Sample records for street landfill site

  1. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  2. Atmospheric methane transport near landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P; Pilinis, Christodoulos; Halvadakis, Constantinos P

    2003-02-01

    Methane production rates that have been estimated by a biogas production model (MICROGEN) are combined with an air dispersion model in order to determine the spatial distribution of methane around landfill sites. By utilising dispersion models under extreme atmospheric conditions, a maximum methane concentration around the landfills can be determined. The factors that enhance the maximum methane concentrations, using the meteorological model CALMET in conjunction with the dispersion model CALPUFF, are found to be the wind speed and the percentage of cloud cover. The rates of temperature and pressure variation, as well as the land use category seem to have no effect on the maximum methane concentrations. A rapid reduction of methane concentration is observed a few metres away from the landfill centre while a slower reduction is observed at distances greater than 300 m from it. The performance of this methodology is evaluated by comparing measured concentrations with model predictions. PMID:12667020

  3. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 2): Hooker (102nd Street Landfill), Niagara Falls, NY, June 9, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This decision document presents the selected modification to the original remedial action (PB91-921417) for the 102nd Street Landfill Site (the `Site`), located in Niagara Falls, New York. The modification to the selected remedy addresses the river sediments within the shallow embayment of the Niagara River adjacent to the Site. The major components of the modification to the selected remedy include: dredging the Niagara River sediments to the `clean line` with respect to Site-related contamination. These sediments, after dewatering, will NOT be incinerated, but will be consolidated on the landfill. Any NAPL found within these sediments will be extracted, and will be incinerated at an off-site facility.

  4. Public health assessment for Agriculture Street Landfill, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, Region 6: CERCLIS number LAD981056997. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-02

    Agriculture Street Landfill (ASL) is a former landfill that has been developed in part for residential use. Site contaminants have been detected in soil, dust, air, and garden produce. Residents may be exposed to site contaminants through ingestion, skin contact, or breathing. The primary contaminants are metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. The undeveloped area of the site has been classified as a public health hazard. The highest levels of contaminants have been detected in the undeveloped area. The majority of the residential area and the Press Park Community Center have been classified as no apparent public health hazard since the levels of contaminants in the soil are generally below levels of health concern. Based on the data reviewed, it is recommended that measures be taken to limit residents' exposure to areas where soil is contaminated at levels of health concern.

  5. Public health assessment for South 8th Street Landfill (A/K/A West Memphis Landfill), West Memphis, Crittenden County, Arkansas, Region 6. Cerclis No. ARD980496723. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-22

    The South 8th Street Landfill site is located along South 8th Street on the west bank of the Mississippi River in West Memphis, Crittenden County, Arkansas. Previous studies and environmental sampling indicate that various wastes disposed of at the South 8th Street Landfill have contaminated the site with a number of contaminants including VOCs, PAHs, phenols, PCBs, pesticides, and heavy metals. Exposure to surface soil contaminants would have occurred through skin contact and incidental ingestion. In addition, persons who used the on-site pond for recreational activities (such as wading and swimming) were likely exposed to contaminants in the surface water and sediments through skin contact and incidental ingestion; and persons who consumed fish caught in the pond were likely exposed to contaminants (primarily mercury) in the fish.

  6. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  7. Air pollution directional risk assessment for siting a landfill.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yea; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2008-12-01

    Air pollution directional risk (APDR) is an essential factor to be assessed when selecting an appropriate landfill site. Because air pollutants generated from a landfill are diffused and transported by wind in different directions and speeds, areas surrounding the landfill will be subject to different associated risks, depending on their relative position from the landfill. This study assesses potential APDRs imposed from a candidate landfill site on its adjacent areas on the basis of the pollutant distribution simulated by a dispersion model, wind directions and speeds from meteorological monitoring data, and population density. A pollutant distribution map layer was created using a geographic information system and layered onto a population density map to obtain an APDR map layer. The risk map layer was then used in this study to evaluate the suitability of a candidate site for placing a landfill. The efficacy of the proposed procedure was demonstrated for a siting problem in central Taiwan, Republic of China. PMID:19189752

  8. Optimizing landfill site selection by using land classification maps.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, M; Homaee, M; Mahmoodi, S; Pazira, E; Van Genuchten, M Th

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is a major environmental concern throughout the world. Proper landfill siting involves many environmental, economic, technical, and sociocultural challenges. In this study, a new quantitative method for landfill siting that reduces the number of evaluation criteria, simplifies siting procedures, and enhances the utility of available land evaluation maps was proposed. The method is demonstrated by selecting a suitable landfill site near the city of Marvdasht in Iran. The approach involves two separate stages. First, necessary criteria for preliminary landfill siting using four constraints and eight factors were obtained from a land classification map initially prepared for irrigation purposes. Thereafter, the criteria were standardized using a rating approach and then weighted to obtain a suitability map for landfill siting, with ratings in a 0-1 domain and divided into five suitability classes. Results were almost identical to those obtained with a more traditional environmental landfill siting approach. Because of far fewer evaluation criteria, the proposed weighting method was much easier to implement while producing a more convincing database for landfill siting. The classification map also considered land productivity. In the second stage, the six best alternative sites were evaluated for final landfill siting using four additional criteria. Sensitivity analyses were furthermore conducted to assess the stability of the obtained ranking. Results indicate that the method provides a precise siting procedure that should convince all pertinent stakeholders. PMID:25666474

  9. Development of a perimeter odor monitoring system for landfill sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna C. Persaud; N. C. P. Woodyatt; R. W. Sneath

    2008-01-01

    A need exists for instrumentation capable of continuous measurement of gas and odor emission from the perimeter of a landfill site. Current practice is to manually use a flame ionization detector. Instruments based on an array of MOS gas sensors were developed and placed on the perimeter of a landfill site, functioning as point monitoring systems, using methane as a

  10. The seasonal distribution of bioaerosols in municipal landfill sites: a 3-yr study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chu-Yun Huang; Ching-Chang Lee; Fang-Chun Li; Yu-Pei Ma; Huey-Jen Jenny Su

    2002-01-01

    Landfill is the most common way to dispose waste in many countries, and most landfill sites after closure are often considered for public recreation purposes. It is important that the pollutant levels of closed landfill areas are free of adverse health concerns. However, only limited studies have investigated the airborne biological contamination in closed landfill sites. The objective of this

  11. Analysis of odorous compounds at municipal landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Rociek, Anna; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Szczepaniec-Cieciak, Elzbieta; Riesenmey, Caroline; Vaillant, Hervé; Batton-Hubert, Mireille; Piejko, Krzysztof

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine odorous compounds in the air over the landfill sites in France and Poland. Air samples were collected by passive and dynamic methods of preconcentration analytes and analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The coupling microTD-microGC-MS was also used for on-site analysis of odorous compounds. The achieved results indicated that the concentrations of odorants in the air varied and strongly depended on the sampling site. The highest concentrations were observed at the points situated near biogas wells and above the fresh waste layer. The concentrations were influenced by landfill activities such as failures of the landfill gas collection system, heavy truck traffic, machinery operations and compacting fresh waste. PMID:19710115

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Hooker-102nd Street Landfill, Niagara Falls, NY. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-26

    The 22-acre Hooker-102nd Street site is a former industrial landfill in the city of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, New York. The site is adjacent to, and partially within the Niagara River's 100-year floodplain. These studies and the Remedial Investigation (RI) initiated in 1984, identified contamination in ground water, onsite and offsite soil, rivershore sediment, and within a storm sewer. Additionally, the presence of a leachate plume of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) was discovered emanating from the landfill area. The Record of Decision (ROD) is the final remedy which addresses all of the contaminated media. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, TCE, and toluene; other organics including PCBs and phenols; and metals including arsenic.

  13. 75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0447, FRL-9157-5] Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd...costs concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland...0447 or Site name Cooksey Brothers Landfill Superfund Site by one of the...

  14. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, Talib E. [Sustainability Centre in Glasgow (SCG), George Moore Building, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: t_e_butt@hotmail.com; Lockley, Elaine [Be Environmental Ltd. Suite 213, Lomeshaye Business Village, Turner Road, Nelson, Lancashire, BB9 7DR, England (United Kingdom); Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K. [Built and Natural Environment, Baxter Building, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.oduyemi@abertay.ac.uk

    2008-07-01

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches.

  15. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  16. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (?g) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 ?g in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 ?g, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study area. All samplers in the survey had detections of TPH, but only eight of the samplers had detections of TPH greater than 0.9 mg. Four samplers had TPH detections greater than 9 mg; the only other fuel-related compounds detected in these four samplers included toluene in three of the samplers and undecane in the fourth sampler. Three samplers deployed along the western margin of the northern landfill had detections of both diesel-and gasoline-related compounds; however, the diesel-related compounds were detected at or below method detection levels. Seven samplers in the northern study area had detections of chlorinated compounds, including three perchloroethene detections, three chloroform detections, and one 1,4-dichloro-benzene detection. One sampler on the western margin of the landfill had detections of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-tr-methylbenene below method detection levels.

  17. Reliability assessment of groundwater monitoring networks at landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenigül, N. Buket; Elfeki, Amro M. M.; Gehrels, Johannes C.; van den Akker, Cees; Hensbergen, André T.; Dekking, F. Michel

    2005-07-01

    Landfills represent a significant threat to groundwater contamination due to their nature of operation and their abundance. Monitoring well networks at these sites are of vital importance in detecting leakage plumes. This study presents a reliability assessment to estimate the performance of groundwater monitoring systems at landfill sites. A hypothetical problem is presented where the detection probability of several monitoring systems is compared. A Monte-Carlo approach is used to incorporate uncertainties due to subsurface heterogeneity and the leak location. Hydraulic conductivity and leak location are considered as random variables with prescribed probability density functions. A finite difference groundwater model coupled with a random walk particle-tracking model simulates a contaminant plume released from the landfill for each Monte-Carlo realization. The analysis shows that lateral dispersivity of the medium has a significant influence on the reliability of the monitoring system, since it is the primary parameter controlling the width of the contaminant plume. Furthermore the number and the location of the monitoring wells are dependent on the heterogeneity of the medium and size of the contaminant leak. It is concluded that the reliability of the common practice of three downgradient monitoring wells is inadequate from the point of view of prevention of groundwater contamination due to landfills.

  18. Characterization and control of odorous gases at a landfill site: A case study in Hangzhou, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding Ying; Cai Chuanyu; Hu Bin; Xu Yueen; Zheng Xuejuan; Chen Yingxu; Wu Weixiang

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are one of the major sources of offensive odors potentially creating annoyance in adjacent communities. At the end of May 2007, an odor pollution incident occurred at the Tianziling landfill site, Hangzhou, China, where the residents lodged complaints about the intense odor from the landfill, which drew a significant attention from the government. In this

  19. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  20. Analysis of Integrated Expert Geographic Information Systems for Secured Landfill Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junggoth, Rittirong; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Pitaksanurat, Somsak; Kane, Kevin

    Siting of secured landfill is difficult because of the complexity of technical and social aspects. Technically, the appropriate tool for secured landfill sites analysis should be applied in the siting procedure. This study aims at developing a comprehensive tool to facilitate the analysis of secured landfill sites. It integrates Geographic Information System (GIS), Expert System (ES) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) into a packaged tool. The GIS represents spatial data, ES represents a knowledge base about secured landfill siting, AHP was applied for ranking of candidate sites and a user interface was developed to make this tool a user-friendly graphical system. The use of this tool was illustrated by identifying suitable sites for secured landfill in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

  1. Landfill mining: Development of a theoretical method for a preliminary estimate of the raw material potential of landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Nispel, Jörg; Sarc, Renato; Aldrian, Alexia; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Pomberger, Roland; Budischowsky, Andreas; Ragossnig, Arne

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the rising need for raw materials by emerging economies (e.g. China) has led to a change in the availability of certain primary raw materials, such as ores or coal. The accompanying rising demand for secondary raw materials as possible substitutes for primary resources, the soaring prices and the global lack of specific (e.g. metallic) raw materials pique the interest of science and economy to consider landfills as possible secondary sources of raw materials. These sites often contain substantial amounts of materials that can be potentially utilised materially or energetically. To investigate the raw material potential of a landfill, boreholes and excavations, as well as subsequent hand sorting have proven quite successful. These procedures, however, are expensive and time consuming as they frequently require extensive construction measures on the landfill body or waste mass. For this reason, this article introduces a newly developed, affordable, theoretical method for the estimation of landfill contents. The article summarises the individual calculation steps of the method and demonstrates this using the example of a selected Austrian sanitary landfill. To assess the practicality and plausibility, the mathematically determined raw material potential is compared with the actual results from experimental studies of excavated waste from the same landfill (actual raw material potential). PMID:26185166

  2. Empirical approach to predict leached nutrients from landfill site.

    PubMed

    Barman, Pranab Jyoti; Kartha, Suresh A; Pradhan, Bulu

    2015-05-01

    An empirical approach is made in this investigation to predict the leached concentrations of sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) in the effluents from a landfill site. Water at certain predetermined inflow filling rate is applied to a specific ponding depth, at the top of an experimental column filled with landfill refuse soil at the top (upper layer) and normal local soil at the bottom (base layer). The water infiltrates into the upper layer soil, percolates through the pores in upper and base layers, and in the process leaches the nutrients from the soils that are collected at the bottom of the column. The experimentations were for different combinations of heights of upper and base layer soils, water ponding depth, and inflow filling rates. The nutrient concentrations in the outflow leachates are measured using flame photometer. The observations showed mixed responses of leaching and trapping of nutrients in the soil layers for the various combinations. The experimental observations also inferred that the nutrient leaching is more for cases involving higher ponding depths and higher inflow filling rates. Empirical relationships with respect to the geometrical parameters, to predict the leached concentrations of Na, Ca, and K, are developed from the experimental observations using nonlinear least squares regressive techniques. Exponential equations gave the best empirical fit among various nonlinear relations in the regression technique. The empirical models also predicted well for each subcategory of independent variables that are substantiated by high correlation coefficients. PMID:25410312

  3. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

  4. Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: a review of epidemiologic literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates current epidemiologic literature on health effects in relation to residence near landfill sites. Increases in risk of adverse health effects (low birth weight, birth defects, certain types of cancers) have been reported near individual landfill sites and in some multisite studies, and although biases and confounding factors cannot be excluded as explanations for these findings, they may indicate real risks associated with residence near certain landfill sites. A general weakness in the reviewed studies is the lack of direct exposure measurement. An increased prevalence of self-reported health symptoms such as fatigue, sleepiness, and headaches among residents near waste sites has consistently been reported in more than 10 of the reviewed papers. It is difficult to conclude whether these symptoms are an effect of direct toxicologic action of chemicals present in waste sites, an effect of stress and fears related to the waste site, or an effect of reporting bias. Although a substantial number of studies have been conducted, risks to health from landfill sites are hard to quantify. There is insufficient exposure information and effects of low-level environmental exposure in the general population are by their nature difficult to establish. More interdisciplinary research can improve levels of knowledge on risks to human health of waste disposal in landfill sites. Research needs include epidemiologic and toxicologic studies on individual chemicals and chemical mixtures, well-designed single- and multisite landfill studies, development of biomarkers, and research on risk perception and sociologic determinants of ill health. PMID:10698726

  5. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. PMID:25911065

  6. LINERS FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS AND CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report lists addresses of sanitary landfills and chemical and hazardous waste disposal sites and holding ponds with some form of impermeable lining. Liners included are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon R, ethylene propylene diene monomer, butyl rubber, conventional ...

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  8. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, Summer 1993 (Northside landfill site profile, Spokane, Washington)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Cleanup of the Northside Landfill in Spokane, Washington is an example of effective collaboration with state and local governments in addressing a Superfund hazardous waste site. City officials recognized that the landfill had reached capacity, local wells were contaminated, and ground water needed thorough treatment. EPA and Ecology worked with Spokane's Department of Solid Waste Management to: Provide a clean source of drinking water and construct a state-of-the-art plastic cover to cap the landfill and guard against the further spread of contaminants.

  9. Woodland establishment on closed old-style landfill sites in N.W. England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Rawlinson; Nicholas Dickinson; Paul Nolan; Philip Putwain

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale field experiment on 11 closed old-style landfill sites aims to identify the constraints to tree survival and growth, and the opportunity for restoration to community forestry. This paper analyses survival and growth during the first 3 years. A preliminary site investigation showed that the main environmental constraints to tree growth were soil depth, site exposure, soil compaction, waterlogging

  10. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. On-site treatment and landfilling of MSWI air pollution control residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Lundtorp; D. L Jensen; M. A Sørensen; H Mosbæk; T. H Christensen

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are difficult to landfill due to substantial leaching of trace metals. An on-site pretreatment prior to landfilling of APC-residues was investigated in terms of bench-scale experiments with a semidry APC-residue and a fly ash. The treatment involved mixing of the residues with a ferrous sulphate solution and subsequent oxidation

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2009-01-15

    The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

  13. Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect the creek. However, most TPH detections were located in and immediately adjacent to a debris field located within the former landfill and in areas where debris was not visible, including the northwestern and southeastern parts of the study area. Two of the four soil-gas samplers installed within a former military training area adjacent to the landfill also had TPH detections above the method detection level. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (as combined BTEX mass) were detected at 0.02 microgram or greater in three soil-gas samplers installed at the northwestern boundary and in five samplers installed in the southeastern part of the study area. There was no BTEX mass detected above the method detection level in samplers installed in the debris field. Toluene was the most frequently detected BTEX compound. Compounds indicative of diesel-range organics were detected above 0.04 microgram in 12 soil-gas samplers and had a distribution similar to that of TPH, including being detected in the debris field. Undecane was the most frequently detected diesel compound. Chloroform and naphthalene were detected in eight and two soil-gas samplers, respectively. Five soil-gas samplers deployed during September 2010 were analyzed for organic compounds classified as chemical agents and explosives, but none exceeded the method detection levels. Five composite soil samples collected from within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill were analyzed for 35 inorganic constituents, but none of the constituents detected exceeded regional screening levels for industrial soils. The sample collected in the debris field exceeded background levels for aluminum, barium, calcium, chromium, lead, nickel, potassium, sodium, and zinc. Three surface-water samples were collected in September 2010 from a stormwater outfall culvert that drains to the creek and from the open channel of the creek at upstream and downstream locations relative to the outfall. Toluene was detected at 0.661 mi

  14. LANDFILL RESEARCH AT THE BOONE COUNTY FIELD SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills presently play a significant role in the disposal of solid wastes, and they will probably continue to do so in many areas because of their economic advantages over other methods. However, justifiable concern exists about the environmental effects of sanitary la...

  15. Limited site investigation of Landfills 1 and 4, Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Eddy, P.A.; Airhart, S.P.; Olsen, K.R.; Raymond, J.R.; Dahl, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The information presented in this report was collected during limited site investigation activities conducted in the vicinity of Landfills 1 and 4 at Fort Lewis. The purpose of this work was to provide a means of detecting and evaluating the impacts of these inactive landfills on ground-water quality and adjacent lands. This effort included the design and construction of ground-water monitoring systems for compliance with applicable federal and state regulations governing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-type landfills. Ground-water samples were collected from both existing (1981 and 1984) wells and the newly installed (1988) wells. The analytical results from the water samples indicate that the ground water in and around Landfill 1 contains limited contamination. Contaminants may include volatile organic compounds and nitrate. The primary concern in the area around Landfill 1 was the determination that ground water from two wells may contain cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. Nitrate levels in the downgradient wells were greater than those in upgradient wells and exceeded drinking water standards in some of the less-representative samples. Analyses of ground-water samples from wells in and around Landfill 4 indicate several contaminants may be present. These include volatile organic compounds (principally cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene), coliform, oil and grease, and perhaps some metals (iron and magnesium). The primary concern in the area around Landfill 4 was the determination that ground water from five wells contained cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. The source of contaminants beneath either landfill cannot yet be identified. Insufficient data exist to disprove or confirm either landfill as possible contributors. 19 refs., 32 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  17. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Sumathi, V.R. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: sumiguna@gmail.com; Natesan, Usha [Centre for Environmental Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Sarkar, Chinmoy [Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014 (India)

    2008-11-15

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  18. Factors influencing the establishment of floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Natural revegetation on landfill sites often results in a species poor sward dominated by Elymus repens (Shaw, 1983; Davis, 1988; Wong, 1988). The aim of this study was primarily to investigate the mechanism by which E.repens achieved such apparent domination and secondly to investigate various methods to establish floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site. Low rates of germination and survival were recorded from seeds of Plantago lanceolata, Centaureau nigrand Leucanthemum vulgare sown into a sward of E.repens on a restored landfill site in Essex, even during periods with adequate soil water. Plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L. vulgare were grown in pots and transplanted into the sward of E.repens. Over the following two years a significant decrease in crown cover of these species was recorded. In areas where E.repens had been treated with herbicide or mown, seedlings and introduced plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare increased in cover over two years. Stomatal conductance of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare was reduced when these species were growing with E.repens even during periods with adequate soil water. P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare growing with E.repens on restored landfill has been shown experimentally to result in reduced cover. It is suggested that this is due to competition in combination potentially, with allelochemical effects of E.repens. Successful establishment of a floristically rich grass mix was achieved by the reduction in cover of E.repens by herbicide or mowing. On newly restored landfill a careful balance between soil treatments, fertilizer levels and subsequent management in the form of mowing must be attained in order to establish floristically rich grasslands. The results from this study show that by utilizing various management techniques a floristically rich grass mix could be established on a restored landfill site.

  19. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  20. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. [Municipal landfill site in Krzyz near Tarnów as source of microbiological factors harmful to environment and human health].

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Krzysztof; Barabasz, Wies?aw

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate microbiological pollution of air with microorganisms belonging to different taxonomic and physiological groups, and to examine whether the effect of the municipal landfill site in Krzyz changes at various study sites located: in so called "zero zone" (operating landfill), at different distances from the landfill and in Tarnów. Microbiological studies of atmospheric air were carried out from May 1998 to April 2001. Measurements were taken at 10 study sites located at the operating municipal landfill site in Krzyz, inside and outside of its protection zone. Microbial air pollution standard (PN-89/Z-04111/02 and PN-89/Z-04111/03) were used to evaluate the impact of municipal landfill site on the atmospheric environment. The standards were most often exceeded by hemolytic bacteria, (277 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e. 76.9%, and Actinomycetes (213 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 59.1%, while by fungi (26 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 7.2% and bacteria (42 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 11.6% in a lesser degree. The standards were most often exceeded in operating land fill site sector, at the gateway to the land fill site and in partially reclaimed sector. Fewest cases of standard exceedance were recorded in control site (located outside the landfill site), near built-up area and before the entrance to the land fill site. PMID:15682940

  2. Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to detect any true dose–response effect. PMID:12409536

  3. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  4. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  5. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  6. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  7. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

  8. Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: a synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

    2013-10-15

    The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700 m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ?4.0 €/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region. PMID:23792820

  9. Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2013-09-01

    Long term methane emissions from landfill sites are often predicted by first-order decay (FOD) models, in which the default coefficients of the methane generation potential and the methane generation rate given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are usually used. However, previous studies have demonstrated the large uncertainty in these coefficients because they are derived from a calibration procedure under ideal steady-state conditions, not actual landfill site conditions. In this study, the coefficients in the FOD model were estimated by a new approach to predict more precise long term methane generation by considering region-specific conditions. In the new approach, age-defined waste samples, which had been under the actual landfill site conditions, were collected in Hokkaido, Japan (in cold region), and the time series data on the age-defined waste sample's methane generation potential was used to estimate the coefficients in the FOD model. The degradation coefficients were 0.0501/y and 0.0621/y for paper and food waste, and the methane generation potentials were 214.4 mL/g-wet waste and 126.7 mL/g-wet waste for paper and food waste, respectively. These coefficients were compared with the default coefficients given by the IPCC. Although the degradation coefficient for food waste was smaller than the default value, the other coefficients were within the range of the default coefficients. With these new coefficients to calculate methane generation, the long term methane emissions from the landfill site was estimated at 1.35×10(4)m(3)-CH(4), which corresponds to approximately 2.53% of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the city (5.34×10(5)t-CO(2)/y). PMID:23786989

  10. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  11. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S. [Golder Associates, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

  12. Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.

    2007-04-01

    The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

  13. Radiological survey results for the Peek Street site properties, Schenectady, New York

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Foley; W. D. Cottrell; R. F. Carrier

    1992-01-01

    The Peek Street Industrial Facility, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York, was operated by the General Electric Company for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1947 and 1955. A variety of operations using radioactive materials were conducted at the site, but the main activities were to design an intermediate breeder reactor and to develop a chemical process for

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Hechimovich Sanitary Landfill Site, Williamstown, Dodge County, WI, September 6, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This document presents the decision of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) on the final source control and groundwater remedy that is necessary at the Land and Gas Reclamation Landfill site in the Town of Williamstown, Dodge County, Wisconsin. The final remedial action for this site consists of the existing NR 504 Wis. Adm. Code clay cap and, if necessary, an expansion of the current operating gas extraction system. The additional actions proposed in this Record of Decision (ROD) will increase the landfill gas extraction rate. The increased gas extraction rate will be accomplished either by adding additional gas extraction wells in the waste or by increasing the gas flow rate through the existing well system. The intent will be to, as rapidly as possible, reduce the volatile organic chemical (VOC) concentration in the landfill wastes and consequently reduce the VOC loading from the landfill to groundwater.

  15. A pilot and field investigation on mobility of PCDDs\\/PCDFs in landfill site with municipal solid waste incineration residue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Osako; Yong-Jin Kim; Dong-Hoon Lee

    2002-01-01

    A field investigation by boring was carried out in a landfill site primarily with municipal solid waste incineration residue. From the collected core samples, vertical profiles of homologous content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs\\/PCDFs) in the landfill layer were traced and the behavior of PCDDs\\/PCDFs was examined. In addition, a pilot-scale study was conducted on the PCDDs\\/PCDFs leached

  16. Combined chemical and toxicological evaluation of leachate from municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pooja; Gupta, Asmita; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, landfill leachate of three landfill sites of Delhi, India, was toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment. Raw leachate samples were collected from the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills of Delhi lacking liner systems. Samples were characterized with relatively low concentrations of heavy metals while the organic component exceeded the upper permissible limit by up to 158 times. Qualitative analysis showed the presence of numerous xenobiotics belonging to the group of halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, and other emerging contaminants. Quantitative analysis of PAHs showed that the benzo(a)pyrene-toxic equivalence quotient (BaP-TEQ) ranged from 41.22 to 285.557 ng L(-1). The human risk assessment methodology employed to evaluate the potential adverse effects of PAHs showed that the cancer risk level was lower than the designated acceptable risk of 10(-6). However, significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leachates on HepG2 cell line was observed with MTT EC50 value ranging from 11.58 to 20.44 % and statistically significant DNA damage. Thus, although the leachates contained low concentrations of PAHs with proven carcinogenic potential, but the mixture of contaminants present in leachates are toxic enough to cause synergistic or additive cytotoxicity and genotoxicity and affect human health. PMID:25578612

  17. Assessing the impact of historical coastal landfill sites on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many coastal and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these sites waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical sites may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test site. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in coastal systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced coastal erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.

  18. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeology and water quality in a 4 sq mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, New York, were studied in 1981-83. The 60-acre sanitary landfill at the site was excavated in highly permeable glacial outwash that forms the upper glacial aquifer and is lined with a polyvinyl chloride membrane. Groundwater beneath the site is under water table conditions and flows southeast at approximately 1.1 ft/day. Samples from wells downgradient indicate that leachate has entered the aquifer despite the liner. A plume 3,700 ft long , 2,400 ft wide, and at least 90 ft thick was delineated based on specific conductance data. Water quality in the Magothy aquifer and in Beaverdam Creek, a groundwater fed stream 2,000 ft southeast of the landfill site, does not appear to be affected. (USGS)

  19. Man and woolly mammoth at the Kraków Spadzista Street (B) – taphonomy of the site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Wojtal; Krzysztof Sobczyk

    2005-01-01

    Excavations at the Kraków Spadzista Street (B) site, Poland were conducted over 16 years in which approximately 150m2 of the site was studied. The radiocarbon dates clustered around 23–24 ky BP, placing the site in the Gravettian cultural complex. In this paper, results from a detailed taphonomic study of faunal remains are discussed in conjunction with previous analyses of stone

  20. An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

    2012-08-01

    Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155

  1. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals. PMID:23528999

  2. The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J. [RUST Environment and Infrastructure (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design.

  3. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Williams, Ian D. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians and citizens – all have to be part of the decision process when siting a new waste management facility. The opinions of the young respondents were significantly influenced by their level of environmental knowledge.

