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1

Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart

C. Hertzman; M. Hayes; J. Singer; J. Highland

1987-01-01

2

Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study.  

PubMed Central

This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is the conclusion of the authors that the adverse effects seen were more likely the result of chemical exposure than of perception of risk.

Hertzman, C; Hayes, M; Singer, J; Highland, J

1987-01-01

3

Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

1995-01-01

4

Health Assessment for Hooker Chemical (102ND Street Landfill), Niagara Falls, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980506810.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 102nd Street Landfill is two sites that comprise 22 acres. Occidental Chemical Corporation (OCC) and its predecessor, the Oldbury Electrochemical Company, deposited approximately 23,500 tons of mixed organic solvents, organic and inorganic phosphates ...

1989-01-01

5

Trace gas measurements in landfill gas from closed landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five closed landfill sites in the urban area of Wolverhampton, UK were investigated in order to identify the trace components in landfill gas emitted from each site. 17 different compounds were identified in the gas samples following analysis by gas chromatography?mass spectrometry.It appeared that concentrations of carbon disulphide, xylene and toluene detected at the landfill sites were related to site

P. Giess; A. Bush; M. Dye

1999-01-01

6

Landfill sites, botulism and gulls.  

PubMed Central

Botulism due to Clostridium botulinum type C causes considerable mortality in gulls in the UK, and refuse disposal sites are suspected as a major source of toxin. C. botulinum types B, C and D were each found in 12 (63.2%) of 19 landfill sites examined. Type E was detected in only one (5.2%) and types A, F and G were not found. The prevalence of type C spores was much higher than that demonstrated in the UK environment by earlier surveys. The presence of these spores, together with the rotting organic matter and generated heat associated with landfill sites, undoubtedly leads to bacterial proliferation and toxigenesis. This is likely to result in botulism in scavenging gulls unless skilled landfill management prevents the ingestion of toxic material. Type D spores were previously shown to be rare in the UK environment and their high prevalence on landfill sites was therefore surprising. Four composite samples of refuse collected before distribution on a landfill gave negative results for C. botulinum and it seems likely that the gulls themselves play a major role in introducing contamination.

Ortiz, N. E.; Smith, G. R.

1994-01-01

7

Health assessment for Hooker Chemical (102nd Street Landfill), Niagara Falls, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980506810. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The 102nd Street Landfill is two sites that comprise 22 acres. Occidental Chemical Corporation (OCC) and its predecessor, the Oldbury Electrochemical Company, deposited approximately 23,500 tons of mixed organic solvents, organic and inorganic phosphates, and related chemicals. Included in the site are approximately 300 tons of hexachlorocyclohexane process cake, including lindane. In addition, brine sludge, fly ash, electrochemical cell parts and related equipment in unknown quantities were dumped at the site. On-site contamination of the 102nd Street Landfill includes soils contaminated with non-aqueous phase liquids on both portions of the Landfill. Off-site contamination, based on current studies, results from contaminated ground-water leaching into the Niagara River which causes contamination of the river water, sediments, and aquatic organisms, including fish. The 102nd Street Landfill continues to represent a potential public health threat.

Not Available

1989-06-01

8

Transportation analysis for sludge landfill site selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution framework for the Sludge Landfill Site Selection Problem (SLSSP) which arises in the context of environmental planning is presented. The problem may be defined as follows: given a set of environmentally acceptable candidate landfill sites, identify the site which minimizes a weighted combination of two objectives (system descriptors): the present worth value of the transportation operation costs and

M. Hadi Baaj; Suleiman Ashur; Atmam Anwar

1996-01-01

9

Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the sol...

1991-01-01

10

Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.  

PubMed

The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills. PMID:15055915

Boyle, E; Johnson, H; Kelly, A; McDonnell, R

2004-01-01

11

Atmospheric methane transport near landfill sites.  

PubMed

Methane production rates that have been estimated by a biogas production model (MICROGEN) are combined with an air dispersion model in order to determine the spatial distribution of methane around landfill sites. By utilising dispersion models under extreme atmospheric conditions, a maximum methane concentration around the landfills can be determined. The factors that enhance the maximum methane concentrations, using the meteorological model CALMET in conjunction with the dispersion model CALPUFF, are found to be the wind speed and the percentage of cloud cover. The rates of temperature and pressure variation, as well as the land use category seem to have no effect on the maximum methane concentrations. A rapid reduction of methane concentration is observed a few metres away from the landfill centre while a slower reduction is observed at distances greater than 300 m from it. The performance of this methodology is evaluated by comparing measured concentrations with model predictions. PMID:12667020

Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P; Pilinis, Christodoulos; Halvadakis, Constantinos P

2003-02-01

12

Superfund Site Remediation by Landfilling - Overview of Landfill Design, Operation, Closure and Postclosure Care Issues1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the appropriateness of using landfills as part of remediating hazardous chemical and Superfund sites, with particular emphasis on providing for true long- term public health and environmental protection from the wastes and contaminated soils that are placed in the landfills. Onsite landfilling or capping of existing wastes is typically the least expensive approach for gaining some remediation

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

13

11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. (BUILDINGS 131, 130, 129, AND 128 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

14

US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

Not Available

1993-06-01

15

Development of a perimeter odor monitoring system for landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A need exists for instrumentation capable of continuous measurement of gas and odor emission from the perimeter of a landfill site. Current practice is to manually use a flame ionization detector. Instruments based on an array of MOS gas sensors were developed and placed on the perimeter of a landfill site, functioning as point monitoring systems, using methane as a

Krishna C. Persaud; N. C. P. Woodyatt; R. W. Sneath

2008-01-01

16

New approach for landfill site selection using spatial rough set  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces how to apply rough set classification and attribute reduction method in the field of landfill site selection. Unlike the analysis in the past which focused solely on the spatial data of the map, in this paper, rough set attribute decision table specific for the criteria is created, thus to meet the needs for landfill site selection decision.

Rasha Elhadary; Ahmed Elashry

2011-01-01

17

Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (?g) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 ?g in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 ?g, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study area. All samplers in the survey had detections of TPH, but only eight of the samplers had detections of TPH greater than 0.9 mg. Four samplers had TPH detections greater than 9 mg; the only other fuel-related compounds detected in these four samplers included toluene in three of the samplers and undecane in the fourth sampler. Three samplers deployed along the western margin of the northern landfill had detections of both diesel-and gasoline-related compounds; however, the diesel-related compounds were detected at or below method detection levels. Seven samplers in the northern study area had detections of chlorinated compounds, including three perchloroethene detections, three chloroform detections, and one 1,4-dichloro-benzene detection. One sampler on the western margin of the landfill had detections of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-tr-methylbenene below method detection levels.

Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2012-01-01

18

Modeling biogas production at landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production is characteristic of municipal solid waste landfills. A knowledge of the trend of this production allows an exploitation of this energy source. The here presented model is more accurate than those that already exist as it takes the temperature variation in time and depth and the landfill settlement into account. The obtained model fits experimental data well.

L. Manna; M. C. Zanetti; G. Genon

1999-01-01

19

Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill  

SciTech Connect

This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

1991-04-01

20

Landfill site selection by using geographic information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the serious and growing potential problems in most large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. Although\\u000a there are some efforts to reduce and recover the waste, disposal in landfills is still the most common method for waste destination.\\u000a An inappropriate landfill site may have negative environmental, economic and ecological impacts. Therefore, it should be

Ba?ak ?ener; M. Lütfi Süzen; Vedat Doyuran

2006-01-01

21

Environmental problems associated with the development and operation of a lined and unlined landfill site: a case study demonstrating two landfill sites in Patra, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work demonstrates the environmental problems associated with the development and operation of a lined and unlined\\u000a landfill site, both used for municipal solid waste landfilling, that are situated next to the city of Patra, Greece. Findings\\u000a from a detailed site investigation as well calculations on hydrologic evaluation of landfill’s performance and measurements\\u000a on leachate composition proved that the

Nikos Depountis; George Koukis; Nikos Sabatakakis

2009-01-01

22

Environmental problems associated with the development and operation of a lined and unlined landfill site: a case study demonstrating two landfill sites in Patra, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work demonstrates the environmental problems associated with the development and operation of a lined and unlined landfill site, both used for municipal solid waste landfilling, that are situated next to the city of Patra, Greece. Findings from a detailed site investigation as well calculations on hydrologic evaluation of landfill’s performance and measurements on leachate composition proved that the lined landfill site is more secure and environmental friendly compared with the unlined landfill site. Even though, until today, there is no evidence from near boreholes for severe contamination problems generated by any of the two landfills, in the forthcoming future several environmental problems are expected to occur from the unlined site. In addition the prevailing hydrogeotechnical conditions indicated that the unlined site is a potential source of contamination; hence extra remedial measures should be received by the local authorities to prevent severe contamination in soil and groundwater.

Depountis, Nikos; Koukis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikos

2009-02-01

23

75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0447, FRL-9157-5] Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd...costs concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland...0447 or Site name Cooksey Brothers Landfill Superfund Site by one of the...

2010-06-02

24

Siting MSW landfills with a spatial multiple criteria analysis methodology.  

PubMed

The present work describes a spatial methodology which comprises several methods from different scientific fields such as multiple criteria analysis, geographic information systems, spatial analysis and spatial statistics. The final goal of the methodology is to evaluate the suitability of the study region in order to optimally site a landfill. The initial step is the formation of the multiple criteria problem's hierarchical structure. Then the methodology utilizes spatial analysis processes to create the evaluation criteria, which are mainly based on Greek and EU legislation, but are also based on international practice and practical guidelines. The relative importance weights of the evaluation criteria are estimated using the analytic hierarchy process. With the aid of the simple additive weighting method, the suitability for landfill siting of the study region is finally evaluated. The resulting land suitability is reported on a grading scale of 0-10, which is, respectively, from least to most suitable areas. The last step is a spatial clustering process, which is being performed in order to reveal the most suitable areas, allowing an initial ranking and selection of candidate landfill sites. The application of the presented methodology in the island of Lemnos in the North Aegean Sea (Greece) indicated that 9.3% of the study region is suitable for landfill siting with grading values greater than 9. PMID:15946837

Kontos, Themistoklis D; Komilis, Dimitrios P; Halvadakis, Constantinos P

2005-01-01

25

Sanitary Landfilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introductory remarks; panel a: selecting sanitary landfill sites; how to select and acquire a sanitary landfill site; effects of industrial and hazardous wastes on site location; designing a rural sanitary landfill system; panel b: sanitary land...

J. E. Delaney

1973-01-01

26

Reliability assessment of groundwater monitoring networks at landfill sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfills represent a significant threat to groundwater contamination due to their nature of operation and their abundance. Monitoring well networks at these sites are of vital importance in detecting leakage plumes. This study presents a reliability assessment to estimate the performance of groundwater monitoring systems at landfill sites. A hypothetical problem is presented where the detection probability of several monitoring systems is compared. A Monte-Carlo approach is used to incorporate uncertainties due to subsurface heterogeneity and the leak location. Hydraulic conductivity and leak location are considered as random variables with prescribed probability density functions. A finite difference groundwater model coupled with a random walk particle-tracking model simulates a contaminant plume released from the landfill for each Monte-Carlo realization. The analysis shows that lateral dispersivity of the medium has a significant influence on the reliability of the monitoring system, since it is the primary parameter controlling the width of the contaminant plume. Furthermore the number and the location of the monitoring wells are dependent on the heterogeneity of the medium and size of the contaminant leak. It is concluded that the reliability of the common practice of three downgradient monitoring wells is inadequate from the point of view of prevention of groundwater contamination due to landfills.

