations of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in the anaerobic landfill leachate were slightly higher than in the semi-aerobic landfill leachate during the stabilization process. A significant positive correlation was found between the DMHg concentrations and the pH value in anaerobic landfill leachate, but this correlation was opposite in the semi-aerobic landfill. The oxidative-reductive potential (ORP) condition was found to be the controlling factor of the methylation process during the early stage. However, the chemical characteristics, especially the TOC concentration, appeared to be the dominant factor affecting the methylation process as the landfill time increased. PMID:25218981

  14. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  15. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  16. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  17. Microorganisms in landfill bioreactors for accelerated stabilization of solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Sang, Nguyen Nhu; Soda, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Ike, Michihiko

    2012-09-01

    Landfill bioreactors (LBRs) with management of leachate and biogas have presented numerous advantages such as accelerated stabilization of solid wastes, reduced amount of leachate, and in situ leachate treatment. Such advantages have minimized environmental risks, have allowed extension of the useful life of the landfill site, and have fostered cost reduction. LBRs of three types have been developed using both anaerobic and aerobic modes: anaerobic, aerobic, and hybrid. Microorganisms in landfills cause various reactions related with organic fractions and heavy metals. Such functions have been stimulated in LBRs by recirculation of leachate with or without aeration. To date, most studies of microorganisms in LBRs have analyzed bacteria and archaea based on 16S rRNA genes and have analyzed fungi based on 18S rRNA genes from a taxonomical viewpoint. Indicator genes for specific functions in LBRs such as nitrification, denitrification, and methane production have also been monitored. The population dynamics of microorganisms in LBRs have been partially clarified, but the obtained data remain limited because of highly heterogeneous features of solid wastes inside LBRs. Systematic monitoring of microorganisms should be established to improve LBR performance. PMID:22608549

  18. Parasitic fauna of a yellow-legged gull colony in the island of Escombreras (South-eastern Mediterranean) in close proximity to a landfill site: potential effects on cohabiting species.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Sandra Hervías; Martínez-Carrasco, Carlos; Diaz, Julia I; Chitimia, Lidia; Ortiz, Juana; Mayo, Elvira; Ybáñez, Rocío Ruiz de

    2015-06-01

    We identified the ectoparasites and helminth fauna of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis michahellis), breeding near to a solid waste landfill, and compared infection levels with those of other yellow-legged gull colonies. Moreover, we analysed correlations between parasites and sex and body condition of yellow-legged gulls, co-infections and the helminth community structure in order to propose the role of this species as reservoir of certain parasites. We also discuss the potential transmission of parasites between the yellow-legged gull and the endangered Audouin's gull, because interactions between these two species, such as kleptoparasitism and predation, occur frequently around colonies. The following species were recorded: Ornithodorus capensis (Arthropoda); Cosmocephalus obvelatus, Paracuaria adunca, Eucoleus contortus, Tetrameres skrjabini and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda); Tetrabothrius cylindraceus (Cestoda); Acanthotrema armata, Cardiocephaloides longicollis and Ornithobilharzia intermedia (Digenea). Tetrabothrius cylindraceus, A. armata and O. capensis are new parasite records for this host. The dependence of yellow-legged-gulls on fishery discards is supported by the dominance of parasites transmitted through marine intermediate hosts with interest to fisheries in the study area. However, the shift in diet from natural resources to food derived from human activities seems not to affect the parasitic fauna of yellow-legged gull. Besides of direct physical contact between individuals in nesting and resting habitats, the high availability of fishery discards could increase the risk of Audouin's gulls to be infected by common parasites of yellow-legged gull. PMID:26203998

  19. Landfill Instability and Its Implications Operation, Construction, and Design

    E-print Network

    on geotechnical and stability analyses for the design of landfills and remedial closures. It is the mostLandfill Instability and Its Implications for Operation, Construction, and Design By: W. Douglas landfill waste slide, a 300,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving a geosynthetic clay liner, and a 100

  20. Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 12431257 Methane generation in landfills

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    2007-01-01

    , the reported rate of generation of methane in industrial anaerobic digestion reactors ranges from 40 to 80 Nm3. Some of the modern regulated landfills attempt to capture and utilize landfill biogas, a renewable collecting landfill biogas worldwide. The landfills that capture biogas in the US collect about 2.6 million

  1. Landfills as critical infrastructures: synergy between non-invasive monitoring technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Raco, Brunella; Battaglini, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with a methodology for estimating the behaviour of a landfill system by means of the integration between two different non-invasive technologies. In fact, there is a widespread agreement on the fact that these infrastructures produce about 23% of the total anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. Despite that, there's still no internationally accepted protocol to quantify the leakage of biogas from a landfill with a common standard approach. This work proposes an assessment of the performance of a landfill system in terms of biogas release to the atmosphere. Such evaluation is performed by means of a direct measurement of gas flux with the accumulation chamber method, combined with the detection of thermal anomalies by infrared radiometry. In order to derive flux maps from a set of punctual measurements and calculate an overall quantity of emitted gas, a geostatistical technique is necessarily applied and briefly illustrated. A case study regarding an infrastructure located in Tuscany (Italy) is shown, where a discussion about the evolution of the landfill site through successive campaigns is also suggested. The role played by infrared thermography and its synergy with direct flux measurements is clearly perceivable in this context. The main benefit of the presented approach is a significant increase of the energy recovered from the landfill sites by optimising the collection of biogas, which implies a reduction of the total anthropogenic methane originated from the disposal of wastes released to the atmosphere.