  4. Assessment of ecological risks at former landfill site using TRIAD procedure and multicriteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Schultz, Eija; Haimi, Jari

    2013-02-01

    Old industrial landfills are important sources of environmental contamination in Europe, including Finland. In this study, we demonstrated the combination of TRIAD procedure, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), and statistical Monte Carlo analysis for assessing the risks to terrestrial biota in a former landfill site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and metals. First, we generated hazard quotients by dividing the concentrations of metals and PHCs in soil by the corresponding risk-based ecological benchmarks. Then we conducted ecotoxicity tests using five plant species, earthworms, and potworms, and determined the abundance and diversity of soil invertebrates from additional samples. We aggregated the results in accordance to the methods used in the TRIAD procedure, conducted rating of the assessment methods based on their performance in terms of specific criteria, and weighted the criteria using two alternative weighting techniques to produce performance scores for each method. We faced problems in using the TRIAD procedure, for example, the results from the animal counts had to be excluded from the calculation of integrated risk estimates (IREs) because our reference soil sample showed the lowest biodiversity and abundance of soil animals. In addition, hormesis hampered the use of the results from the ecotoxicity tests. The final probabilistic IREs imply significant risks at all sampling locations. Although linking MCDA with TRIAD provided a useful means to study and consider the performance of the alternative methods in predicting ecological risks, some uncertainties involved still remained outside the quantitative analysis. PMID:22762796

  5. Statistical trends in ground-water monitoring data at a landfill Superfund site: A case study.

    PubMed

    Stoline, M R; Passero, R N; Barcelona, M J

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the use of statistical regression models to characterize temporal trends in groundwater monitoring data collected between 1980 and 1990 on 15 wells and 13 parameters (195 cases in all) at the KL Avenue landfill site in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. This site was used as a municipal landfill prior to 1980, then was placed on the Superfund site list in 1982 after ground-water contamination was found.Six temporal regression trend models were defined using linear and quadratic regression models. These trends were used to classify each of the 195 cases as: improving, deteriorating, or stable over the 1980-1990 time period. Using these classifications it was determined that there were more than twice as many improving cases as deteriorating conditions at the KL site during this time period. These models provide a method for visualizing and interpreting trends in ground-water quality at individual well locations within the contaminant plume and for assessing the chemical trend behavior of the overall plume. The improving, deteriorating, and stable trend categories were developed for two purposes. The first purpose is to facilitate comprehension of information contained in large amounts of water quality data. The second is to assist communication among the many different groups of people who recommend actions, including remediation responsibilities at Superfund sites, like the KL site.A normal probability model was used in the trend classifications. This model contained provisions to accommodate nondetect data and other 'abnormal' laboratory determinations which can influence the trend selection process. The robustness of this classification procedure was examined using a lognormal probability model. The overall conclusions about the KL site using the lognormal model were similar to those obtained using the normal model. However, some individual trend indications were different using the lognormal model. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to check the adequacy of both the normal and lognormal models. The lognormal model was found to be a somewhat more adequate model for fitting the KL site data, but was not found to be superior to the normal model for each case.The normal and lognormal models were both found to be suitable for determining overall trend conditions at this site. Both models are recommended for these purposes assuming an understanding of the statistical constraints and hydrochemical context. However, it is recommended that the search for more adequate trend models continues. PMID:24221025

  6. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  7. Odour-impact assessment around a landfill site from weather-type classification, complaint inventory and numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Chemel, C; Riesenmey, C; Batton-Hubert, M; Vaillant, H

    2012-01-01

    Gases released from landfill sites into the atmosphere have the potential to cause olfactory nuisances within the surrounding communities. Landfill sites are often located over complex topography for convenience mainly related to waste disposal and environmental masking. Dispersion of odours is strongly conditioned by local atmospheric dynamics. Assessment of odour impacts needs to take into account the variability of local atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we discuss a method to assess odour impacts around a landfill site located over complex terrain in order to provide information to be used subsequently to identify management strategies to reduce olfactory nuisances in the residential neighbourhoods. A weather-type classification is defined in order to identify meteorological conditions under which olfactory nuisances are to be expected. A non-steady state Gaussian model and a full-physics meteorological model are used to predict olfactory nuisances, for both the winter and summer scenarios that lead to the majority of complaints in neighbourhoods surrounding the landfill site. Simulating representative scenarios rather than full years make a high resolution simulation of local atmospheric dynamics in space and time possible. Results underline the key role of local atmospheric dynamics in driving the dispersion of odours. The odour concentration simulated by the full-physics meteorological model is combined with the density of the population in order to calculate an average population exposure for the two scenarios. Results of this study are expected to provide helpful information to develop technical solutions for an effective management of landfill operations, which would reduce odour impacts within the surrounding communities. PMID:22054574

  8. Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario).

  9. Water-quality data from a landfill-leachate treatment and disposal site, Pinellas County, Florida, January 1979-August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Fernandez, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data collected between January 1979 and August 1980 at the landfill leachate treatment site in Pinellas County, Fla., are presented. Data include field and laboratory measurements of physical properties, major chemical constituents , nitrogen and phosphorus species, chemical oxygen demand, trace metals, coliform bacteria, taxonomy of macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton, and chlorophyll analyses. Data were collected as part of a study to determine water-quality changes resulting from aeration and ponding of leachate pumped from landfill burial trenches and for use in determining the rate of movement and quality changes as the leachate migrates through the surficial aquifer. Samples were collected from 81 surficial-aquifer water-quality monitoring wells constructed in January 1975, February 1979, and March 1979, and 8 surface-water quality monitoring sites established in January 1975, February 1978, and November 1978. (USGS)

  10. Magnetic properties and heavy metal content of sanitary leachate sludge in two landfill sites near Bandung, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satria Bijaksana; Estevanus Kristian Huliselan

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic properties and heavy metal content of landfill leachate sludge samples from two municipal solid waste disposal sites\\u000a near Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and their correlation with heavy metals are studied in the present work. Leachate was\\u000a found to be sufficiently magnetic with mass-specific magnetic susceptibility that varies from 64.8 to 349.0 × 10?8 m3 kg?1. It is, however, less magnetic than the soils

  11. Landfill Gas Effects on Evapotranspirative Landfill Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, M. A.; Mattson, E.; Ankeny, M.; Kelsey, J.

    2005-05-01

    The performance of an evapotranspirative landfill cover can be adversely affected by transport of landfill gases to the plant root zone. Healthy plant communities are critical to the success and effectiveness of these vegetated landfill covers. Poor vegetative cover can result in reduced transpiration, increased percolation, and increased erosion regardless of the thickness of the cover. Visual inspections of landfill covers indicate that vegetation-free areas are not uncommon at municipal waste landfills. Data from soil profiles beneath these areas suggest that anaerobic conditions in the plant-rooting zone are controlling plant distribution. On the same landfill, aerobic conditions exist at similar depths beneath well-vegetated areas. The movement of methane and carbon dioxide, generated by degradation of organic wastes, into the overlying soil cover displaces oxygen in the root zone. Monitoring data from landfills in semi-arid areas indicate that barometric pumping can result in hours of anaerobic conditions in the root zone. Microbial consumption of oxygen in the root zone reduces the amount of oxygen available for plant root respiration but consumption of oxygen and methane also produce water as a reaction byproduct. This biogenic water production can be on the order of centimeters of water per year which, while increasing water availability, also has a negative feedback on transport of landfill gases through the cover. Accounting for these processes can improve evapotranspirative landfill cover design at other sites.

  12. Results of the radiological and beryllium verification survey at the Peek Street Site, Schenectady, New York (SY001V)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Foley; C. A. Johnson; R. F. Carrier; J. F. Allred

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent verification radiological and non-radioactive beryllium survey at the Peek Street site, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York. The purpose of the survey, conducted during 1993 and continuing through January 1994, was to confirm the success of the remedial

  13. Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

  14. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. ImagesFIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 7. PMID:738247

  15. Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability. PMID:22878933

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Sauk County Landfill Site, Excelsior, WI, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Sauk County landfill is located in the Town of Excelsior, Sauk County, Wisconsin. The selected source control remedy is Alternative B, Construction of a Gas Extraction System, as listed in the Focused Feasibility Study. The selected remedy is an operable unit that meets the solid waste disposal requirements of NR 500 to 520, Wis. Adm. Code.

  17. Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

  18. Leaky Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

  19. Radiological survey results for the Peek Street site properties, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Cottrell, W.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1992-08-01

    The Peek Street Industrial Facility, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York, was operated by the General Electric Company for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1947 and 1955. A variety of operations using radioactive materials were conducted at the site, but the main activities were to design an intermediate breeder reactor and to develop a chemical process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent reactor fuel. Nonradioactive beryllium metal was machined on the site for breeder reactor application. The 4.5-acre site was decommissioned and released in October 1955. A radiological survey was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 1989. The survey included scan and grid point measurements of direct radiation levels outdoors on the five properties and inside the factory building, and radionuclide analysis of samples collected from each property. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in outdoor surface and subsurface soil samples from each property and in dust, debris, and structural materials from inside the factory building. Auger holes were logged to assess location and extent of possible subsurface residual soil radioactivity. Radionuclide concentrations were deter-mined in both indoor and outdoor water samples and in selected samples of vegetation. The presence of fixed and transferable surface residual radioactivity was investigated inside the factory building and on discarded materials outdoors on the property. High-volume air samples as well as additional selected indoor and outdoor soil samples were analyzed to determine levels of elemental beryllium.

  20. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  1. Numerical simulation of leachate transport into the groundwater at landfill sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rouholahnejad; S. A. Sadrnejad

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional numerical model that can be used for quantifying groundwater inputs and associated contaminant discharge from a landfill facility with capacity of 2000 ton\\/day into the nearest aquifer. The model can be used for the simulation of contaminant transport in aquifers in any scale. It is established on finite difference-finite volume solution of

  2. Suitability analysis for siting MSW landfills and its multicriteria spatial decision support system: method, implementation and case study.

    PubMed

    Demesouka, O E; Vavatsikos, A P; Anagnostopoulos, K P

    2013-05-01

    Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) have emerged as an integration of geographical information systems (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods for incorporating conflicting objectives and decision makers' (DMs') preferences into spatial decision models. This article presents a raster-based MC-SDSS that combines the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and compromise programming methods, such as TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution) and Ideal Point Methods. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time that a synergy of AHP and compromise programming methods is implemented in raster-driven GIS-based landfill suitability analysis. This procedure is supported by a spatial decision support system (SDSS) that was developed within a widely used commercial GIS software package. A real case study in the Thrace region in northeast Greece serves as a guide on how to conduct a suitability analysis for a MSW landfill site with the proposed MC-SDSS. Moreover, the procedure for identifying MSW disposal sites is accomplished by performing four computational models for synthesizing the DMs per criterion preferential system. Based on the case study results, a comparison analysis is performed according to suitability index estimations. According to them Euclidean distance metric and TOPSIS present strong similarities. When compared with Euclidean distance metric, TOPSIS seems to generate results closer to that derived by Manhattan distance metric. The comparison of Chebychev distance metric with all the other approaches revealed the greatest deviations. PMID:23453354

  3. Ox Mountain sanitary landfill: Apanolio Canyon expansion site, San Mateo County, California. Volume 2. Appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    Further studies include: plants Observed in Apanolio Canyon; Animals Expected or Observed in Apanolio Canyon; Marbled Murrelet Survey; Review of Available Scientific Information on Six Candidate Insects; Update on Status of Candidate Insects; Apanolio Canyon Sensitive Plant Investigation; Fisheries Resources of Upper Apanolio, Benthic Invertebrate Survey of Apanolio, Corinda Los Trancos, and Pilarcitos Creeks, San Mateo County, California; Streamflows and Velocity of Flows at the Bongard diversion Dam in Apanolio Canyon; A Spring Survey to Determine the Presence or Absence of the San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenis) in Two Tributaries of Pilarcitos Creek, Half Moon Bay, CA; Wildlife and Fisheries Mitigation Plan, Ox Mountain Sanitary Landfill, Apanolio Canyon Expansion Site; Correspondence Site Selection Criteria Information; Draft Contingency Remedial Action Plan; Leachate Collection and Removal System (LCRS) and Leachate/Contaminated Groundwater Treatment Systems; Apanolio Creek Streamflow Augmentation Plan; Apanolio Canyon Lower Aquifer Recharge Plan; Application for Exemptions - Technical Informations; Geotechnical Study and Specifications, Subgrade Barrier and Clay Liner System; Apanolio Canyon Boring Logs; Potentiometric Surface Maps, Apanolio Canyon; Geologic Cross Sections - Apanolio Canyon; Interim Report on Leachate Exposure Test Program, Apanolio Canyon Landfill Expansion.

  4. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate 

    E-print Network

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills have been found to contain many of the same hazardous constituents as found in hazardous waste landfills. Because of the large number of MSW landfills, these sites pose a serious environmental threat...

  5. School StreetMonroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    School Street-Monroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & Monroe Streets, on south by Jefferson Street, on west by Hope Avenue, & on east by Parker Avenue & site of Canal Street, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  6. Environmental monitoring report for the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill sites, calendar year 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    During 1984, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and former Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) sites, located in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey. The sites are part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where low-level radioactive contamination remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. The environmental monitoring program is carried out by Bechtel National, Inc., Program Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the MSP and MML measures the uranium and radium concentrations in surface and groundwater, the radon gas concentrations in air, and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public are also calculated. All environmental samples collected are analyzed to determine compliance with applicable environmental quality standards. DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter XI, provides applicable Concentration Guide (CG) limits for radionuclides in controlled and uncontrolled areas. During 1984, average annual concentrations of uranium and radium-226 in groundwater and surface waters monitored for both the MSP and MML remained below the DOE CG for uncontrolled areas. Annual average radon levels in air at both the MSP and MML were below the CG for uncontrolled areas. External gamma monitoring in 1984 showed all monitoring locations at both sites reporting gamma exposure rates below DOE Radiation Protection Standards. All radiation doses to the public were within DOE standards and consistent with 1983 exposure rates. 13 refs., 10figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Regulatory acceptance of the proposed well abandonment program for the present landfill, Operable Unit 7, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wood

    1995-01-01

    The regulatory agencies approved a well abandonment program for the Present Landfill, Operable Unit (OU) 7 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, only three months after preparation. The proposed well abandonment program consists of abandoning 26 of the 54 existing monitoring wells in OU 7 that are currently sampled quarterly as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance wells

  8. Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in Thessaloniki, sending thick black

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in and extinguish it. It is not clear what caused the fire, which is thought to have released toxic fumes operation today. "It is only a small indication of what can happen if we do not move to an integrated waste

  9. FIELD VERIFICATION OF HELP MODEL FOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term simulations of 17 landfill cells from six sites are performed using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer model. esults are compared with field data from a variety of landfills to verify the model and to identify shortcomings. he sites are lo...

  10. SSutter Street Bush Street

    E-print Network

    Soloveichik, David

    Post Pain Management 1675 Scott Helen Diller Family Cancer Research 2340 Sutter Street Harold Brunn Outpatient Dialysis 1675 Scott Street Osher Building 1545 Divisadero Street Pain Management Center 2255 Post

  11. Hydrogeologic framework, arsenic distribution, and groundwater geochemistry of the glacial-sediment aquifer at the Auburn Road landfill superfund site, Londonderry, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate continues to be generated from landfills at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund Site in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Impermeable caps on the three landfills at the site inhibit direct infiltration of precipitation; however, high water-table conditions allow groundwater to interact with landfill materials from below, creating leachate and ultimately reducing conditions in downgradient groundwater. Reducing conditions can facilitate arsenic transport by allowing it to stay in solution or by liberating arsenic adsorbed to surfaces and from geologic sources, such as glacial sediments and bedrock. The site occupies a 180-acre parcel of land containing streams, ponds, wetlands, and former gravel pits located in glacial sediment. Four areas, totaling 14 acres, including three landfills and one septage lagoon, were used for waste disposal. The site was closed in 1980 after volatile organic compounds associated with industrial waste dumping were detected. The site was added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List in 1982, and the landfills were capped in 1996. Although volatile organic compound concentrations in groundwater have declined substantially, some measurable concentrations remain. Temporally variable and persistent elevated arsenic concentrations have been measured in groundwater affected by the landfill leachate. Microbial consumption of carbon found in leachate is a driver of reducing conditions that liberate arsenic at the site. In addition to sources of carbon in landfill leachate, wetland areas throughout the site also could contribute carbon to groundwater, but it is currently unknown if any of the wetland areas have downward or reversing gradients that could allow the infiltration of surface water to groundwater. Red-stained sediments and water indicate iron-rich groundwater discharge to surface water and are also associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic in sediment and groundwater. Ironrich groundwater seeps have been observed in the wetland, streams, and pond downgradient of the landfills. Piezometers were installed in some of these locations to confirm groundwater discharge, measure vertical-flow gradients, and to provide a way to sample the discharging groundwater. Understanding the movement of leachate in groundwater is complicated by the presence of preferential flow paths through aquifer materials with differing hydraulic properties; these preferential flow paths can affect rates of recharge, geochemical conditions, and contaminant fluxes. In areas adjacent to the three capped landfills, infiltration of precipitation containing oxygenated water through permeable deltaic sediments in the former gravel pit area causes increases in dissolved oxygen concentrations and decreases in arsenic concentrations. Layered deltaic sediments produce anisotropic hydraulic characteristics and zones of high hydraulic conductivity. The glacial-sediment aquifer also includes glaciolacustrine sediments that have low permeability and limit infiltration at the surface Discharge of leachate-affected groundwater may be limited in areas of organic muck on the bottom of Whispering Pines Pond because the muck may act as a semiconfining layer. Geophysical survey results were used to identify several areas with continuous beds of muck and an underlying highresistivity layer on top of a layer of low resistivity that may represent leachate-affected groundwater. The high-resistivity layer is likely groundwater associated with oxygenated recharge, which would cause arsenic to adsorb onto aquifer sediments and reduce concentrations of dissolved arsenic in groundwater. Surface and borehole geophysical data collected in 2011 were used to identify potentially high-permeability or contaminated zones in the aquifer (preferential flowpaths) as well as low-permeability zones that may promote contamination through back diffusion. Some groundwater in parts of the glacial-sediment aquifer where the leachate plumes were present had low electrical resistivity, low dissolved oxygen, and high concentrations of a

  12. Assessment of the environmental impact of landfill sites with open combustion located in arid regions by combined chemical and ecotoxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, H; Kolb, M; Jopke, P; Schmidt, C; Alawi, M; Bahadir, M

    2006-12-01

    Two different waste disposal sites in Jordan were investigated in order to determine the environmental situation in context with waste disposal techniques. One landfill, located at Marka/Amman, had been closed about 25 years ago and covered with soil. Here, the waste had been actively open combusted and openings in the cover, still emitting smoke, indicated that waste was still smoldering inside the landfill's body. The second disposal site close to Ekeeder/Irbid is still operated. On this ground, the solid waste is not intentionally burned, although spontaneous fires frequently come up. Samples of waste, soil, and entrained dust were collected and analyzed. From the solid samples, respectively, their eluates, sum parameters, ecotoxicological effects as well as contents of elements/heavy metals and organic pollutants (PAH, PCDD/F) were determined. In general, the Ekeeder-samples were low-contaminated. The investigation of the Marka-samples showed higher contamination of the site's center, clearly being influenced by combustion processes. A significant contamination of the landfill's vicinity by its emissions could not be derived from the analytical data. Ecotoxicological investigations, applying a bio-test battery, revealed correlations with the sum parameters but not with the trace pollutants. Thus, the Marka-samples with the highest measured values of sum parameters caused adverse effects on three different test species, whereas other samples from Marka and Ekeeder had small or no effects. The results of these investigations depict the influence of different disposal techniques on the contamination situation of a landfill and they shall contribute to assess the conditions of other disposal sites in (semi)arid regions. PMID:16764903

  13. Aerobic treatment of landfill leachate using a submerged membrane bioreactor--prospects for on-site use.

    PubMed

    Sadri, S; Cicek, N; Van Gulck, J

    2008-08-01

    Submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for aerobic treatment of landfill leachate was studied in laboratory scale to evaluate its potential for on-site use. Three combinations of solid retention time (SRT) - hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 60 days - 3.5 days, 60 days - 2 days and 30 days - 1 day, were examined to evaluate reactor performance under varying loading and biomass conditions. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal ranged from 54 to 78%, depending on the influent leachate source and loading conditions. The MBR showed excellent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) removal of 97% and higher, even at HRT as low as 1 day. Complete suspended solids retention and full nitrification of the incoming ammonia was observed despite highly variable loading. Significant removal of iron, lead, manganese, cadmium and aluminum was observed. No significant changes in the removal efficiency of metals, ammonia, and BOD5 were observed at different SRT-HRT. Toxicity removal decreased with increasing HRT. The produced effluent met current water quality guidelines for discharge into natural streams in Manitoba. PMID:18724645

  14. Characterization of bacterial diversity at different depths in the Moravia Hill landfill site at Medellin, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was used to assess bacterial diversity at different depths within a former solid waste dump in Medellín, Colombia. Sampling sites included a densely populated area, which is built upon 40 m of solid waste (domestic, industrial, agric...

  15. Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.M.; Avci, H.I.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10{sup {minus} 4} carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 {mu}g/ft{sup 2} for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated.

  16. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  17. Where Should the Landfill Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Rosario P.; McFaden, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project where students were involved in finding the most suitable site for a landfill in their community. This two-month project was conducted using team teaching. Two twelfth grade geoscience classes were involved. (PR)

  18. Results of the radiological and beryllium verification survey at the Peek Street Site, Schenectady, New York (SY001V)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Johnson, C.A.; Carrier, R.F.; Allred, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent verification radiological and non-radioactive beryllium survey at the Peek Street site, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York. The purpose of the survey, conducted during 1993 and continuing through January 1994, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any beryllium concentrations or radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at one meter indoors and outdoors, alpha and beta scans inside the structure, and the collection of soil, dust and debris samples and smears for radionuclide and beryllium analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological and beryllium measurements on the property were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on all data collected, the industrial property at 425 Peek Street and the adjacent state-owned bike path in Schenectady, New York, conforms to all applicable radiological and non-radioactive beryllium guidelines established for this site by DOE and approved by the State of New York.

  19. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    PubMed

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  20. Impacts of landfill New Source Performance Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, W.G.; McGuigan, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    On May 30, 1991, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a Rule to control landfill gas (LFG) emissions under the authority of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Since that time the Rule has been modified significantly, with an emphasis on regulating large US landfills. To date, landfill owners and operators have not been affected by this new CAA regulation. However, with the Rule promulgated in early 1996 and its subsequent implementation by the states to follow by the end of the year, landfill owners and operators need to understand these new requirements and their associated costs. To this end, the goal of this paper is to provide insight into the impacts of the Rule on individual landfill sites. By performing the emission analyses specified in the Rule on actual landfills, and comparing these sites to others, an understanding can be gained on the potential impacts of the NSPS Rule`s requirements on individual landfills.

  1. Study of vinyl chloride formation at landfill sites in California. Final report, 16 July 1985-15 January 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.; Hallen, R.T.; Payne, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if vinyl chloride (VC) detected in air above California landfills is produced in situ. Experiments were performed with N and S California landfill samples and anaerobic-digestor sewage sludge. Test materials were incubated with various chlorocarbons and with /sup 13/C-trichloroethylene (TCE) to confirm biological production of /sup 13/C-VC. These experiments confirmed the biological dechlorination of chloroethylenes as the most likely route for VC emission from landfills, rather than chemical or photochemical routes, or PVC degradation. Leaching from PVC could be a minor source of VC, though there was less than 0.1% (estimated) plastic in the landfill samples, containing at most 330 ppm of VC monomer. A landfill sample known to produce VC was used to start an anaerobic chemostat using methanol as sole carbon source. The enriched culture resulting was homogeneous, and when incubated with /sup 13/C-TCE, produced (13)C-VC, confirmed by GC/MS.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action (CAU) 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 5 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs). The corrective action investigation (CAI) of CAU 5 was conducted from October 7, 2002 through January 30, 2003, with geophysical surveys completed from March 6 through May 8, 2002, and topographic surveys conducted from March 11 through April 29, 2003. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified only at CAS 12-15-01. Those COCs included total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following single alternative was developed for consideration. Close in Place with Administrative Controls is the recommended alternative for all of the CASs in CAU 5. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate inadvertent intrusion into landfills at CAU 5.

  3. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  4. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 2, Simulation of ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.; Maus, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Data on the hydrogeology of a 26-sq-mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in central Suffolk County were collected as part of a hydrologic investigation of solute transport from the site. These data were used to develop a steady-state groundwater flow model of the upper glacial (water table) aquifer in the area. The model accounts for the leakage through confining units underlying the aquifer, seepage to streams, recharge from precipitation, and pumpage and redistribution of water. Refined estimates of aquifer and confining-unit properties were obtained through model calibrations. Water table altitudes generated by the calibrated model were used to determine groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the vicinity of the site under long-term average hydrologic conditions. Groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the study area were calculated from simulated water table altitudes generated by the calibrated flow model. Groundwater at the center of the site flows southeastward at a velocity of 1.1 ft/d. The report is the second in a three part series describing the hydrologic conditions and groundwater quality, groundwater flow, and solute transport in the vicinity of the Brookhaven landfill. (USGS)

  5. Landfills in karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.H. (Hydrologic Consultants, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)); Memon, B.A.; LaMoreaux, P.E. (P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

    1994-06-01

    State and Federal regulations have established restrictions for location of hazardous waste and municipal, solid waste landfills. Regulations require owners/operators to demonstrate that the hydrogeology has been completely characterized at proposed landfills, and that locations for monitoring wells have been properly selected. Owners/operators are also required to demonstrate that engineering measures have been incorporated in the design of the municipal solid waste landfills, so that the site is not subject to destabilizing events, as a result of location in unstable areas, such as karst terrains. Karst terrains are typically underlain by limestone or dolomite, and may contain a broad continuum of karst features and karst activity. Preliminary investigation of candidate sites will allow ranking of the sites, rejection of some unsuitable sites, and selection of a few sites for additional studies. The complexity of hydrogeologic systems, in karst terrains, mandates thorough hydrogeologic studies to determine whether a specific site is, or can be rendered, suitable for a land disposal facility. Important components of hydrogeologic studies are: field mapping of structural and stratigraphic units; interpretation of sequential aerial photographs; test drilling and geophysical analyses; fracture analyses; seasonal variation in water-levels; spatial variation of hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and aquiclude; velocity and direction of movement of ground water within aquifers; determination of control for recharge, discharge, and local base level; and evaluation of the effects of man's activities, such as pumping, dewatering and construction.

  6. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  7. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  8. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O.. Ayalon; N. Becker; E. Shani

    2006-01-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel’s largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use

  9. Low-cost treatment of landfill leachate using peat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Heavey

    2003-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive obliges member states to collect and treat leachate from landfill sites. In regions of high population density, this is commonly achieved through discharge of the leachate to the municipal sewerage system. In Ireland, rural landfills can be a long distance from a suitable sewerage system, resulting in high transportation costs. On-site treatment systems, when used elsewhere,

  10. Field applicability of self-recovering sustainable liner as landfill final cover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ohjung Kwon; Wanjei Cho

    2011-01-01

    Preventing the penetration of rainwater into a landfill site is the main purpose of the final cover in landfill sites. Conventional\\u000a designs of landfill covers use geotextiles, such as geomembrane and geosynthetic clay liners, and clay liners to lower the\\u000a permeability of the final cover of landfill sites. However, differential settlement and climatic effects in landfill sites\\u000a instigate crack development

  11. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 3, Simulation of solute transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A solute transport model representing a 2.3-sq mi area surrounding and downgradient from a municipal landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, N.Y. was used to simulate migration of a conservative solute (chloride) in the upper glacial aquifer. Aquifer values used in the model were: hydraulic conductivity, 200 ft/day; effective porosity, 0.30; longitudinal dispersivity, 100 ft; transverse dispersivity, 20 ft. Average concentration of chloride was set at 875.0 mg/L in leachate and 10 mg/L in recharge and in ambient groundwater. Entry of leachate into the aquifer was assumed to have begun in 1977. Chloride concentrations in the simulated plume after 6 years of travel matched reasonably well the chloride data collected in October-December 1982. After 12 years of travel, the simulated plume extended 6,200 ft and was 2,600 ft wide. Maximum predicted concentration at the site boundary was 160 mg/L. Additional simulations were made to test the model 's ability to predict the effect of several remedial strategies on the movement of solutes. These included capping the landfill with an impermeable surface, removal of contaminated groundwater through four recovery wells, and a combination of the first two actions. (USGS)

  12. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC[sub 2]) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  13. Movement of unlined landfill under preloading surcharge.

    PubMed

    Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2007-01-01

    As organic solid waste is decomposed in a landfill and mass is lost due to gas and leachate formation, the landfill settles. Settlement of a landfill interferes with the rehabilitation and subsequent use of the landfill site after closure. This study examined the soil/solid waste movement at the Al-Qurain landfill in Kuwait after 15 years of closure as plans are underway for redevelopment of the landfill site that occupies about a km(2) with an average depth of 8-15m. Field experiments were conducted for 6 mo to measure soil/solid waste movement and water behavior within the landfill using two settlement plates with a level survey access, Casagrande-type piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, and magnetic probe extensometers. Previous results obtained indicated that biological decomposition of refuse continued after closure of the landfill site. The subsurface water rise enhanced the biological activities, which resulted in the production of increasing quantities of landfill gas. The refuse fill materials recorded a high movement rate under the imposed preloading as a result of an increase in the stress state. Up to 55% of the total movement was observed during the first 2 weeks of fill placement and increased to 80% within the first month of the 6-mo preloading test. Pneumatic piezometers showed an increase in water head, which is attributed to the developed pressure of gases escaping during the preloading period. PMID:16574394

  14. In situ denitrification in controlled landfill systems

    SciTech Connect

    Onay, T.T.; Pohland, F.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The characteristics of leachate from landfill disposal sites vary according to the operational stage of the landfill. Leachates from old landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation of nitrogenous fractions of biodegradable refuse substrates. The relative concentration accumulating as stabilization progresses is also influenced by washout as leachate is collected and removed for external treatment. However, in landfills operated as bioreactors with leachate containment, collection and in situ recirculation to accelerate decomposition of readily available organic fractions of the refuse, leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations may accumulate to much higher levels. High leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations in landfill leachate have been reported, resulting in separate treatment challenges if direct discharge to either land or receiving waters is practiced. External treatment options for landfill leachate may involve complex physical-chemical and/or biological processes for removal of both high-strength organic and inorganic fractions, including nitrogen. Such separate leachate treatment systems are often costly and difficult to control on a continuum. Therefore, this study focused on the investigation of landfill ammonia nitrogen generation patterns, and the potential for its in situ attenuation and conversion in landfills constructed to permit sequential nitrification and denitrification using leachate recirculation. Accordingly, the landfill is constructed and operated as a controlled bioreactor system, with opportunity to convert ammonia to nitrate by nitrification and nitrate to nitrogen gas by denitrification. The results presented in this paper focus on in situ landfill denitrification of nitrified ammonia.

  15. Proximity of Louisiana sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats. Data on individual landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Lambou, V.W.; Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1989-12-01

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. This report documents the proximity of sanitary landfills included in the study in Louisiana to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.). The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory maps. The nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats was determined by drawing three concentric regions around the point representing the location of each landfill. The radii of the concentric regions were: 1/4 mile, 1/2 mile, and 1 mile. A companion report summarizes the statewide results. The data on individual landfills include general facility/site data and wetlands/deepwater habitat data. These facilities have the potential to adversely affect sensitive ecosystems, such as wetlands and deepwater habitats, either through habitat alterations or through the migration of contaminants from sanitary landfills.