Yenigül, N. Buket; Elfeki, Amro M. M.; Gehrels, Johannes C.; van den Akker, Cees; Hensbergen, André T.; Dekking, F. Michel

2005-07-01

27

Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

Not Available

1992-12-01

28

[Contaminants natural attenuation of beitiantang landfills leachate polluted sites].  

PubMed

Redox zones and the natural attenuation of pollutants in landfill leachate polluted site through analyzing data monitored around the Beitiantang Landfills of Beijing City. The results indicated that redox zones existed in Beitiantang Landfill leachate polluted sites, and 5redox zones were classified depended on distribution rules and characteristics of indicative substrates, namely methanogenic zone, sulfate reduction zone, iron reduction zone, nitrate reduction zone and oxygen reduction zone. Attenuation efficiencies of different organic contaminants in redox zones were different. Content of volatile hydroxybenzene and cyanide in sulfate reduction zone were relative high, and they were 0.005 and 0.019 microg/L, respectively. Heavy metal content, such as Cr, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Cd, Zn and Mn were relative high in methanogenic zone, and they were 25.11, 33.82, 29.93, 3.18, 2.3, 0.1, 283.1, 1220 microg/L, respectively. Therefore, redox zones played an important role on the attenuation of pollutants. PMID:19186838

Dong, Jun; Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Hong; Chen, Zhong-Rong; Hong, Mei

2008-11-01

29

A new method for environmental site assessment of urban solid waste landfills.  

PubMed

Regarding various types of pollutant, waste management requires high attention. Environmental site selection study, prior to landfill operation, and subsequently, monitoring and maintaining of the location, are of foremost points in landfill site selection process. By means of these studies, it is possible to control the undesirable impacts caused by landfills. Study ahead aims at examination of effectiveness of a new method called Monavari 95-2 in landfill site assessment. For this purpose, two landfills Rasht and Andisheh, which are, respectively, located on humid and arid areas, were selected as case studies. Then, the results obtained from both sites were compared with each other to find out the weaknesses and strengths of each site. Compared with others similar methods, much more criteria (53 parameters) can be considered within this method, so the results will be more calculable. According to this method, Rasht landfill (site H) is classified as unacceptable landfill site i.e. there is an urgent need for a new suitable site for landfill, while Andishe Landfill (site D) is ranked as acceptable landfill site but needs environmental management program to handle the existing weaknesses. PMID:21494828

Ghanbari, Fatemeh; Amin Sharee, Farham; Monavari, Masoud; Zaredar, Narges

2012-03-01

30

Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

1990-06-01

31

Hazardous waste landfill site selection in Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeastern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal is the final step of any hazardous waste management plan. An inappropriate landfill site may have negative environmental,\\u000a economical, and ecological impacts. Therefore, landfills should be sited carefully by taking into account various rules, regulations,\\u000a factors, and constraints. In this study, candidate sites for hazardous landfills in the northeastern Khorasan Razavi province\\u000a are determined using the integration of

Naser Hafezi Moghaddas; Hadi Hajizadeh Namaghi

2011-01-01

32

Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, ?2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

2013-10-01

33

Risk of adverse birth outcomes in populations living near landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with residence near landfill sites in Great Britain. Design Geographical study of risks of adverse birth outcomes in populations living within 2 km of 9565 landfill sites operational at some time between 1982 and 1997 (from a total of 19 196 sites) compared with those living further away. Setting Great

Paul Elliott; David Briggs; Sara Morris; Cornelis de Hoogh; Christopher Hurt; Tina Kold Jensen; Ian Maitland; Sylvia Richardson; Jon Wakefield; Lars Jarup

2001-01-01

34

Residents' reappraisal of the Halton Regional Landfill site: A longitudinal study of psychosocial impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines psychosocial effects in a population living near the Halton Regional Landfill site in Milton, Ontario. The data described and analyzed in this research were collected between 1990 and 1995 and capture key events in the landfill site's history--site approval, construction and operation. This longitudinal study, which examines indicators of stress, reappraisal and coping at three different points

Christine Lynne Hampson

1997-01-01

35

Analysis of Integrated Expert Geographic Information Systems for Secured Landfill Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siting of secured landfill is difficult because of the complexity of technical and social aspects. Technically, the appropriate tool for secured landfill sites analysis should be applied in the siting procedure. This study aims at developing a comprehensive tool to facilitate the analysis of secured landfill sites. It integrates Geographic Information System (GIS), Expert System (ES) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) into a packaged tool. The GIS represents spatial data, ES represents a knowledge base about secured landfill siting, AHP was applied for ranking of candidate sites and a user interface was developed to make this tool a user-friendly graphical system. The use of this tool was illustrated by identifying suitable sites for secured landfill in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

Junggoth, Rittirong; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Pitaksanurat, Somsak; Kane, Kevin

36

Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect the creek. However, most TPH detections were located in and immediately adjacent to a debris field located within the former landfill and in areas where debris was not visible, including the northwestern and southeastern parts of the study area. Two of the four soil-gas samplers installed within a former military training area adjacent to the landfill also had TPH detections above the method detection level. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (as combined BTEX mass) were detected at 0.02 microgram or greater in three soil-gas samplers installed at the northwestern boundary and in five samplers installed in the southeastern part of the study area. There was no BTEX mass detected above the method detection level in samplers installed in the debris field. Toluene was the most frequently detected BTEX compound. Compounds indicative of diesel-range organics were detected above 0.04 microgram in 12 soil-gas samplers and had a distribution similar to that of TPH, including being detected in the debris field. Undecane was the most frequently detected diesel compound. Chloroform and naphthalene were detected in eight and two soil-gas samplers, respectively. Five soil-gas samplers deployed during September 2010 were analyzed for organic compounds classified as chemical agents and explosives, but none exceeded the method detection levels. Five composite soil samples collected from within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill were analyzed for 35 inorganic constituents, but none of the constituents detected exceeded regional screening levels for industrial soils. The sample collected in the debris field exceeded background levels for aluminum, barium, calcium, chromium, lead, nickel, potassium, sodium, and zinc. Three surface-water samples were collected in September 2010 from a stormwater outfall culvert that drains to the creek and from the open channel of the creek at upstream and downstream locations relative to the outfall. Toluene was detected at 0.661 mi

Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2011-01-01

37

Methane generation and microbial activity in a domestic refuse landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carboxylic acid and sulphate concentrations, microbial activity as estimated by extracellular enzyme activities, and biogas production, at Aveley Landfill Site (Essex) were markedly influenced by refuse moisture content, which depended on the level of the water table. Cellulose: lignin ratios were indicative of cellulose disappearance and enzyme activity determinations may be a measure of the potential of landfill sites to

K. L. Jones; J. F. Rees; J. M. Grainger

1983-01-01

38

Factors influencing the establishment of floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural revegetation on landfill sites often results in a species poor sward dominated by Elymus repens (Shaw, 1983; Davis, 1988; Wong, 1988). The aim of this study was primarily to investigate the mechanism by which E.repens achieved such apparent domination and secondly to investigate various methods to establish floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site. Low rates of germination

1991-01-01

39

24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

2013-04-01

40

Geologic report, Middlesex Municipal Landfill site, Middlesex, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on geologic and hydrologic investigations of the former Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey, conducted during 1982 and 1983 by Bechtel National, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office. The investigations were designed to assess the feasibility of stabilizing the radioactive contamination present on site. The investigations were conducted in two phases: Phase 1 consisted of permeability tests; Phase 2 consisted of tests to ascertain the extent of hydraulic interconnection between various stratigraphic units. The investigations revealed that a complete separation of bedrock and overburden did not exist and that the clay present could not be relied upon to confine vertical migration of contaminants over the long term. 6 references, 27 figures, 6 tables.

Not Available

1984-03-01

41

Selection of MSW landfill site for Konya, Turkey using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation.  

PubMed

Landfill is a common solution for the final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. Landfill siting is an extremely difficult task to accomplish because the site selection process depends on different factors and regulations. To ensure that an appropriate site is chosen, a systematic process should be developed and followed. Unsuccessful landfill siting is typically the result of strong public opposition. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill area in Cumra County of Konya City are determined by using the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). ArcGIS 9.0 software and its extensions were used as the GIS tool since it is able to perform suitability analysis using MCE analysis. To identify appropriate landfill areas in the Cumra district, eight input map layers including proximity to municipal and local wells and irrigational canals, distance from transportation routes and rails, distance from archaeological sites, distance from urban areas, land use/land cover, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identifies regions showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. According to the map, 6.8% of the study area is most suitable, 15.7% is suitable, 10.4% is moderately suitable, 25.8% is poorly suitable, and 41.3% is unsuitable. At the end of the analyses, three candidate sites are determined. The selection of the final MSW landfill site, however, requires further field research. PMID:19169836

Nas, Bilgehan; Cay, Tayfun; Iscan, Fatih; Berktay, Ali

2010-01-01

42

TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

43

Letter Health Consultation: Doty Landfill Site, Camanche, Iowa. EPA Facility ID: IAD980497556, June 23, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Doty Landfill encompasses 13 acres of land and is located in the southeastern quarter of Section 29, Township 81 North, Range 6 East, Clinton County, Iowa. The site was used as a landfill for municipal solid waste from 1970 to 1975. In addition, local...

2008-01-01

44

Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.  

PubMed

Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

2006-07-01

45

LINERS FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS AND CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report lists addresses of sanitary landfills and chemical and hazardous waste disposal sites and holding ponds with some form of impermeable lining. Liners included are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon R, ethylene propylene diene monomer, butyl rubber, conventional ...

46

Assessment of groundwater quality near the landfill site using the modified water quality index.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to assess the groundwater quality near a landfill site using the modified water quality index. A total of 128 groundwater samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Hg. The analytical results have showed a decreasing trend in concentration for TOC, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cu and an increasing one for pH, EC, and PAH. The modified water quality index, which was called landfill water pollution index (LWPI), was calculated to quantify the overall water quality near the landfill site. The analysis reveals that groundwater in piezometers close to the landfill is under a strong landfill impact. The LWPI in piezometers ranged from 0.52 to 98.25 with a mean value of 7.99. The LWPI in groundwater from the nearest house wells varied from 0.59 to 0.92. A LWPI value below 1 proves that analyzed water is not affected by the landfill. Results have shown that LWPI is an efficient method for assessing and communicating the information on the groundwater quality near the landfill. PMID:24509837

Talalaj, Izabela A

2014-06-01

47

Natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes at three Danish sites.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of comprehensive core and fringe field studies at three Danish landfill sites. The goal of the research activities is to provide a holistic description of core and fringe attenuation processes for xenobiotic organic compounds in landfill leachate plumes. The approach used is cross-disciplinary, encompassing integration of field-scale observations at different scales, field injection experiments, laboratory experiments, and reactive solute transport modeling. This is illustrated in examples from the most recently investigated site-the Sjoelund Landfill. The research performed serves as good case studies to conceptualize natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes and also supports the notion that monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may be a possible remediation strategy at landfills. However, landfill leachate plumes challenge traditional approaches and tools used in the application of MNA. In particular, the use of in situ indicators to document mass removal in landfill leachate plumes is emphasized. In this article, we advocate the application of conceptual and numerical models as tools for the integration of data and testing of hypotheses. PMID:19709312

Bjerg, Poul L; Tuxen, Nina; Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Kjeldsen, Peter

2011-01-01

48

Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

de Roche, J. T.; Razem, A. C.