  2. Development of an empirical model of methane emissions from landfills. Final report Mar-Dec 91

    SciTech Connect

    Peer, R.L.; Epperson, D.L.; Campbell, D.L.; von Brook, P.

    1992-03-01

    The report gives results of a field study of 21 U.S. landfills with gas recovery systems, to gather information that can be used to develop an empirical model of methane (CH4) emissions. Site-specific information includes average CH4 recovery rate, landfill size, tons of refuse (refuse mass), average age of the refuse, and climate. A correlation analysis showed that refuse mass was positively linearly correlated with landfill depth, volume, area, and well depth. Regression of the CH4 recovery rate on depth, refuse mass, and volume was significant, but depth was the best predictive variable (R2 = 0.53). Refuse mass was nearly as good (R2 = 0.50). None of the climate variables (precipitation, average temperature, dewpoint) were correlated with the CH4 recovery rate or with CH4 recovery per metric ton of refuse. Much of the variability in CH4 recovery remains unexplained, and is likely due to between-site differences in landfill construction, operation, and refuse composition. A model for global landfill emissions estimation is proposed.

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Beacon Heights Landfill, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-23

    The Beacon Heights Landfill site is located two miles east of the intersection of Connecticut Routes 8 and 42 in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's until 1970 the site was known as Betkoski's Dump and consisted of approximately six acres on which active dumping occurred. According to records at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP), waste accepted at the dump included municipal refuse, rubber, plastics, and industrial chemicals and sludges. Landfill operations consisted primarily of open burning along with burial of noncombustibles. In 1970, the Betkoski property and adjacent properties totaling 83 acres were purchased by the Murtha Trucking Company, and the name was changed to Beacon Heights, Inc. Landfill. At this time, the landfill area was expanded to approximately 30 acres. Records of the CT DEP, including a 1973 report by the landfill engineer, listed rubber, plastics, oils, hydrocarbons, chemical liquids and sludges, and solvents as being disposed of at the landfill by the trucking company. The selected remedial action for this site are included.

  4. FIELD TEST MEASUREMENTS AT FIVE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS WITH LANDFILL GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to evaluate landfill gas emissions at five municipal solid waste landfills which have modern control technology for landfill gas emissions. Comprehensive testing was conducted on the raw landfill gas and the combustion outlet exhaust. The project had two ...

  5. Electrochemical oxidation for landfill leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yang Englehardt, James D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview of electrochemical oxidation processes used for treatment of landfill leachate. The typical characteristics of landfill leachate are briefly reviewed, and the reactor designs used for electro-oxidation of leachate are summarized. Electrochemical oxidation can significantly reduce concentrations of organic contaminants, ammonia, and color in leachate. Pretreatment methods, anode materials, pH, current density, chloride concentration, and other additional electrolytes can considerably influence performance. Although high energy consumption and potential chlorinated organics formation may limit its application, electrochemical oxidation is a promising and powerful technology for treatment of landfill leachate.

  6. Evaluation of Y-12 landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.A. ); Daugherty, D.L. ); Hutzler, C.W.; Smith, C.M. ); Wylie, A.N. )

    1990-12-12

    The purpose of this project was to provide team members with practical experience in application of Civil Engineering 555, Solid Waste Management principles. Team members chose to evaluate the functional elements of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's (Y-12's) solid waste management system. The following factors contributed to selection of Y-12'system for evaluation: team members' familiarity with the Y-12 system; knowledge that the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was nearing capacity; and presence of the unique issues posed by special national security and potential radioactive contamination considerations. This report was limited to evaluation of the solid waste management system for conventional solid waste; hazardous radioactive, and radioactive mixed waste were not addressed. The report: (1) describes each functional element including waste generation, storage, collection, transport, processing, recovery, and disposal; (2) identifies and evaluates alternatives for each element and (3) identifies system strengths and recommends opportunities for improvement. 34 figs.

  7. Successful streets : performance measures, community engagement, and urban street design

    E-print Network

    Steinemann, Jeremy R

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, local transportation agencies have increasingly re-designed urban arterials, their cities' major surface streets, to better accommodate a wide range of users. At the same time, a growing number of ...