  16. In situ nitrogen management in controlled bioreactor landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turgut T. Onay; Frederick G. Pohland

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of leachate from landfills vary according to site-specific conditions. Leachates from “old” landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation of the nitrogenous fractions of biodegradable substrates, with decreases in concentration mainly attributable to leachate washout. At landfills where leachate containment, collection and recirculation is practiced to accelerate decomposition of readily biodegradable organic

  17. Purification of landfill leachate with reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Peters

    1998-01-01

    On many landfill sites the most environmentally friendly and economical way to treat landfill leachate is to reduce its volume by 75 to 80% using reverse osmosis and then return the concentrate to the landfill by controlled reinjection. If this procedure is not yet authorized by local authorities then the treatment process must achieve very high rates of recovery by

  18. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. PMID:22647548

  19. Engineered Municipal Waste Landfills: Climate Significance, Benefits, and some Landfill "Geophysics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenstein, D.; Yazdani, R.

    2002-12-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills have unique features: Wastes worldwide emit biogenic methane to the atmosphere of magnitude comparable to the total atmospheric buildup between 1980 and 1990. Carbon sequestered in landfills is large in geologic terms Management of decomposition in landfilled waste is desirable: (a) Control of waste decomposition and methane promises over tenfold cheaper greenhouse gas abatement compared to most other greenhouse gas abatement strategies. This is due in part to carbon sequestration and landfill gas energy offset of fossil fuel consumption (b) Landfill gas energy potential worldwide, is up to 1% of world energy. Use of landfill gas conserves a resource otherwise wasted (c) Monetary benefits of landfill life extension from decomposition and rapid volume reduction can be quite attractive This is a benefit for the US, where landfills are increasingly difficult and expensive to site. (d) Landfills containing mixed waste can be significant sources of atmospheric and groundwater pollutants needing control. Control is possible from advancing landfill management approaches (e) The stabilization of waste lessens pollutant risk and needs for costly long-term landfill aftercare. Greater control of landfill decomposition has been advocated in the form of "controlled" or "bioreactor" landfills. (SWANA, 1999; Reinhart and Townsend, 1996). Field trials are encouraging by several environmental/monetary criteria. Control of moisture and temperature have given fivefold or more acceleration of methane generation (Augenstein et al, 1998, 2000). There has been rapid volume loss of the landfilled waste as well, with conversion of waste organics to gas. Many trials over years have shown potential for abatement of pollutants in landfill leachate. Demonstration work by the solid waste management community attests to the benefits potential. Increasing field demonstrations, have been accompanied by observation and/or solution of several issues. As noted the heat generation in landfills may become controlling, Heat can be dissipated, but at energy and monetary cost. Increased waste liquid content, required for biological activity has been a concern. Offsetting risk is the accelerated treatment of many dissolved contaminants in landfill liquid with time. It has proven possible to manage liquid flows within environmental and regulatory constraints. There have been concerns about containment by chemosynthetic lining of leachate liquids draining from landfills. Yet molecular bonds of lining under anaerobic conditions could be expected to last for centuries (and in fact up to millenia). There is of course no landfill experience over millenia but analogous compounds of geologic relevance have shown very desirable long term stability. Two other areas being investigated are waste slope stability and the precipitation of carbonate salts The climate significance and geophysical issues with landfills will be discussed, and some experimental findings leading to conclusions will be reviewed

  20. HOLLIS CROFT BROAD STREET

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Mike P.

    SNIG HILL BANK STREET QUEEN STREET GIBRA LTAR STREET WEST BAR BRIDGE STREET EXCHANGE STREET SCOTLAND STREET U PPER ALLEN STREET NURSERY STREET LADY'S BRIDGE ROCKINGHAM STREET FITZW ILLIAM STREET Street Castle Square West Street St Marie's RC Cathedral Town Hall City Hall Railway Station Crucible

  1. 77 FR 8253 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site ACTION: Notice...on behalf of EPA, in connection with the Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site, Sterling, Loudoun County,...

  2. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  3. Landfill alternative offers powerful case.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    With many of Europe's landfill sites now close to capacity, and the EU Landfill Directive requiring that, by 2020, the amount of waste sent to landfill should be just 35% of the volume similarly disposed of in 1995, pressure is mounting to find environmentally acceptable waste disposal alternatives. At a recent IHEEM waste seminar, Gary Connelly, a technical consultant at environmental technology consultancy the Cameron Corporation, described a technology which he explained can effectively convert 85% of the European Waste Catalogue of materials into an inert residue, is "cleaner and cheaper" than incineration, and can generate both electricity an waste heat. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, a key target market is healthcare facilities. PMID:21585140

  4. Gill Street Residence ByronByron

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    City site 5 P P P P P R 50m Health centre Gill Street Residence Sandby Residence ByronByron ResidenceResidence Gill Street South Residence Maudslay BootsBoots LibLibrrararyy Boots Library Barnes centre Gill Street Residence Sandby Residence Byron Residence Gill Street South Residence Maudslay Boots

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  6. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  7. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  8. Learning from Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which students developed an all-class laboratory activity called "The Decomposition of Organic and Inorganic Substances in a Landfill". Explores what conditions are necessary to facilitate decomposition in a landfill. (SAH)

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. MUNICIPAL LANDFILL GAS CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New regulations relative to air emissions from municipal landfills may require the installation of gas collection systems at landfills. As landfill gas (LFG) is collected, water and other vapors in the gas condense in the system or are purposely removed in the normal treatment of...

  12. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the cost of electricity. Currently, PREPA has an average electric rate of $0.119/kWh. Based on past electric rate increases in Puerto Rico and other islands in the Caribbean, this rate could increase to $0.15/kWh or higher in a relatively short amount of time. In the coming years, increasing electrical rates and increased necessity for clean power will continue to improve the feasibility of implementing solar PV systems at these sites.

  13. Gill Street TRINITY SQUARE

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    Hampden Residence Gill Street Residence G O LD SM ITH STREET W AV ERLEY STREET BURTON ST TRINITY SQUARE STREET CLARENDONSTREET DRYDENSTREET GILL STREET HAMPDEN STREET CHAUCER STREET P P P P PARLIAMENT STREET' Union Gill Street South Residence Byron Residence 72 Academic Registry

  14. LETTER REPORT. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS OF SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARGYLE STREET SEWER LINE AT THE UNITED NUCLEAR CORPORATION NAVAL PRODUCTS SITE, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Wade C.

    2012-01-24

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated.

  15. Analysis of Ammonia Toxicity in Landfill Leachates

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Takuya; Nemoto, Keisuke; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Hatano, Ayumi; Shoji, Ryo; Naruoka, Tomohiro; Yamada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and toxicity test with D. magna were conducted on leachates from an industrial waste landfill site in Japan. Physicochemical analysis detected heavy metals at concentrations insufficient to account for the observed acute toxicity. The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. Based on joint toxicity with additive effects of unionized ammonia and ammonium ions, the unionized ammonia toxicity (LC50,NH3(aq)) was calculated as 3.3?ppm, and the toxicity of ammonium ions (LC50,NH4+) was calculated as 222?ppm. Then, the contribution of ammonia toxicity in the landfill leachate toxicity was calculated as 58.7?vol% of the total toxicity in the landfill leachate. Other specific toxicants masked by ammonia's toxicity were detected. Contribution rate of the toxicants other than by ammonia was 41.3?vol% of the total toxicity of the landfill leachate. PMID:23724289

  16. Analysis of ammonia toxicity in landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Osada, Takuya; Nemoto, Keisuke; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Hatano, Ayumi; Shoji, Ryo; Naruoka, Tomohiro; Yamada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and toxicity test with D. magna were conducted on leachates from an industrial waste landfill site in Japan. Physicochemical analysis detected heavy metals at concentrations insufficient to account for the observed acute toxicity. The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. Based on joint toxicity with additive effects of unionized ammonia and ammonium ions, the unionized ammonia toxicity (LC50,NH3(aq)) was calculated as 3.3?ppm, and the toxicity of ammonium ions (LC50,NH4 (+) ) was calculated as 222?ppm. Then, the contribution of ammonia toxicity in the landfill leachate toxicity was calculated as 58.7?vol% of the total toxicity in the landfill leachate. Other specific toxicants masked by ammonia's toxicity were detected. Contribution rate of the toxicants other than by ammonia was 41.3?vol% of the total toxicity of the landfill leachate. PMID:23724289

  17. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

    2004-07-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  18. Environmental diagnosis methodology for municipal waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Calvo, F; Moreno, B; Zamorano, M; Szanto, M

    2005-01-01

    A large number of countries are involved in a process of transformation with regard to the management of municipal solid waste. This process is a consequence of environmental requirements that occasionally materialise in legislation, such as the European Council Directive 31/99/EC on waste release in the European Union. In some cases, the remediation of old landfills can be carried out in compliance with environmental requirements; in other cases, it is necessary to proceed with the closure of the landfill and to assimilate it into its own environment. In both cases, it is necessary to undertake a diagnosis and characterisation of the impacted areas in order to develop an adequate action plan. This study presents a new methodology by which environmental diagnosis of landfill sites may be carried out. The methodology involves the formulation of a series of environmental indeces which provide information concerning the potential environmental problems of the landfills and the particular impact on different environmental elements, as well as information related to location, design and operation. On the basis of these results, it would be possible to draw up action plans for the remediation or closure of the landfill site. By applying the methodology to several landfills in a specific area, it would be possible to prioritize the order of actions required. PMID:15905084

  19. 10 Downing Street

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The British Prime Minister's Office has recently opened a web site, 10 Downing Street. Although it does contain selected Prime Minister's speeches, transcripts, and interviews, Prime Minister's biographies (back to Harold Macmillan at present), and a tour of #10, its greatest utility is as an entry point to British executive department government sites. The Cabinet Ministers' Biography section contains information on 23 ministers and links to cabinet web sites. There is also a page of government department pointers.

  20. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices. PMID:25258630

  1. Street sweeping and stormwater regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the role of street sweeping in meeting the requirements of the Clean Water Act stormwater regulations. The article identifies those industrial and municipal activities which are covered by the regulations and cites frequent sweeping of site surfaces for industry and street sweeping for municipalities as an integral part of compliance plans.

  2. LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

  3. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  4. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  5. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  6. Hydrogeology of a landfill, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a high water table is subject to tidal flooding. Altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shells; a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay; and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. The rate of lateral movement of ground water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; however, the rate of movement along the boundary of the landfill cells is about 20 feet per year. Vertical movement through the confining layer is about 0.005 foot per year. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Leachate migration downward into the Floridan aquifer is not indicated, but data do indicate leachate is migrating from the oldest section of the landfill site through the surficial aquifer. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of slug-flow leachate. (USGS)

  7. Ground water contamination at Finnish landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Assmuth; T. Strandberg

    1993-01-01

    In a field study of 43 Finnish landfills, hydrogeological site conditions were characterized, and toxic substances in ground water were analyzed at 16 sites. The concentrations of several main leachate components, harmful substances and AOX in nearfield ground water were elevated above background values. However, the concentrations of most micropollutants were dominated by small values, causing skewed and truncated frequency

  8. WESTLAKE LANDFILL EPA Region 7 03/29/2012 City: Bridgeton

    E-print Network

    are not radiologically-contaminated. Site Facts: #12;ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS After listing the site on the NPL, the EPA# MOD079900932 Other Names: SITE DESCRIPTION The 200-acre Westlake Landfill site is located at 13570 St was quarried on the site. Beginning in 1962, portions of the property were used for landfilling of municipal

  9. Risk Based Post Closure Care Analysis for Florida Landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Banu Sizirici Yildiz

    2009-01-01

    Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires a post closure period of 30 years for non hazardous wastes in landfills. Post closure care (PCC) activities under Subtitle D include leachate collection and treatment, groundwater monitoring, inspection and maintenance of the final cover, and monitoring to ensure that landfill gas does not migrate off site or into

  10. Risk based post closure care analysis for Florida landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Banu Sizirici Yildiz

    2009-01-01

    Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires a post closure period of 30 years for non hazardous wastes in landfills. Post closure care (PCC) activities under Subtitle D include leachate collection and treatment, groundwater monitoring, inspection and maintenance of the final cover, and monitoring to ensure that landfill gas does not migrate off site or into

  11. ESTIMATING LEACHATE PRODUCTION FROM CLOSED HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous wastes disposed of in landfills may continue to drain for several years after site closure. The report presents suitable analytical methods for predicting the flow of leachate to underdrains from closed hazardous waste landfills. Leachate sources include waste fluids as...

  12. Odor modeling methodology for determining the odor buffer distance for sanitary landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song; Dukman

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to create a methodology whereby reductions in off-site odor migrations resulting from operational and design changes in new or expanded sanitary landfills can be evaluated. The Ann Arbor Sanitary Landfill was chosen as a prototype landfill to test a hypothesis for this study. This study is a unique approach to odor prediction at sanitary

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in transplanted lichen (Pseudovernia furfuracea) at sites adjacent to a solid-waste landfill in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Protano, C; Guidotti, M; Owczarek, M; Fantozzi, L; Blasi, G; Vitali, M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the airborne contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some heavy metals (arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], and zinc [Zn]) of different pollution scenarios around a solid-waste landfill in central Italy using the lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea as a monitoring tool. For this purpose, eight stations around a landfill characterized by different air pollution sources (industrial, agricultural, residential areas, and roads with different traffic intensities), together with three stations far from the landfill (control areas), were monitored using a set of 22 lichen samples (11 samples analysed for PAHs and metals after 4 months, and 11 samples analysed for metals after 8 months). After 4 months of exposure, the lichen content of all of the analysed elements was greater than that in the pre-exposed lichens. In addition, the Cu and Pb concentration after 8 months was greater than the level after 4 months. The order of metal concentration was Zn > Pb > Cu (or Cu > Pb) > Cr > Ni > As > Cd in all cases. The range of ?11PAHs concentration was 634-1,371 ng/g dw (three to seven times greater than the amount in the pre-exposed lichens). The ?11PAHs were dominated (>70 %) by compounds with three aromatic rings. The comparison of the levels of air pollutants among the monitored stations shows nonrelevant spatial patterns between the landfill stations and the control areas; the levels of PAHs and metals found in the lichen samples around the landfill seemed to be more related to the general diffusion of these pollutants in that area. PMID:24258876

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  16. The biological impact of landfill leachate on nearby surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, S.W. [State Lab. of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States). Biomonitoring Lab.

    1994-12-31

    Five landfill sites were evaluated for their potential to adversely impact the biotic community of surface waters. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity tests were used to determine the toxicity of water samples collected from landfill monitoring wells and the nearest surface water. Four of the five landfill sites exhibited acute or chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, or Pimephales promelas. Toxicity identification procedures performed on water samples revealed toxic responses to metals and one toxic response to organic compounds. Surface water toxicity at an industrial landfill is most likely due to zinc from a tire production facility. Iron and a surfactant were determined to be the probable causes for toxicity at two municipal solid waste landfills.

  17. Investigating landfill leachate as a source of trace organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Anumol, Tarun; Barlaz, Morton; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Landfill leachate samples (n=11) were collected from five USA municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and analyzed for ten trace organic pollutants that are commonly detected in surface and municipal wastewater effluents (viz., carbamazepine, DEET, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, PFOA, PFOS, primidone, sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). Carbamazepine, DEET, PFOA and primidone were detected in all leachate samples analyzed and gemfibrozil was detected in samples from four of the five-landfill sites. The contaminants found in the highest concentrations were DEET (6900-143000 ng L(-1)) and sucralose (<10-621000 ng L(-1)). Several compounds were not detected (fluoxetine) or detected infrequently (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and PFOS). Using the average mass of DEET in leachate amongst the five landfills and scaling the mass release from the five test landfills to the USA population of landfills, an order of magnitude estimate is that over 10000 kg DEET yr(-1) may be released in leachate. Some pharmaceuticals have similar annual mean discharges to one another, with the estimated annual discharge of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, primidone equating to 53, 151 and 128 kg year(-1). To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that primidone has been included in a landfill leachate study. While the estimates developed in this study are order of magnitude, the values do suggest the need for further research to better quantify the amount of chemicals sent to wastewater treatment facilities with landfill leachate, potential impacts on treatment processes and the significance of landfill leachate as a source of surface water contamination. PMID:25753851

  18. Title: Open Street Map shapefile downloads Data Creator /

    E-print Network

    Title: Open Street Map shapefile downloads Data Creator / Copyright Owner: OpenStreetMap Publisher applications. Data Type: Vector Digital Data Format: Shapefile Datum / Map Projection: WGS84 Resolution: N site: http://downloads.cloudmade.com/ Citation: OpenStreetMap. "OpenStreetMap shapefile downloads

  19. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management. PMID:20935025

  20. Landfill to Learning Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  1. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  2. Leachate quality from landfilled MBT waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Robinson; K. Knox; B. D. Bone; A. Picken

    2005-01-01

    A research project recently completed on behalf of the UK Environment Agency, has collected data and sampled leachates from EU landfills that have received imports of MSOR and MBT wastes. Results are presented for sanitary analyses, heavy metals, and an extensive range of trace organic substances, from sites containing MBT wastes that have received different degrees of composting pre-treatment. Leachates

  3. FIELD VERIFICATION OF LINERS FROM SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liner specimens from three existing landfill sites were collected and examined to determine the changes in their physical properties over time and to validate data being developed through laboratory research. Samples examined included a 15-mil PVC liner from a sludge lagoon in Ne...

  4. Landfill in a Bottle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-10-04

    In this activity, learners discover how landfills affect the natural environment. By observing a 2-liter bottle filled with household garbage over a month, learners can estimate how long it takes for average household garbage takes to break down.

  5. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C[sub 1]C[sub 4] hydrocarbons; the C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  6. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons; the C{sub 5}-C{sub 10} normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  7. [Dispersion and analysis of odor pollution in landfill area under the enclosed operation condition].

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Wu, Shi-Xing; Dai, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Dai, Zhan-Guo; Lu, Xu-Fei; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Kai; Wei, Pan-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Odor pollution of landfill site is a serious problem accompanied with the urbanization process that influences city life. Generally, odor emission points in landfill boundary are detected by experience, but the pollution intensity, distribution and variation in the scope of landfill boundary are difficulty to describe. In this research, odor emission points were disclosed with equal odor concentration curves that were delineated using electric nose and GPS instrument. The leakage of landfill gas and exhaust emission from biogas incineration torch was the main cause of the odor pollution in landfill area. Gas production evaluation suggested that the improvement of landfill gas consumption is the key point to control the odor pollution at the landfill site. PMID:23745385

  8. Largest landfill gas plant supplying Staten Island users

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, A.J.

    1983-05-01

    The $20 million landfill methane recovery and processing facility at New York's Fresh Kills site on Staten Island, the first on the East Coast, with a capacity of 10 million cu ft per day of raw landfill gas, is a joint venture of Getty Synthetic Fuels, Inc. and Methane Development Corp., a subsidiary of Brooklyn Union Gas Co. The landfill gas (LFG) has long plagued landfill operators who have had to devise various means through the years to contend with this potentially hazardous by-product. The microprocessor-assisted Flo-Cal, gas-fueled angle enginecompressors, the metering station, and the high-speed calorimeter are discussed. Raw landfill gas is withdrawn via 100 wells from the 400-acre section. Water is removed from the gas in an underground separation unit.

  9. Electrochemical treatability of refractory pollutants in landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Li-Choung; Chang, Juu-En; Wen, Ten-Chin [National Cheng Kung Univ. (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-31

    Landfill leachate treatment is the most troublesome aspect of the landfill management. Investigation of leachate characteristics at two landfill sites in Taiwan showed that the biological processes were inefficient for the treatment of leachate, regardless of whether an anaerobic or aerobic process was used. In addition, conventional flocculation/sedimentation processes were also ineffective for post-treatment of leachate effluents from biological treatment processes. The discharged leachate still contained lots of refractory pollutants and it failed to meet the effluent quality standards of the R.O.C. (COD < 500 mg/L, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N < 20 mg/L). In an attempt to improve leachate effluent quality, in this study, an electrochemical oxidation process was applied to treat the landfill leachate after biodegradation. Results from both batch and continuous experiments indicate that over 90% of COD and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N in the landfill leachate are removed by the electrochemical oxidation process. In addition, the electrochemical oxidation process also demonstrated a good efficacy for the removal of refractory compounds. After electrolysis, the chlorinated organic matters (as TOX) in the landfill leachate was reduced from 19.4 to less than 2 mg Cl/L and the BOD/COD ratio of the landfill leachate was also improved from 0.05 to 0.71. These results indicate that the electrochemical oxidation process is a promising process for the treatment of landfill leachate. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities. PMID:10417373

  11. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1983-09-01

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  12. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  13. Municipal landfill leachate management

    SciTech Connect

    Kusterer, T.; Willson, R. [Montgomery County Div. of Solid Waste Services, Rockville, MD (United States); Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J. [Roy F. Weston Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

  14. WEST STREET CASTLE SQUARE

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Mike P.

    SHEFFIELD STATION GRANVILLE ROAD COMMERCIAL STREET CITY HALL WEST STREET CATHEDRAL CASTLE SQUARE BLONK STREET THEW ICKER BROADST M EADOW STREET UPPER ALLEN STREET FURNIVAL SQUARE QUARTER SQUARE GRANVILLE SQUARE Sheffield Cathedral County Court Premier Travel Inn Cutlers Hotel St Marie's RC Cathedral

  15. HENRY STREET LETCHERAVENUE

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    WEST DENNY CIRCLE GLASGOW STREET NELSON STREET LEE AVENUE JEFFERSON STREET M AIN STREET W ASHINGTON 109 South Jefferson Street (W&L Dance Program) 52 Outing Club Barn 53 Parmly Hall (Computer Science Library) 66 7 Courthouse Square (General Counsel, News, Publications, Web) 67 17 Courthouse Square

  16. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method.

    PubMed

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h(-1), corresponding to 0.7-13.2 g m(-2)d(-1), with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41-81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y(-1). This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y(-1), which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y(-1) estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for 2011. PMID:25442105

  17. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Y. S. Chan; M. H. Wong; B. A. Whitton

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong\\u000a Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species (Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa,\\u000a Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, andTristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one

  18. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs > Street drugs and pregnancy Smoking, alcohol and drugs Don’t smoke, drink alcohol or use drugs ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Street drugs and pregnancy A street drug (also called illegal ...

  19. Electric power generation using a phosphoric acid cell on a municipal solid waste landfill gas stream. Technology verification report, November 1997July 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Masemore; S. Piccot

    1998-01-01

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phosphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Performance data were collected at two sites determined to be representative of the U.S. landfill market.

  20. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-01

    According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH4 produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH4/CO2 ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3-1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0-2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH4+CO2% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills. PMID:25488731

  1. Landfills: Building Them Better

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Waste disposal has been an ongoing societal problem since medieval times. In this lesson, students learn about the three methods of waste disposal in use by modern communities. They also investigate how engineers design sanitary landfills to prevent leachate from polluting the underlining groundwater.

  2. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-09-30

    This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

  3. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill’s leachate: Chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Baderna; S. Maggioni; E. Boriani; S. Gemma; M. Molteni; A. Lombardo; A. Colombo; S. Bordonali; G. Rotella; M. Lodi; E. Benfenati

    2011-01-01

    Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological

  4. Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Townsend; W. L. Miller; Hyung-Jib Lee; J. F. K. Earle

    1996-01-01

    A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in

  5. Downing Street Says

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It's hard to sort out the world of political spin in the United States, and certainly the situation in Britain is rather similar in this regard. Fortunately, a collection of civic-minded individuals have created this website, which serves to bring the daily briefings offered by the British Prime Minister's Official Spokesmen direct to internet browsers. Essentially, twice a day (when Parliament is in session) a select coterie of political journalists is briefed by the PM's Official Spokesmen, and then they are allowed to ask brief questions. This site brings together these official statements and the queries (and responses) brought up by the political journalists who attend these briefings at 10 Downing Street. The site was started in February 2004, and visitors can view an archive of all the briefings since then and post their own comments as well. Additionally, there is a section that explains these meetings and the impetus for creating such a site.

  6. Development of computer simulations for landfill methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.; Sykes, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs simulating methane recovery systems in landfills have been developed. These computer programs model multicomponent combined pressure and diffusional flow in porous media. Each program and the processes it models are described in this report. Examples of the capabilities of each program are also presented. The two-dimensional program was used to simulate methane recovery systems in a cylindrically shaped landfill. The effects of various pump locations, geometries, and extraction rates were determined. The three-dimensional program was used to model the Puente Hills landfill, a field test site in southern California. The biochemical and microbiological details of methane generation in landfills are also given. Effects of environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, temperature, and nutrients on methane generation are discussed and an analytical representation of the gas generation rate is developed.

  7. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates.

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Annual report, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC{sub 2}) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  9. Perpetual landfilling through aeration of the waste mass; lessons from test cells in Georgia (USA).

    PubMed

    Read, A D; Hudgins, M; Phillips, P

    2001-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices. PMID:11530917

  10. Geochemical processes in landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förstner, Ulrich; Kersten, Michael; Wienberg, Reinhard

    The present review focusses on the qualitative long-term perspectives of processes and mechanisms controlling the interactions of critical pollutants with organic and inorganic substrates both in "reactor landfills" and in deposits, which already consist of rock-like material ("final storage quality"). The behavior of pollutants in landfills is determined by the chemistry of interstitial solutions, i.e. by pH and redox conditions, and concentration of inorganic and organic ligands; in "reactor landfills" these conditions are widely variable as a result of biochemical reactions, while "final storage quality" implies less variations of chemical interactions. In both alternatives, however, prediction of short- and long-term effects on groundwater quality should be based on the proportion of "active species" of compounds ("mobility concept"). Qualitative assessment of potentially mobile pollutants may involve a controlled significative intensivation of important parameters such as pH-values. Using sequential extraction rearrangements of specific solid "phases" can be evaluated prior to the actual remobilisation of the pollutant into the dissolved phase. From a geochemical point of view the "reactor landfill" is characterized by labile conditions during the initial aerobic and acid anaerobic phases, the former mainly due to uncontrolled interactions with organic solutes. On the other hand, final storage quality, which is defined by the composition of earth crust material, in most cases is not attained by simple incineration of municipal waste, i.e. by reduction of organic fractions only. There is, in particular, the problem of easily soluble minerals, such as chlorides. Nonetheless the type of inorganic residue deposits will increasingly receive prevalence as a method of final storage for municipal wastes in the future.

  11. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify what is most important to the quality of life (QoL) of those who experience homelessness by directly soliciting the views of homeless and hard-to-house Canadians themselves. These individuals live within a unique social context that differs considerably from that of the general population. To understand the life areas that are most important to them, it is critical to have direct input from target populations of homeless and hard-to-house persons. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 140 individuals aged 15 to 73?years who were homeless or hard-to-house to explore the circumstances in which they were living and to capture what they find to be important and relevant domains of QoL. Participants were recruited in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Vancouver. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Six major content themes emerged: Health/health care; Living conditions; Financial situation; Employment situation; Relationships; and Recreational and leisure activities. These themes were linked to broader concepts that included having choices, stability, respect, and the same rights as other members of society. Conclusions These findings not only aid our understanding of QoL in this group, but may be used to develop measures that capture QoL in this population and help programs and policies become more effective in improving the life situation for persons who are homeless and hard-to-house. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study. PMID:22894551

  12. Transforming an open dump into a sanitary landfill: a development effort in waste management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tariq Bin Yousuf

    2009-01-01

    Upgrading a crude dump site into a sanitary landfill is a very challenging task; Matuail landfill site in Dhaka posed just\\u000a such a challenge. From the very beginning, the existing disposal site had been used for the crude dumping of solid wastes.\\u000a All types of solid wastes were haphazardly disposed of all over the site. The existing drainage channels of

  13. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 mT of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 mT was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the pathway analysis for the onsite and near-site resident scenarios, the radiation dose rates and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater would be below the regulatory requirements for both the short-term and long-term scenarios. Hence, the potential health risks to maximally exposed individuals due to radioactive releases from the Middlesex landfill would be insignificant.

  14. Geohydrologic site characterization of the municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1996-01-01

    Geohydrologic conditions of the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army. The 106.03-acre MSWLF has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The MSWLF, located about 1,200 feet east of the nearest occupied structure, is estimated to receive an average of approximately 56 tons of municipal solid waste per day and, at a fill rate of 1-4 acres per year, is expected to reach its capacity by the year 2004. The MSWLF is located in the Hueco Bolson, 4 miles east of the Franklin Mountains. Elevations at the MSWLF range from 3,907 to 3,937 feet above sea level. The climate at the MSWLF and vicinity is arid continental, characterized by an abundance of sunny days, high summer temperatures, relatively cool winters typical of arid areas, scanty rainfall, and very low humidity throughout the year. Average annual temperature near the MSWLF and vicinity is 63.3 degrees Fahrenheit and annual precipitation is 7.8 inches. Potential evaporation in the El Paso area was estimated to be 65 inches per year. Soils at and adjacent to the MSWLF are nearly level to gently sloping, have a fine sandy loam subsoil, and are moderately deep over caliche. The MSWLF is underlain by Hueco Bolson deposits of Tertiary age and typically are composed of unconsolidated to slightly consolidated interbedded sands, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. Individual beds are not well defined and range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to about 100 feet. The primary source of ground water in the MSWLF area is in the deposits of the Hueco Bolson. A relatively thick vadose zone of approximately 300 feet overlies the aquifer of the Hueco Bolson deposits in the vicinity of the MSWLF. A deep water table prevails for all of the study area. Whether any perched water zones exist below the MSWLF is unknown. Under current conditions, extensive ground-water development by the City of El Paso encompasses the MSWLF. Hydraulic characteristics of the Hueco Bolson vary significantly as a result of the nonuniform nature of the individual beds. Wells in the vicinity of the MSWLF range in depth from about 600 feet to greater than 1,200 feet. Recharge resulting from direct infiltration of precipitation is minor due to the high evaporation and low precipitation rates. The hydraulic gradient in the vicinity of the MSWLF is generally to the south but may vary due to pumpage of a well located on the northeast corner of the perimeter boundary. Ground-water monitoring data for the MSWLF vicinity show a water-level decline of 55.65 feet from November 1958 to December 1987. Depth to water at the northeast corner of the MSWLF as of July 26, 1994, was 325.8 feet below land surface. The city-operated Shearman Well Field, located north of the MSWLF, is a primary source of ground water for the City of El Paso. The test-pumping rate of well JL-49-05-914 (the well nearest to the MSWLF having test-pumping data) was 1,972 gallons per minute on July 20, 1992; the static water level prior to pumping was 317.54 feet below land surface. El Paso Water Utilities reports that the pumping level after 8 hours of pumping was 367.80 feet below land surface, resulting in a drawdown of 50.26 feet, transmissivity of 22,200 feet squared per day (166,000 gallons per day per foot), and specific capacity of 39.2 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. After the well was shut off, the well recovered to a static water level of 317.46 feet below land surface on July 21, 1992. Ground wat

  15. INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC, INORGANIC AND SYNTHETIC ADSORBENTS FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shahriari; L. Fernandes; F. H. Tezel

    2008-01-01

    An investigation into the use of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate, generated by the City of Ottawa Trail Road Landfill, was carried out. The purpose of this project was to reduce the concentration of contaminants in order to meet the local Sewer Use By?Laws, prior to transporting the leachate from the generating site to

  16. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Erdman; Scott Christenson

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Normal Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma. Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and

  17. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulation (40CFR Part 258) went into effect. hese regulations are applicable to landfills reclining solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operations, and closure of MSW landfills. hese regulat...