1981-01-01

49

Applying Fuzzy logic and the point count system to select landfill sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of solid waste is currently one of the major environmental problems facing municipalities. Thousands of tonnes\\u000a of waste are generated each day, requiring a large area for disposal purposes. It is difficult to find suitable areas for\\u000a the construction of such sanitary landfills as numerous criteria must be met, and landfill sites vary considerably in terms\\u000a of their

C. S. P. Ojha; Manish Kumar Goyal; Sunil Kumar

2007-01-01

50

Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Site selection is an important and necessary issue for waste management in fast-growing regions. Because of the complexity of waste management systems, the selection of the appropriate solid waste landfill site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria. Based on actual conditions of the study area, we considered economic factors, calculated criteria weights using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and built a hierarchy model for solving the solid waste landfill site-selection problem in Beijing, China. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manipulate and present spatial data. All maps are graded from 1 (lowest suitability) to 5 (highest suitability) using spatial information technologies. The candidate sites were determined by aggregation based on the criteria weights. The candidate sites are divided by 'best', 'good' and 'unsuitable' landfill areas. Best landfill areas represent optimal sites; good landfill areas can be used as back-up candidate sites. Our work offers a sitting methodology and provides essential support for decision-makers in the assessment of waste management problems in Beijing and other rapidly developing cities in developing countries. PMID:19375842

Wang, Guiqin; Qin, Li; Li, Guoxue; Chen, Lijun

2009-06-01

51

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Olmsted County Sanitary Landfill Site, MN., June 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decision document presents the selection of the no-action remedial alternative for the Olmsted County Sanitary Landfill, Superfund site (the Site). No remedial action under CERCLA or MERLA is necessary at this site to ensure protection of human health...

1994-01-01

52

Engineering geological aspects of replacing a solid waste disposal site with a sanitary landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current solid waste disposal site in the Mamak district of Ankara is being engulfed by the growing city. All varieties of solid wastes, including medical wastes, are stored at the present site in an irregular manner. Topographical and geological conditions at Mamak waste site are favorable for constructing a sanitary landfill. Located at the edge of a topographical depression,

Kamil Kayabali

1996-01-01

53

Risk of Congenital Anomalies after the Opening of Landfill Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

government areas where complaints of smells occurred were significantly higher than rates in socioeconomically matched control areas, but this was the case before as well as after the landfill opened (Fielder et al. 2000b). We therefore carried out a new study to test the null hypothesis that the opening of new land- fills in Wales was not associated with increased

Stephen R. Palmer; Frank D. J. Dunstan; Hilary Fielder; David L. Fone; Gary Higgs; Martyn L. Senior

2005-01-01

54

Siting MSW landfills on Lesvos island with a GIS-based methodology.  

PubMed

The siting of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills in Greece is a difficult process due to land resource limitations, the country's mountainous, insular and primarily water permeable terrain as well as an exacerbated public opposition (NIMBY syndrome). A GIS-based methodology is presented here with the goal to identify and rank the candidate landfill sites for the entire island of Lesvos. The initial step of the methodology comprises a GIS-based spatial analysis that uses 10 criteria, by excluding all areas unsuitable for any waste disposal activity. The pre-selected areas are then further assessed by fieldwork and candidate landfill sites are determined. The candidate sites are ranked using 19 criteria with predefined weight coefficients on a 0 to 10 grading scale. The weight coefficients are estimated for each criterion using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), while the grading scheme is based on pre-defined guidelines. An overall suitability index is produced for each candidate site allowing comparison and best case selection. A case study for the island of Lesvos is presented here, in which eight candidate landfill sites were finally selected and ranked. Social factors highly determined the ultimate selection of the site in Lesvos, since the third rather than the first site suggested by the methodology, was finally approved by local authorities. PMID:12870646

Kontos, Themistoklis D; Komilis, Dimitrios P; Halvadakis, Constantinos R

2003-06-01

55

Limits to revegetation of clay capped landfill sites by Australian native plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The revegetation of closed landfill sites is an important issue due to the large and increasing amount of land involved, and because the demand for that land, and its value, is constantly increasing. If successful revegetation is possible, then these degraded sites provide an excellent opportunity for the establishment of native plant communities in the middle of urban sprawl. Common

Eleanor Jane Hannah

2006-01-01

56

Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: A case study in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site selection is an important and necessary issue for waste management in fast-growing regions. Because of the complexity of waste management systems, the selection of the appropriate solid waste landfill site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria. Based on actual conditions of the study area, we considered economic factors, calculated criteria weights using the analytical hierarchy process

Guiqin Wang; Li Qin; Guoxue Li; Lijun Chen

2009-01-01

57

FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PHYTOREMEDIATION ALTERNATIVE FOR THE INDUSTRIAL EXCESS LANDFILL SITE IN STARK COUNTY, OHIO.  

EPA Science Inventory

Focused feasibility study of phytoremediation alternative for the Industrial Excess Landfill site in Stark County, Ohio. More information can be found on the NPL Fact Sheet for this site at www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/npl/ohio/OHD000377971.htm...

58

Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1993-02-19

59

Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

Zume, J. T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

2006-01-01

60

Assessment of air pollutant emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site (Chania, Greece).  

PubMed

Air pollutants emitted from landfills affect air quality, contribute to the greenhouse effect and may cause serious problems to human health under certain circumstances. The current study was focused on the determination of air emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site which is located in the Akrotiri area (Chania, Greece). The landfill consists of two phases, phase A (first phase) which is currently closed (operational between 2003 and 2007) and phase B (second phase, operation between 2007 and (foreseen) 2013). Three different emission models (the EPA LandGEM model, the triangular model and the stoichiometric model) were used for the quantification of emissions. The LandGEM 3.02 software was further adopted and used in conjunction with the long-term dispersion model ISC3-LT for the evaluation of the dispersion of gaseous chemical components from the landfill. The emission and meteorological conditions under which the models were applied were based on the worst-case emission scenario. Furthermore, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide, vinyl chloride and benzene were determined in and around the landfill site. The concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and benzene were calculated to be far below the limit value proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for human health safety. However, the vinyl chloride concentrations were above the WHO reference lifetime exposure health criteria for the phase B area. PMID:19942647

Chalvatzaki, E; Lazaridis, M

2010-09-01

61

Mathematical modeling of heavy metals contamination from MSW landfill site in Khon Kaen, Thailand.  

PubMed

Kham Bon landfill site is one of many municipality waste disposal sites in Thailand which are in an unsanitary condition. The site has been receiving municipality wastes without separating hazardous waste since 1968. Heavy metals including, Pb, Cr and Cd are found in soil and groundwater around the site, posing a health risk to people living nearby. In this research, contamination transport modelling of Pb, Cr and Cd was simulated using MODFLOW for two periods, at the present (2010) and 20 years prediction (2030). Model results showed that heavy metals, especially Pb and Cr migrated toward the north-eastern and south-eastern direction. The 20 years prediction showed that, heavy metals tend to move from the top soil to the deeper aquifer. The migration would not exceed 500 m radius from the landfill centre in the next 20 years, which is considered to be a slow process. From the simulation model, it is recommended that a mitigation measure should be performed to reduce the risk from landfill contamination. Hazardous waste should be separated for proper management. Groundwater contamination in the aquifer should be closely monitored. Consumption of groundwater in a 500 m radius must be avoided. In addition, rehabilitation of the landfill site should be undertaken to prevent further mobilization of pollutants. PMID:22020476

Tantemsapya, N; Naksakul, Y; Wirojanagud, W

2011-01-01

62

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Sussex County Landfill No. 5 Superfund Site, Laurel, DE, December 29, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Sussex County Landfill No. 5 Superfund Site (Site) in Laurel, Delaware. The selected remedy for the Sussex County Landfill No. 5 Superfund Site is No Action. EPA has determined that no remedial action is necessary at the Site to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Therefore, the Site now qualifies for inclusion on the Construction Completion List.

Not Available

1995-01-01

63

An Evaluation of Techniques to Control Problem Bird Species on Landfill Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health,\\u000a and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research\\u000a into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to

Aonghais Cook; Steven Rushton; John Allan; Andrew Baxter

2008-01-01

64

Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario).

Jones, L.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

1992-01-01

65

Source Apportionment Of Groundwater Pollution Around Landfill Site In Nagpur, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work attempts statistical analysis of groundwater quality near a Landfill site in Nagpur, India. The objective of the present work is to figure out the impact of different factors on the quality of groundwater in the study area. Statistical analysis of the data has been attempted by applying Factor Analysis concept. The analysis brings out the effect of

Paras R. Pujari; Vijaya Deshpande

2005-01-01

66

Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of

M. B. Rinaldo-Lee; A. F. Diffendorf; J. A. Hagarman

1983-01-01

67

N 2O emissions at municipal solid waste landfill sites: Effects of CH 4 emissions and cover soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal solid waste landfills are the significant anthropogenic sources of N 2O due to the cooxidation of ammonia by methane-oxidizing bacteria in cover soils. Such bacteria could be developed through CH 4 fumigation, as evidenced by both laboratory incubation and field measurement. During a 10-day incubation with leachate addition, the average N 2O fluxes in the soil samples, collected from the three selected landfill covers, were multiplied by 1.75 ( p < 0.01), 3.56 ( p < 0.01), and 2.12 ( p < 0.01) from the soil samples preincubated with 5% CH 4 for three months when compared with the control, respectively. Among the three selected landfill sites, N 2O fluxes in two landfill sites were significantly correlated with the variations of the CH 4 emissions without landfill gas recovery ( p < 0.001). N 2O fluxes were also elevated by the increase of the CH 4 emissions with landfill gas recovery in another landfill site ( p > 0.05). The annual average N 2O flux was 176 ± 566 ?g N 2O-N m -2 h -1 ( p < 0.01) from sandy soil-covered landfill site, which was 72% ( p < 0.05) and 173% ( p < 0.01) lower than the other two clay soil covered landfill sites, respectively. The magnitude order of N 2O emissions in three landfill sites was also coincident by the results of laboratory incubation, suggesting the sandy soil cover could mitigate landfill N 2O emissions.

Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

68

16S rRNA based T-RFLP analysis of methane oxidising bacteria—Assessment, critical evaluation of methodology performance and application for landfill site cover soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanotrophic bacteria have a ubiquitous distribution in the environment and play an important role in global climate warming by lowering methane emission into the atmosphere. Globally, landfill sites produce about 10% of the methane entering the atmosphere, and soils above landfill sites have been shown to contain methanotrophic populations with the highest methane oxidation capacity measured.Landfill site simulating lysimeters were

Nancy Stralis-Pavese; Levente Bodrossy; Thomas G. Reichenauer; Alexandra Weilharter; Angela Sessitsch

2006-01-01

69

Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

2013-04-01

70

[Municipal landfill site in Krzyz near Tarnów as source of microbiological factors harmful to environment and human health].  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate microbiological pollution of air with microorganisms belonging to different taxonomic and physiological groups, and to examine whether the effect of the municipal landfill site in Krzyz changes at various study sites located: in so called "zero zone" (operating landfill), at different distances from the landfill and in Tarnów. Microbiological studies of atmospheric air were carried out from May 1998 to April 2001. Measurements were taken at 10 study sites located at the operating municipal landfill site in Krzyz, inside and outside of its protection zone. Microbial air pollution standard (PN-89/Z-04111/02 and PN-89/Z-04111/03) were used to evaluate the impact of municipal landfill site on the atmospheric environment. The standards were most often exceeded by hemolytic bacteria, (277 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e. 76.9%, and Actinomycetes (213 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 59.1%, while by fungi (26 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 7.2% and bacteria (42 cases out of 360 measurements) i.e 11.6% in a lesser degree. The standards were most often exceeded in operating land fill site sector, at the gateway to the land fill site and in partially reclaimed sector. Fewest cases of standard exceedance were recorded in control site (located outside the landfill site), near built-up area and before the entrance to the land fill site. PMID:15682940

Fraczek, Krzysztof; Barabasz, Wies?aw

2004-01-01

71

Application of raster-based GIS techniques in the siting of landfills in Trabzon Province, Turkey: a case study.  