  8. Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

    2013-11-01

    The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution from surfaces capped with a soil layer. This study reveals divergent GEM emission patterns among landfill cells of different ages, and provides essential emission estimates for formulating Hg emission reduction strategies for a large landfill.

  9. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    PubMed

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation. PMID:20924666

  10. Protective effect of overlying geosynthetic on geomembrane liner observed from landfill field tests and inclined board laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Chung, Moonkyung; Seo, Min Woo; Kim, Kang Suk; Park, Jun Boum

    2006-06-01

    Geosynthetic liner systems are generally installed in landfill sites to prevent toxic leachate from escaping into the adjoining environment by utilizing their impervious characteristics. Therefore, it is important to protect the geomembrane from being damaged or destroyed during all phases of landfilling, namely landfill construction, waste tipping and landfill closure. This paper presents firstly the observed performance of a geomembrane liner from a landfill site where the geomembrane liner was installed on the slopes of a Korean landfill; and secondly the results of an inclined board laboratory test. Two types of experiments were conducted to identify the protecting effect of the overlaying geosynthetic on the geomembrane liners. At a testing landfill site, the slope consisted of three different sub-inclines and two 2-m-wide intermediate levels. The sub-inclines were each 8 m in vertical height and their angle of inclination was 1: 1.5 (vertical: horizontal). The reported observations were made for a time period of approximately 1 year, until the landfill was filled with wastes to the top of the uppermost slope. In addition, inclined board laboratory tests were carried out. During the inclined board test, a base table is inclined slowly and steadily until the block located on the base table starts to slide, when the tension and displacements of two geosynthetics, namely the geomembrane liner and protecting geotextile, are measured. In conclusion, test results showed that the down-drag force generated by waste accumulation and sliding of upper material was to a large extent dissipated through the elongation of the protecting geosynthetic overlying the geomembrane and thus was not transferred to the geomembrane. Unless the protecting geosynthetic undergoes structural failure, this stress relaxation phenomenon continues to occur so that the magnitude of tensile force to be applied on the geomembrane remains marginal. PMID:16784168

  11. Geophysical exploration and hydrologic impact of the closed Gracelawn landfill in Auburn, ME

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, D. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Several geophysical methods were used over portions of the Gracelawn landfill, in Auburn, Maine to determine the surface boundaries and subsurface structure of this closed landfill, and to determine the landfill's effects on groundwater quality. The landfill was originally a sand and gravel pit excavated in the 1950's and early 1960's, and was used as a landfill from 1964--1977. The site is unlined, has a clay cap, and has been graded and developed as a baseball park. Two seismic refraction lines were performed to obtain a minimum depth to bedrock of 80 m. Seismic velocities of methane gas-saturated trash ranged from 250 to 340 m/s, and sand velocities are approximately 800 m/s. Two electrical resistivity Wenner surveys over the trash yielded the depth to saturated material and thickness of the trash layers. Resistivity values for dry refuse ranged from 1,000-2,000 [Omega]*m. A third electrical resistivity survey yielded the thickness of unsaturated and saturated sands bordering the landfill. Dry sands were found to have a resistivity of 1,000 [Omega]*m, and saturated sands a resistivity of 500 [Omega]*m. Gravity and magnetic survey grids across the site revealed anomalies which were mapped to illustrate the irregular morphology of the buried trash as well as its surface boundaries. Residual magnetic anomalies are on the order of 2,000 nT. Residual gravity anomalies are up to 5 mGal. Groundwater elevations determined by the geophysical survey, combined with a survey of existing water monitoring well logs, indicate that the groundwater flow in the sand and gravel aquifer is to the southeast, away from the public water supply, Lake Auburn, which lies to the north of the site. However, correlations between the bedrock fracture analysis and the geophysical survey illustrate that there is potential for contamination of Lake Auburn via the bedrock aquifer.

  12. Design document for landfill capping Prototype Decision Support System. Draft 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.J.; Paige, G.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lane, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the Prototype Decision Support System for shallow land burial project is to ``Develop a Decision Support System tool which incorporates simulation modeling and multi-objective decision theory for the purpose of designing and evaluating alternative trench cap designs for mixed waste landfill covers. The goal is to improve the quality of technical information used by the risk manager to select landfill cover designs while taking into account technological, economical, and regulatory factors.`` The complexity of the technical and non-technical information, and how the information varies in importance across sites, points to the need for decision analysis tools that provide a common basis for integrating, synthesizing, and valuing the decision input. Because the cost of remediating thousands of contaminated DOE sites is projected to be in the 10`s--100`s of billions of dollars, methods will be needed to establish cleanup priorities and to help in the selection and evaluation of cost effective remediation alternatives. Even at this early stage in DOE`s cleanup program, it is certain that capping technologies will be heavily relied upon to remediate the 3000+ landfills on DOE property. Capping is favored in remediating most DOE landfills because, based on preliminary baseline risk assessments, human and ecological risks are considered to be low at most of these sites and the regulatory requirements for final closure of old landfills can be met using a well designed cap to isolate the buried waste. This report describes a program plan to design, develop, and test a decision support system (DSS) for assisting the DOE risk manager in evaluating capping alternatives for radioactive and hazardous waste landfills. The DOE DSS will incorporate methods for calculating, integrating and valuing technical, regulatory, and economic criteria.