  18. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

  19. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS ON UNDERLYING SOILS AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three municipal landfill sites in the eastern and central United States were studied to determine the effects of the disposal facilities on surrounding soils and groundwater. Borings were made up the groundwater gradient, down the groundwater gradient and through the landfill. So...

  20. AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB AFTER REMEDIAL CLEANUP OF TWO LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of two landfills at which interim remedial cleanup measures have been performed. The landfill sites are in the Bloomington, Indiana area. The sampling locations and methods used were ...

  1. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia. PMID:22455994

  2. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume 

    E-print Network

    Grossman, E. L.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

    2002-01-01

    -90% of the original landfill methane was oxidized over the 210-m transect. First- order rate constants ranged from 0.06 to 0.23 per year, and oxidation rates ranged from 18 to 230 M/y. Overall, hydrochemical data suggest that a sulfate reducer- methanogen consortium..., the initial transect site. Down- gradient sites are likely to show even less methanogenic activity. Such is the case at a landfill-leachate contaminated aquifer at Grindsted, Denmark, where sulfate reduction rates greatly exceed methanogenic rates except...

  3. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Lindberg; M.J. Hartman

    1999-08-17

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters.

  4. FREW STREET FORBES AVENUE

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    STREET SOUTH BELLEFIELD AVENUE FORBES 28 29 NEVILLE STREET CLYDE ELLSWORTH 30 31 GESLING 1. Doherty Hall 2. Wean Hall 3. Hamerschlag 4. Scaife Hall 5. Porter Hall 6. Baker Hall 7. Hunt Library 8. College

  5. Vine Street 1. Memorial Stadium

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    10th Street r Street Vine Street 1. Memorial Stadium 2. Coliseum/rec Center 3. Mabel Lee Hall 4. nebraska Union 11. Architecture Hall 12. Lied Center 13. Pound Hall 14. Vine Street Fields 15. 14th & Avery

  6. Landfill gas-fired power plant pays cost of operating landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on recovery of energy from refuse that has become increasingly attractive in the past decade. The continuing urbanization of our society has created major challenges in the disposal of our waste products. Because of public concern over the potential presence of toxins, and for other environmental reasons, management and regulation of active and inactive landfills have become much more stringent and costly. Palos Verdes landfill, owned jointly by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts and Los Angeles County, is located about three miles from the Pacific Ocean in the city of Rolling Hills Estates, Calif. The landfill was closed in 1980. The garbage was covered with six to eight feet of soil, and the area was landscaped. Part of this area has already been developed as the South Coast Botanical Gardens and Ernie Howlett Park. The remainder is scheduled to become a golf course. As refuse decays within a landfill, the natural anaerobic biological reaction generates a low-Btu methane gas along with carbon dioxide, known as landfill gas (LFG). The gas also contains other less desirable trace components generated by the decomposing garbage. Uncontrolled, these gases migrate to the surface and escape into the atmosphere where they generate environmental problems, including objectionable odors. The Sanitation Districts have installed a matrix of gas wells and a gas collection system to enable incineration of the gas in flares. This approach reduced aesthetic, environmental and safety concerns. However, emissions from the flares were still a problem. The Sanitation Districts then looked at alternatives to flaring the gas, one of which was electrical generation. Since the Sanitation Districts have no on-site use for thermal energy, power generation for use in the utility grid was deemed the most feasible alternative.

  7. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  8. Trends in landfill leachate characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurek, M. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Sheboygan, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Leachate may be defined as the water or other liquid that has been contaminated by dissolved or suspended materials due to contact with solid waste or gases within the landfill. Research shows that leachate composition is a function of various factors such as rainfall, refuse permeability, refuse depth, and landfill age. Of these factors, landfill age has been found to have the greatest effect on leachate composition. Generally, leachate from new landfills will be higher in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and will show a steady decline leveling off at about 10 years. Traditionally, leachate treatment methods have been based on the leachate`s metals, COD, and ammonia concentrations. A different approach based on mass of contaminant released from the landfill may be more appropriate. This paper presents data from a landfill (Landfill A) showing mass of contaminant release over a period of time. This paper also presents a different design approach based on leachate mass contaminant release in lieu of a design approach based on leachate concentrations.

  9. Update on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate Treatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Study continued on p

    E-print Network

    Update on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate Treatment Studyreatment to include an under- liner system to collect and remove leachate water that soaks through the waste pile

  10. Leachate plumes in ground water from Babylon and Islip landfills, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimmel, Grant E.; Braids, O.C.

    1977-01-01

    Landfills operated by the towns of Babylon and Islip in southwest and central Suffolk County, N.Y., contain urban refuse , incinerated garbage, and scavenger (cesspool) waste; some industrial refuse is deposited at the Babylon site. The Islip landfill was started in 1933, the Babylon landfill in 1947. The landfills are in contact with and discharge leachate into the highly permeable upper glacial aquifer hydraulic conductivity 190 to 500 ft/d. The aquifer is 74 feet thick at the Babylon landfill and 170 feet thick at the Islip landfill. The leachate-enriched water occupies the entire thickness of the aquifer beneath both landfills, but hydrologic boundaries retard downward migration of the plumes to deeper aquifers. The Babylon plume is 1,900 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to about 700 feet near its terminus 10,000 feet from the landfill. The Islip plume is 1,400 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to 500 feet near its terminus 5,000 feet from the landfill. Hydrochemical maps and sections show the distribution of the major chemical constituents of the plumes. The most highly leachate-enriched ground water obtained was from the Babylon site; it contained 860 mg/liter sodium, 110 mg/liter potassium, 565 mg/liter calcium, 100 mg/liter magnesium, 2,700 mg/liter bicarbonate, and 1,300 mg/liter chloride. Simulation of the movement and dispersion of the Babylon plume with a mathematical dispersion model indicated the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion to be about 60 feet squared per day and the ground-water velocity to be 1 ft/d. However, the velocity determined from the hydraulic gradient and public-supply wells in the area was 4 ft/d, which would cause a plume four times as long as that predicted by the model. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  12. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, O; Becker, N; Shani, E

    2006-01-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park. PMID:16376068

  13. Field Performance Of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m ), instrumen...

  14. TACOMA LANDFILL ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING DATA: JULY 1983 TO JANUARY 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data set contains both ground water and surface water data from environmental sampling at the Tacoma Landfill, a National Priority List (NPL) Superfund site in Washington State. It contains a complete set of analytical chemistry and other sampling parameters associated with t...

  15. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

  16. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Ayalon, O. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management and NRERC, Haifa University, 32000 Haifa (Israel)]. E-mail: agofira@tx.technion.ac.il; Becker, N. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management and NRERC, Haifa University, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Department of Economics and Management, Tel Hai College and NRERC, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel); Shani, E. [Dan Region Association of Towns, Sanitation and Waste Disposal (Israel)

    2006-07-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park.

  17. Reclamation of sanitary landfills: A case study in Shelby County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Riddick, P.M.; Kirsch, S.; Kung, Hsiang-Te (Memphis State Univ., Memphis, TN (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Approximately 30,000 sanitary landfills were in operation in the United States in 1976; today, there are <7,000. The remaining 23,000 closed sites can be reclaimed to actually enhance the surrounding community; cost is the only limiting factor. Abandoned sanitary landfill sites do have problems, namely leachates, methane build-up, and subsidence. However, with modern techniques and planning, these problems can be overcome. Across the nation, old landfills have been converted into golf courses, parks, ski resorts, libraries, and even methane power plants. In some cases, a community's property value has actually increased after reclamation of the local landfill. Shelby County, in southwestern Tennessee, currently has four closed sanitary landfills. Only one site has been fully utilized as a recreational facility. At this site, four soccer fields are home to over 150 league soccer teams. Two sites are home to airplane radio-control clubs, although most land at these sites is currently unused. The fourth site is completely unused and up for sale. All of these closed sanitary landfills have potential use as recreation areas, but, as is often the case, lack of money and initiative is preventing development. 7 refs.

  18. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  19. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  20. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report represents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  1. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final PDWS for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria.

  2. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  3. Migrating landfill gas proves challenging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Dobrowolski; A. S. Dellinger

    1994-01-01

    Located in the San Fernando Valley at the foothills of the San Gabriel mountains, the 41-acre Sheldon-Arleta Landfill originated as one of many gravel pits in the area and was operated by CalMat as a gravel quarry pit from the mid 1950s until 1962. In 1967, methane gas was detected in the residential dwellings located across from the landfill along

  4. Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelka, C. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Maryland Heights, MO (United States)); Loehr, R.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. (Remediation Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

  5. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fadel, Mutasem, E-mail: mfadel@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  6. Nightmare on Oxford Street

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Davis

    2007-01-01

    Veteran reporter Davis recalls how a minor case of shoplifting in London’s Oxford Street, when a woman left a store without paying for five gaily-coloured hats, turned into a major story that tested Fleet Street’s finest. The accused was identified as Nina Ponomareva, aged 27, a teacher and mother of a two-year-old boy named Sasha – a white beret listed

  7. Street Storm Water Conveyance Capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Y. Guo

    2000-01-01

    The street hydraulic capacity to convey storm water is dictated by the street gutter geometry and hydraulic characteristics. With the consideration of traffic safety, the street hydraulic conveyance capacity is also subject to a reduction defined by the water velocity and flow depth in the street gutter. In this study, the street hydraulic equa- tion is re-arranged to demonstrate that

  8. Street & Smith's Preservation Access Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For thousands of Americans throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, dime novels and pulp magazines were their first experiences with the emerging world of mass-produced material culture. One such purveyor was the Street & Smith publishing house, which began in 1855 and published a wide variety of popular literature (such as homemaking magazines, comics, and dime novels) for over 100 years. These products didn't often have a great deal of originality, as the company viewed fiction as a commodity, and editors dictated plots and characters to writers, a list that included Horatio Alger, Upton Sinclair, and Jack London. This Web site, an online exhibit presented by the Syracuse University Library, pays homage to this publishing house with a number of scanned digitized images of the Street & Smith dime novels, a cover art gallery, and a collection of images immortalizing that most famous comic strip character, the Yellow Kid.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Syosset Landfill, Nassau County, Syosset, NY. (First remedial action), September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-27

    The 35-acre Syosset Landfill site is a closed municipal landfill in Syosset, Oyster Bay, New York. From 1933 to 1975, commercial, industrial, residential, demolition, and agricultural wastes, sludge, and ash were disposed of in the onsite landfill. Typical wastes included heavy metals, solvents, organics, oils, sludges, and metal hydroxides. The county closed the landfill in 1975 because of suspected ground water contamination. Subsequent studies have confirmed ground water contamination beneath and downgradient of the site resulting from landfill leachate. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses source control at the site. A subsequent ROD will address onsite ground water contamination. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, and toluene; other organics; and metals including arsenic.

  10. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Eklund; Eric P. Anderson; Barry L. Walker; Don B. Burrows

    1998-01-01

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and\\/or measurements. This paper

  11. Gaseous methyl- and inorganic mercury in landfill gas from landfills in Florida, Minnesota, Delaware, and California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Lindberg; G. Southworth; E. M. Prestbo; D. Wallschläger; M. A. Bogle; J. Price

    2005-01-01

    Municipal waste landfills contain numerous sources of mercury which could be emitted to the atmosphere. Their generation of methane by anaerobic bacteria suggests that landfills may act as bioreactors for methylated mercury compounds. Since our previous study at a single Florida landfill, gaseous inorganic and methylated mercury species have now been identified and quantified in landfill gas at nine additional

  12. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-07-28

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  13. Long-Range Radar Station and Landfill

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This oblique aerial photograph from 2006 shows the Barter Island long-range radar station landfill threatened by coastal erosion. The landfill was subsequently relocated further inland, however, the coastal bluffs continue to retreat. ...

  14. Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, T.G.; Miller, W.L.; Lee, H.J.; Earle, J.F.K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in wetted and dry areas of the landfill. Leachate quality was not dramatically impacted by leachate recycle. Moisture content was significantly greater in the area of the landfill subjected to leachate recycle. Waste temperature and pH measurements indicated that conditions suitable for anaerobic decomposition were present in both the treated and untreated areas. Measurements of solid waste biochemical methane potential and subsidence showed that a greater degree of landfill stabilization had occurred in the leachate recycle area relative to the untreated area.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock. As each facility has different guidelines and

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock-581-3468 Garfield City of Enid Landfill 580-249-4917 Garvin Foster Waste Disposal Landfill 405-238-2012 Jackson City American Environmental Landfill 918-245-7786 Call ahead Pontotoc City of Ada Municipal Landfill 580

  16. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Ripon City Landfill, Fond du Lac County, Ripon, WI, March 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Ripon FF/LN landfill Superfund site is located at the intersection of Highways FF and NN in the Town of Ripon, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. The selected source control remedy is Alternative O, Composite Landfill Cap and Passive Gas Venting in conjunction with a groundwater monitoring plan.

  17. COMPARISION OF nirS, cnorB, MCR GENES AGAINST WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS TO MONITOR UNCONTROLLED LANDFILLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Park; J. S. Han; C. G. Kim

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible relationship between a molecular biological investigation and water quality parameters in monitoring groundwater pollution at the immediate boundary of uncontrolled landfills and their downgradient aquifers, which may consequently facilitate unbiased monitoring for the sites. Two closed landfills, Jicksan and Taejang in Korea, were chosen for this study, where the diversity of the

  18. A process-based inventory model for landfill CH4 emissions inclusive of seasonal soil microclimate and CH4 oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed and field-validated an annual inventory model for California landfill CH4 emissions that incorporates both site-specific soil properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5o scale global climatic models. Based on 1-D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventor...

  19. Towards Communal Property Rights to solve Nimby Problems: The Case Study of the Regional Landfill of San Pedro (Colombia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Perez Carmona

    This study analyzes the dynamics of a social conflict in the Colombian municipality of San Pedro due an operating regional Landfill. It also lays out a proposal for an institutional change in the regulative strategy for the siting of landfills based on the granting of communal property rights. It is argued that to improve the bargaining power of potential host

  20. Access, Card, & Parking Services 3241 S Federal Street, Suite 201 Chicago, Illinois 60616 Phone: (312) 567-8968 Fax: (312) 567-8979 Web Site: www.parking.iit.edu E-mail: parking@iit.edu

    E-print Network

    Saniie, Jafar

    Access, Card, & Parking Services · 3241 S Federal Street, Suite 201 · Chicago, Illinois 60616 Phone Date____________ Card#____________ Cashier Initials____________ Amount:____________ CREDIT CARD: Last 4: _____________________________________________________________________________ Street City State ZIP IIT E-mail: ________________________________________________ Phone Number

  1. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  2. Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoe I. Ling; Dov Leshchinsky; Yoshiyuki Mohri; Toshinori Kawabata

    1998-01-01

    The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste

  3. Organic compounds in municipal landfill leachates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Paxéus

    2000-01-01

    Leachates from three municipal landfills in the Göteborg area of western Sweden were characterised in terms of their content of individual organic compounds. Two of the investigated landfills were still in use during the time of this study. The third landfill was closed down in the mid-seventies. More than 200 individual organic compounds and classes of compounds were identified in

  4. APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

  5. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  6. The decomposition of forest products in landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Micales; K. E. Skog

    1997-01-01

    Large quantities of forest products are disposed of in landfills annually. The fate of this vast pool of carbon is important since carbon sequestration and the generation of landfill gases have important implications for global warming. Published estimates of methane yields were used to estimate the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere from landfilled forest products. These calculations suggest

  7. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-05-14

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

  8. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  9. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  10. 52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water Company site, along covered Dundee Canal prism, toward Dayton Avenue and Botany Worsted Mills - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  11. 3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME LEFT CENTER; 21 AT MID-LEFT CENTER; 4 AT LEFT CENTER; RUNDBOGENSTIL TOWER AT CENTER; BUILDING 3 RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 2 AT EXTREME RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 3 IS THE OLDEST BUILDING ON SITE AND WAS BUILT CIRCA 1850 - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  12. Leachate plumes in ground water from Babylon and Islip landfills, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimmel, Grant E.; Braids, O.C.

    1980-01-01

    Landfills operated by the towns of Babylon and Islip in southwest and central Suffolk County, N.Y., contain urban refuse incinerated garbage, and scavenger (cesspool) waste; some industrial refuse is deposited at the Babylon site. The Islip landfill was started in 1933, the Babylon landfill in 1947. The landfills are in contact with and discharge leachate into the highly permeable upper glacial aquifer (hydraulic conductivity 190 and 500 ft/d). The aquifer is 74 feet thick at the Babylon landfill and 170 feet thick at the Islip landfill. The leachate-enriched water occupies the boundaries retard downward migration of the plumes to deeper aquifers. The Babylon plume is 1,900 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to about 700 feet near its terminus 10,000 feet from the landfill. The Islip plume is 5,000 feet from the landfill. Hydrochemical maps and sections show the distribution of the major chemical constituents of the plumes. The most highly leachate-enriched ground water obtained was from the Babylon site; it contained 860 mg/L sodium, 110 mg/L potassium, 565 mg/L calcium, 100 mg/L magnesium, 2,7000 mg/L bicarbonate, and 1,300 mg/L chloride. Simulation of the movement and dispersion of the Babylon plume with a mathematical dispersion model indicated the coefficient of the longitudinal dispersion to be about 60 feet squared per day and the ground-water velocity to be 1 ft/d. However, the velocity determined from the hydraulic gradient and public-supply wells in the area was 4 ft/d, which would cause a plume four times as long as that predicted by the model. (Kosco-USGS)

  13. A new technique to monitor ground-water quality at municipal solid waste landfills

    E-print Network

    Hart, Steven Charles

    1989-01-01

    supply comes from wells within one mile ( 1. 6 km) of a disposal facility. Economically, ground-water contamination can render an underground water supply useless for decades, imposing serious financial hardships on communities who must not only find... an alternative water supply, but also clean up the contaminated aquifer (USEPA, 1977). The degradation of ground water by landfill-generated leachate is due to a combination of factors, including poor landfill siting, inadequate facility design, poor waste...

  14. Knowledge based ranking algorithm for comparative assessment of post-closure care needs of closed landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Sizirici, Banu, E-mail: bsy3@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Civil Engineering Department, 2104 Adelbert Road, Bingham Bld. Room: 216, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tansel, Berrin; Kumar, Vivek [Florida International University, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Post-closure care (PCC) activities at landfills include cap maintenance; water quality monitoring; maintenance and monitoring of the gas collection/control system, leachate collection system, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water management system; and general site maintenance. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated data and knowledge based decision making tool for preliminary estimation of PCC needs at closed landfills. To develop the decision making tool, 11 categories of parameters were identified as critical areas which could affect future PCC needs. Each category was further analyzed by detailed questions which could be answered with limited data and knowledge about the site, its history, location, and site specific characteristics. Depending on the existing knowledge base, a score was assigned to each question (on a scale 1-10, as 1 being the best and 10 being the worst). Each category was also assigned a weight based on its relative importance on the site conditions and PCC needs. The overall landfill score was obtained from the total weighted sum attained. Based on the overall score, landfill conditions could be categorized as critical, acceptable, or good. Critical condition indicates that the landfill may be a threat to the human health and the environment and necessary steps should be taken. Acceptable condition indicates that the landfill is currently stable and the monitoring should be continued. Good condition indicates that the landfill is stable and the monitoring activities can be reduced in the future. The knowledge base algorithm was applied to two case study landfills for preliminary assessment of PCC performance.

  15. Health assessment for Welsh Landfill, Honeybrook, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980829527. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-24

    The Welsh Landfill site (AKA Welsh Road/Barkman Landfill) National Priorities List site is located near the top of Welsh Mountain, Honey Brook Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. The landfill was operated as an unpermitted solid waste disposal facility from 1963-1977 and is currently operated as a waste transfer station. Environmental pathways for the migration of site-contaminants to off-site areas include those associated with groundwater and surface and subsurface soil. Human exposure to site contaminants may occur through ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, dusts or volatilized contaminants. The proposed remediation of the site by EPA should eliminate or significantly reduce the potential for the completion of human exposure pathways to site contaminants by capping the site and supplying public water to affected residences. This site is considered a public health hazard because of past exposure to site contaminants by individuals.

  16. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former C.H. Schnoor and Company Site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CPV001)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Murray; K. S. Brown; R. D. Foley

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company Site in Springdale, Pennsylvania. The survey was performed from August to October of 1994. The purpose of the survey was to verify that the site was remediated to

  17. Landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Ingo; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-02-01

    In order to investigate landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two landfills (one active and one closed) and two reference sites using high volume air samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters (particle phase) and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges (gas phase), extracted by methyl-tert butyl ether/acetone (neutral PFCs), methanol (ionic PFCs) or hexane/acetone (PBDEs, musk fragrances), and detected by GC-MS (neutral PFCs, PBDEs, musk fragrances) or HPLC-MS/MS (ionic PFCs). Total concentrations ranged from 84 to 706 pg m -3 (volatile PFCs, gas phase), from landfill sites compared to corresponding reference sites. Concentrations determined at the active landfill were higher than those of the inactive landfill. Overall, landfills can be regarded as a source of synthetic musk fragrances, several PFCs and potentially of PBDEs to ambient air.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Johnson County Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, Kansas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Citizens of Shawnee, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Kansas that are particularly well suited for grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. This report assesses the Johnson County Landfill for possible grid-tied PV installations and estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. The report findings are applicable to other landfills in the surrounding area.

  19. Article in Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2008, (U.S. News,p.3) (excerpt also at

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Article in Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2008, (U.S. News,p.3) (excerpt also at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122851537257083869.html#articleTabs%3Darticle Cities Give Waste-to-Energy Plants a Second Look Higher U.S. Landfill

  20. Health assessment for Jones Industrial Services (JIS) landfill, South Brunswick Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD097400998 (amended June 10, 1991). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-10

    The Jones Industrial Landfill site began as a 33 acre pit that had been excavated to provide soil needed during the construction of the New Jersey Turnpike. Landfilling operations reportedly began in 1955. In the 1960's, as part of the landfilling operation, toxic chemicals were dumped into the pit. The site is currently ranked 45 of 110 Superfund sites in New Jersey. The primary pathway of concern is the domestic use of contaminated groundwater. Residents near the JIS landfill have experienced contamination of their well water since 1975. On the basis of the information reviewed, ATSDR and NJDOH have concluded that the site is of public health concern because humans have probably been exposed to VOCs, heavy metals, phthalates and pesticides at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. The Jones Industrial Services Landfill site is being considered for appropriate follow-up health study and evaluation.

  1. A Preliminary evaluation of hydrology and water quality near the Tacoma Landfill, Pierce County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W.E.; Turney, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Tacoma landfill, located in western Pierce County, Washington, has been used for the disposal of waste since about 1960. Disposal operations are planned to continue at this site until at least 1990. Data were compiled and interpreted to help understand the possible effects of the landfill on water quality in the surrounding area. Data were collected from published and unpublished reports of the U.S. Geological Survey, and from predominantly unpublished data in the files of other government agencies. The Tacoma landfill is underlain by unconsolidated, glacially derived deposits that consist of a wide variety of mixtures of clay to boulder-sized materials. Ground water is mostly the result of rainfall on the land surface, and moves through artesian aquifers (under the landfill) that are tapped for both domestic and municipal use. Hazardous liquid and dissolved wastes are probably present in the landfill, and potential flow paths for waste migration exist. An undetermined number of single-family domestic wells and 18 public-supply wells are within 3 miles of the landfill, three as close as 0.2 miles. There is only limited evidence indicating ground- and surface-water contamination. Further investigations of the geology, hydrology and water quality are needed to characterize the impact the landfill has on ground- and surface-water of the surrounding area. (USGS)

  2. A performance-based system for the long-term management of municipal waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy W F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-04-01

    Landfills have been the dominant alternative for disposal of solid waste and there are tens of thousands of closed landfills throughout the world that require a long-term management strategy. In contrast to approaches based on time or target values, this paper describes a performance-based methodology for evaluation of post-closure care (PCC). Using the methodology, critical components of PCC at a landfill, including leachate and gas management, groundwater monitoring and cover integrity, are considered to determine whether a landfill meets defined conditions for functional stability and can transition from regulated PCC to a post-regulatory custodial care program representing de minimus care activities only. The methodology is predicated on understanding the biological, chemical, and physical behavior of a landfill and the presence of sufficient data to verify expected trends in landfill behavior. If an evaluation suggests that a change can be made to PCC, the landfill owner must perform confirmation monitoring and then surveillance monitoring at a decreasing frequency to verify that the change is protective of human health and the environment. A hypothetical case study showed that using the methodology to evaluate site-specific PCC requirements could result in increased environmental protection at comparable cost by spending available funds where they are most needed. PMID:21186115

  3. The Street and Its Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Studied development of identity as street children in Montevideo, Uruguay. Found that children without income-generating activity lack self-definition as street children but recognize the street as a place of apprenticeship, knowing they can return to institutions or to parents. Working children view the street as a workplace and meeting place,…

  4. walking tour 1900 Commerce Street

    E-print Network

    Stein, William

    Tacoma, the Tacoma Dome and Freighthouse Square. Many of UW Tacoma's academic buildings feature.washington.edu. Welcome to the University of Washington Tacoma #12;Market Street S.19thStreet S.17thStreet Jefferson Dougan Pinkerton Jefferson Avenue S.21stStreet Laborers Carlton Center Tollefson Plaza Greater Tacoma

  5. Mixed waste landfill annual groundwater monitoring report April 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Mark L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-01-01

    Annual groundwater sampling was conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories' Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL) in April 2005. Seven monitoring wells were sampled using a Bennett{trademark} pump in accordance with the April 2005 Mini-Sampling and Analysis Plan for the MWL (SNL/NM 2005). The samples were analyzed off site at General Engineering Laboratories, Inc. for a broad suite of radiochemical and chemical parameters, and the results are presented in this report. Sample splits were also collected from several of the wells by the New Mexico Environment Department U.S. Department of Energy Oversight Bureau; however, the split sample results are not included in this report. The results of the April 2005 annual groundwater monitoring conducted at the MWL showed constituent concentrations within the historical ranges for the site and indicated no evidence of groundwater contamination from the landfill.

  6. Treatment of landfill leachate at publicly owned treatment works

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. James; W. W. Schuk

    1986-01-01

    The project investigated the discharge of landfill leachate into a municipal waste-water collection system with subsequent treatment at the municipal treatment plant. This article points out that leachates from disposal sites can be mixed with municipal waste-water and treated by waste-water treatment plants using secondary aerobic treatment. Leachates are effluents, high in organic content and in many instances similar to

  7. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  8. Potential for Bioremediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Landfill Leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for MNA of the remaining chlorinated ethenes in SRS landfill GW, along with enhancing anaerobic reductive dechlorination through addition of an electron donor. Historical GW monitoring data were used to evaluate the site based on phase I of the RABITT protocol. Microcosms were used to assess the potential for enhancing dechlorination through addition of lactate and/or sulfate.

  9. Evaluation of methane emissions from Palermo municipal landfill: Comparison between field measurements and models

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bella, Gaetano, E-mail: dibella@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Di Trapani, Daniele, E-mail: ditrapani@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Viviani, Gaspare, E-mail: gviv@idra.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Aerospaziale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) diffuse emissions from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills represent one of the most important anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas. CH{sub 4} is produced by anaerobic biodegradation of organic matter in landfilled MSW and constitutes a major component of landfill gas (LFG). Gas recovery is a suitable method to effectively control CH{sub 4} emissions from landfill sites and the quantification of CH{sub 4} emissions represents a good tool to evaluate the effectiveness of a gas recovery system in reducing LFG emissions. In particular, LFG emissions can indirectly be evaluated from mass balance equations between LFG production, recovery and oxidation in the landfill, as well as by a direct approach based on LFG emission measurements from the landfill surface. However, up to now few direct measurements of landfill CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions have been reported in the technical literature. In the present study, both modeling and direct emission measuring methodologies have been applied to the case study of Bellolampo landfill located in Palermo, Italy. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate CH{sub 4} diffuse emissions, based on direct measurements carried out with the flux accumulation chamber (static, non-stationary) method, as well as to obtain the CH{sub 4} contoured flux map of the landfill. Such emissions were compared with the estimate achieved by means of CH{sub 4} mass balance equations. The results showed that the emissions obtained by applying the flux chamber method are in good agreement with the ones derived by the application of the mass balance equation, and that the evaluated contoured flux maps represent a reliable tool to locate areas with abnormal emissions in order to optimize the gas recovery system efficiency.

  10. Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico (Second Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a solar photovoltaics (PV) system on landfill sites in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). The report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system. The landfills and sites considered in this report were all determined feasible areas in which to implement solar PV systems.

  11. Natural attenuation: A feasible approach to remediation of ground water pollution at landfills?

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Kjeldsen, P.