PubMed

One of the most important steps in solid waste management is the selection of an appropriate landfill site. The site selection process requires the evaluation and analysis of several criteria. However, the traditional evaluation method is not sufficient for the site selection process. Geographical information system (GIS) technologies are effectively used in the process of site selection, which is a spatial problem. This article describes a raster GIS-based landfill site selection (LSS) method. This method utilizes a raster-based spatial database in which the factors affect the landfill site selection. The final product in this method is the cost surface map showing pixel-based values of the appropriate areas. Furthermore, this GIS-based LSS method was applied for the evaluation of two landfill sites in Trabzon Province in Turkey, for which the traditional evaluation method for site selection was used. The suitability values on the cost surface map of these two landfills have shown that these sites are not appropriate for a solid waste landfill. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the method of raster GIS-based site selection gives more effective results than traditional methods. PMID:22605022

Yildirim, Volkan

2012-09-01

72

Landfill bioreactor design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

Reinhart, D.R. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Townsend, T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-12-31

73

Necessity for Establishment of Inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Landfills and Contaminated Sites for an Evaluation of Mobilisation Risk by Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landfilling of persistent hazardous compounds with a tendency to migrate, such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a major pollution challenge. Historic dumping and landfilling in badly engineered and unsuitably located sites has resulted in widespread contamination from the landfilling of HCH, HCB and PCB wastes around former production sites. In the case

Roland Weber; Alan Watson; Martin Forter

2010-01-01

74

Combining AHP with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study in the Lake Bey?ehir catchment area (Konya, Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfills are the most common method for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. However, determining the location of landfill sites is a difficult and complex process because it must combine social, environmental and technical parameters. Additionally, it depends on several criteria and regulations. The main objective of this study was to select of a landfill site for

?ehnaz ?ener; Erhan ?ener; Bilgehan Nas; Remzi Karagüzel

2010-01-01

75

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-07-01

76

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait. PMID:14583244

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-01-01

77

Leachate Characterization and Assessment of Groundwater Pollution Near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Gazipur landfill-site and its adjacent area to study the possible impact\\u000a of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentration of various physico-chemical parameters including heavy metal\\u000a (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) and microbiological parameters (total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC)) were determined\\u000a in groundwater and leachate samples. The moderately high

Suman Mor; Khaiwal Ravindra; R. P. Dahiya; A. Chandra

2006-01-01

78

Geophysical surveys integrated in preremedial site investigations for a landfill in New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Surface geophysical surveys were integrated in a preremedial site investigative program at a landfill in New Mexico belonging to the Bureau of Land Management. The purpose of this program was not only to conduct the investigation but also to establish a sound technical framework for future site investigations in that geologic and hydrogeologic setting. The emphasis was on identifying initial characterization procedures that would decrease the need for sampling and drilling on a random grid. A prior preliminary assessment and site investigation indicated the presence of some hazardous waste compounds but yielded contradictory information about the locations of trenches and pits.

Burton, J.; McGinnis, L.; Walker, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hoekstra, P.; Blohm, M. [Blackhawk Geosciences, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1994-04-01

79

Trace gas compound emissions from municipal landfill sanitary sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature on certain aspects of trace gas compounds emitted from Municipal Landill Sanitary Sites is reviewed. Aspects covered are the formation, nature and origin of such compounds, as well as the problems caused by them. Risks posed to human health and the environment by even low concentrations of these compounds are examined and methods to reduce and control them discussed.

Brosseau, Josée; Heitz, Michèle

80

Evaluation of Fugitive Emissions at a Former Landfill Site in Colorado Springs, Colorado Using Ground-Based Optical Remote Sensing Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A former landfill site located in Colorado Springs, Colorado was assessed for landfill gas emissions in support of reuse options for the property. The current owners of the landfill and the State of Colorado requested assistance from the EPA Region 8 Offi...

M. Modrak R. Kagann R. Varma R. A. Hashmonay

2005-01-01

81

Landfill-stimulated iron reduction and arsenic release at the Coakley Superfund Site (NH).  

PubMed

Arsenic is a contaminant at more than one-third of all Superfund Sites in the United States. Frequently this contamination appearsto resultfrom geochemical processes rather than the presence of a well-defined arsenic source. Here we examine the geochemical processes that regulate arsenic levels at the Coakley Landfill Superfund Site (NH), a site contaminated with As, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Long-term field observations indicate that the concentrations of most of these contaminants have diminished as a result of treatment by monitored natural attenuation begun in 1998; however, dissolved arsenic levels increased modestly over the same interval. We attribute this increase to the reductive release of arsenic associated with poorly crystalline iron hydroxides within a glaciomarine clay layer within the overburden underlying the former landfill. Anaerobic batch incubations that stimulated iron reduction in the glaciomarine clay released appreciable dissolved arsenic and iron. Field observations also suggest that iron reduction associated with biodegradation of organic waste are partly responsible for arsenic release; over the five-year study period since a cap was emplaced to prevent water flow through the site, decreases in groundwater dissolved benzene concentrations at the landfill are correlated with increases in dissolved arsenic concentrations, consistent with the microbial decomposition of both benzene and other organics, and reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides. Treatment of contaminated groundwater increasingly is based on stimulating natural biogeochemical processes to degrade the contaminants. These results indicate that reducing environments created within organic contaminant plumes may release arsenic. In fact, the strong correlation (>80%) between elevated arsenic levels and organic contamination in groundwater systems at Superfund Sites across the United States suggests that arsenic contamination caused by natural degradation of organic contaminants may be widespread. PMID:16433334

deLemos, Jamie L; Bostick, Benjamin C; Renshaw, Carl E; Stürup, Stefan; Feng, Xiahong

2006-01-01

82

Radiological survey results for the Peek Street site properties, Schenectady, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Peek Street Industrial Facility, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York, was operated by the General Electric Company for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1947 and 1955. A variety of operations using radioactive materials were conducted at the site, but the main activities were to design an intermediate breeder reactor and to develop a chemical process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent reactor fuel. Nonradioactive beryllium metal was machined on the site for breeder reactor application. The 4.5-acre site was decommissioned and released in October 1955. A radiological survey was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 1989. The survey included scan and grid point measurements of direct radiation levels outdoors on the five properties and inside the factory building, and radionuclide analysis of samples collected from each property. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in outdoor surface and subsurface soil samples from each property and in dust, debris, and structural materials from inside the factory building. Auger holes were logged to assess location and extent of possible subsurface residual soil radioactivity. Radionuclide concentrations were deter-mined in both indoor and outdoor water samples and in selected samples of vegetation. The presence of fixed and transferable surface residual radioactivity was investigated inside the factory building and on discarded materials outdoors on the property. High-volume air samples as well as additional selected indoor and outdoor soil samples were analyzed to determine levels of elemental beryllium.

Foley, R.D.; Cottrell, W.D.; Carrier, R.F.

1992-08-01

83

An evaluation of techniques to control problem bird species on landfill sites.  

PubMed

Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques--pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites --at deterring three commonly recorded species--the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)--from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used. PMID:18256779

Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

2008-06-01

84

An Evaluation of Techniques to Control Problem Bird Species on Landfill Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques — pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites — at deterring three commonly recorded species — the Black-headed Gull ( Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull ( Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull ( Larus fuscus) — from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used.

Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

2008-06-01

85

Feasibility of direct on-site conversion of landfill gas to electrical energy at Scholl Canyon landfill, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical and economic feasibility of direct onsite conversion of landfill gas into electrical energy for distribution through the municipal company's distribution grid is described. The various approaches are evaluated. Each system looked at the preliminary collection system layout, type of processing, and conversion equipment required, conversion efficiencies, total system costs, total energy output per input landfill gas, and overall economic comparisons between alternatives. This led to the selection of the internal combustion engine. The legal constraints on interdepartmental transfers of money and resources, city procedures for coordination between the public works department and public services, procedures for facility operation, and an environmental assessment of each alternative were investigated.

Lofy, R. J.

1981-06-01

86

Assessing the impact of historical coastal landfill sites on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many coastal and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these sites waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical sites may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test site. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in coastal systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced coastal erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.

Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.

2012-12-01

87

A raster-based C program for siting a landfill with optimal compactness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill siting requires performing spatial analyses for various factors to evaluate site suitability. A geographical information system, although capable of effectively manipulating spatial data, lacks the capability to locate an optimal site when compactness and other factors are considered simultaneously. In our previous work, a mixed-integer compactness model was proposed to overcome this difficulty. However, computational time with a conventional mixed-integer programming package for solving the model is time consuming and impractical. Therefore, in this work, a C program is developed, based on a proposed raster-based branch-and-bound algorithm. The program can implement multi-factor analyses for compactness and other siting factors with weights prespecified by the user. An example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the program.

Kao, Jehng-Jung

1996-10-01

88

Geoelectrical investigation of old/abandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old/abandoned landfill sites where the records of operations are not available. The main elements of the model are the site boundaries, age and nature of anthropogenic deposits, depth and dip of the layers of refuse and sealing materials, the integrity and shape of the capping zones or separating walls and basal floor slopes, the position of concealed access roads in the site, the water table (or perched water bodies within the refuse) and the presence of leachate. The attendant geotechnical, hydrogeological, and bio-geochemical constraints at such sites are also incorporated in the model for consistency of practical solutions to landfill problems. The nature of anthropogenic deposits and the spatial-temporal characteristics of leachates are reviewed in a geoelectrical context. The analogy between waste degradation and leaching, and the well-known weathering processes of supergene mineral enrichment and saprolite formation in crystalline rocks is explored, and used to develop a conceptual resistivity-vs.-depth model for landfill sites. The main tenet of the model is that vertical conductivity profiles will attain maximum values in the zone of mineral enrichment near the water table and tail-off away from it. This conceptual resistivity model is shown to be consistent with non-invasive observations in landfill sites in different geographical environments. Power-law relationships are found to exist between some geoelectrically important hydrochemical parameters (fluid conductivity, chloride content and total dissolved solids) in leachates and leachate-contaminated groundwater from some landfill sites. Since some chemical parameters of fill are known to vary consistently with time, a plausible hydrochemical and age-deductive scheme for saturated fill is proposed for geoelectrical models of landfills without significant amounts of metal. Practical suggestions are made for a consistent approach in geoelectrical investigation and diagnosis of old landfill sites. A few field examples are used to illustrate the diagnosis approach.

Meju, Maxwell A.