  13. Investigation and risk assessment for landfill on US Army installation in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.A.; Delaney, K.; Luster, T.; Hargrave, R.

    1997-12-31

    Several environmental investigations at a landfill on a US Army installation in Germany focused on determining risk potential and the need for remediation. Risk potential was not related to the determination of the potential for adverse health effects. The determination of risk potential was based on comparison of maximum soil contaminant levels to unenforceable German guidelines based on ground water management principles rather than human exposure. Upon finding that incinerator ash/slag in the landfill was exposed by an eroding landfill cover, a concern for human health risk arose for troops training in the immediate area. During the site visit, the health risk assessment team discovered that slag had also been used as fill material at several places in the training area. The team sampled surface soil in the immediate vicinity of the eroded landfill cap as well as in training areas where slag was used as fill. Surface soil samples were analyzed for dioxins/furans, metals, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Analytical results indicated that dioxin/furan contamination was widespread, but that it was probably migrating from the slag fill areas via dust emissions, rather than from the landfill erosion. The risk assessment results for exposed troops, cancer risk of 1E-5 and hazard index of 0.6, would not support remediation of soils based on common Superfund practices. Lessons learned: (1) a site visit by the risk assessment team is crucial (without information on the slag fill, sampling would have concentrated on migration from the landfill); (2) where actual (as opposed to hypothetical) receptors exist, human health risk should be assessed at hazardous waste sites, whether the host country requires it or not; and (3) although Bavarian and US EPA dioxin/furan toxic equivalency factors are somewhat different, they did not produce different risk estimates for dioxins/furans.

  14. LANDFILL GAS ENERGY UTILIZATION EXPERIENCE: DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL AND NON-TECHNICAL ISSUES, SOLUTIONS, AND TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses technical and non-technical considerations associated with the development and operation of landfill gas to energy projects. Much of the report is based on interviews and site visits with the major developers and operators of the more than 110 projects in the...

  15. Molecular Analysis of Methanogen Richness in Landfill and Marshland Targeting 16S rDNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shailendra; Kundu, Sharbadeb; Ghosh, Sankar K.; Maitra, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Methanogens, a key contributor in global carbon cycling, methane emission, and alternative energy production, generate methane gas via anaerobic digestion of organic matter. The methane emission potential depends upon methanogenic diversity and activity. Since they are anaerobes and difficult to isolate and culture, their diversity present in the landfill sites of Delhi and marshlands of Southern Assam, India, was analyzed using molecular techniques like 16S rDNA sequencing, DGGE, and qPCR. The sequencing results indicated the presence of methanogens belonging to the seventh order and also the order Methanomicrobiales in the Ghazipur and Bhalsawa landfill sites of Delhi. Sequences, related to the phyla Crenarchaeota (thermophilic) and Thaumarchaeota (mesophilic), were detected from marshland sites of Southern Assam, India. Jaccard analysis of DGGE gel using Gel2K showed three main clusters depending on the number and similarity of band patterns. The copy number analysis of hydrogenotrophic methanogens using qPCR indicates higher abundance in landfill sites of Delhi as compared to the marshlands of Southern Assam. The knowledge about “methanogenic archaea composition” and “abundance” in the contrasting ecosystems like “landfill” and “marshland” may reorient our understanding of the Archaea inhabitants. This study could shed light on the relationship between methane-dynamics and the global warming process. PMID:26568700

  16. AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB NEAR THREE LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Fixed-height measurements were made at locations on the sites where capacitors containing PCB were exposed (hot spots) and at nomi...

  17. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  18. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  19. A Model Recycling Program: UNC Takes Action as Landfill Space Shrinks and Costs Rise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rhonda L.

    1991-01-01

    The University of North Carolina responded to escalating waste disposal costs and shrinking landfill space with a structured program of recycling, including a mobile recycling drop, student family housing recycling, a newspaper drop-off site, high-volume glass pick-up, high-volume newspaper pick-up, and cardboard recycling. Campus-wide cooperation…

  20. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ATTENUATION OF BENZENE AND DICHLOROETHANES AT THE KL LANDFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural attenuation of benzene and dichloroethanes in groundwater contaminated by leachate from the West KL Avenue landfill in Kalamazoo, Michigan, was evaluated in three phases. Existing data from the previous site investigations were used to locate a series of high-resolution ...