    2000-12-31

    Remediation of ground water pollution at old landfills with no engineered leachate collection system is a demanding and costly operation. It requires control of the landfill body, since the majority of the pollutants are still present in the landfilled waste for decades after the site has been closed. However, natural attenuation of the plume without removing the source is an attractive approach to managing leachate plumes. Natural attenuation has been implemented for petroleum hydrocarbon plumes and for chlorinated solvent plumes, primarily in the US. Natural attenuation has not yet gained a foothold with respect to leachate plumes, however. Based on the experiences gained from 10 years of research on two Danish landfills, it is suggested that natural attenuation is a feasible approach but is more complicated and demanding than in the case of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvent.

  12. One-dimensional Seismic Analysis of a Solid-Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, Francesco; Lentini, Valentina; Maugeri, Michele [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria no. 6, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    Analysis of the seismic performance of solid waste landfill follows generally the same procedures for the design of embankment dams, even if the methods and safety requirements should be different. The characterization of waste properties for seismic design is difficult due the heterogeneity of the material, requiring the procurement of large samples. The dynamic characteristics of solid waste materials play an important role on the seismic response of landfill, and it also is important to assess the dynamic shear strengths of liner materials due the effect of inertial forces in the refuse mass. In the paper the numerical results of a dynamic analysis are reported and analysed to determine the reliability of the common practice of using 1D analysis to evaluate the seismic response of a municipal solid-waste landfill. Numerical results indicate that the seismic response of a landfill can vary significantly due to reasonable variations of waste properties, fill heights, site conditions, and design rock motions.

  13. 2002 Hyperspectral Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gladden

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous waste site inspection is a labor intensive, time consuming job, performed primarily on the ground using visual inspection and instrumentation. It is an expensive process to continually monitor hazardous waste and\\/or landfill sites to determine if they are maintaining their integrity. In certain instances, it may be possible to monitor aspects of the hazardous waste sites and landfills remotely.

  14. 5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH DOWN SIXTH STREET AT THE INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH DOWN SIXTH STREET AT THE INTERSECTION WITH CENTRAL AVENUE. AS PART OF THE INITIAL SITE DEVELOPMENT, A RAILROAD SPUR, ACCESS ROADS, POWER LINES, AND TELEPHONE LINES WERE BUILT. ALL FACILITIES WERE HEATED BY STEAM GENERATED IN BUILDING 443 AND PIPED THROUGHOUT THE SITE. THE BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS BUILDING 664, A LOW - LEVEL WASTE STORAGE FACILITY. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Landfill gas to electricity demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, A. J.; Cagliostro, L. A.

    1982-03-01

    Medium Btu methane gas is a naturally occurring by product of anaerobic digestion of landfilled municipal solid waste. The energy potential of landfill gas in New York State is estimated to be 61 trillion Btu's per year or the equivalent of 10 percent of the natural gas used annually in the State. The 18-month Landfill Gas to Electricity Demonstration Project conducted at the Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten Island, New York conclusively demonstrated that landfill gas is an acceptable fuel for producing electricity using an internal combustion engine/generator set. Landfill gas proved to be a reliable and consistent fuel source during a six-month field test program. Engine exhaust emissions were determined to be comparable to that of natural gas and no unusually high corrosion rates on standard pipeline material were found.

  16. Radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.D.; Haywood, F.F.; Witt, D.A.; Myrick, T.E.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Loy, E.T.

    1981-12-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the Shpack Landfill, Norton, Massachusetts, are given in this report. The survey was conducted over approximately eight acres which had received radioactive wastes from 1946 to 1965. The survey included measurement of the following: external gamma radiation at the surface and at 1 m (3 ft) above the surface throughout the site; beta-gamma exposure rates at 1 cm (0.4 in.) from the surface throughout the site; concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U, and /sup 235/U in surface and subsurface soil on the site; and concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 210/Pb in groundwater on the site and in surface water on and near the site. Results indicate that the radioactive contamination is confined to the site and to the swamp immediately adjacent to the site.

  17. Proximity of Louisiana sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats. Data on individual landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. W. Lambou; R. C. Herndon; J. E. Moerlins; R. L. Gebhard

    1989-01-01

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. This report documents the proximity of sanitary landfills included in the study in Louisiana to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.). The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory maps. The nearness

  18. Oppenheimer's Box of Chocolates: Remediation of the Manhattan Project Landfill at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 12283

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Donald L.; Ramsey, Susan S.; Finn, Kevin P.; Chaloupka, Allan B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Material Disposal Area B (MDA B) is the oldest radioactive waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Operated from 1944-48, MDA B was the disposal facility for the Manhattan Project. Recognized as one of the most challenging environmental remediation projects at Los Alamos, the excavation of MDA B received $110 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to accelerate this complex remediation work. Several factors combined to create significant challenges to remediating the landfill known in the 1940's as the 'contaminated dump'. The secrecy surrounding the Manhattan Project meant that no records were kept of radiological materials and chemicals disposed or of the landfill design. An extensive review of historical documents and interviews with early laboratory personnel resulted in a list of hundreds of hazardous chemicals that could have been buried in MDA B. Also, historical reports of MDA B spontaneously combusting on three occasions -with 50-foot flames and pink smoke spewing across the mesa during the last incident in 1948-indicated that hazardous materials were likely present in MDA B. To complicate matters further, though MDA B was located on an isolated mesa in the 1940's, the landfill has since been surrounded by a Los Alamos commercial district. The local newspaper, hardware store and a number of other businesses are located directly across the street from MDA B. This close proximity to the public and the potential for hazardous materials in MDA B necessitated conducting remediation work within protective enclosures. Potential chemical hazards and radiological inventory were better defined using a minimally intrusive sampling method called direct push technology (DPT) prior to excavation. Even with extensive sampling and planning the project team encountered many surprises and challenges during the project. The one area where planning did not fail to meet reality was safety. There were no serious worker injuries and the minor injuries recorded were those common to construction type activities. Extensive monitoring along the site boundary demonstrated that no hazardous chemicals were released and radiological dose to the public was within administrative limits. More than three years of effort by the LANL project team went into the planning for remediation of Material Disposal Area B. Hundreds of historical documents were reviewed; retired personnel were extensively interviewed and noninvasive techniques were used to characterize the site. The information collected was incorporated into the safety requirements, cost estimate, schedule and primary execution plan for the project. Ultimately the waste volume managed by the project approached 40000 m{sup 3}, more than double the original project estimate. This increase had a major impact on both project cost and schedule. Nuclear safety requirements for the project were based on an estimated MDA B radionuclide inventory of 12 PE-Ci. When excavation was complete over 123 PE-Ci had been removed from the trenches. The radionuclide inventory at MDA B was an order of magnitude higher than estimated. Work at MDA B could not have proceeded without the safety basis exemption from DOE-HQ. The one area where planning did not fail to meet reality was safety. There were no serious worker injuries and the minor injuries recorded were those common to construction type activities. Extensive monitoring along the site boundary demonstrated that no hazardous chemicals were released and radiological dose to the public was within administrative limits. (authors)

  19. Appointment in Sonzay: Landfill gas fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Balbo, M.E. [SITA Group, Paris (France)

    1997-05-01

    The SITA Group (Paris, France) an international waste management company, wanted to research and develop a means to economically and environmentally reuse the inherent value of its landfill gas. As the owner of more than 100 landfills in France alone--both hazardous and non-hazardous--SITA felt that it had a responsibility to research innovative gas treatment and/or reuse options, particularly as public scrutiny of landfill management practices was on the rise. In a successful pilot program initiated by SITA, landfill gas was reused as biofuel for vehicles in a way that was economically viable and environmentally sound.

  20. REMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Norman Landfill is the field site for this project. It was reported that ground water toxicity at this site was due to ammonia, and napthalene was the only ASOC present at high concentrations. Thus, batch and column studies will be used to evaluate reactive materials with the...

  1. Sanitary Landfill. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson is an introduction to disposal of sludge by landfill. A brief explanation of the complete process is provided, including discussions of sludge suitability, site selection, method selection and operation, site closure, and ultimate reuse. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's guide contains a…

  2. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. PMID:24656422

  3. Access, Card, & Parking Services 3241 S Federal Street, Suite 102 Chicago, Illinois 60616 Phone: (312) 567-8968 Fax: (312) 567-8979 Web Site: www.parking.iit.edu E-mail: parking@iit.edu

    E-print Network

    Saniie, Jafar

    Access, Card, & Parking Services · 3241 S Federal Street, Suite 102 · Chicago, Illinois 60616 Phone-Friday 5:00 pm ­ 7:00a.m. all day on and weekends. PAYMENT METHOD Credit Card Electronic Check #12;Access, Card, & Parking Services · 3241 S Federal Street, Suite 102 · Chicago, Illinois 60616 Phone: (312) 567

  4. 1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., RI. sec. 4215, mp 141.67/.77. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  5. Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

  6. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  7. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  8. Estimation of the hazard of landfills through toxicity testing of leachates—I. Determination of leachate toxicity with a battery of acute tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clément Bernard; Persoone Guido; Janssen Colin; Anne Le Dû-Delepierre

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven landfill leachates were tested on a battery of conventional toxicity tests (microalgae, daphnids, duckweeds) and new microbiotests (rotifers, crustaceans, protozoans, luminescent bacteria).The toxicity varied substantially from one test species to the other, from one site to the other, as well as from one type of landfill to the other. Leachates of domestic wastes were significantly more toxic than those

  9. Bioaccumulation of metals and effects of landfill pollution in small mammals. Part I. The greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi; Jacint Nadal

    2007-01-01

    Here we quantified the bioaccumulation of metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, iron, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and chromium) and assessed several morphological (RI, relative weights) and genotoxic parameters as biomarkers of pollution from the landfill of Garraf (Barcelona, NE Spain). Specimens of Crocidura russula (Insectivora, Mammalia) from the landfill site showed increased Pb, Cd, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Cr concentrations

  10. Health assessment for Coker's Sanitation Service Landfills, Cheswold, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980704860. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-14

    The Coker's Sanitation Service Landfills site is the location of two former landfills used to dispose of latex rubber waste sludges from what is now the Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. plant. On-site contamination consists of ethylbenzene, iron, toluene, acrolein, and bis-2-chloroethylether in groundwater, waste sludges, sediments, and leachate. Off-site sampling of monitoring wells indicates acrolein and ethylbenzene in groundwater. There are no reports of physical hazards at the site. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater.

  11. Environmental impact of an urban landfill on a coastal aquifer (El Jadida, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chofqi, Amina; Younsi, Abedelkader; Lhadi, El Kbir; Mania, Jacky; Mudry, Jacques; Veron, Alain

    2004-06-01

    The El Jadida landfill is one among many uncontrolled dumping sites in Morocco with no bottom liner. About 150 tons/day of solid wastes from mixed urban and industrial origins are placed directly on the ground. At the site of this landfill, the groundwaters circulate deeply (10-15 m) in the Cenomanian rock (calcareous-marl), which is characterised by an important permeability from cracks. The soil is sand-clay characterized by a weak coefficient of retention. The phreatic water ascends to the bottom of three quarries, which are located within the landfill. These circumstances, along with the lack of a leachate collection system, worsen the risks for a potential deterioration of the aquifer. To evaluate groundwater pollution due to this urban landfill, piezometric level and geochemical analyses have been monitored since 1999 on 60 wells. The landfill leachate has been collected from the three quarries that are located within the landfill. The average results of geochemical analyses show an important polluant charge vehiculed by landfill leachate (chloride = 5680 mg l -1, chemical oxygen demand = 1000 mg l -1, iron = 23 000 ?g l -1). They show also an important qualitative degradation of the groundwater, especially in the parts situated in the down gradient area and in direct proximity to the landfill. In these polluted zones, we have observed the following values: higher than 4.5 mS cm -1 in electric conductivity, 1620 and 1000 mg l -1 respectively in chlorides and sulfate ( SO42-), 15-25 ?g l -1 in cadmium, and 60-100 ?g l -1 in chromium. These concentrations widely exceed the standard values for potable water. Several determining factors in the evolution of groundwater contamination have been highlighted, such as (1) depth of the water table, (2) permeability of soil and unsaturated zone, (3) effective infiltration, (4) humidity and (5) absence of a system for leachate drainage. So, to reduce the pollution risks of the groundwater, it is necessary to set a system of collection, drainage and treatment of landfill leachates and to emplace an impermeable surface at the site of landfill, in order to limit the infiltration of leachate.

  12. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nahman, Anton, E-mail: anahman@csir.co.za [Environmental and Resource Economics Group, Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7599 (South Africa)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  13. Using multivariate regression modeling for sampling and predicting chemical characteristics of mixed waste in old landfills.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Christian; Laner, David; Prantl, Roman; Fellner, Johann

    2014-12-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills pose a threat on environment and human health, especially old landfills which lack facilities for collection and treatment of landfill gas and leachate. Consequently, missing information about emission flows prevent site-specific environmental risk assessments. To overcome this gap, the combination of waste sampling and analysis with statistical modeling is one option for estimating present and future emission potentials. Optimizing the tradeoff between investigation costs and reliable results requires knowledge about both: the number of samples to be taken and variables to be analyzed. This article aims to identify the optimized number of waste samples and variables in order to predict a larger set of variables. Therefore, we introduce a multivariate linear regression model and tested the applicability by usage of two case studies. Landfill A was used to set up and calibrate the model based on 50 waste samples and twelve variables. The calibrated model was applied to Landfill B including 36 waste samples and twelve variables with four predictor variables. The case study results are twofold: first, the reliable and accurate prediction of the twelve variables can be achieved with the knowledge of four predictor variables (Loi, EC, pH and Cl). For the second Landfill B, only ten full measurements would be needed for a reliable prediction of most response variables. The four predictor variables would exhibit comparably low analytical costs in comparison to the full set of measurements. This cost reduction could be used to increase the number of samples yielding an improved understanding of the spatial waste heterogeneity in landfills. Concluding, the future application of the developed model potentially improves the reliability of predicted emission potentials. The model could become a standard screening tool for old landfills if its applicability and reliability would be tested in additional case studies. PMID:25218084

  14. Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

  15. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides general guidance and a source of information to be used in the planning, design, and operation of a landfill receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge. Major alternative sludge landfilling methods are identified and described. Guidance is given on...

  16. Landfill leachate treatment: Review and opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Renou; J. G. Givaudan; S. Poulain; F. Dirassouyan; P. Moulin

    2008-01-01

    In most countries, sanitary landfilling is nowadays the most common way to eliminate municipal solid wastes (MSW). In spite of many advantages, generation of heavily polluted leachates, presenting significant variations in both volumetric flow and chemical composition, constitutes a major drawback. Year after year, the recognition of landfill leachate impact on environment has forced authorities to fix more and more

  17. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  18. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  19. LANDFILL GAS AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of the current understanding of methane emissions from landfills that contribute to global climate change. The factors affecting landfill emissions are described and the uncertainties are identified. There appears to be a consensus in the international co...

  20. SUMMARY TECHNICAL REPORT RICHMOND LANDFILL 1996 POLLUTION

    E-print Network

    #12;SUMMARY TECHNICAL REPORT RICHMOND LANDFILL 1996 POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN DOE FRAP 1997-07\\TOC.DOC SUMMARY TECHNICAL REPORT RICHMOND LANDFILL 1996 POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS.0 POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES 6-1 6.1 Pollution Prevention Opportunities 6-1 6.2 P2 Options Screening

  1. [Company Name] [Street Address

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    [Company Name] [Street Address] [City, ST ZIP Code] Phone [phone] FIXED PRICE INVOICE INVOICE #[100 Building Baltimore, MD 21218-2685 PAYMENT TO: [Recipient Name] [Address] [City, ST and ZIP Code] [Phone FOR QUESTIONS CONCERNING THIS INVOICE ­ NAME, PHONE AND FAX NUMBER AND E-ADDRESS. Certification

  2. Hillsborough Street Pullen Road

    E-print Network

    Hillsborough Street Pullen Road General Information and Driving Tips City of Raleigh, NC www and fatalities is significantly reduced, since vehicles travel slower and the angle of vehicles as they merge: P The City. Roundabouts are less expensive to operate and maintain than traffic signals. P Drivers

  3. Street Youth: Coping and Interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean A. Kidd

    2003-01-01

    A literature review of research into interventions among street youth is presented along with the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 80 street youth on the topic of coping. Themes arising from the qualitative analysis include street youths' negative and positive experiences with social support; and attitudes and beliefs such as self-worth, decreased reactivity to other's opinions, hope

  4. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the medium grain-size fraction was nearly the same for streets within both land-use types at 0.004 p

  5. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged over fivefold the "typical" values for comparable landfill waste. In terms of "greenhouse benefit," fractional VOC and methane energy recovery are estimated to exceed 90%, with corresponding methane and VOC emission reductions. Analyses done for the greenhouse gas mitigation program of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory indicate favorable economics justified on landfill life extension, as well as environmental benefits. The "controlled landfill" project findings suggest potential for low-cost mitigation of waste greenhouse methane emissions, maximum landfill carbon sequestration, and maximization of beneficial energy capture from landfills. Details and results obtained since 1994 will be presented.

  6. 8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE MARCHION HARDWARE BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY W.W. HISLOP, AND BUILT IN 1895. THE GROUND FLOOR WAS RENOVATED SOME TIME IN THE 1930s. IN THE CENTER IS THE IMPERIAL BLOCK (ca. 1920), AND THE FULLER DRUG COMPANY (1918-1932).THE FULLER SITE WAS OCCUPIED BY THE HIGHLAND THEATER FROM 1932 TO 1972, AND RETAINS MUCH OF THE INTERIOR DECORATION FROM THAT PERIOD - Anaconda Historic District, Park & Commercial Streets, Main Street vicinity, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  7. Microorganisms in landfill bioreactors for accelerated stabilization of solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Sang, Nguyen Nhu; Soda, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Ike, Michihiko

    2012-09-01

    Landfill bioreactors (LBRs) with management of leachate and biogas have presented numerous advantages such as accelerated stabilization of solid wastes, reduced amount of leachate, and in situ leachate treatment. Such advantages have minimized environmental risks, have allowed extension of the useful life of the landfill site, and have fostered cost reduction. LBRs of three types have been developed using both anaerobic and aerobic modes: anaerobic, aerobic, and hybrid. Microorganisms in landfills cause various reactions related with organic fractions and heavy metals. Such functions have been stimulated in LBRs by recirculation of leachate with or without aeration. To date, most studies of microorganisms in LBRs have analyzed bacteria and archaea based on 16S rRNA genes and have analyzed fungi based on 18S rRNA genes from a taxonomical viewpoint. Indicator genes for specific functions in LBRs such as nitrification, denitrification, and methane production have also been monitored. The population dynamics of microorganisms in LBRs have been partially clarified, but the obtained data remain limited because of highly heterogeneous features of solid wastes inside LBRs. Systematic monitoring of microorganisms should be established to improve LBR performance. PMID:22608549

  8. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  9. Statistical comparison of leachate from hazardous, codisposal, and municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, R.D.; Dolan, D.G.; May, H.; O'Leary, K.; O'Hara, R.

    1999-09-30

    There has been considerable debate regarding the chemical characterization of landfill leachate in general and the comparison of various types of landfill leachate (e.g., hazardous, codisposal, and municipal) in particular. For example, the preamble to the US EPA Subtitle D regulation (40 CFR Parts 257 and 258) suggests that there are no significant differences between the number and concentration of toxic constituents in hazardous versus municipal solid waste landfill leachate. The purpose of this paper is to statistically test this hypothesis in a large leachate database comprising 1490 leachate samples from 283 sample points (i.e., monitoring location such as a leachate sump) in 93 landfill waste cells (i.e., a section of a facility that took a specific waste stream or collection of similar waste streams) from 48 sites with municipal, codisposal, or hazardous waste site histories. Results of the analysis reveal clear differention between landfill leachate types, both in terms of constituents detected and their concentrations. The result of the analysis is a classification function that can estimate the probability that new leachate or ground water sample was produced by the disposal of municipal, codisposal, or hazardous waste. This type of computation is illustrated, and applications of the model to Superfund cost-allocation problems are discussed.

  10. Modeling LED street lighting.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ivan; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Saucedo-A, Tonatiuh; Bugarin, Alejandra

    2014-07-10

    LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street. The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position (pole height and arm length), luminary angle (fixture tilt), and the angular intensity profile (radiation pattern) of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps. PMID:25090061

  11. intramural fields bissonnet street

    E-print Network

    parking) cambridge street chaucer 21 22 23 25 27A 1 2 3 4 8 5 2018 27B 9 14B 14A 13A 13B 17 27 65 64 19 46) 9 60 72 Entrance Gates Visitor's Entrance Bus Stops One-way Road Faculty/Sta Parking Resident Entrance Gates Visitor's Entrance Bus Stops One-way Road Faculty/Sta Parking Resident Student Parking

  12. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Lauer 1 Sanitary Landfill (Boundary road), Menomonee Falls, WI, March 11, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Boundary Road Landfill (formerly known as the Lauer 1 Landfill) is located in the northeastern portion of the Village of Menomonee Falls. Construction of a new multi-layer soil cover system over the landfill; installation of leachate extraction measures in the northeastern portion of the site; installation of an active landfill gas extraction system; construction of a new leachate conveyance, likely a forcemain (pressure pipe), to transmit all extracted leachate from the site to the local sanitary sewer system; continued operation and maintenance of an existing slurry cut-off wall and leachate collection system, including conveyance of leachate from the collection system to the new forcemain; implementation of proper institutional controls; installation of new fencing and improvement of existing fencing to restrict site access; long-term monitoring of groundwater, surface water and landfill gas; supplementary studies of groundwater quality and internal landfill leachate elevations; and implementation of additional remedial actions found to be necessary under the additional studies of groundwater quality and internal leachate elevations.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Marion/Bragg Landfill, Marion, Indiana, (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-30

    The Marion/Bragg Landfill is a 72-acre site located near the southeastern city limits of Marion, Indiana. The site is bordered on the north and east by the Mississinewa River. Main features of the site include a 45-acre landfill and a 15-acre pond. From 1935 to 1961 the site was used as a sand and gravel quarry, and from 1949 to 1970 portions of the site, leased by Radio Corporation of America and Bragg Construction Company, were used for industrial and municipal waste disposal, respectively. Throughout this period, the Indiana State Board of Health (ISBH) noted the disposal of acetone, plasticizers, lacquer thinner, and enamels. Drummed wastes were also accepted and contents were allegedly emptied from the drums and worked into the landfill waste with a bulldozer, causing several fires on site. Drums were allegedly rinsed and resold. In 1975 Bragg Construction company ceased operation of the landfill. In 1975, Waste Reduction Systems constructed a transfer station to properly transfer solid wastes to an approved landfill. The transfer station was closed in 1977.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation for landfill leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yang [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, McArthur Building, Room 325, 1251 Memorial Dr., University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)], E-mail: dengyang7@yahoo.com; Englehardt, James D. [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, McArthur Building, Room 325, 1251 Memorial Dr., University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview of electrochemical oxidation processes used for treatment of landfill leachate. The typical characteristics of landfill leachate are briefly reviewed, and the reactor designs used for electro-oxidation of leachate are summarized. Electrochemical oxidation can significantly reduce concentrations of organic contaminants, ammonia, and color in leachate. Pretreatment methods, anode materials, pH, current density, chloride concentration, and other additional electrolytes can considerably influence performance. Although high energy consumption and potential chlorinated organics formation may limit its application, electrochemical oxidation is a promising and powerful technology for treatment of landfill leachate.

  15. Reverse osmosis module successfully treats landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    By law, modern landfills are to be constructed with double liners to prevent contaminants from leaching into surface and ground water. Despite this design feature, however, both hazardous and non-hazardous compounds do leach from the waste disposed in landfills. The resulting contaminated water, or leachate, must be collected and treated. Rochem Environmental, Inc. (Houston, Texas) has developed a new membrane process, known as the Disc Tube{trademark} system, to remove a variety of contaminants from landfill leachate. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Implementation guide for landfill gas utilization

    SciTech Connect

    McGuigan, M.J.; Conrad, E.T. [SCS Engineers, Reston, VA (United States); Handley, R.L. [Northeast Regional Biomass Program, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The technology for recovering and converting landfill gas (LFG) to energy has been known for sometime, and implementation of projects have been occurring over the past 15 years. This paper describes the evolution of LFG utilization development, the barriers that exist for this form of biomass, and technical and economic factors regarding LFG utilization. The basis of this paper is the authors` experience in successful and unsuccessful LFG projects and two projects sponsored by NRBP: (1) Implementation Guide to Landfill Gas Recovery in the Northeast and, (2) Comparative Analysis of Landfill Gas Utilization Technologies. This paper presents the findings of the first study and an introduction to the second study.

  17. Evaluation of Y-12 landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.A. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Daugherty, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hutzler, C.W.; Smith, C.M. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA)); Wylie, A.N. (Adams, Craft, Herz, Walker, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-12-12

    The purpose of this project was to provide team members with practical experience in application of Civil Engineering 555, Solid Waste Management principles. Team members chose to evaluate the functional elements of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's (Y-12's) solid waste management system. The following factors contributed to selection of Y-12'system for evaluation: team members' familiarity with the Y-12 system; knowledge that the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was nearing capacity; and presence of the unique issues posed by special national security and potential radioactive contamination considerations. This report was limited to evaluation of the solid waste management system for conventional solid waste; hazardous radioactive, and radioactive mixed waste were not addressed. The report: (1) describes each functional element including waste generation, storage, collection, transport, processing, recovery, and disposal; (2) identifies and evaluates alternatives for each element and (3) identifies system strengths and recommends opportunities for improvement. 34 figs.

  18. Methanol from landfill gas: technology and economics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    The study consists of a detailed conceptual process design for an integrated facility, including cost estimates and financial analysis; the results of a laboratory investigation of the composition of gas from the Fresh Kills landfill on Staten Island; and a market analysis of potential methanol uses and plant sites in New York State. The report addresses the conditions under which operation of a methanol plant would be economical, as well as strategies for introducing methanol into the marketplace. In addition, the report includes details on the extensive chemical data developed during the project concerning contaminants which might affect process performance or economics.

  19. Design document for landfill capping Prototype Decision Support System. Draft 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.J.; Paige, G.; Hakonson, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, AZ (United State)

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the Prototype Decision Support System for shallow land burial project is to ``Develop a Decision Support System tool which incorporates simulation modeling and multi-objective decision theory for the purpose of designing and evaluating alternative trench cap designs for mixed waste landfill covers. The goal is to improve the quality of technical information used by the risk manager to select landfill cover designs while taking into account technological, economical, and regulatory factors.`` The complexity of the technical and non-technical information, and how the information varies in importance across sites, points to the need for decision analysis tools that provide a common basis for integrating, synthesizing, and valuing the decision input. Because the cost of remediating thousands of contaminated DOE sites is projected to be in the 10`s--100`s of billions of dollars, methods will be needed to establish cleanup priorities and to help in the selection and evaluation of cost effective remediation alternatives. Even at this early stage in DOE`s cleanup program, it is certain that capping technologies will be heavily relied upon to remediate the 3000+ landfills on DOE property. Capping is favored in remediating most DOE landfills because, based on preliminary baseline risk assessments, human and ecological risks are considered to be low at most of these sites and the regulatory requirements for final closure of old landfills can be met using a well designed cap to isolate the buried waste. This report describes a program plan to design, develop, and test a decision support system (DSS) for assisting the DOE risk manager in evaluating capping alternatives for radioactive and hazardous waste landfills. The DOE DSS will incorporate methods for calculating, integrating and valuing technical, regulatory, and economic criteria.

  20. A case study of nuisance impact screening for municipal waste landfill planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Zeiss; James Atwater

    1993-01-01

    Nuisance impacts from waste facilities can aggravate community resistance because odor, noise and visual impacts trigger more serious concerns about impacts on community health, image and property values (1). In order to assess nuisances, initial site selection processes for municipal landfills should use screening models to determine potential nuisance impact zones. Predicted impact zones could provide a basis to plan

  1. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  2. Estimating methane production rates in bogs and landfills by deuterium enrichment of pore water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. I. Siegel; J. P. Chanton; P. H. Glaser; L. S. Chasar; D. O. Rosenberry

    2001-01-01

    Raised bogs and municipal waste landfills harbor large populations of methanogens within their domed deposits of anoxic organic matter. Although the methane emissions from these sites have been estimated by various methods, limited data exist on the activity of the methanogens at depth. We therefore analyzed the stable isotopic signature of the pore waters in two raised bogs from northern

  3. Stability Analysis for a Landfill Experiencing Elevated Temperatures Timothy D. Stark1

    E-print Network

    , and possible leachate levels. The MSW that was thermally degraded at this site was modeled using an effective). Such a situation can develop when aluminum wastes have been previously deposited and then leachate recirculation is initiated in areas of the aluminum waste. Thus, initiation of leachate recirculation in an existing landfill

  4. Simultaneous organic and nitrogen removal from municipal landfill leachate using an anaerobic-aerobic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-hoon Im; Hae-jin Woo; Myung-won Choi; Ki-back Han; Chang-won Kim

    2001-01-01

    An anaerobic–aerobic system including simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification was introduced to treat organic and nitrogen compounds in immature leachate from a landfill site. Denitrification and methanogenesis were successfully carried out in the anaerobic reactor while the organic removal and nitrification of NH4+-N were carried out in the aerobic reactor when rich organic substrate was supplied with appropriate hydraulic retention time.

  5. Review: Anaerobic treatment of municipal sanitary landfill leachates: the problem of refractory and toxic components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Alkalay; L. Guerrero; J. M. Lema; R. Mendez; R. Chamy

    1998-01-01

    The wide use of municipal sanitary landfills has drawn attention to the leaching effluent generated, this may be problematic to the site's environment, whether by infiltration or other contaminating modes. Anaerobic digestion has been shown to be one of the most efficient systems with which to treat this type of effluent. This article reviews the techniques used by different authors

  6. LANDFILL GAS ENERGY UTILIZATION EXPERIENCE: DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL AND NON-TECHNICAL ISSUES, SOLUTIONS, AND TRENDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses technical and non-technical considerations associated with the development and operation of landfill gas to energy projects. Much of the report is based on interviews and site visits with the major developers and operators of the more than 110 projects in the...