2000-05-01

89

Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeology and water quality in a 4 sq mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, New York, were studied in 1981-83. The 60-acre sanitary landfill at the site was excavated in highly permeable glacial outwash that forms the upper glacial aquifer and is lined with a polyvinyl chloride membrane. Groundwater beneath the site is under water table conditions and flows southeast at approximately 1.1 ft/day. Samples from wells downgradient indicate that leachate has entered the aquifer despite the liner. A plume 3,700 ft long , 2,400 ft wide, and at least 90 ft thick was delineated based on specific conductance data. Water quality in the Magothy aquifer and in Beaverdam Creek, a groundwater fed stream 2,000 ft southeast of the landfill site, does not appear to be affected. (USGS)

Wexler, E. J.

1988-01-01

90

Combining AHP with GIS for landfill site selection: a case study in the Lake Bey?ehir catchment area (Konya, Turkey).  

PubMed

Landfills are the most common method for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. However, determining the location of landfill sites is a difficult and complex process because it must combine social, environmental and technical parameters. Additionally, it depends on several criteria and regulations. The main objective of this study was to select of a landfill site for the Lake Bey?ehir catchment area. The Bey?ehir Lake is the largest freshwater lake and drinking water reservoir in Turkey, but there is no controlled landfill site in the region. Therefore, the landfill site should be determined such that the lake is protected. To determine the most suitable landfill site, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was combined with a geographic information system (GIS) to examine several criteria, such as geology/hydrogeology, land use, slope, height, aspect and distance from settlements, surface waters, roads, and protected areas (ecologic, scientific or historic). Each criterion was evaluated with the aid of AHP and mapped by GIS. Data were assorted into four suitability classes within the study area, i.e., high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 3.24%, 7.55%, 12.70% and 2.81%, of the study area, respectively. Additionally, 73.70% was determined to be completely unsuitable for a landfill site. As a result, two candidate landfill sites are suggested and discussed. The final decision for landfill site selection will require more detailed field studies. PMID:20594819

Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan; Nas, Bilgehan; Karagüzel, Remzi

2010-11-01

91

Two-dimensional resistivity investigation of the North Cavalcade Street site, Houston, Texas, August 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The North Cavalcade Street site was first developed for wood treating in 1946. By 1955, pentachlorophenol wood preservation services and other support facilities, such as creosote ponds, pentachlorophenol and creosote storage structures, various tanks, lumber sheds, a treatment facility, and other buildings had been added. In 1961, the property was closed. To protect public health and welfare and the environment from release or threatened releases of hazardous substances, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency added the North Cavalcade Street site to the National Priorities List on October 5, 1984. Between September 1985 and November 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a remedial investigation which, through exploratory drilling, determined the locations of two contaminated source areas and a normal fault. During August 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity investigation at the North Cavalcade Street site to provide additional characterization of the dense non-aqueous phase liquids and the lithologies that can influence contaminant migration. The 2D resistivity investigation used a capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity method as a reconnaissance tool to locate geophysical anomalies that could be associated with possible areas of creosote contamination. The inversion results of the CC resistivity survey identified resistive anomalies in the subsurface near the eastern and western contaminated source areas. A direct-current (DC) resistivity survey conducted near the CC resistivity survey confirmed the occurrence of subsurface resistive anomalies. The inversion results of the DC resistivity survey were used to define the subsurface distribution of resistivity at each line. Forward modeling was used as an interpretative tool to relate the subsurface distribution of resistivity from four DC resistivity lines to known, assumed, and hypothetical information on subsurface lithologies. The final forward models were used as an estimate of the true resistivity structure for the field data. The forward models and the inversion results of the forward models show the depth, thickness, and extent of strata as well as the resistive anomalies occurring along the four lines and the displacement of strata resulting from the Pecore Fault along two of the four DC resistivity lines. Ten additional DC resistivity lines show similarly distributed shallow subsurface lithologies of silty sand and clay strata. Eight priority areas of resistive anomalies were identified for evaluation in future studies. The interpreted DC resistivity data allowed subsurface stratigraphy to be extrapolated between existing boreholes resulting in an improved understanding of lithologies that can influence contaminant migration.

Kress, Wade H.; Teeple, Andrew P.

2005-01-01

92

Health assessment for 19th Avenue Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona, Region 9. CERCLIS No. AZD980496780. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The 19th Avenue Landfill is an National Priorities List site located in Maricopa County, Phoenix, Arizona. The site was operated as a sanitary landfill between 1957 and 1979. Most of the waste disposed of at the landfill was from municipal sources; however, old gasoline storage tanks, radioactive waste, hospital waste, industrial waste, and old transformers were also landfilled. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via ingestion, dermal contact, or inhalation of contaminants in subsurface soil and refuse, soil-gas, and air.

Not Available

1989-04-10

93

Sanitary Landfill. A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bibliography on sanitary landfills is presented for the period 1925 - 1968, covering such materials as garbage and refuse disposal, ground water contamination, loading and structural properties, urban and rural sites, landfill internal mechanics, collec...

R. L. Steiner R. Kantz

1968-01-01

94

Subsidence performance of landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents field measurements of landfill subsidence for five municipal solid waste landfills. Data from the.five sites are within the range of landfill subsidence reported in other publications.At one site with variable subsidence of up to 10 percent of the landfill height in 3 years after capping, portions of an in-situ HDPE cap geomembrane were uncovered. The geomembrane showed

Daniel R. Spikula

1997-01-01

95

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): G and H Industrial Landfill Site, Macomb County, MI. (First remedial action), December 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 70-acre G and H Landfill site is an inactive landfill in Shelby Township, Macomb County, Michigan. The site overlies two ground water aquifers, the uppermost of which is the source of drinking water for some eastern area residences and industries. From 1955 to 1973, G and H landfill accepted municipal refuse, and solid and liquid industrial wastes including solvents, paints, varnishes, and lacquers. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses contaminated soil, sediment, and landfill material (OU1); and the contaminated ground water plume, landfill leachate, and oil seep. The selected remedial action for the site includes constructing a subsurface barrier wall around the perimeter of the landfill areas and oil seeps; instituting leachate collection and treatment; and excavating soil and sediment.

Not Available

1990-12-21

96

Harnessing land-fill gas from refuse-dumping sites in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-of-the-art review is presented for this relatively young technology. The study concerning the cost-effectiveness of land-fill gas, which was carried out by London Brick Landfill++ for Hampshire County Council, provides ample evidence that land-fill gas in the UK has a commercially viable future.

N. Gardner; B. Manley; S. D. Probert

1988-01-01

97

Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach  

SciTech Connect

There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

Poskas, P.; Kilda, R. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania); Poskas, G. [Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2008-07-01

98

A GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR SELECTION OF LANDFILL SITES: a case study from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill sites receive 92% of total annual solid waste produced by municipalities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill location for the Abu Dhabi municipal area are determined by integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) analysis. To identify appropriate landfill sites, eight input map layers including proximity to urban areas, proximity to wells and water table depth, geology and topography, proximity to touristic and archeological sites, distance from roads network, distance from drainage networks, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identified potential areas showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. Results revealed that 30% of the study area was identified as highly suitable, 25% as suitable, and 45% as unsuitable. The selection of the final landfill site, however, requires further field research.

Issa, S. M.; Shehhi, B. Al

2012-07-01

99

Combining GIS with fuzzy multicriteria decision-making for landfill siting in a fast-growing urban region.  

PubMed

Landfill siting is a difficult, complex, tedious, and protracted process requiring evaluation of many different criteria. This paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of landfill sites. It employs a two-stage analysis synergistically to form a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for waste management in a fast-growing urban region, south Texas. The first-stage analysis makes use of the thematic maps in Geographical information system (GIS) in conjunction with environmental, biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic variables leading to support the second-stage analysis using the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (FMCDM) as a tool. It differs from the conventional methods of integrating GIS with MCDM for landfill selection because the approach follows two sequential steps rather than a full-integrated scheme. The case study was made for the city of Harlingen in south Texas, which is rapidly evolving into a large urban area due to its vantage position near the US-Mexico borderlands. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of FMCDM method to identify the most suitable site using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to five chosen criteria. Research findings show that the proposed SDSS may aid in recognizing the pros and cons of potential areas for the localization of landfill sites in any study region. Based on initial GIS screening and final FMCDM assessment, "site 1" was selected as the most suitable site for the new landfill in the suburban area of the City of Harlingen. Sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation where the decision weights associated with all criteria were varied to investigate their relative impacts on the rank ordering of the potential sites in the second stage. Despite variations of the decision weights within a range of 20%, it shows that "site 1" remains its comparative advantage in the final site selection process. PMID:17363133

Chang, Ni-Bin; Parvathinathan, G; Breeden, Jeff B

2008-04-01

100

Spatial and multi-criteria decision analysis-based methodology for landfill site selection in growing urban regions.  

PubMed

The construction of landfills is not an alternative option, since a landfill is always a necessary component of the specific waste management system that will be developed. One of the serious and growing potential problems in large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. In solid waste management programmes, use of geographic information systems (GIS) is a very significant tool because the selection of a suitable site is a very time-consuming process. The analytic hierarchy process in GIS provides objective mathematics to process the subjective preferences of individuals or groups and arrive at a decision. The present paper describes a spatial methodology which comprised several methods, such as multi-criteria analysis, that originate in different scientific fields. The final goal of the methodology was to evaluate the suitability of the studied area (Trabzon, NE Turkey) in order to optimally select a landfill site. Different constraint maps were overlaid with spatial analysis modules to obtain a final suitability map for Trabzon City and five suitable areas were identified. An analytic hierarchy process was applied to select the most suitable solid waste disposal site for municipal waste in the city among these alternative candidate sites. The Düzyurt area was found to be the most suitable solid waste disposal site. However, geotechnical investigations indicated that some remedial measures would be needed before this landfill site could be used. PMID:19423606

Ersoy, Hakan; Bulut, Fikri

2009-08-01

101

Assessment of ecological risks at former landfill site using TRIAD procedure and multicriteria analysis.  

PubMed

Old industrial landfills are important sources of environmental contamination in Europe, including Finland. In this study, we demonstrated the combination of TRIAD procedure, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), and statistical Monte Carlo analysis for assessing the risks to terrestrial biota in a former landfill site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and metals. First, we generated hazard quotients by dividing the concentrations of metals and PHCs in soil by the corresponding risk-based ecological benchmarks. Then we conducted ecotoxicity tests using five plant species, earthworms, and potworms, and determined the abundance and diversity of soil invertebrates from additional samples. We aggregated the results in accordance to the methods used in the TRIAD procedure, conducted rating of the assessment methods based on their performance in terms of specific criteria, and weighted the criteria using two alternative weighting techniques to produce performance scores for each method. We faced problems in using the TRIAD procedure, for example, the results from the animal counts had to be excluded from the calculation of integrated risk estimates (IREs) because our reference soil sample showed the lowest biodiversity and abundance of soil animals. In addition, hormesis hampered the use of the results from the ecotoxicity tests. The final probabilistic IREs imply significant risks at all sampling locations. Although linking MCDA with TRIAD provided a useful means to study and consider the performance of the alternative methods in predicting ecological risks, some uncertainties involved still remained outside the quantitative analysis. PMID:22762796

Sorvari, Jaana; Schultz, Eija; Haimi, Jari

2013-02-01

102

Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: surveying the views of the next generation.  