  7. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  8. AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB NEAR THREE LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Fixed-height measurements were made at locations on the sites where capacitors containing PCB were exposed (hot spots) and at nomi...

  9. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58±6mgkg(-1) for REEs comprising 44±8mgkg(-1) for light REEs, 11±2mgkg(-1) for heavy REEs and 3±1mgkg(-1) for Scandium (Sc) and 3±1.0mgkg(-1) of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are also recovered for reprocessing. PMID:25957938

  10. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone and simulated time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Peter F.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) is located about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. The landfill is built on the Hueco Bolson, a deposit that yields water to five public-supply wells within 1.1 miles of the landfill boundary on all sides. The bolson deposits consist of lenses and mixtures of sand, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. The unsaturated zone at the landfill is about 300 feet thick. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model for Evaluating the Land Disposal of Wastes (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the time of first arrival of landfill leachate at the water table. Site-specific data were collected for model input. At five sites on the landfill cover, hydraulic conductivity was measured by an in situ method; in addition, laboratory values were obtained for porosity, moisture content at field capacity, and moisture content at wilting point. Twenty-seven sediment samples were collected from two adjacent boreholes drilled near the southwest corner of the landfill. Of these, 23 samples were assumed to represent the unsaturated zone beneath the landfill. The core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for various characteristics required for the HELP and MULTIMED models: initial moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention percentages at various suction values, total organic carbon, and pH. Parameters were calculated for the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey equations that relate hydraulic conductivity to saturation. A reported recharge value of 0.008 inch per year was estimated on the basis of soil- water chloride concentration. The HELP model was implemented using input values that were based mostly on site-specific data or assumed in a conservative manner. Exceptions were the default values used for waste characteristics. Flow through the landfill was assumed to be at steady state. The HELP-estimated landfill leakage rate was 101.6 millimeters per year, approximately 500 times the estimated recharge rate for the area near the landfill. The MULTIMED model was implemented using input values that were based mainly on site-specific data and some conservatively assumed values. Landfill leakage was assumed to begin when the landfill was established and to continue at a steady-state rate of 101.6 millimeters per year as estimated by the HELP model. By using an assumed solute concentration in the leachate of 1 milligram per liter and assuming no delay or decay of solute, the solute serves as a tracer to indicate the first arrival of landfill leachate. The simulated first arrival of leachate at the water table was 204 to 210 years after the establishment of the landfill.

  11. DETECTING LANDFILL LEACHATE CONTAMINATION USING REMOTE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for using remote sensing to detect landfill leachate contamination of ground and surface water is described. Among the topics covered are leachate indicators, spatial and temporal aspects of leachate detection, sensor selection, flight design and data interpretation...

  12. Experience with landfill gas monitoring and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenness, S.R.; Wilcox, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    Landfills have recently come under additional environmental scrutiny for their potential as air emission sources. This paper discusses an air monitoring program that was performed in 1997 for the landfill located at US Army Fort Dix, New Jersey. Results of the program are presented as well as conclusions that were drawn from the sampling data and the sampling techniques employed. The Fort Dix Landfill air monitoring program consisted of quarterly measurements of gas vent (more than 50) flow rates. Flow rates were measured twice per day (morning and afternoon) with vane anemometers in order to assess diurnal effects. Measurements of ambient pressure and temperature were also taken for correlation with the gas vent flow rates. Additional gas sampling was performed on selected vents at the landfill to ascertain fixed gases (methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen) content, total non-methane organic compounds (NMOC), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) content, mercury content, and over sixty individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer and pumping five leachate recovery wells. Results of the flow analysis indicate that the telescoping grid modeling approach can be used to simulate ground-water flow in small areas such as the Lantana landfill site and to simulate the effects of possible remedial actions. Water-quality data indicate the leachate-enriched ground water is divided vertically into two parts by a fine sand layer at about 40 to 50 feet below land surface. Data also indicate the extent of the leachate-enriched ground-water contamination and concentrations of constituents seem to be decreasing over time.

  14. GeoChip-based Analysis of Groundwater Microbial Diversity in Norman Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Parisi, Victoria; Kang, Sanghoon; Deng, Ye; Nostrand, Joy Van; Masoner, Jason; Cozzarelli, Isabelle; Suflita, Joseph; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    The Norman Landfill is a closed municipal solid waste landfill located on an alluvium associated with the Canadian River in Norman, Oklahoma. It has operated as a research site since 1994 because it is typical of many closed landfill sites across the U.S. Leachate from the unlined landfill forms a groundwater plume that extends downgradient approximately 250 m from the landfill toward the Canadian River. To investigate the impact of the landfill leachate on the diversity and functional structure of microbial communities, groundwater samples were taken from eight monitoring wells at a depth of 5m, and analyzed using a comprehensive functional gene array covering about 50,000 genes involved in key microbial processes, such as biogeochemical cycling of C, N, P, and S, and bioremediation of organic contaminants and metals. Wells are located within a transect along a presumed flow path with different distances to the center of the leachate plume. Our analyses showed that microbial communities were obviously impacted by the leachate-component from the landfill. The number of genes detected and microbial diversity indices in the center (LF2B) and its closest (MLS35) wells were significantly less than those detected in other more downgradient wells, while no significant changes were observed in the relative abundance (i.e., percentage of each gene category) for most gene categories. However, the microbial community composition or structure of the landfill groundwater did not clearly show a significant correlation with the distance from well LF2B. Burkholderia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were found to be the dominant microbial populations detected in all wells, while Bradyrhizobium sp. and Ralstonia sp. were dominant populations for seven wells except LF2B. In addition, Mantel test and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicate that pH, sulfate, ammonia nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have significant effects on the microbial community structure. The results suggest that the leachate from unlined landfills significantly impact the structures of groundwater microbial communities, and that more distal wells recover by natural attenuation.

  15. Geomorphic and hydrologic assessment of erosion hazards at the Norman municipal landfill, Canadian River floodplain, Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, J.A.; Whitney, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Norman, Oklahoma, municipal landfill closed in 1985 after 63 years of operation, because it was identified as a point source of hazardous leachate composed of organic and inorganic compounds. The landfill is located on the floodplain of the Canadian River, a sand-bed river characterized by erodible channel boundaries and by large variation in mean monthly discharges. In 1986, floodwaters eroded riprap protection at the southern end of the landfill and penetrated the landfill's clay cap, thereby exposing the landfill contents. The impact of this moderate-magnitude flood event (Q12) was the catalyst to investigate erosion hazards at the Norman landfill. This geomorphic investigation analyzed floodplain geomorphology and historical channel changes, flood-frequency distributions, an erosion threshold, the geomorphic effectiveness of discharge events, and other factors that influence erosion hazards at the landfill site. The erosion hazard at the Norman landfill is a function of the location of the landfill with respect to the channel thalweg, erosional resistance of the channel margins, magnitude and duration of discrete discharge events, channel form and hydraulic geometry, and cumulative effects related to a series of discharge events. Based on current climatic conditions and historical channel changes, a minimum erosion threshold is set at bankfull discharge (Q = 572 m3/s). The annual probability of exceeding this threshold is 0.53. In addition, this analysis indicates that peak stream power is less informative than total energy expenditures when estimating the erosion potential or geomorphic effectiveness of discrete discharge events. On the Canadian River, long-duration, moderate-magnitude floods can have larger total energy expenditures than shorter-duration, high-magnitude floods and therefore represent the most serious erosion hazard to floodplain structures.

  16. Onsite survey on the mechanism of passive aeration and air flow path in a semi-aerobic landfill.

    PubMed

    Matsuto, Toshihiko; Zhang, Xin; Matsuo, Takayuki; Yamada, Shuhei

    2015-02-01

    The semi-aerobic landfill is a widely accepted landfill concept in Japan because it promotes stabilization of leachates and waste via passive aeration without using any type of mechanical equipment. Ambient air is thought to be supplied to the landfill through a perforated pipe network made of leachate collection pipe laid along the bottom and a vertically erected gas vent. However, its underlying air flow path and driving forces are unclear because empirical data from real-world landfills is inadequate. The objective of this study is to establish scientific evidence about the aeration mechanisms and air flow path by an on-site survey of a full-scale, semi-aerobic landfill. First, all passive vents located in the landfill were monitored with respect to temperature level and gas velocity in different seasons. We found a linear correlation between the outflow rate and gas temperature, suggesting that air flow is driven by a buoyancy force caused by the temperature difference between waste in the landfill and the ambient temperature. Some vents located near the landfill bottom acted as air inflow vents. Second, we conducted a tracer test to determine the air flow path between two vents, by injecting tracer gas from an air sucking vent. The resulting slowly increasing gas concentration at the neighboring vent suggested that fresh air flow passes through the waste layer toward the gas vents from leachate collection pipes, as well as directly flowing through the pipe network. Third, we monitored the temperature of gas flowing out of a vent at night. Since the temperature drop of the gas was much smaller than that of the environment, the air collected at the gas vents was estimated to flow mostly through the waste layer, i.e., the semi-aerobic landfill has considerable aeration ability under the appropriate conditions. PMID:25443098

  17. Removal of contaminants from landfill leachates by filtration through glauconitic greensands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spoljaric, N.; Crawford, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Passing landfill leachate through glauconitic greensand filters reduces the heavy metal cation content, lessens the unpleasant odor, and diminishes the murkiness of the leachate. The capability of the greensand to trap metal cations is increased by prolonging the contact time between the leachate and the greensand. Flushing the charged greensand filter with water does not cause significant release of cations back into solution, suggesting that polluted greensand might be disposed of at landfill sites without endangering the quality of either ground or surface water. ?? 1979 Springer Verlag New York Inc.

  18. 21. 3RD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH G STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. 3RD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH G STREET, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH WEST SIDES OF WAREHOUSES 331, 332, 333, ETC. ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. Landfill leachates pretreatment by coagulation-flocculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Amokrane; C. Comel; J. Veron

    1997-01-01

    After biological and\\/or physico-chemical treatment of stabilised landfill leachates, COD and salinity content are often larger than reject requirements. In this case, reverse osmosis can be used to treat effectively these residual COD and salinity. However, reverse osmosis feasibility is limited by the membrane fouling. In order to reduce the landfill leachates high fouling power, coagulation-flocculation is examined in this

  20. Landfill leachate treatment methods: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wiszniowski; D. Robert; J. Surmacz-Gorska; K. Miksch; J. V. Weber

    2006-01-01

    Landfilling of municipal waste is still a major issue of the waste management system in Europe. The generated leachate must\\u000a be appropriately treated before being discharged into the environment. Technologies meant for leachate treatment can be classified\\u000a as follows (i) biological methods, (ii) chemical and physical methods. Here we review briefly the main processes currently\\u000a used for the landfill leachates

  1. Transpiration as landfill leachate phytotoxicity indicator.

    PubMed

    Bia?owiec, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    An important aspect of constructed wetlands design for landfill leachate treatment is the assessment of landfill leachate phytotoxicity. Intravital methods of plants response observation are required both for lab scale toxicity testing and field examination of plants state. The study examined the toxic influence of two types of landfill leachate from landfill in Zakurzewo (L1) and landfill in Wola Paw?owska (L2) on five plant species: reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud, manna grass Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla, sweet flag Acorus calamus L., and miscanthus Miscanthus floridulus (Labill) Warb. Transpiration measurement was used as indicator of plants response. The lowest effective concentration causing the toxic effect (LOEC) for each leachate type and plant species was estimated. Plants with the highest resistance to toxic factors found in landfill leachate were: sweet flag, bulrush, and reed. The LOEC values for these plants were, respectively, 17%, 16%, 9% in case of leachate L1 and 21%, 18%, 14% in case of L2. Leachate L1 was more toxic than L2 due to a higher pH value under similar ammonia nitrogen content, i.e. pH 8.74 vs. pH 8.00. PMID:25708408

  2. Migration and atmospheric emission of landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fadel, M.; Findikakis, A.N.; Leckie, J.O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Gas generation due primarily to microbial decomposition is an inevitable consequence of the practice of solid waste disposal in landfills. Subsequent gas migration within the landfill and its potential emission to the atmosphere are dependent on the pressure and concentration gradients of the gas inside the landfill as well as many factors related to transport properties of the gas itself (viscosity, diffusivity) and the physical characteristics of the waste (permeability, moisture content, porosity). Temperature plays an important role in defining the gas movement because it strongly influences the gas transport properties as well as biochemical processes controlling gas production within the landfill. This paper presents a one-dimensional numerical gas flow model which predicts the time development of the pressure and gas concentration profiles, and the time variation of the total gas emission from landfills. The model accounts for effects of temperature variations with time on gas transport properties and biochemical processes. It was used to simulate gas emission data form the Mountain View Controlled Landfill Project, California. 120 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S. [Hirschhorn and Associates, Wheaton, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  4. Flow Investigation for Landfill Leachate (FILL)

    SciTech Connect

    Khanbilvardi, R.M.; Ahmed, S. (City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Gleason, P.J. (New City Dept. of Sanitation, New York, NY (United States))

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional un-steady-state moisture flow model has been developed in order to describe the leachate flow process in a landfill. The unsteady variation of leachate mound head has also been considered in the saturated zone of the landfill to compute the time-varying leachate flow rates in both the lateral and vertical directions. The contribution of precipitation to the landfill leachate has been investigated by computing evapotranspiration and surface runoff due to side slope. The model was used to simulate the leachate flow rates in section 6/7 of Fresh Kills landfill, situated in Staten Island, New York. A comparison of the results was made with the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model, which is based on a quasi-two-dimensional approach. Comparisons were also made with the results obtained from previous studies using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water-balance model and investigating the real field condition. An underestimate of the surface runoff was observed in the case of the results obtained by the HELP model. The simulated leachate flow rates by the new model were found to be less than those obtained by other methods. The effects of the variation of the boundary condition, which depends on surface runoff and evapotranspiration, were examined to arrive at the better representation of the two-dimensional unsteady mechanism of leachate flow process in a landfill.

  5. Emissions of C&D refuse in landfills: a European case.

    PubMed

    López, Ana; Lobo, Amaya

    2014-08-01

    A field study was developed in a new landfill for refuse from construction and demolition (C&D) material recovery plants of small size (4 Ha.) in Europe, with the aim of evaluating the liquid and gas emissions in this type of facility at a large scale. It included characterization of the materials, monitoring leachate and gas quantity and composition. Besides thermometers, piezometers and sampling ports were placed in several points within the waste. This paper presents the data obtained for five years of the landfill life. The materials disposed were mainly made up of wood and concrete, similar to other C&D debris sites, but the amount of gypsum drywall (below 3% of the waste) was significantly smaller than other available studies, where percentages above 20% had been reported. Leachate contained typical C&D pollutants, such as different inorganic ions and metals, some of which exceeded other values reported in the literature (conductivity, ammonium, lead and arsenic). The small net precipitation in the area and the leachate recirculation into the landfill surface help explain these higher concentrations, thus highlighting the impact of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio on leachate characteristics. In contrast to previous studies, neither odor nuisances nor significant landfill gas over the surface were detected. However, gas samples taken from the landfill inside revealed sulfate reducing and methanogenic activity. PMID:24824964

  6. Elimination of sulphur odours at landfills by bioconversion and the corona discharge plasma technique.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fangfang; Liu, Xin; Kang, Ying; He, Ruo; Wu, Zucheng

    2014-09-22

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) contributes a lot to odours at landfills, which is a threat to the environment and the health of the staff therein. To mitigate its emission, the bioconversion within landfill cover soils (LCSs) was introduced. H2S emission and concentration both in the field air above the landfill and in microcosm testing were surveyed. Results indicated that H2S emission and concentration in the landfill varied with landfill seasons and sites. There existed relationship between H2S concentration and fluxes spatially and temporally. To characterize and assess the spatial and temporal diversity of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the LCSs, the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was employed. Using the functional genes of dsrB and soxB, SOB, including Halothiobacillus, Rhodothalassium, Paracocccus, Allochromatium, and Thiobacillus, and SRB, including Desulfovibrio, Syntrophobacter, Desulfomonile and Desulfobacca, were identical and exhibited the dominant role in the LCSs. By employing an alternative available corona reactor, more than 90% removal efficiencies of sulphides were demonstrated, suggesting that the LCSs for eliminating odours in a lower concentration would be feasible. PMID:25244028

  7. [Effects of leachate recirculation volume on its characteristic and landfill stabilization rate].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhou; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Yang, Guo-Dong; Huang, Zhong-Lin; Feng, Xiang-Ming; Zhou, Sheng-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Impacts of recirculation volume on leachate characteristic and landfill stabilization rate were studied. Four simulated bioreactor landfill columns were operated weekly with different recirculation ratios, respectively 5.3%, 2.7%, 0.67% leachate and 0.33% water, in this comparative research. The results indicate that simulated reactor with 5.3% recirculation ratio has the most rapidly stabilization rate and release the most organic pollutant. The shortest methane generation delay was also observed in this column. While simulated reactor with 2.7% recirculation ratio formed the best microbe environment and kept the highest reactor temperature 35 degrees C. It also had the best impactive load capacity and treating efficiency to leachate, and removal of COD was 77% and BOD5 was 88% respectively. In actual projects, appropriate leachate recirculation volume should be chosen according to design purpose of landfill sites. PMID:16599146

  8. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  9. UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal at the University of Washington is coordinated by the EH&S Environmental Programs Office

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal, WA Rabanco Recycling Co Landfill Roosevelt, WA Waste Management, Columbia Ridge Landfill Arlington Refrigeration Shop Recovery Seattle, WA Fluorescent light tubes - intact Ecolights NW Recycle Seattle, WA Shop

  10. Flux measurements of benzene and toluene from landfill cover soils.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Morandi, Andrea; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Nisi, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and CH(4), C(6)H(6) and C(7)H(8) fluxes from the soil cover of Case Passerini landfill site (Florence, Italy) were measured using the accumulation and static closed chamber methods, respectively. Results show that the CH(4)/CO(2), CH(4)/C(6)H(6) and CH(4)/C(7)H(8) ratios of the flux values are relatively low when compared with those of the 'pristine' biogas produced by degradation processes acting on the solid waste material disposed in the landfill. This suggests that when biogas transits through the cover soil, CH(4) is affected by degradation processes activated by oxidizing bacteria at higher extent than both CO(2) and mono-aromatics. Among the investigated hydrocarbons, C(6)H(6) has shown the highest stability in a wide range of redox conditions. Toluene behaviour only partially resembles that of C(6)H(6), possibly because de-methylation processes require less energy than that necessary for the degradation of C(6)H(6), the latter likely occurring via benzoate at anaerobic conditions and/or through various aerobic metabolic pathways at relatively shallow depth in the cover soil where free oxygen is present. According to these considerations, aromatics are likely to play an important role in the environmental impact of biogas released into the atmosphere from such anthropogenic emission sites, usually only ascribed to CO(2) and CH(4). In this regard, flux measurements using accumulation and static closed chamber methods coupled with gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis may properly be used to obtain a dataset for the estimation of the amount of volatile organic compounds dispersed from landfills. PMID:21041416

  11. 65 FR 66672 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-11-07

    ...demonstrated for landfill gas or landfill gas combustion technologies. Therefore, the MACT...million by volume (ppmv) if an enclosed combustion device is used. These reduction efficiencies...for landfill gas or for landfill gas combustion technologies. For this reason,...

  12. PROXIMITY OF LOUISIANA SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS - DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems i? they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of this report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in this study in Louisiana to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i....

  13. PROXIMITY OF LOUISIANA SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS (B) DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitiveecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. he purpose of this report is to summarize the proximity of sanitary landfills in the state of Louisiana to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers,...

  14. MICROBIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESHLY LANDFILLED WASTE: COMPARISONS TO LANDFILLED WASTES OF DIFFERENT AGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cooperative research and development agreement was initiated between U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. for a multi-year study of landfill bioreactors at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY. As part of the agreement a research project is underway to study the microbiolog...

  15. PROXIMITY OF WASHINGTON SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS (B) DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of this report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in this study in Washington to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i...

  16. PROXIMITY OF CONNECTICUT SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITAS (B) DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfill can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managers. he purpose of these reports are to summarize the Proximity of sanitary landfills in Connecticut to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes,...

  17. PROXIMITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS (B) DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. he purpose of this report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in this study in Pennsylvania to wetlands and deepwater habitats (...

  18. PROXIMITY OF FLORIDA SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS (B) DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of this report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in this study in New Jersey to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i...

  19. PROXIMITY OF GEORGIA SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS (B) DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfill can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of this report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in this study in Georgia to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e. ...

  20. PROXIMITY OF DELAWARE LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS (B) DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. he purpose of this report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in this study in Delaware to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e....

  1. PROXIMITY OF TEXAS SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. he purpose of this report is to summarize the proximity of sanitary landfills in Texas to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams,...

  2. Solar powered street lighting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A solar powered street lighting system is disclosed that is totally independent of any external power supply. Solar panels are connected in such a manner to charge a maintenance-free storage battery with sufficient capacity to light street lights and\\/or traffic signals. An auxiliary generator may also be provided having a wind driven vane for also charging the battery if sufficient

  3. Chambers Street EsplanadeEdinburgh

    E-print Network

    Hall, Christopher

    ' Hall Edinburgh Central Mosque Festival Theatre National Museum of Scotland National Portrait Gallery Royal College of Physicians Royal Society of Edinburgh The Balmoral Hotel Quartermile complex LauristonRSA Gallery National Gallery W Cros scauseway RoxburghS t RoxburghPl Waterloo Place Leith Street Market Street

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): New London Submarine Base, Operable Unit 1, Area A Landfill, Groton, CT, September 26, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected source control remedial action for Operable unit 1, the Area A Landfill, at the Naval Submarine Base (`NSB`) in Groton, Connecticut. The major components of the selected remedy include: Capping of the site with a RCRA Subtitle C multi-layer cap; Landfill gas control to manage landfill gas migration; Surface controls to minimize erosion and manage runoff; Use of fencing and institutional controls to control site access and future site use; Provisions for conducting additional studies, including determining if additional measures, beyond capping, such as leachate/groundwater collection system, must be taken to further contain contaminants and enhance stability; A leachate/groundwater collection system may be installed to further contain landfill wastes and to stabilize the cap if pre-design studies indicate that one is necessary; and Five-year review.

  5. Public health assessment for Sayreville Landfill, Sayreville, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980505754. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-16

    The Sayreville Landfill site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey, was used primarily for the disposal of municipal wastes from 1970 through 1977. Illegal dumping of possibly hazardous materials allegedly occurred during active landfill operations and after landfill closure. Organic and inorganic compounds were found in on-site subsurface soil, ground water, surface water, and sediments at levels above public health assessment comparison values. The community is concerned about the safety of eating fish from the South River. The potential exists for past, present, and future exposure of local residents and workers to contaminated subsurface soil, nearby surface water, and sediments. The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) has concluded that the site is an indeterminate public health hazard since insufficient data exist for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed.

  6. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    SciTech Connect

    Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fredenslund, Anders M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Chanton, Jeffrey, E-mail: jchanton@fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, 117 N. Woodward Avenue, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fl 32306-4320 (United States); Pedersen, Gitte Bukh, E-mail: gbp@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej - Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called 'biocovers') to enhance biological oxidation of CH{sub 4}. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH{sub 4} emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH{sub 4} oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000 m{sup 2} were integrated into the existing cover at the 12 ha site. To increase CH{sub 4} load to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH{sub 4} was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH{sub 4} emissions showed that a significant portion of the emission quantified in the baseline study continued unabated from the site. Total emission measurements suggested a reduction in CH{sub 4} emission of approximately 28% at the end of the one year monitoring period. This was supported by analysis of stable carbon isotopes which showed an increase in oxidation efficiency from 16% to 41%. The project documented that integrating approaches such a whole landfill emission measurements using tracer techniques or stable carbon isotope measurements of ambient air samples are needed to document CH{sub 4} mitigation efficiencies of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.

  7. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Mozafar; Hadidi, Mosslem; Vessali, Elahe; Mosstafakhani, Parasto; Taheri, Kamal; Shahoie, Saber; Khodamoradpour, Mehran

    2009-10-01

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined. PMID:19477110

  8. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Sharifi, Mozafar [Razi University Center for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Baghabrisham 67149, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sharifimozafar@gmail.com; Hadidi, Mosslem [Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hadidi_moslem@yahoo.com; Vessali, Elahe [Paradise Ave, Azad University, School of Agriculture, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: elahe_vesali@yahoo.com; Mosstafakhani, Parasto [Razi University Centre for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Baghabrisham 67149, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mostafakhany2003@yahoo.com; Taheri, Kamal [Regional office of Water Resource Management, Zan Boulevard, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: taheri.kamal@gmail.com; Shahoie, Saber [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kurdistan University, University Boulevard, Sanandadj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shahoei@yahoo.com; Khodamoradpour, Mehran [Regional office of Climatology, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mehrankhodamorad@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  9. Using landfill gas for energy: Projects that pay

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Pending Environmental Protection Agency regulations will require 500 to 700 landfills to control gas emissions resulting from decomposing garbage. Conversion of landfill gas to energy not only meets regulations, but also creates energy and revenue for local governments.

  10. Wasting Time : a leisure infrastructure for mega-landfill

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Margaret)

    2007-01-01

    Landfills are consolidating into fewer, taller, and more massive singular objects in the exurban landscape.This thesis looks at one instance in Virginia, the first regional landfill in the state to accept trash from New ...

  11. Quantifying Uncontrolled Air Emissions from Two Florida Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, trospospheric ozone, and urban smog. Measuring emissions from landfills presents unique challenges due to the large and variable source area, spatial and temporal variability of emissions, and...

  12. LANDFILL GAS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes the relative importance of landfills to global warming and identifies the major sources of uncertainty with current emission estimates. t also provides an overview of EPA's research program on global landfill methane, including developing more reliable estim...

  13. Martial recycling from renewable landfill and associated risks: A review.

    PubMed

    Ziyang, Lou; Luochun, Wang; Nanwen, Zhu; Youcai, Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Landfill is the dominant disposal choice for the non-classified waste, which results in the stockpile of materials after a long term stabilization process. A novel landfill, namely renewable landfill (RL), is developed and applied as a strategy to recycle the residual materials and reuse the land occupation, aim to reduce the inherent problems of large land occupied, materials wasted and long-term pollutants released in the conventional landfill. The principle means of RL is to accelerate the waste biodegradation process in the initial period, recover the various material resources disposal and extend the landfill volume for waste re-landfilling after waste stabilized. The residual material available and risk assessment, the methodology of landfill excavation, the potential utilization routes for different materials, and the reclamation options for the unsanitary landfill are proposed, and the integrated beneficial impacts are identified finally from the economic, social and environmental perspectives. RL could be draw as the future reservoirs for resource extraction. PMID:25800380

  14. Geochemical assessment of groundwater quality in vicinity of Bhalswa landfill, Delhi, India, using graphical and multivariate statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sunil Kumar; Ramanathan, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    A geochemical assessment of groundwater quality and possible contamination in the vicinity of the Bhalswa landfill site was carried out by using a hydrochemical approach with graphical and multivariate statistical methods with the objective of identifying the occurrence of various geochemical processes and understanding the impact of landfill leachates on groundwater quality. Results indicate that nitrate, fluoride and heavy-metal pollution are in an alarming state with respect to the use of groundwater for drinking purposes. Various graphical plots and statistical analyses have been applied to the chemical data based on the ionic constituents, water types, and hydrochemical facies to infer the impact of the landfill on groundwater quality. The statistical analysis and spatial and temporal variations indicate the leaching of contaminants from the landfill to the groundwater aquifer system. The concentrations of heavy metals in the landfill leachates are as follows: Fe (22 mg/l), Mn (~20 mg/l), Cu (~10 mg/l), Pb (~2 mg/l), Ni (0.25 mg/l), Zn (~10 mg/l), Cd (~0.2 mg/l), Cl- (~4,000 mg/l), SO{4/2-} (~3,320 mg/l), PO{4/3-} (~4 mg/l), NO{3/-} (30 mg/l) and fluoride (~50 mg/l); all were much higher than the standards. The study reveals that the landfill is in a depleted phase and is affecting groundwater quality in its vicinity and the surrounding area due to leaching of contaminants.

  15. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill's leachate: chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Baderna, D; Maggioni, S; Boriani, E; Gemma, S; Molteni, M; Lombardo, A; Colombo, A; Bordonali, S; Rotella, G; Lodi, M; Benfenati, E

    2011-05-01

    Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics of most contaminants contained into landfill leacheates. Understanding leachate composition and creating an integrated strategy for risk assessment are currently needed to correctly face the landfill issues and to make projections on the long-term impacts of a landfill, with particular attention to the estimation of possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. In the present study, we propose an integrated strategy to evaluate the toxicity of the leachate using chemical analyses, risk assessment guidelines and in vitro assays using the hepatoma HepG2 cells as a model. The approach was applied on a real case study: an industrial waste landfill in northern Italy for which data on the presence of leachate contaminants are available from the last 11 years. Results from our ecological risk models suggest important toxic effects on freshwater fish and small rodents, mainly due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. Our results from in vitro data show an inhibition of cell proliferation by leachate at low doses and cytotoxic effect at high doses after 48 h of exposure. PMID:21316652

  16. Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth Bates; Tony Smith

    \\u000a SharePoint Foundation 2010 provides the core document management, list management, workflow, collaboration, and application\\u000a platform services for a SharePoint environment. SharePoint sites are the foundation on which business solutions based on the\\u000a Office system store and manage information. Sites provide locations where groups of people can work together and share information.\\u000a They can also be used to collect team and

  17. 1. E Street (north) facade and 8th Street (east) side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. E Street (north) facade and 8th Street (east) side. The next property south on 8th Street is the Potomac Electric Power Company station (422 8th Street), south of that is Lansburgh's Warehouse (410 8th Street), and south of that is 408 8th Street and then a parking lot. - Simon Oppenheimer & Brother Building, 800 E Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 43. August, 1970 SOUTH SIDE OF UNION STREET, NO. 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. August, 1970 SOUTH SIDE OF UNION STREET, NO. 10, NOT VISIBLE ON STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner of F and 2nd Streets North, view looking southeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  1. Perspective view of the IOOF Building, 5 North F Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the IOOF Building, 5 North F Street, corner of F and Center Streets - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  2. Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, corner of Center and F Streets, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  3. North elevation, looking southeast. Market Street runs parallel to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation, looking southeast. Market Street runs parallel to the tracks; 63rd street is perpendicular to them. - Market Street Elevated Railway, 63rd Street Station, Intersection of Market & Sixty-third Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. A new approach to estimation of methane emission rates from landfills.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Letzel, Marcus O; Reiser, Martin; Kranert, Martin; Bächlin, Wolfgang; Flassak, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Methane emission monitoring has become increasingly essential for diffusive area sources, especially for landfills, which contribute to a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic methane emission globally. Statutorily, methane emission rate from landfills in Germany shall be examined on a semiannual basis; however, an appropriate approach has yet to be developed and adopted for general use. In this study, a new method is proposed based on experimental results, which utilizes a TDLAS (Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument - GasFinder2.0 system and a dispersion model LASAT (Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol Transport) as the measurement device and calculation model, respectively. Between April 2010 and December 2011, a research project was conducted at a pilot scale landfill in the south of Germany. Drawing on the extensive research into this pilot project, an effective strategy of measurement setup was determined. Methane concentration was measured with GasFinder2.0 system in the upstream and downstream sections of the project site, while wind and turbulence data were measured simultaneously by an ultrasonic anemometer. The average methane emission rate from the source can be calculated by using the results as input data in the dispersion model. With this method, site-specific measurement approaches can be designed for not only landfills, but also different diffusive area sources with less workload and lower cost compared to conventional FID (Flame Ionization Detector) method. PMID:24084101

  5. Using GIS to Identify Remediation Areas in Landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Linda A.Tedrow

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports the use of GIS mapping software—ArcMap and ArcInfo Workstation—by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as a non-intrusive method of locating and characterizing radioactive waste in a 97-acre landfill to aid in planning cleanup efforts. The fine-scale techniques and methods used offer potential application for other burial sites for which hazards indicate a non-intrusive approach. By converting many boxes of paper shipping records in multiple formats into a relational database linked to spatial data, the INEEL has related the paper history to our current GIS technologies and spatial data layers. The wide breadth of GIS techniques and tools quickly display areas in need of remediation as well as evaluate methods of remediation for specific areas as the site characterization is better understood and early assumptions are refined.

  6. Environmental assessment of Ammässuo Landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Antti; Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Anderson, Reetta

    2009-08-01

    The Old Ammässuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management of the Old Ammässuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity-related impact categories and an impact categorized as spoiled groundwater resources (SGR). With respect to standard and toxicity-related impact categories, the LCA results show that substantial impact potentials are estimated for global warming (GW), ozone depletion (OD), human toxicity via soil (HTs) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall, the results demonstrate that gas management has great importance to the environmental performance of the Old Ammässuo Landfill. However, several chemicals related to gas composition (especially trace compounds) and specific emissions from on-site operations were not available or were not measured and were therefore taken from the literature. Measurement campaigns and field investigations should be undertaken in order to obtain a more robust and comprehensive dataset that can be used in the LCA-modelling, before major improvements regarding landfill management are finalized. PMID:19423588

  7. Treating landfill leachate by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Job; Villarroel, Mario; Navia, Rodrigo; Teutli, Margarita

    2009-08-01

    The determination of the optimal conditions for using electrocoagulation as a treatment for landfill leachate was carried out using surface response methodology. A central composite design was applied to investigate the effect of four control factors, namely current density, pH, time and fluid conductivity, as well as the interaction among (between) them to get an optimal turbidity removal. The independent variables were each coded at three levels and their values were selected on the basis of preliminary experimental results. The central composite design consisted of 29 experimental points with five replications at the centre point. A second order polynomial model was used for predicting the response. Regression analysis showed that more than 95% of the variation was explained by the model wherein current density with a 60.1% contribution turned out to be the factor with the most significant influence. Analysis of variance showed that time, pH, current density and the interaction time/current density had a significant influence on the turbidity removal, The optimal conditions obtained for the removal of turbidity were time 38.8 min, pH 7.6, current density 109.9 A m(-2) and NaCl 2.9 g L(- 1). Experimental results showed that for a 96.9% turbidity removal, similar reduction in Al (97.0%) and Fe (99.5%) concentrations; as well as 66% total Kjeldahl nitrogen removal were obtained. Furthermore, the sludge formed exhibited a good floc size, which separated in less than 10 min by classical sedimentation. The results analysis provided evidence of reduction of chemical pollutants, although the electrocoagulated leachate could not satisfy regulations for the maximum Total Kjeldahl nitrogen leachate discharge level to public wastewater collection systems in the town of Freire, Chile. PMID:19470548

  8. PBTS, MERCURY AND OTHER POLLUTANTS FROM MSW LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 60% of municipal solid waste (MSW) is currently sent to a landfill for disposal. In addition, there are over 35,000 closed landfills as well as industrial and Superfund landfills. Concerns have been raised for more than 2 decades about the potential for dioxin/fur...

  9. Flawed Technology of Subtitle D Landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

    This report presents a review of the information available pertinent to public health and environmental quality protection issues for proposed Subtitle D landfills. Based on this review it is concluded that this type of landfill will at most locations cause groundwater pollution by landfill leachate and be adverse to the health, welfare and interests of nearby residents and property owners.

  10. LANDFILL GAS RECOVERY/UTILIZATION - OPTIONS AND ECONOMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the options and economics for landfill gas utilization. (NOTE: The decomposition of landfilled waste results in a gas that can be either a source of pollution or a resource. f the more than 6000 active municipal solid waste landfills in the U. S., there are 11...

  11. Cancer Cluster Investigation in Residents Near a Municipal Landfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie E. Goodman; Todd C. Hudson; Richard J. Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    While there are several studies of the health status of residents near hazardous waste landfills, relatively few have focused on the health of individuals living near municipal landfills. We assessed whether there were increased incidence rates of 18 cancer types and all cancers combined among residents near the Northampton Regional Landfill in western Massachusetts by conducting analyses for the cities

  12. Dissolved organic matter and estrogenic potential of landfill leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Lü; Hua Zhang; Cheng-Hsuan Chang; Duu-Jong Lee; Pin-Jing He; Li-Ming Shao; Ay Su

    2008-01-01

    The estrogenic potentials of leachate samples collected at Laogang Sanitary Landfill in Shanghai, China were measured together with the associated dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachate samples. Over 99% of the DOM in fresh leachate was removed upon 3–7 years of landfill, leaving only DOM with strong fluorescent activity. Anoxic or aerobic treatment of landfill leachate can further degrade DOM

  13. Acute and genetic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Schrab; K. W. Brown; K. C. Donnelly

    1993-01-01

    The large number of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and the many hazardous materials which they contain pose a serious environmental threat to our groundwater reserves. The present study was conducted to assess the environmental hazards that four MSW landfill leachates pose to the groundwater. Genetic toxicities of the landfill leachate and groundwater samples were assessed using the Salmonella\\/microsome (Ames

  14. Groundwater pollution source characterization of an old landfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kjeldsen

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater.

  15. GEOSYNTHETIC REINFOR CEMENT IN LANDFILL DESIGN: US PERSPECTIVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge G. Zornberg

    Geosynthetic reinforcement in landfill applications in the US has involved conventional reinforced soil structures and veneer stabilization with re inforcements placed along the landfill slope and anchored at the crest. In addition, i nnovative approaches have been recently implemented in the US to reinforce landfill cover s and base liners. This includes horizontally placed geosyn thetic reinforcements, which are anchored

  16. Landfill gas boosted to pipeline quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The world's largest landfill recovery facility, located on Staten Island, went on stream in 1982 and is expected to produce 1.3 billion CF/yr of pipeline gas. Containing 45% carbon dioxide, the gas is compressed and cooled in stages to meet the requirements of the Selexol purification plant. Two 1120-kW (1500-hp) Copper Bessemer GMVS-8C integral gas engine-compressors, fueled by the landfill gas, provide the compression needed from the wells to the final solvent-contact stage.

  17. When Street Sex Workers Are Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Sloss; Gary W. Harper

    2004-01-01

    Many women who engage in street sex work experience pregnancies and become mothers. Unfortunately, little research has examined how their pregnancies and parenting impact themselves as street sex workers and their street sex work. In this qualitative research study, 16 mothers who were currently involved in street sex work in a Midwestern city of the United States participated in semistructured

  18. Research Summary Health Benefits of Street Trees

    E-print Network

    Research Summary Health Benefits of Street Trees Street trees can have an important role. Health and well-being objectives have been elements of each country's forest strategy, and street trees This research aimed to: o Assess recent economic evidence of the health benefits provided by street trees

  19. Broad Street Books The Wesleyan University Bookstore

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Broad Street Books The Wesleyan University Bookstore 45 Broad Street Middletown, CT 06457 April 1 and class rings. All these items can be purchased through Broad Street Books, your local university store your regalia at the bookstore, we will be glad to have it shipped to you. Contact Broad Street Books

  20. Toxicity test of landfill leachate using Sarotherodon mossambicus (freshwater fish)

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.

    1989-04-01

    Landfill leachate was collected in March and July, 1984, at the Gin Drinkers' Bay Landfill Site, and the properties of the two leachates were examined. The leachate collected in March contained higher contents of total solids, ammonia, and metals than that collected in July. The leachates were treated with EDTA (10(-3) M) and Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (2 and 4 g/liter), alone and in combination. Addition of alum (2 g/liter) removed more than 60% of the phosphate content of the two leachates, and about 20 and 68% of total solids from leachates collected in March and July, respectively. Different concentrations of the leachates (untreated and alum-treated) were used to test the survival of tilapia, Sarotherodon mossambicus. The 96-hr LC50 for untreated leachates of March and July were 1.4 and 12%, respectively. The alum-treated leachates raised the 96-hr LC50 to 2.2 and 31.4%, accordingly.

  1. Twenty Years on Sesame Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lystad, Mary

    1989-01-01

    Describes the history and production of the TV program Sesame Street and its educational contribution to society. Also discusses the affective and cognitive goals and teaching methodology of the program. (RJC)

  2. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  3. Organic compounds in ground water near a sanitary landfill in the Town of Brookhaven, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearsall, K.A.; Wexler, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Landfill leachate and groundwater near the Brookhaven landfill site were analyzed for volatile, acid-extractable, and base/neutral-extractable organic compounds classified by EPA as ' priority pollutants, ' and for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic constituents. Thirteen priority pollutants were detected, including benzene, chlorobenzene, ethyl benzene, and naphthalene. The most commonly detected priority pollutant, benzene, was found in the landfill leachate and in five groundwater samples. The concentration of ethyl benzene was the highest of all organic compounds detected--55 micrograms/L (ug/L) in the leachate. Three samples downgradient from the site contained detectable levels of priority pollutants; two of these from wells 2000 ft downgradient from the site, contained trace amounts of chloroform, and the other, from a well 500 ft downgradient, contained four priority pollutants in concentrations totaling less than 20 ug/L. DOC concentrations ranged from 410 mg/L in the leachate to 0.8 mg/L, which is considered background level for groundwater upgradient of the landfill site. Samples from downgradient wells contained less than 8 mg/L DOC except at two wells 500 ft from the site, which contained 21 and 16 mg/L. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Kummer Sanitary Landfill, Beltrami County, Minnesota (second remedial action) September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The Kummer Sanitary Landfill is a 40-acre site located in Northern Township, Beltrami County, Minnesota. Between 1971 and 1983 the site operated as a sanitary landfill, accepting mixed municipal waste. Beginning in 1974, demolition debris consisting of fly ash and sawdust were disposed of onsite. In 1982 and 1983 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency sampled ground water from onsite monitoring wells and discovered 19 VOCS including TCE, PCE, and benzene. In 1984, VOCs were also discovered in offsite shallow residential wells downgradient of the site; consequently, in 1985 the site was ordered closed. Approximately 244 homes affected by contaminated ground water. Although there is no documentation of hazardous waste disposal at the site, it is believed that small quantities of wastes such as paint thinner, solvents, and pesticides were included in municipal wastes. The primary contaminants of concern affecting ground water and soil are VOCs such as TCF, PCE and benzene. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  5. Hydrolytic enzyme activity in landfilled refuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Palmisano; B. S. Schwab; D. A. Maruscik

    1993-01-01

    Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity was assayed in 28 refuse samples excavated from 14 bore holes in Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island, N. Y. Esterases, proteases and amylases were present in all of the samples. Enzyme screening assays utilizing the API-ZYM test system showed the incidence of enzymes in the order: specific phosphatases > esterases > glycosyl hydrolases. Measurement of cellulase

  6. Aerobic biological treatment of landfill leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Matthews; M. K. Winson; J. Scullion

    There is an ongoing need to treat leachates from landfills using approaches that avoid expensive installation and operating costs. Faced with such a problem, Powys County Council (Wales, UK) developed a treatment system based on practical experience. Leachate was re-circulated through aeration towers containing a biofilm supported on plastic media before being polished in reed\\/filter beds. Investigations were undertaken to

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills - Water Quality Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

    2005-01-01

    When municipal solid waste (MSW) comes in contact with liquid, leachate is formed. Such leachate contains a myriad hazardous and otherwise deleterious chemicals which if introduced into groundwater would impair or destroy the ability to use the groundwater and aquifer. In an attempt to provide some protection of groundwater quality from adverse impacts from MSW landfill leachate, the US EPA

  8. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  9. PHENOXYALKANOIC ACID HERBICIDES IN MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of leachates from six U.S. municipal landfills revealed the presence of chlorinated 2-phenoxypropionic acid herbicides; however, none of the more widely used acetic acid analogues was present at quantifiable levels. ll of the leachates contained MCPP. ,4-DP and silvex we...

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN MSW LANDFILL PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfills have long been used for the permanent land disposal of municipal, industrial, and hazardous solid wastes. .S. federal and state regulations require that these facilities be designed to function for an active life, plus a post-closure period, typically 30 years. n most c...

  11. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  12. GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS (GCLS) IN LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low permeability, compacted clay linters are commonly required as a barrier to water infiltration in landfill covers. elatively new material, known as geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), has been proposed as an alternative to a compacted clay liner. CL has the practical advantages of ...

  13. LEACHATE COLLECTION IN LANDFILLS: STEADY CASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper analyzes the performance of landfill leachate collection systems with low-permeability soil liners under steady-state conditions. lgebraic equations and graphs are presented for predicting the average and maximum saturated depth on the liner, the location of the maximu...

  14. 2. Overview of site, looking southeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of site, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. 7. Overview of site, looking southwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Overview of site, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 1. Overview of site, looking northwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of site, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 8. Overview of site, looking northeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Overview of site, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED BY CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH & ASSOCIATES AND BUILT IN 1972 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the potential for using "Limbo Lands" as sites for renewable energy generating stations. Limbo Lands are considered as underused, formerly contaminated sites, and include former Superfund sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, former industrial...

  1. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M; I Abu-Zuid, Gaber

    2015-07-01

    Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69) indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes. PMID:26199748

  2. Transformation of a landfill covering amended with municipal waste compost, Perugia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Businelli, Mario; Calandra, Rolando; Pagliai, Marcello; Businelli, Daniela; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Olga; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Leccese, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    This research deals with the transformation of an anthropomorphous landfill covering composed of a fill soil mixed with mechanically separated municipal waste compost. The study site was a municipal landfill near Perugia, Italy. Throughout the years, waste disposal in the landfill was performed by burial in horizontal layers, each one representing a yearly disposal. The external front of the landfill thus represented the yearly disposal over a 10-yr period starting in 1993. Temporal changes in the anthropomorphous soil over this period were studied by examining and describing soil profiles, and by collecting and analyzing soil samples from the 1993, 1994, 1997, and 2001 disposals. The samples were subjected to a series of physical, chemical, and biochemical analyses. The results obtained suggest that over a 10-yr period the top layer gained a pedological structure (subangular blocky and/or crumb) giving rise to an A horizon. Improved soil structure was confirmed by an increase in macroporosity, particularly for pores larger than 50 microm, measured by image analysis of soil thin sections. Total extractable carbon showed an increase in the content of humic substances, evidenced by parameters of humification. Enzymatic activities in the A and C1 horizons were also indicative of soil evolution and may serve as a valid indicator for monitoring the evolution of anthropogenic soils containing municipal waste compost. PMID:17215234

  3. Stability monitoring system for the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Thomann, T.G.; Khoury, M.A.; Rosenfarb, J.L.; Napolitano, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Fresh Kills Landfill, located in Staten Island, New York, serves as the repository of all municipal solid waste from the five boroughs of New York City. Because of the existence of compressible soils under most of the filling areas and the urban environment surrounding the landfill, considerable importance is being placed on the relationship between filling operations and the stability of the landfill. As a result of this concern and to address Order on Consent requirements, a program of geotechnical site characterizations, stability analyses, and design and implementation of a geotechnical instrumentation program was undertaken. Geotechnical instruments have been installed within the refuse fill and foundation soils to monitor both the magnitude and rate of change of pore pressure, lateral and vertical movements, and temperature. This paper presents an overview of the subsurface conditions, the overall instrumentation plan for assessing the landfill stability, a description of the various instruments, the performance of these instruments to date, an overview of the collected measurements, and a description of how these measurements are used to monitor the stability.

  4. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M.; I. Abu-Zuid, Gaber

    2014-01-01

    Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69) indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes. PMID:26199748

  5. Preliminary assessment of numerical data requirements TA-73 landfill Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-19

    A numerical model, TOUGH2, was selected for describing liquid- and gas-phase flow in the unsaturated tuff underlying the TA-73 landfill. The model was selected primarily for its ability to simulate the significant mechanisms that may affect transport of contaminants through the vadose zone at the TA-73 landfill, including non-isothermal flow through fractured media. TOUGH2 is the best documented, verified, and validated model capable of performing the required simulations. The sensitivity analyses that were performed and describes in this report identified the input parameters that the selected numerical model is most sensitive to. The input parameters analyzed were saturated hydraulic conductivity, van Genuchten {alpha} and n, residual and saturated moisture contents, infiltration rate, fracture spacing and permeability, atmospheric pressure, and temperature. The sensitivity analyses were performed using a model grid that was designed to incorporate the regions in the landfill vicinity where contaminant transport is likely to occur and where the physical processes affecting flow and transport are the most dynamic. The sensitivity analyses performed suggest that the model is quite sensitive to a number of input parameters, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, the van Genuchten parameters {alpha} and n (for both the tuff matrix and fractures), fracture density and aperture, and atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that additional site-specific hydraulic properties and fracture data should be obtained before attempting to perform predictive, numerical simulations of gas- and liquid-phase flow beneath the landfill.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Mathis Brothers Landfill (South Marble Top Road), Walker County, GA, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This decision document (Record of Decision) presents the selected remedial action for the Mathis Brothers - South Marble Top Road Landfill site, Walker County, Georgia. At this time the remedial action is proposed as both the first, and the final remedial action for the site. The function of this remedy is to treat contamination and reduce it to health based levels. Source material and contaminated soils are the principal threat at the site.

  7. Closure report for CAU No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This Closure Reports presents the information obtained from corrective and investigative actions performed to affirm the decision for clean closure of Corrective Action Unit No. 400 which includes the Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill, two sites used for disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other solid waste at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Tonopah Test Range, located in south-central Nevada. The first phase, or corrective action, for clean closure was performed under the Voluntary Correction Action Work Plan for Ordnance Removal from Five Disposal Sites at the Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the VCA Work Plan. The second phase consisted of collecting verification samples under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA U No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan. Results of the two phases are summarized in this document.

  8. Health assessment for Greenacres Landfill, Spokane, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD980514608. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-04

    The Greenacres Landfill is a former sanitary dump consisting of 45 acres in Spokane County, Washington. Greenacres Landfill, located in a semi-rural portion of eastern Spokane County, accepted municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastes, including paints, solvents, pesticides, and wood-processing chemicals. A nearby residential well was found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds and consequently the residence was connected to the municipal water supply. Further remedial investigations revealed groundwater contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals. The site poses a public health hazard because of probable human exposure to contaminated groundwater that could cause adverse health effects. Potentially, the site may pose a public health hazard through exposure to soil-gas contaminants that could cause adverse health effects.

  9. A preliminary evaluation of the geohydrology and water quality of the Greenacres Landfill area, Spokane County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W. E., II; Turney, G.L.; Alvord, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Greenacres Landfill, located about 11 mi east of the city of Spokane, Washington, was used for the disposal of waste from 1951 to 1972. Materials in the landfill include household and industrial waste materials, and various hazardous wastes. In 1983 the landfill was designated by the U.S. EPA as a ' Superfund ' site. The purposes of this investigation were to gather, describe, and interpret all the existing data concerning the hydrology and groundwater quality of the area surrounding the landfill, and to identify any additional data needed to describe the hydrology of the area. The quantity of water flow through the landfill as a result of precipitation on the landfill and in the drainage basin above the landfill probably ranges from 21,000 to 85,000 gal/day. This water movement may be creating a leachate and transporting some of the wastes out of the landfill. The plume would encompass an area where groundwater provides most of the water used for municipal, industrial, irrigation, and domestic purposes. Water quality analyses of water from numerous wells in the area which are open to the Spokane aquifer are available, but well 25/45-16K1 is the only well where groundwater contamination was consistently apparent. This well is only 500 ft from the landfill. Contamination of water in this well was indicated by high concentrations of dissolved mineral constituents and several organic compounds, including trans-dichloroethene (115 to 392 micrograms/L). Available data are insufficient to completely interpret the groundwater flow system near this well and the source of the contamination cannot be determined conclusively. While the existing data are adequate to provide background information, more data are needed to: (1) determine the source of contamination in well 25/45-16K1; (2) determine groundwater flow in the Spokane aquifer near well 25/45-16K1; and (3) determine the extent of contamination in the Spokane aquifer. The degree of the influence of the landfill on the Spokane aquifer cannot be determined with existing data. (Author 's abstract)

  10. In vitro genotoxicity of Settat town landfill leachate, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Amahdar, Loubna; Anouar, Abdellah; Ababou, Bouchra; Verschaeve, Luc; Hilali, Abderraouf

    2009-06-01

    With the increasing use of landfill sites, leachates produced by uncontrolled waste disposal have became a serious threat for the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of leachate and of well water sampled close to the town of Settat in Morocco using the micronucleus test and proliferation kinetics of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. We also analysed a number of physical and chemical parameters, including pH, % O2, chemical oxygen demand (COD), HCO3(-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl(-), and conductivity. The analysis showed much higher levels of nearly all parameters than the Moroccan standard. Increased micronucleus frequencies were also found for both leachate and well water. Preliminary results indicate that both types of water are genotoxic and pose environmental and human health risk. PMID:19581211

  11. An integrated surface-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Dawson, C.B.; Belaval, Marcel; Lane, John W.

    2002-01-01

    A surface-geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution of the former landfill area at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut, was conducted in 2000 to supplement the preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of the contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water at the site. A geophysical-toolbox approach was used to characterize the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution of the former landfill. Two-dimensional direct-current resistivity, inductive terrain-conductivity, and seismic-refraction surface-geophysical data were collected and interpreted in an iterative manner with exploratory drilling, borehole geophysics, and hydraulic testing. In this investigation, a geophysical-toolbox approach was used to 1) further define previously identified conductive anomalies and leachate plumes; 2) identify additional leachate plumes, possible fracture zones, and (or) conductive lithologic layers in the bedrock; and 3) delineate bedrock-surface topography in the drainage valleys north and south of the landfill. Resistivity and terrain-conductivity surveys were used to further delineate previously identified geophysical anomalies to the north and southwest of the landfill. A conductive anomaly identified in the terrain-conductivity survey to the north of the landfill in 2000 had a similar location and magnitude as an anomaly identified in terrain-conductivity surveys conducted in 1998 and 1999. Collectively, these surveys indicated that the magnitude of the conductive anomaly decreased with depth and with distance from the landfill. These anomalies indicated landfill leachate in the overburden and shallow bedrock. Results of previous surface-geophysical investigations southwest of the landfill indicated a shallow conductive anomaly in the overburden that extended into the fractured-bedrock aquifer. This conductive anomaly had a sheet-like geometry that had a north-south strike, dipped to the west, and terminated abruptly about 450 feet southwest of the landfill. The sheet-like conductive anomaly was interpreted as a fractured, conductive lithologic feature filled with conductive fluids. To further delineate this anomaly, two two-dimensional resistivity profiles were collected west of the sheet-like conductive anomaly to assess the possibility that the sheet-like conductive anomaly continued to the west in its down-dip direction. Each of the north-south oriented resistivity profiles showed bullet-shaped rather than linear-shaped anomalies, with a relatively smaller magnitude of conductivity than the sheet-like conductive anomaly to the east. If these bullet-like features are spatially connected, they may represent a linear, or pipe-like, conductive anomaly in the bedrock with a trend of N290?E and a plunge of 12?. Additional surveys were conducted to assess the apparent southern termination of the sheet-like conductive feature. Terrain-conductivity surveys indicated the sheet-like feature was not continuous to the south. A two-dimensional resistivity line and a coincident terrain-conductivity profile indicated the presence of a steep, eastward dipping, low magnitude, electrically conductive anomaly on the eastern end of the profile. Although the sheet-like conductive anomaly apparently did not continue to the south, the survey conducted in 2000 identified an isolated, weak conductive anomaly south of the previously identified anomaly. Inductive terrain-conductivity surveys performed north of the sheet-like conductive anomaly and west of the landfill indicated the anomaly did not extend to the north into the area of the former chemical-waste disposal pits. No conductive plumes or conductive features were observed in the subsurface bedrock west of the landfill. A conductive anomaly was identified in the southern section of the new terrain-conductivity grid. The magnitude and distribution of the apparent conductivity of this anomaly was identified as a nearly vertica

  12. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. This document contains the analytical groundwater sampling data for these eight wells for the first two quarters of 1996.

  13. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL ALBERT KWIECINSKI; RHONDA KAY METHVIN; DONALD P. SCHOFIELD; SHARISSA G. YOUNG

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories\\/New Mexico (SNL\\/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL\\/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs

  14. Summary of the landfill remediation problems and technology needs of the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: brief description of the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program; descriptions of representative waste burials at each site; ongoing, planned, or potential remediation; known or anticipated remediation problems; potential applications for robotics in the remediation of Oak Ridge Reservation landfills.

  15. Development of Mobile Tracer Correlation Approach for Quantification of Emissions from Landfills and Other Large Area Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a recognized need to develop cost effective measurement methods for greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from large area sources such as landfills, waste water treatment ponds, open area processing units, agricultural operations, CO2 sequestration fields, and site ...

  16. Public health assessment for Old Southington Landfill, Southington, Hartford County, Connecticut, Region 1. Cerclis No. CTD980670806. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-09

    The Old Southington Landfill (OSL) is located in Southington, Connecticut. Various contaminants of concern, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, and pesticides have been found in ground water and soil. Based on the physical hazards associated with the methane contamination of indoor air in commercial facilities, the site is a public health hazard.

  17. Sanitary landfills: Water pollution. January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to water pollution. Topics include water pollution control, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, refuse disposal, and waste disposal are considered. (Contains 126 citations with title list and subject index.)

  18. Development of Mobile Tracer Correlation Method for Quantification of Emissions from Landfills and Other Large Area Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging need to develop cost effective measurement methods for greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from large area sources such as landfills, waste water treatment ponds, open area processing units, agricultural operations, CO2 sequestration fields, and site r...

  19. Long-term distribution, mobility and plant availability of compost-derived heavy metals in a landfill covering soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Businelli; L. Massaccesi; D. Said-Pullicino; G. Gigliotti

    2009-01-01

    The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines and landfill sites among others. The long-term distribution, mobility and phytoavailability of heavy metals in such anthropogenic soils were studied

  20. Development of Mobile Tracer Correlation Strategies for Quantification of Emissions from Landfills and Other Large Area Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission measurements from large area sources such as landfills are complicated by their spatial extent and heterogeneous nature. In recent years, an on-site optical remote sensing (ORS) technique for characterizing emissions from area sources was described in an EPA-published p...

  1. Control of gas from landfills and/or marsh areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, E.H. [E.H. Hanson Engineering Group Ltd., Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Landfills are the most well known source of methane formed by decomposition of organic material, but the authors have found that marsh gas generated by peat deposits also contain large quantities of methane and often become a formidable hazard. This is particularly true when small amounts of refuse or ground wood fill (hog fuel) has been placed on the marsh area to raise the ground elevation. It is well known that there is a natural propensity for methane generation and explosion from municipal solid waste landfills and marshlands. Despite this fact, in the Vancouver area, large, high value land development projects are taking place adjacent to methane generation areas and directly upon them. This is due to rapid growth and the consequent high demand for serviced building lots. Consequently, it became necessary to develop soils gas eradication systems which totally eliminate any danger of methane accumulation in buildings, in waste water and land drainage piping, and in underground electrical and telephone conduits. This was accomplished for a high caliber industrial/commercial site in Coquitlam, B.C. known as Pacific Reach Business Park. The site consists of about 180 acres and is underlain by peat and silt. It then became the recipient of municipal solid waste and ground wood waste (hog fuel), all of which produce methane. Finally it was topped with clay and dredged sand from the Fraser River. The biodegradation of carbon from the refuse plus the cellulose from the wood waste generated high volumes of methane. All of the underground municipal, telephone, and electrical conduits are protected from methane intrusion by a city-owned methane eradication system funded by the developer. The buildings each have built-in, custom designed, protection systems. Development is about 75% completed.

  2. Health assessment for Greenacres (Liberty Lake) Landfill, Spokane, Spokane County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD980514608. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-09

    The Greenacres Landfill site is on the National Priorities List. The site is a 90-acre, rural-burning landfill that was closed in 1968. On-site contamination, determined by on-site ground water monitoring wells, consists of trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (41 ppb), chloroform (0.2 ppb), trichloroethylene (2 ppb), benzene (0.6 ppb), tetrachloroethylene (9 ppb), toluene (0.7 ppb), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (3 ppb), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (0.6 ppb), chromium (37 ppb), manganese (210 ppb), zinc (2,380 ppb), lead (67 ppb), barium 175 ppb, magnesium (18 ppb), and mercury (4 ppb). The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via the movement of contaminated ground water into an aquifer used as a public water source.