PubMed

The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p<0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders - technicians, politicians and citizens - all have to be part of the decision process when siting a new waste management facility. The opinions of the young respondents were significantly influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. PMID:24054780

Feo, Giovanni De; Williams, Ian D

2013-12-01

103

Dispersion of odour: a case study with a municipal solid waste landfill site in North London, United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are a potential source of offensive odours that can create annoyance within communities. Dispersion modelling was used to quantify the potential odour strength causing an impact on the community around a particular MSW landfill site north of the London area in the United Kingdom. The case studies were completed with the short-term mode of COMPLEX-I, software developed by the US-EPA. The year 1998 was chosen as a source of baseline data. It was observed that by 2004, when the landfill will progress towards the west and a big band of the area towards the north would be partly/fully restored, the maximum contribution of the new sources giving higher odour concentrations would be in the southwesterly regions away from the landfill. Concentrations as high as 25.0 ou(E)/m(3) were observed with 3 min averaging time in the southwesterly areas as compared to concentrations of 20.0 ou(E)/m(3) at 10 min averaging times. However, the percentage frequency of such critical events occurring would be low. All other surrounding farms and small villages would be exposed to the concentration of 3.0 ou(E)/m(3) on certain occasions. In the year 2008, the majority of the filling fronts would be filled with wastes with no contributions from the active and operational cells. The maximum odour concentration around the landfill site for 1 h averaging time would be approximately 3 ou(E)/m(3) about 1.0 km north and 500 m west of the landfill site. For 3 min averaging time, the stretch of 5 ou(E)/m(3) band would be up to 2.5 km towards the north of the landfill site. It is argued that further analysis of the model calculations considering effects of wind direction, frequency of wind direction, stability of the atmosphere, selected odour threshold, integration time of the model, etc. would form a basis for calculating the separation distances of the landfill site from the surrounding community. PMID:12781755

Sarkar, Ujjaini; Hobbs, Stephen E; Longhurst, Philip

2003-06-01

104

Landfill site selection by decision-making tools based on fuzzy multi-attribute decision-making method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill site selection is a complex and time-consuming process, which requires evaluation of several factors where many different\\u000a attributes are taken into account. Decision makers always have some difficulties in making the right decision in the multiple\\u000a attribute environments. After identifying candidate sites, these sites should be ranked using decision-making methods. This\\u000a study applies Chang’s fuzzy AHP-based multiple attribute decision-making

Abdolhadi Nazari; Mohammad Mehdi Salarirad; Abbas Aghajani Bazzazi

105

Soil vapor survey at the LLNL site 300 general services area, adjacent portions of the Connolly and Gallo Ranches and the site 300 landfill pit 6 area  

Microsoft Academic Search

During October through December 1988, a soil vapor survey was conducted by Weiss Associates at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 General Services Area (GSA), adjacent portions of the Connolly and Gallo Ranches, and at the Site 300 Landfill Pit 6 area. The purpose of the investigation was to aid in identifying the sources and the extent of trichloroethylene

S. Vonder Haar; J. Pavletich; W. McIlvride; M. Taffet

1989-01-01

106

Site selection of sanitary landfills on the small island of Mauritius using the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria method.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the application of a multi-criteria analysis methodology - the analytical hierarchy process - for the locating of a sanitary landfill on the small island of Mauritius. Four candidate sites were assessed using three main criteria (environmental, technical and socio-economic) and twenty-one sub-criteria. Scores were assigned to each criterion and sub-criterion by stakeholders in the solid waste sector, based on the impact assessment of each site so as to obtain their relative importance. The analytical hierarchy process was then applied, which involved the combination of the weights obtained at the different stages of pair-wise comparisons. The candidate sites were finally ranked to obtain the optimum site. Because of political factors, the second best ranked site was chosen by the authorities for the location of a new landfill on the island. This technique provides a realistic approach for use by small island developing states such as Mauritius for choosing and justifying to all stakeholders the best location for a sanitary landfill site or any other waste management site. PMID:18927063

Ramjeawon, T; Beerachee, B

2008-10-01

107

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL  

SciTech Connect

During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

2003-02-27

108

Public Health Assessment for General Electric Site-Lyman Street (a/k/a GE-Housatonic River) Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts. EPA Facility ID: MAD002084093.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lyman Street site of the General Electric (GE) site in Pittsfield, Massachusetts is one of 10 areas being evaluated in separate public health assessments and health consultations. In addition, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) is co...

2003-01-01

109

Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The

Bruce R. Kinzey; Michael Myer

2009-01-01

110

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Colesville Municipal Landfill site, town of Colesville, Broome County, NY. (First remedial action), March 1991. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 35-acre Colesville Municipal Landfill site is a former municipal and industrial landfill in Colesville, Broome County, New York. Land use in the area is rural, and wetlands and woodlands are present in the vicinity of the site. Many of the 1,921 residents living within three miles of the site use ground water from shallow and deep aquifers and springs as their drinking water. In 1983 and 1984, private investigations identified that upper portions of the ground water beneath the site and in the vicinity of the site were being contaminated by the landfill. The Record of Decision (ROD) provides a final remedy for the landfill waste and soil, leachate seeps, associated contaminated sediment, and ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCA, TCE; and metals including arsenic. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

Not Available

1991-03-29

111

Development of surface-process models and correspondence principles for geophysical anomalies Geoelectrical investigation of oldrabandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old raban- doned landfill sites where the records of operations are not

Maxwell A. Meju

112

School site and the potential to walk to school: the impact of street connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods.  

PubMed

The impact of neighborhood walkability (based on street connectivity and traffic exposure) within 2 km of public primary schools on children regularly walking to school was examined. The most (n=13) and least walkable (n=12) schools were selected using a school-specific 'walkability' index and a cross sectional study undertaken of Year 5, 6 and 7 children (n=1480) and consenting parents (n=1332). After adjustment, regularly walking to school was higher in children attending schools in high walkable neighborhoods (i.e, high street connectivity and low traffic volume) (Odds ratio (OR) 3.63; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.01-6.56), and less likely in neighborhoods with high connectivity but high traffic volume (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.22-0.47). Connected street networks provide direct routes to school but when designed for heavy traffic, the potential for children to walk to school is reduced. This highlights the importance of carefully considering school siting and, particularly, street design in school neighborhoods. PMID:21237697

Giles-Corti, Billie; Wood, Gina; Pikora, Terri; Learnihan, Vincent; Bulsara, Max; Van Niel, Kimberly; Timperio, Anna; McCormack, Gavin; Villanueva, Karen

2011-03-01

113

Quorum Sensing Activity of Serratia fonticola Strain RB-25 Isolated from an Ex-landfill Site  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a unique bacterial communication system which permits bacteria to synchronize their behaviour in accordance with the population density. The operation of this communication network involves the use of diffusible autoinducer molecules, termed N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Serratia spp. are well known for their use of quorum sensing to regulate the expression of various genes. In this study, we aimed to characterized the AHL production of a bacterium designated as strain RB-25 isolated from a former domestic waste landfill site. It was identified as Serratia fonticola using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and this was confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of S. fonticola strain RB-25 spent culture supernatant indicated the existence of three AHLs namely: N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine-lactone (3-oxo-C6 HSL). This is the first report of the production of these AHLs in S. fonticola.

Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

114

Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

1995-05-01

115

Analysis of land suitability for the siting of inter-municipal landfills in the Cuitzeo Lake Basin, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three spatial decision-support models (Boolean logic, binary evidence and overlapping index of multiple class maps) to perform a land suitability analysis for sanitary landfill siting. The study was carried out in the basin of Lake Cuitzeo, Mexico, with the objective of locating areas that comply with environmental regulations and with the inter-municipality criterion, i.e., that are accessible

Otoniel Buenrostro Delgado; Manuel Mendoza; Erna López Granados; Davide Geneletti

2008-01-01

116

Magnetic properties and heavy metal content of sanitary leachate sludge in two landfill sites near Bandung, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic properties and heavy metal content of landfill leachate sludge samples from two municipal solid waste disposal sites\\u000a near Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and their correlation with heavy metals are studied in the present work. Leachate was\\u000a found to be sufficiently magnetic with mass-specific magnetic susceptibility that varies from 64.8 to 349.0 × 10?8 m3 kg?1. It is, however, less magnetic than the soils

Satria Bijaksana; Estevanus Kristian Huliselan

2010-01-01

117

TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

Hasbrouck, J.C.

1993-09-01

118

Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: what is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?  

PubMed

Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1). Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery. PMID:16198554

Spokas, K; Bogner, J; Chanton, J P; Morcet, M; Aran, C; Graff, C; Golvan, Y Moreau-Le; Hebe, I

2006-01-01

119

Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?  

SciTech Connect

Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery.

Spokas, K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States)]. E-mail: spokas@morris.ars.usda.gov; Bogner, J. [Landfills Inc., Wheaton, Illinois and University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Chanton, J.P. [Florida State University, Department of Oceanography, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Morcet, M. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Aran, C. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Graff, C. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States); Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le [COLLEX Pty Ltd., CReeD, Veolia Environnement, Pyrmont NSW (Australia); Hebe, I. [Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management, Angers (France)

2006-07-01

120

Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

2008-03-01

121

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

122

Wintertime Correlation Between Black Carbon and Particle Size in a Street and Rural Site in Santiago de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the correlation between black carbon and particle size in three sites in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in the winter of 2009 and performed a detailed comparison. Two of the sites are located near busy streets in Santiago de Chile. The other site was located in a rural area about 30 km upwind from downtown with little influence from vehicles, but large influence from wood burning. The particle size distribution was measured with a DMPS (Whalin, 2001) in the range from 10 to 700 nm. Simultaneously, black carbon was measured with an optical monitor developed at the University of Santiago (Gramsch, 2004). It is well known that the smaller particles (~ 10 - 40 nm ) are emitted directly by the engines of vehicles, which later condensate or coagulate in the atmosphere to form larger particles. In our measurements, the street site is mostly influenced by diesel vehicles which emit large amounts of black carbon. We have divided the particle size measurements in four groups (10 - 40 nm, 41- 69 nm, 79 - 157 nm and 190 - 700 nm) in order to compare with the carbon monitor. The highest correlation (0.98) in the site near the street between black carbon and the particles was obtained with the 190 - 700 nm. The correlation with the 79 - 157 nm group was slightly less (0.93). A comparison between the hourly average curves for black carbon and the 190 - 700 nm group show a similar shape during the whole day. In the rural site, the number of particles in the 10 - 40 nm group was 10 times lower than in the street, but the number of particles in the 190 - 700 nm group was only two times smaller. This fact is an indication that wood burning does not generate particles smaller than ~ 80 - 100 nm. The best correlation in the rural site between the black carbon and the particles was also with the 190 - 700 nm group. However, the correlation was lower (0.86) than in the street site. The hourly average curves for black carbon and the 190 - 700 nm group show a similar shape during the night (10 PM - 6 AM), but differ during the day. These measurements indicate that black carbon measurements may be more sensitive to emission from diesel vehicles than wood burning. This work was supported by the University of Santiago (Dicyt), the National Commission for the Environment (CONAMA) and the Regional Government of the Metropolitan Region (GORE).. Gramsch, E., Cereceda-Balic, F., Ormeño, I., Palma, G., Oyola, P., 2004. Use of the light absorption coefficient to monitor elemental carbon and PM2.5. Example of Santiago de Chile. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 54, 799-808 Wahlin, P., Palmgren, F., Van Dingenen, R., 2001. Experimental studies of ultrafine particles in streets and the relationship to traffic. Atmospheric Environment 35 (Suppl. 1), 63-69..