  3. Health assessment for PJP Landfill, Judson County, Jersey City, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980505648. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-11

    The PJP Landfill site is listed on the National Priorities List. The approximately 87-acre site may have been used since 1968 to dispose of an unknown quantity of chemical and industrial wastes. The State certified the landfill to receive hazardous wastes in 1971. The site presently is closed. On-site environmental contamination consists of chromium (40 ppb), phenols (33,000 ppb), various pesticides (up to 7,000 ppb), and volatile organics (up to 9,000 ppb) in ground water; and benzene (27 ppb), chlorobenzene (33 ppb), and lead (500 ppb) in leachate in the ditch. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated surface water.

  4. Surface-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Christopher J.; Wilson, Joanna; Haeni, F.P.; Johnson, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    A surface-geophysical investigation of the former landfill area at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Conn. was conducted as part of a preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of the contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water at the site. Geophysical data were used to help determine the dominant direction of fracture strike; subsurface structure of the landfill; locations of possible leachate plumes, fracture zones or conductive lithologic layers; and the location and number of chemical waste-disposal pits. Azimuthal square-array direct-current (dc) resistivity, two-dimensional (2D) dc-resistivity, inductive terrain conductivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) were the methods used to characterize the landfill area.The dominant strike direction of bedrock fractures interpreted from azimuthal square-array resistivity data is north, ranging from 285 to 30 degrees east of True North. These results complement local geologic maps that identify bedrock foliation and fractures that strike approximately north-south and dip 30 to 40 degrees west.The subsurface structure of the landfill was imaged with 2D dc-resistivity profiling data, which were used to interpret a landfill thickness of 10 to 15 meters. Orientation of the landfill trash disposal trenches were detected by azimuthal square-array resistivity soundings; the dimension and the orientation of the trenches were verified by aerial photographs.Inductive terrain conductivity and 2D dc-resistivity profiling detected conductive anomalies that were interpreted as possible leachate plumes near two surface-water discharge areas. The conductive anomaly to the north of the landfill is interpreted to be a shallow leachate plume and dissipates to almost background levels 45 meters north of the landfill. The anomaly to the southwest is interpreted to extend vertically through the overburden and into the shallow bedrock and laterally along the intermittent drainage to Eagleville Brook, terminating 140 meters south of the landfill. Inductive terrain conductivity and 2D dc-resistivity profiling also detected two dipping, sheet-like conductive features that extend vertically into the bedrock. These features were interpreted either as fracture zones filled with conductive fluids or conductive lithologic layers between more resistive layers. One dipping conductive feature was detected south of the landfill, and the other feature was detected to the west of the former chemical waste-disposal pits. Both anomalies strike approximately north-south and dip about 30 degrees to the west.GPR was used unsuccessfully to locate the former chemical waste-disposal pits. Although the entire overburden and the upper few meters of bedrock were imaged, no anomalous features were detected with GPR that could be correlated with the pits. It is possible that the area surveyed by GPR was entirely backfilled after the soil was removed from the site and that the outline of the former chemical waste-disposal pits no longer exists.

  5. Hydrogeologic data for Eureka Springs landfill and adjacent area, North-central Hillsborough County, Florida, 1969-73

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Stewart, Joseph William

    1980-01-01

    Well location and construction data are summarized for 218 wells in the Eureka Springs landfill and adjacent areas in north-central Hillsborough County, FL. Most of the data are for 88 wells within the immediate vicinity of the landfill. Water-quality data are presented for 93 of the wells and 13 surface-water sites. Also presented are water-level data for the surficial and Floridan aquifers for 162 of the wells and lithologic logs for 43 of the wells. (USGS)

  6. Wall Street Executive Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A one-stop resource, this portal includes news, reference tools, and a search engine directory. Websites are organized by country, mainly focusing on resources from Canada and the United States. Other countries are also included, however. The reference section contains informative links to general reference sites, law, and business sources.

  7. Street-lighting with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timinger, Andreas; Ries, Harald

    2008-09-01

    Applications requiring high lumen packages are traditional the domain of light sources like discharge lamps. Currently, LEDs make their way into such applications. LED street lighting projects, which are regularly covered in the press, provide a case of point. Life time and luminous efficacy are considered as being the main advantages of LEDs. Nonetheless, other current light sources for street lighting have similar performance. Analysing a street-lamp as a complete system, we can show that LED solutions have significant advantages if highly efficient optics are used. We present an example with tailored free-form optics. These make efficient use of the valuable LED light by exactly redistributing it into the desired illuminance pattern.

  8. Modeling of leachate generation from MSW landfills by a 2-dimensional 2-domain approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fellner, Johann, E-mail: j.fellner@tuwien.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    The flow of water through Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills is highly non-uniform and dominated by preferential pathways. Thus, concepts to simulate landfill behavior require that a heterogeneous flow regime is considered. Recent models are based on a 2-domain approach, differentiating between channel domain with high hydraulic conductivity, and matrix domain of slow water movement with high water retention capacity. These models focus on the mathematical description of rapid water flow in channel domain. The present paper highlights the importance of water exchange between the two domains, and expands the 1-dimensional, 2-domain flow model by taking into account water flows in two dimensions. A flow field consisting of a vertical path (channel domain) surrounded by the waste mass (matrix domain) is defined using the software HYDRUS-2D. When the new model is calibrated using data sets from a MSW-landfill site the predicted leachate generation corresponds well with the observed leachate discharge. An overall model efficiency in terms of r{sup 2} of 0.76 was determined for a simulation period of almost 4 years. The results confirm that water in landfills follows a preferential path way characterized by high permeability (K{sub s} = 300 m/d) and zero retention capacity, while the bulk of the landfill (matrix domain) is characterized by low permeability (K{sub s} = 0.1 m/d) and high retention capacity. The most sensitive parameters of the model are the hydraulic conductivities of the channel domain and the matrix domain, and the anisotropy of the matrix domain.

  9. Health assessment for Helena Chemical Company landfill, Fairfax, Allendale County, South Carolina, Region 4. CERCLIS No. SCD058753971. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-18

    Helena Chemical Company is a former pesticide formulation plant located in Fairfax, South Carolina. The site was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List (NPL) in June 1988 and has since been added to the NPL. Currently, the site is used as a wholesale pesticide distributor and warehouse facility for packaged pesticides. Plant wastes were buried in an unlined landfill on-site from about 1969 to 1971. A second landfill was reported to exist, but that landfill has not been confirmed. If groundwater contaminant data collected to date are accurate, the high levels of metals could have serious public health implications if the contaminants enter the municipal well located within 500 feet of the site and private wells used within 1 mile of the site. However, monitoring well construction is of poor quality and data generated thus far are questionable. Monitoring data from groundwater, air, surface soil, and subsurface soil which meet appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures are needed to adequately assess this site. Based on site conditions and the lack of adequate monitoring data, this site is an indeterminate public health hazard.

  10. Quantitative assessment of historical coastal landfill contamination using in-situ field portable XRF (FPXRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Francis; Spencer, Kate; Brasington, James

    2014-05-01

    Historically, waste was deposited on low value, easily accessible coastal land (e.g. marsh land). Within England and Wales alone, there are over 5000 historical landfills situated within coastal areas at risk of flooding at a 1 in 100 year return period (Environment Agency, 2012). Historical sites were constructed prior to relevant legislation, and have no basal or side wall engineering, and the waste constituents are mostly unknown. In theory, contaminant concentrations should be reduced through natural attenuation as the leachate plume migrates through surrounding fine-grained inter-tidal sediments before reaching receptor waters. However, erosion resulting from rising sea level and increased storm intensity may re-distribute these sediments and release associated contaminants into the estuarine and coastal environment. The diffuse discharge from these sites has not been quantified and this presents a problem for those landfill managers who are required to complete EIAs. An earlier detailed field campaign at Newlands landfill site, on the Thames Estuary, UK identified a sub-surface (~2m depth) contaminant plume extending c. 20 m from the landfill boundary into surrounding fine-grained saltmarsh sediments. These saltmarsh sediments are risk of being eroded releasing their contaminant load to the Thames Estuary. The aims of this work were to; 1) assess whether this plume is representative of other historical landfills with similar characteristics and 2) to develop a rapid screening methodology using field portable XRF that could be used to identify potential risk of other coastal landfill sites. GIS was used to select landfill sites of similar age, hydrological regime and sedimentary setting in the UK, for comparison. Collection of sediment samples and analysis by ICP OES is expensive and time-consuming, therefore cores were extracted and analysed with a Niton Goldd XRF in-situ. Contaminant data were available immediately and the sampling strategy could be adapted in the field to determine the presence, location and extent of the sub-surface contaminant plume. Although XRF analysis has gained acceptance in the study of in-situ metal contamination (Kalnicky and Singhvi 2001; Martin Peinado et al. 2010) field moisture content and sample heterogeneity can suppress X-ray signals. Therefore, sediment samples were also collected and returned to the laboratory and analysed by ICP OES for comparison. Both wet and dry certified reference materials were also analysed in the laboratory using XRF and ICP OES to observe the impact of moisture content and to produce a correction factor allowing quantitative data to be collected in the field. In-situ raw XRF data identified the location of contamination plumes in the field in agreement with ICP data, although the data were systematically suppressed compared to ICP data, under-estimating the levels of contamination. Applying a correction factor for moisture content provided accurate measurements of concentration. The use of field portable XRF with the application of a moisture content correction factor enables the rapid screening of sediment fronting coastal landfill sites, goes some way towards providing a national baseline dataset and can contribute to the development of risk assessments.

  11. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rachor, Ingke, E-mail: i.rachor@ifb.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria [University of Hamburg, Institute of Soil Science, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

  12. Hydrogeologic, water-quality, streamflow, bottom-sediment analyses, and biological data near the Wayne County landfill, Wayne County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, F.; Bradfield, Arthur D.; Wescott, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the data collected as part of a hydrogeologic investigation to determine the effects of the Wayne County landfill on local water quality. The investigation was conducted from 1988 through 1989 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment, Division of Superfund. The landfill was closed in November 1984 after allegations that contaminants from the landfill were affecting the quality of water from domestic wells in the Banjo Branch-Hardin Hollow valley. Test well construction data; water-quality data for selected wells, seeps, and surface-water sites: streamflow data from Banjo Branch; analyses of bottom-sediment samples: and biological data for the study area are documented in this report.

  13. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, M.D.; Goering, T.J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peace, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range.

  14. Development of the utilization of combustible gas produced in existing sanitary landfills: investigation of effects of air inclusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A combustible gas mixture composed of methane and carbon dioxide is generated in municipal solid waste landfills. A practical consequence of the collection of this fuel gas is the inclusion of some air in the collected product. The effects of such included nitrogen and oxygen on landfill gas operations are discussed. The effects include increased collection and purification costs, reduction in the quality of the fuel gas produced, corrosion, explosion hazards, and interference with odorant systems. The scope of such effects was determined using data and experience from the Mountain View, California, landfill gas recovery site as a basis. Useful supplemental fuel gas may be recovered despite the inclusion of air. Recommendations are given for establishing limits for nitrogen and oxygen content and minimizing the costs associated with their presence.

  15. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  16. Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY Burlington Street Tel: 0161 275 3751 THE ALAN GILBERT LEARNING COMMONS Oxford Road Tel: 0161 306 4306 ART & ARCHAEOLOGY LIBRARY Mansfield Cooper Building Tel: 0161 275 3657 BRADDICK LIBRARY School of Physics & Astronomy Brunswick Street Tel: 0161 275 4078 EDDIE DAVIES

  17. Characterization and electrochemical treatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Ruk, Damir; Nad, Karlo

    2012-01-01

    A combined treatment approach using advanced oxidation, electrochemical methods and microwaves was developed and applied for the treatment of landfill leachate taken from Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia) sanitary landfill. Due to the complex nature of the effluent and extremely low bio-degradability (BOD(5)/COD ratio = 0.01) the purification of the leachate started with pre-treatment with ozone followed by simultaneous ozonation and electrocoagulation/electrooxidation using the set of iron and aluminum electrodes, and finally, the degradation of organic residue and ammonia with microwaves. Applied treatment approach resulted in clear, colorless and odorless effluent with the values of all measured parameters significantly lower compared to the upper permissible limit for discharge into the environment. The removal percentages of the parameters: color, turbidity, suspended solids, ammonia, COD and iron following the combined treatment were 98.43%, 99.48%, 98.96%, 98.80%, 94.17% and 98.56%, respectively. PMID:22320699

  18. Atmospheric Flow through Urban Street Canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, H. J. S.

    2005-11-01

    Flow and turbulence through a network of urban street canyons (streets located within large buildings) were studied during two large-scale field experiments: the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST-2000) at the US Army Dugway Proving Grounds and the Joint-Urban 2003 field experiment in Oklahoma City. Instrumented towers and tethersondes deployed by the authors and several other groups were analyzed in the framework of flow regimes corresponding to each of the sites (``isolated roughness'' at Dugway and ``skimming flow'' at OKC). The results show that the flow patterns are highly sensitive to the approach angle for angles greater than about 5 deg, and that when the flow is normal to the building cluster the canyons are dominated by recirculating flow. The production of turbulence is highest near the ground and near the top of the buildings, and the variations of turbulent shear stresses could be scaled using local similarity variables. The mean flow in the roughness and inertial layers were compared with available theoretical formulations, and the flow in MUST was also studied using numerical simulations.

  19. Industrial landfill affects on fish communities at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States); Simon, T.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    INDU, an urban park near the third largest metropolitan area in the US, provides access to over two million visitors per year. The Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Ship Canal is the only Area of Concern (AOC) with all 14 designated uses impaired. The Grand Calumet Lagoons are the former mouth of the Grand Calumet River and form part of the western boundary of INDU, adjacent to Gary, IN. An industrial landfill (slag and other industrial waste) forms the westernmost boundary of the lagoon and a dunal pond. A least-impacted lagoon and a pond lying across a dune ridge were compared to sites adjacent to the landfill. Fish communities censused from twelve sites during the summer of 1994 were analyzed for several community metrics including species richness and composition, trophic structure, and community and individual health. A modified headwater Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was utilized to evaluate lacustrine community health. Results include the first record of the Iowa darter (Etheostoma exile) found in northwest Indiana. Examination of the fish community found the least impacted lagoon to contain Erimyzon sucetta, Esox americanus, and Lepomis gulosus. The landfill lagoon lacked these species, with the exception of fewer L. gulosus, while Pimephales notatus was found at all sites in the impacted lake but not at all in the least impacted lagoon. Statistically significant differences in species diversity and IBI can be attributed to landfill proximity. Whole fish analyses of a benthic omnivore (Cyprinus carpio) revealed PAH levels near 1 mg/kg of total PAH in several fish analyzed.

  20. Landfill Gas: From Rubbish to Resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent S. Knaebel; Herbert E. Reinhold

    2003-01-01

    The prospects of using landfill gas (LFG) as a high-grade fuel in the immediate future, in view of environmental regulations, the Kyoto Protocols, and energy prices, are discussed. Adsorption cycles suggested in the late 1980s by Sircar and co-workers for treating LFG are reviewed: one produced CO2-free methane and the other produced both CO2-free methane and methane-free CO2. Neither of

  1. Treatment of landfill leachate by reverse osmosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Chianese; Rolando Ranauro; Nicola Verdone

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental study describing the treatment of landfill leachate by means of a pilot-scale reverse osmosis unit. Leachate streams with a CO parameter in the range of 0–1749mgl?1 have been adopted. The flux rate of the permeate through the membrane decreased linearly with the COD factor. The rejection coefficient of COD was practically independent of the

  2. Your Street Address City, State, Zip

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Your Street Address City, State, Zip Month, Day, Year Mr./Ms./Dr. Name Title Name of Company/Organization Company's Street Address City, State, Zip Dear Mr./Ms./Dr.: Paragraph 1: The opening paragraph introduces

  3. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 32. September, 1968 DOORWAY OF 16 UNION STREET, A TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. September, 1968 DOORWAY OF 16 UNION STREET, A TYPICAL NANTUCKET CARPENTER CLASSIC DOORWAY - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. 27. August, 1970 SOUTH SIDE OF UNION STREET (NOS. 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. August, 1970 SOUTH SIDE OF UNION STREET (NOS. 14, 16, 18) LOOKING EAST - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. 1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER OUTLET AT NORTHWEST BRANCH OF PATAPSCO RIVER (BALTIMORE HARBOR) - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM WEST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM WEST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER, WITH PORTION OF AMERICAN CAN COMPANY COMPLEX - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. 2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM EAST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM EAST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. 3. 52436 Royal Street, Lille Sarpy's 'Maison De Commerce', Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 524-36 Royal Street, Lille Sarpy's 'Maison De Commerce', Photographed September, 1936 GENERAL VIEW OF ROYAL STREET (FRONT) FACADE, TAKEN FROM SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ACROSS THE STREET - Royal Street (Commercial Buildings), New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  10. John Street (South) Elevation (Second through Fourth Floors, Terra Cotta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Street (South) Elevation (Second through Fourth Floors, Terra Cotta detailed window surrounds at the corner of John Street and Broadway) - View from rooftop of 10 John Street - Corbin Building, 11 John Street, New York, New York County, NY

  11. John Street (South) Elevation (Fourth through Sixth Floors, Terra Cotta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Street (South) Elevation (Fourth through Sixth Floors, Terra Cotta detailed window surrounds at the corner of John Street and Broadway) - View from rooftop of 10 John Street - Corbin Building, 11 John Street, New York, New York County, NY

  12. South (main) and east elevations, looking northwest Market Street is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (main) and east elevations, looking northwest Market Street is in foreground. - Market Street Elevated Railway, 69th Street Terminal, Market & Sixty-ninth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 1. VIEW SOUTHWARD FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER FRONT AND ARCH STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHWARD FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER FRONT AND ARCH STREETS (2. N. Front Street starts at left) - North Front Street Area Study, 2-66 North Front Street (Commercial Buildings), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 76 FR 6153 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...Proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project on the Campo Indian Reservation...proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project (Proposed Action) to be located...hand carry written comments to Amy Dutschke, Regional Director...the Campo Regional Landfill Project (Proposed Action)....

  15. PREDICTION/MITIGATION OF SUBSIDENCE DAMAGE TO HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characteristics of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste landfills and of landfilled hazardous wastes have been described to permit development of models and other analytical techniques for predicting, reducing, and preventing landfill settlement and related cove...

  16. 75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill; Opportunity for...approve an alternative final cover for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake County, Montana on the Confederated...

  17. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section...Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. 62.14353...Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction... § 62.14353 Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions....

  19. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. 62.14353...Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction... § 62.14353 Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions....

  20. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section...Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. 62.14353...Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction... § 62.14353 Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions....

  2. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. 62.14353...Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction... § 62.14353 Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions....

  3. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...FRL-9796-7] Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY...State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22...permits to be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states....

  4. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. 62.14353...Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction... § 62.14353 Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions....

  5. 78 FR 20035 - Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...FRL-9796-6] Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY...State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program...Permits to be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states....

  6. Evaluation of landfill gas as an energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    The benefits and problems associated with landfill gas recovery were considered by the City of Baltimore, resulting in the structuring and testing of a realistic gas recovery evaluation procedure for use by local governments. The Baltimore methodology is summarized and results of its application to a large landfill in the Baltimore area are presented. The landfill gas generation process potential uses for the recovered gas, and treatment requirements are covered.

  7. FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND WEST BACKSIDES OF JOHN BREUNER AND COMPANY BUILDING IN CENTER (BACKGROUND), SURROUNDING STRUCTURES ON CLAY, JEFFERSON AND 15TH STREETS AT LEFT, RIGHT, AND FOREGROUND - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. Public health assessment for Freeway Sanitary Landfill, Burnsville, Dakota County, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND038384004. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-30

    The Freeway Sanitary Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) site in Burnsville, Minnesota is situated in the Lower Minnesota River Valley. Shallow groundwater beneath the site is contaminated with low levels of volatile organic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Under current conditions, no human exposures to site-related contaminants are known to occur at levels of health concern. Based on currently available information, the Minnesota Department of Health concludes that the site poses an indeterminate public health hazard under current conditions because exposure to volatile gases released to the air is possible, but cannot be evaluated from the very limited information available. There are also a few physical hazards on the site which pose a risk of accident or injury if trespassing occurs. Otherwise, there are no indications that people have been, or are being, exposed to site-related contaminants at levels that would be of health concern. The Agency For Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Health Activities Recommendation Panel has evaluated the Freeway Sanitary Landfill Public Health Assessment for appropriate follow-up activities. The Panel has recommended that health education be considered to assist site workers in better understanding their potential for exposure to landfill gases.

  9. Public health assessment for Syosset Landfill, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York, Region 2. Cerclis No. NYD000511360. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-19

    The Syosset Landfill site is an inactive landfill in the Town of Oyster Bay, Syosset, Nassau County, New York. The site is an indeterminate public health hazard. The available data do no indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects. Exposures from ingesting contaminated drinking water from a downgradient public supply well may have occurred, however, data are not available to determine the full extent of groundwater contamination present during operation of the well. The concern exists due to the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including vinyl chloride, benzene and tetrachloroethene in soil gas, and the generation of methane which could migrate to inhabited on-site areas and/or off the site and accumulate in closed buildings, such as Town of Oyster Bay Maintenance facilities, adjacent homes, and the school.

  10. BONDING PROCEDURES MUNICIPAL STREETS SEMINAR

    E-print Network

    BONDING PROCEDURES MUNICIPAL STREETS SEMINAR Ahlers & Cooney, P.C. Mark Cory & Minniette Bucklin Association, Polk County and Iowa Bar Associations and the National Association of Bond Lawyers. Mr. Cory has of governmental bonds, but she also advises clients with respect to issues involving economic development

  11. Who Is on Our Streets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian A.

    1983-01-01

    By conducting a pedestrian survey, secondary or college level students answer the question "What is the best location for a new business requiring maximum pedestrian traffic?" They collect data on the number and types of people on streets in a commercial area of a city. (RM)

  12. The Great Learning Street Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Prakash

    2005-01-01

    Nair discusses the "Learning Street," a now-frequent concept of modern school planning and design in terms of the multiple modalities of learning that today's schools must nurture. The author lists 18, including: (1) Independent study; (2) Peer tutoring; (3) Team collaborative work in small and mid-sized groups; (4) One-on-one learning with the…

  13. July 24, 2014 MAIN STREET CONSTRUCTION UPDATE

    E-print Network

    July 24, 2014 MAIN STREET CONSTRUCTION UPDATE Third Street Connector Construction Begins Week, will begin construction of the Third Street Connector between Main St and Broadway. This phase is expected to take about 2 months to complete. PROJECT SCHEDULE Starting July 29, crews will mobilize on Main St

  14. A field-validated model for landfill methane emissions inclusive of seasonal methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Chanton, J.

    2010-12-01

    In addition to natural wetlands, atmospheric methane (CH4) has multiple anthropogenic sources with high uncertainties, including rice production, ruminant animals, natural gas leakages, biomass burning, and landfills. For an improved IPCC Tier III methodology for landfill CH4 emissions in California, we have developed a new science-based, field-validated inventory model which decouples emissions from a historical reliance on a theoretical first order kinetic model for CH4 generation potential. The model (CALMIM, CAlifornia Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely-available JAVA tool which estimates net CH4 emissions to the atmosphere for any landfill cover soil over a typical annual cycle, including (1) the effect of engineered gas extraction; (2) the physical effects of daily, intermediate, and final cover materials to retard emissions; and (3) seasonal soil moisture and temperature effects on both gaseous transport and methanotrophic CH4 oxidation. Linking site-specific data with existing globally-validated USDA models for annual climate and soil microclimate (Global TempSim; Global RainSim; Solarcalc; STM2), this model relies on 1-D diffusion as the major driver for emissions. Importantly, unlike current inventory methods based on modeled generation, the driving force for emissions (e.g., the CH4 concentration gradient) can be directly compared to field data. Methane oxidation is scaled to maximum rates over the full range of moisture and temperature conditions based on extensive supporting laboratory studies using California landfill cover soils. Field validation included meteorological data, soil moisture/temperature measurements, and seasonal (wet/dry) CH4 emissions & oxidation measurements for daily, intermediate, and final cover soils over two annual cycles at a northern (Monterey County) and southern California (Los Angeles County) landfill. The model accurately predicted soil temperature and moisture trends for individual cover materials with acceptable order-of-magnitude predictability for field emissions within the context of published literature spanning 7 orders of magnitude. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user-selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site-specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist.

  15. Air pollutant emissions from MSW landfills - the {open_quotes}sleeper{close_quotes} issue for landfill design and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Minott, D.H. [Alternative Resources, Inc., Concord, MA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Five years have passed since US EPA adopted the now well-known hierarchy for management of MSW - source reduction, recycling, waste-to-energy, and, for waste that cannot be practically recycled or combusted, landfilling. Despite US EPA`s preferred waste-management hierarchy, the United States, as a country, continues to rely on landfilling as its principal means of MSW management. This disparity is also true locally, in the case of the nation`s most populous city, New York City. The City deposits most residential MSW in its Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island, some four million tons of MSW per year. What is more, while the City is indeed implementing recycling, its formal waste-management plans also call for continued heavy reliance on the Fresh Kills Landfill for 10 years or more into the future. Because landfills continue to serve as the MSW management {open_quotes}workhorse{close_quotes} in many locales, it is believed that a full accounting of landfill environmental emissions is called for, to enable adequate environmental safeguards in the design of landfills, appropriate regulation of landfill environmental emissions, and informed public decision-making about MSW management in general. Evidence is presented that air pollutant emissions, in particular, from landfills pose a significant environmental threat that is largely unrecognized by most people. Locally in New York City, there is an awakening to the issue of landfill air-pollutant emissions, as evidenced by the recent undertaking of a study of air quality near the Fresh Kills Landfill by Federal, State, and local agencies. In general, however, the public`s concern over landfill air-pollutant emissions is limited to odor nuisance.

  16. Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail store (11 North F Street), and general merchandise (15 North F Street), all historic-contributing features of the district - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  17. 4. HOUSES, BETWEEN PEMBERTON STREET (from right) AND VICINITY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HOUSES, BETWEEN PEMBERTON STREET (from right) AND VICINITY OF FITZWATER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. The houses at the corner of Pemberton Street and the backyard buildings are Workman Place, which may be seen in a separate HABS documentation under same name, HABS No. PA-133. - 600-858 South Front Street (Houses), West side Front Street between South & Catharine Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from landfill leachate by irrigation onto vegetated treatment planes.

    PubMed

    Tyrrel, S F; Leeds-Harrison, P B; Harrison, K S

    2002-01-01

    Leachate is a contaminated liquor resulting from the disposal of solid and liquid wastes at landfill sites that must be treated before discharge. Vegetated leachate treatment planes have been used at landfill sites in the UK but have received little scientific attention. This paper describes studies of model leachate treatment planes with a focus on the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N). Small-scale and field-scale experimental treatment planes were constructed. filled with clay loam soil and vegetated with grass (Agrostis stolonifera). Landfill leachate was applied at hydraulic loading rates ranging from 17-217l/m2/d. An exponential relationship was used to characterise the pattern of NH3-N removal. No relationship was observed between the hydraulic loading rate and the NH3-N removal rate constants (R2 = 0.0039). The daily specific NH3-N mass removal rate was found to be linearly related to the NH3-N concentration at the start of that day of treatment (R2 = 0.35). Possible causes of variation in the rate of NH3-N removal between experiments are discussed. A simple inorganic nitrogen balance indicated that the mass of N-H3-N and NO2-N removed was not accounted for by NO3-N production. Explanations for this apparent nitrogen deficit are discussed. PMID:11766806

  19. Use of combined coagulation-adsorption process as pretreatment of landfill leachate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Physical and chemical processes are the better option for pretreatment or full treatment of landfill leachate. This article presents a combination of pre-treatment method (coagulation and adsorption) for leachate collected from municipal solid waste open dumping site. Physico chemical characteristics of stabilized and fresh leachate were examined. Coagulation process was examined by using alum and ferric chloride. A low cost adsorbent, fly ash was used for adsorption studies. Coagulation studies were carried out for fresh and stabilized leachate. Adsorption studies have been conducted for alum pre-treated stabilized leachate. Effect of coagulant dose, adsorbent dose, pH and contact time were carried out. The effective optimum coagulant dosages were 0.6 g/L and 0.7 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively for stabilized leachate and incase of fresh leachate 0.8 g/L and 0.6 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively. For the alum pretreated stabilized leachate, the maximum COD removal is 28% using fly ash adsorbent with equilibrium time of 210 min and optimum dose of 6 g/L. Overall COD removal efficiency of 82% was obtained by coagulation using alum and adsorption using fly ash for stabilized leachate. The results obtained showed that combined coagulation and adsorption process can be used effectively for stabilized leachate treatment. PMID:23517661

  20. Different treatment strategies for highly polluted landfill leachate in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Kashif; Hossain, Md Delwar; Shams, Shahriar

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to determine appropriate treatment technique for effective treatment of heavily polluted landfill leachate. We accomplished several treatment experiments: (i) aerobic biological treatment, (ii) chemical coagulation, (iii) advanced oxidation process (AOP) and (iv) several combined treatment strategies. Efficiency of these treatment procedures were monitored by analysing COD and colour removal. Leachate used for this study was taken from Matuail landfill site at Dhaka city. With extended aeration process which is currently used in Matuail landfill site for leachate treatment, maximum COD and colour removal of 36% and 20%, respectively could be achieved with optimum retention period of 7 days. With optimum aluminium sulphate dose of 15,000 mg/L and pH value of 7.0, maximum COD and colour removals of 34% and 66%, respectively were observed by using chemical coagulation. With optimum pH of 5.0 and optimum dosages of reagents having H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 1.3 the highest removal of COD and colour were found 68% and 87%, respectively with sludge production of 55%. Fenton treatment which is an advanced oxidation process was the most successful between these three separate treatment procedures. Among the combined treatment options performed, extended aeration followed by Fenton method was the most suitable one. PMID:22088960