Gramsch, E. V.; Reyes, F.; Oyola, P.

2013-05-01

123

In situ monitoring with the Tradescantia bioassays on the genotoxicity of gaseous emissions from a closed landfill site and an incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual monitoring system composed of the Tradescantia-Micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-Stamen-Hair-Mutation (Trad-SHM) bioassays was utilized to monitor directly the genotoxicity of the gaseous emission at a closed landfill site and around an incinerator. Four of the commonly emitted gaseous agents from the landfill flare pipes, i.e. toluene, ethylbenzene, trichloroethylene and ethyltoluene were also evaluated for their genotoxicity in the laboratory.

T. H. Ma; C. Xu; S. Liao; H. McConnell; B. S. Jeong; C. D. Won

1996-01-01

124

Radiocarbon-Dated Pollen and Sediment Records From Near the Boylston Street Fishweir Site in Boston, Massachusetts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiocarbon-dated pollen record near the Boylston Street Fishweir site in Boston; Massachusetts, provides a regional and local record of vegetation changes from the middle Holocene to present. The stratigraphy begins about 5630 ± 90 yr B.P. with a marine transgression and is continuous up to the historic backfilling of the Back Bay area about 100 yr B.P. When pollen began accumulating at the site, the immediate area resembled the swamp forests growing today in southern New England. Fresh- and brackish-water vegetation was present before the area near the site was submerged. While these vegetation changes occurred locally, oak forest grew in the region. Correlation of this stratigraphy with archaeological data collected from 500 Boylston Street indicates that between 4700 and 3700 yr B.P., a number of fence-like alignments ("weirs"), were probably placed within existing channels and/or along shorelines to capture fish and other marine animals as they moved with the tidal flow.

Newby, Paige E.; Webb, Thompson

1994-03-01

125

Identification and assessment of water pollution as a consequence of a leachate plume migration from a municipal landfill site (Tucumán, Argentina).  

PubMed

Landfills constitute potential sources of different pollutants that could generate human health and environmental problems. While some landfills currently work under the protection of a bottom liner with leachate collection, it was demonstrated that migration could take place even yet with these cautions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the pollution caused by a leachate plume from a municipal landfill that is affecting both groundwater and surface waters. The research was carried out at Pacará Pintado landfill in northwestern Argentina. Analysis of water samples indicates that leachate is affecting groundwater under the landfill area and an abandoned river channel hydraulically connected. In the center of the landfill area, the plume is anoxic and sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese reduction zones were identified. Leachate plume presented high concentration of organic matter, Fe, Mn, NH4 (+), Cl(-) and Cr reaching an extension of 900 m. The presence of a leachate plume in a landfill site with a single liner system implies that the use of this groundwater pollution control method alone is not enough especially if permeable sediments are present below. PMID:24142186

Fernández, Diego S; Puchulu, María E; Georgieff, Sergio M

2014-06-01

126

Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

127

Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.  

PubMed

Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability. PMID:22878933

Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

2013-01-01

128

Landfill disposal systems  

PubMed Central

The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. ImagesFIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 7.

Slimak, Karen M.

1978-01-01

129

Sanitary Landfill Location Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis and recommendations are given for the number, type, size and location of a county-owned and operated sanitary landfill for Stark County, Ohio. Twenty-seven strip mine sites were analyzed as to their suitability for a sanitary landfill. Twelve of ...

1969-01-01

130

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Lemberger Landfill site, Manitowoc County, WI. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 45-acre Lemberger Landfill (LL) site is a former land disposal facility in Manitowoc County, Wisconsin. The site is located within one-quarter mile of another Superfund site, the 45-acre Lemberger Transport and Recycling (LTR) site. Ground water as well as the Branch River, located less than 1 mile west of both sites, are used as sources of drinking water. As a result of reports of contaminated material seeping onto local properties, a number of State investigations were conducted that identified VOCs levels above State standards in residential wells. Because of the proximity of the sites and similarity in the types of wastes, the LL and LTR sites will be remediated concurrently. The Record of Decision (ROD) provides a final remedy for source contamination at the LL site and ground water contamination at both the LL and LTR sites, as the first operable unit (OU1). The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and ground water are VOCs including PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics including PCBs and pesticides; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for both sites are included.

Not Available

1991-09-23

131

Leaky Landfills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

Jones, Linda L. Cronin

1992-01-01

132

Formerly utilized MED\\/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the Middlesex Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiological survey was conducted at the Middlesex Municipal Landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey. In 1948, dirt contaminated with pitchblende ores was brought to this site from a former ore sampling plant in Middlesex. This survey was conducted in order to characterize the present radiological condition of the site and to determine the extent to which contamination is being transported

R. W. Leggett; W. D. Cottrell; W. A. Goldsmith; D. J. Christian; F. F. Haywood; E. B. Wagner; D. J. Crawford; R. W. Doane; W. H. Shinpaugh

1980-01-01

133

Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

1996-02-01

134

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Hunts Disposal Landfill site, Town of Caledonia, WI. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 84-acre Hunts Disposal site is an inactive landfill in Caledonia Township, Racine County, Wisconsin. Onsite features include a 35-acre landfill surrounded by woodlands, wetlands, agricultural areas, and a lake. Part of the site that includes the landfill is within the 100-year floodplain of the Root River. The site overlies a contaminated surficial sand and gravel aquifer. By 1961, municipal and industrial wastes were dumped and burned in an onsite open pit. Specific wastes disposed of onsite included waste newspaper ink, spent solvents, tannery wastes, chromic acids, arsenic acid, and beryllium. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses both source control and management of contaminant migration. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, TCE, and xylenes; acids; and metals including arsenic and chromium.

Not Available

1990-09-29

135

Spectroscopic and wet chemical characterization of solid waste organic matter of different age in landfill sites, southern Germany.  

PubMed

Landfill sites are potential sources of hazardous emissions by degradation and transformation processes of waste organic matter. Its chemical composition and microbial degradability are key factors for risk management, after-care, and estimation of potential emissions. The aim of the study is to provide information about composition and extent of transformation of waste organic matter in four landfill sites in Bavaria, Southern Germany by means of (13)C NMR spectroscopy, acid-hydrolyzable carbohydrates, chloroform-methanol extractable lipids, acid-hydrolyzable proteins, and lignin compounds after CuO oxidation. Ten samples of about 20 to 25 yr, 15 to 20 yr, and 5 to 10 yr of deposition each were taken at 2 m depth intervals by grab drilling till 10-m depth. Increasing temperatures from about 15 degrees C at 2-m depth to >40 degrees C at 10-m depth are found at some of the sites, representing optimum conditions for mesophile methane bacteria. Moisture contents of 160 to 310 g kg(-1) (oven dry), however, provide limiting conditions for anaerobic biodecay. Spectroscopic and chemical variables generally indicate a low extent of biodegradation and transformation at all sites despite a considerable heterogeneity of the samples. Independent of the time and depth of deposition more than 50% of the carbohydrate fraction of the waste organic matter provide a high potential for methane emissions and on-site energy production. There was no significant accumulation of long-chain organic and aromatic compounds, and of lignin degradation products even after more than 25 yr of rotting indicating higher extent of decomposition or stabilization of the waste organic matter. Installation of seepage water cleaning and recirculation systems are recommended to increase suboptimal moisture contents with respect to microbial methanogenesis, energy production, and long-term stabilization of municipal solid waste. PMID:18178887

Bäumler, Rupert; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2008-01-01

136

Health assessment for Mason County Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Pere Marquette Township, Mason County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980794465. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Mason County Landfill Site is located approximately three miles south of the City of Ludington and one mile east of Lake Michigan in Pere Marquette Township, Mason County, Michigan. The landfill received general refuse, garbage, industrial refuse, liquids and sludges, and industrial wastes. The landfill was closed to further dumping and disposal in August 1978. Surface-soil contaminants of concern are lead and arsenic. Ground water contaminants of concern are benzene, 1,1-dichloroethene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, acetone, sodium, lead, zinc, and manganese. Surface-water contaminants of concern are cadmium, chromium, manganese, selenium, silver, sodium, beryllium and antimony. Sediment contaminant of concern is arsenic. The site is of potential health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to VOCs, inorganics, and metals may occur/be occurring/have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption.

Not Available

1989-04-10

137

State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

1992-01-01

138

State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

1992-12-31

139

Site Specific Landfill CH4 Emissions: Shortcomings of National GHG Inventory Guidelines and a New Process-Based Approach Linked to Climate and Soil Microclimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current (2006) IPCC national GHG inventory guidelines for landfill CH4, which estimate CH4 generation from the mass of waste in place, have high uncertainties, cannot be reliably related to measured emissions at specific sites, and lack comprehensive field validation. Moreover, measured landfill CH4 emissions vary over a wide range from >1000 g/m2/d down to negative values (uptake of atmospheric CH4). Literature over the last decade has emphasized that the major factors controlling emissions in these highly managed soil systems are gaseous transport rates as affected by the thickness and physical properties of cover soils, methanotrophic CH4 oxidation in cover materials as a function of seasonal soil microclimate. and the presence or absence of engineered gas extraction. Thus we developed and field validated a new site specific annual inventory model that incorporates specific soil profile properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5° scale global climatic models. Based on 1D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely available JAVA tool which models a typical annual cycle for CH4 emissions from site specific daily, intermediate, and final landfill cover designs. This new approach, which is compliant with IPCC Tier III criteria, was originally field validated at two California sites (Monterey County; Los Angeles County), with limited field validation at three additional California sites. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist. We report here on improvements and expanded international field validation for CALMIM 5.2 in collaboration with research groups in the U.S., Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.odeled and measured annual cycle of landfill CH4 emissions for Austrian site. Cover consists of 50 cm sand & gravel overlain by 110 cm loam & sandy loam. No gas recovery. Site 100% vegetated.

Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Corcoran, M.

2012-12-01

140

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

141

The landfill reinjection of concentrated leachate: findings from a monitoring study at an Italian site.  

PubMed

The membrane-based processes are among the most used techniques for leachate treatment in modern landfills but its environmental, technical and economical sustainability strongly depends on the disposal of concentrated leachate that is produced there. This paper presents the monitoring study of the landfill of the municipality of Monsummano Terme (Pistoia province, Tuscany, Italy) named "Il Fossetto" where concentrated leachate obtained during membrane treatment is recirculated. The findings resulting from the first 30 months of monitoring of concentrated leachate recirculation show that leachate production did not increase significantly and that only a few quality parameters (i.e. COD, Nickel and Zinc) presented a moderate increase. Moreover, the latest data on biogas composition seem to indicate a reduction in methane content that, if confirmed, could be related to the partial inhibition of methanogens due to the competition of sulphate reducing bacteria. The non-accumulation of other conservative pollutants such as Ammonia Nitrogen and Chloride in the leachate is still under investigation and needs to be better clarified. The overall sustainability of the reinjection as a means of disposing of the concentrated leachate produced by membrane treatment should be further analysed and evaluated in the long term. PMID:20554388

Calabrò, Paolo S; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Orsi, Sirio; Gentili, Emiliano; Meoni, Carlo

2010-09-15

142

Taking to the streets: Dutch community theatre goes site-specific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dutch participatory community-based theatre has thus far been largely text-based and quite apprehensive of abstract site-specific performance, which it regarded as the product of ‘outsider gazing’ and exploitative of local residents. Quite recently, the two veteran Dutch community-based companies Stut and RWT were forced by extraordinary circumstances to work on site in the working-class neighbourhoods of Ondiep in Utrecht and

Eugène van Erven

2007-01-01

143

Optimum allocation of monitoring wells around a solid-waste landfill site using precursor indicators and fuzzy utility functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimum monitoring well network (number of wells and their locations) is proposed which enables rapid, redundant and economical detection of contaminants in groundwater around a solid-waste landfill site. The procedure also guarantees detection of the contaminants given data on the probability of detection at different points in the saturated zone. The well selection is accomplished using a two-step procedure: (1) A Monte Carlo simulation of contaminant transport in the unconsolidated shallow saturated zone is conducted. In this zone hydrogeological parameters are variable but their stochastic distributions are known. Three governing equations are solved numerically using the finite-difference method to obtain the travel time distribution of each contaminant: the two-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow equation; the two-dimensional transient convective-dispersion equation for sorptive contaminants; and the sorptive-desorptive isotherm equation. (2) The procedure utilizes "fuzzy" theory, comprising of a set of newly developed mathematical techniques to deal with uncertainty in a wide range of man-machine interface issues, to assist in the design of a monitoring well network. The procedure requires a mathematical description of a four-attribute design problem using fuzzy utility functions and fuzzy weights. An optimum monitoring well network is then defined as the network having maximum total utility, which is evaluated as a fuzzy expectation of weighted arithmetic sums of the four utilities. One result of the simulation is the definition of relationships between the contaminant of interest and precursor materials. The precursor material can then serve as an "indicator" for faster detection of contaminant leaked from solid-waste landfill site. The procedures are applied to a hypothetical solid-waste landfill site under appropriate conditions to obtain the optimum monitoring well network for detection of precursor indicators. Sensitivity analysis of the optimum network was conducted by considering changes in components of the mathematical description of the design problem. Components which were changed include total utility evaluation, quality of uncertainty in weight factor and utility evaluation, weigth level determination, delay time requirement, well number limitation and perfect detection constraint.

Morisawa, Shinsuke; Inoue, Yoriteru

1991-06-01

144

The use of GPR and VES in delineating a contamination plume in a landfill site: a case study in SE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the application of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method, or Georadar, in outlining a zone of contamination due to solid residues at the waste burial site of Rio Claro in the state of São Paulo, SE Brazil. A total of eight GPR profiles with 50- and 100-MHz antennae were surveyed. Six profiles were located within the landfill site and the remaining two were outside. The main objective of the GPR survey was to evaluate the side extension of contamination. A Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) survey was performed at four points within the site in order to investigate the vertical extent of the contamination plume and to define the bottom of the landfill. Two additional VESs were done outside the landfill with the purpose of determining the top of the ground water table and the geoelectric stratigraphy of the background. From the interpretation of the GPR profiles, it was possible to locate the top of the contamination plume and to infer that it was migrating laterally beyond the limits of the waste disposal site. This was observed along the profile situated close to the highway SP-127, which was about 20 m from the limit of the site. The signature of the contaminant appears as a discontinuous reflector that is believed to be a shallow ground water table. The discontinuity is marked by a shadow zone, which is characteristic of conductive contaminant residues. The contamination did not move far enough to reach a sugar cane plantation located at approximately 100 m from the border of the site. In the regions free from contamination, the ground water table was mapped at approximately 10 m of depth, and it was characterized by a strong and continuous reflector. The radar signal penetrated deep enough and enabled the identification of a second reflector at approximately 14 m deep, interpreted as the contact between the Rio Claro and the Corumbata?´ formations. The contact is marked by the presence of gravel characterized by ferruginous concretes, which cause the strong amplitude reflection in the GPR profile. Within the landfill site, the quantitative interpretation of the VES results showed the contamination zone. The base of the landfill varies between 11 and 15 m deep. Outside the landfill site, the VES results showed no indication of contamination and allowed the determination of the top of the ground water table and the contact between the Rio Claro and the Corumbata?´ formations. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology and information from several boreholes, about 17 m depth, on average. The bottom of the landfill reaches a maximum of 14.5 m depth.

Porsani, Jorge L.; Filho, Walter M.; Elis, Vagner R.; Shimeles, Fisseha; Dourado, João C.; Moura, Helyelson P.

2004-03-01

145

Environmental monitoring report for the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill sites, calendar year 1984  

SciTech Connect

During 1984, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and former Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) sites, located in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey. The sites are part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where low-level radioactive contamination remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. The environmental monitoring program is carried out by Bechtel National, Inc., Program Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the MSP and MML measures the uranium and radium concentrations in surface and groundwater, the radon gas concentrations in air, and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public are also calculated. All environmental samples collected are analyzed to determine compliance with applicable environmental quality standards. DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter XI, provides applicable Concentration Guide (CG) limits for radionuclides in controlled and uncontrolled areas. During 1984, average annual concentrations of uranium and radium-226 in groundwater and surface waters monitored for both the MSP and MML remained below the DOE CG for uncontrolled areas. Annual average radon levels in air at both the MSP and MML were below the CG for uncontrolled areas. External gamma monitoring in 1984 showed all monitoring locations at both sites reporting gamma exposure rates below DOE Radiation Protection Standards. All radiation doses to the public were within DOE standards and consistent with 1983 exposure rates. 13 refs., 10figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1985-07-01

146

Controlling Landfill Emissions For Environmental Protection : Mid Auchencarroch Experimental Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the long term behaviour of Mid Auchencarroch experimental landfill site in Scotland, based on characteristic landfill biodegration parameters, making useful conclusions. and analyzes the effects of waste pretreatment and landfill management techniques on landfill emissions and waste biodegradation processes. The biodegradation of Mid Auchencarroch Experimental Landfill Project is studied in four different cells with different waste input

Telemachus C. Koliopoulos; D. M. Georgia Koliopoulou

147

Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. Volume 2. Technical Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report represents the second of a two-part series on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills, Volume I, General Issues contains a general treatment of Land Disposal, Solid Waste Regulations, Landfill Siting, and Landfill Management. Volume II contains a detai...

1990-01-01

148

MCDA-GIS integrated approach for optimized landfill site selection for growing urban regions: an application of neighborhood-proximity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exponential rise in urban population and the resulting urban waste generation in developing countries over the past few decades, and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to engineer environmentally sustainable and efficient urban waste disposal and management systems. Intelligent and integrated landfill siting is a difficult, complex, tedious, and protracted process requiring evaluation

Yashon O. Ouma; Emmanuel C. Kipkorir; Ryutaro Tateishi

2011-01-01

149

Letter Health Consultation: Arsenic in Private Wells, Arementrout Excavating Landfill Site, Xenia, Greene County, Ohio. EPA Facility ID: OHD980510010, June 23, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ohio Department of Health's Health Assessment Section (HAS) evaluated the U.S. EPA sampling results for arsenic in drinking water wells at the Armentrout Excavating Landfill site in Xenia, Ohio. Arsenic, the contaminant of concern, was found at levels...

2010-01-01

150

Sour landfill gas problem solved  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future.

G. Nagl; R. Cantrall

1996-01-01

151

Necessity for Establishment of Inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Landfills and Contaminated Sites for an Evaluation of Mobilisation Risk by Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landfilling of persistent hazardous compounds with a tendency to migrate, such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a major pollution challenge. Historic dumping and landfilling in badly engineered and unsuitably located sites has resulted in widespread contamination from the landfilling of HCH, HCB and PCB wastes around former production sites. In the case of PCBs this has been exacerbated by subsequent landfilling of contaminated products (oils, capacitors, sealants and other building residues). In most cases locations and amounts are not or vaguely known but impacts are increasingly discovered by monitoring in the most advanced countries with sophisticated monitoring schemes in place. These reveal that entire river systems are being contaminated by these old dumps and contaminated sites and that expensive remediation work is required for to reduce further contamination. In addition more recently other (halogenated) chemicals exhibiting the characteristics of POPs have emerged including e.g. brominated aromatic compounds (e.g. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants) widely used as flame retardants for electronics; textiles, furniture; upholstery; insulation foam etc.) and fluorinated organic pollutants (e.g. PFOS or PFOA used in carpets, textiles, furniture, paper coating etc.). As products containing these chemicals reach the end of their life these hazardous compounds increasingly ended and end up in the waste stream. In most countries a large proportion of these wastes are disposed to landfills. In developing countries and those with economies in transition almost all this waste is landfilled. Consequently the quantities of POPs in municipal waste landfills have increased the last two decades. Therefore in addition to chemical landfills also municipal landfills increasingly become POPs deposits and sources. Because of their persistence and relative mobility, these compounds will persist in landfills for many decades and probably centuries. Over these extended time frames landfill engineering systems, including basal and capping liners, gas and leachate collection systems will inevitably degrade and loose their abilities to contain contamination. Furthermore consideration must now be given to the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. This is likely to result in higher temperatures with increased volatalisation of semi-volatile compounds; longer dry periods with drying of surface caps; together with higher intensity rainfall events and increased flooding risks. These effects will impact on the integrity of the containment systems. It is therefore inevitable that more of the deposited POPs will leach into rivers, lakes and the larger environment via escaping leachate, ground or surface water as well as escaping to atmosphere by volatilisation. At the same time our reliance on water resources is likely to increase. In order to evaluate the associated risks for human exposure and biodiversity, inventories of deposited POPs and other PBTs need to be established, their locations comprehensively mapped and linked to future flooding scenarios for prediction of contamination of the precious water resources. This interdisciplinary task will require the cooperation between POPs experts, geotechnical engineers, contaminated site/landfill experts, water management specialists and geoscientists working on climate change and flooding.

Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin

2010-05-01

152

[Street children].  

PubMed

According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non-governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop-in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street. PMID:24502109

Roncevi?, Nevenka; Stojadinovi?, Aleksandra; Batrnek-Antoni?, Daliborka

2013-01-01

153

Hydrogeologic framework, arsenic distribution, and groundwater geochemistry of the glacial-sediment aquifer at the Auburn Road landfill superfund site, Londonderry, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Leachate continues to be generated from landfills at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund Site in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Impermeable caps on the three landfills at the site inhibit direct infiltration of precipitation; however, high water-table conditions allow groundwater to interact with landfill materials from below, creating leachate and ultimately reducing conditions in downgradient groundwater. Reducing conditions can facilitate arsenic transport by allowing it to stay in solution or by liberating arsenic adsorbed to surfaces and from geologic sources, such as glacial sediments and bedrock. The site occupies a 180-acre parcel of land containing streams, ponds, wetlands, and former gravel pits located in glacial sediment. Four areas, totaling 14 acres, including three landfills and one septage lagoon, were used for waste disposal. The site was closed in 1980 after volatile organic compounds associated with industrial waste dumping were detected. The site was added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List in 1982, and the landfills were capped in 1996. Although volatile organic compound concentrations in groundwater have declined substantially, some measurable concentrations remain. Temporally variable and persistent elevated arsenic concentrations have been measured in groundwater affected by the landfill leachate. Microbial consumption of carbon found in leachate is a driver of reducing conditions that liberate arsenic at the site. In addition to sources of carbon in landfill leachate, wetland areas throughout the site also could contribute carbon to groundwater, but it is currently unknown if any of the wetland areas have downward or reversing gradients that could allow the infiltration of surface water to groundwater. Red-stained sediments and water indicate iron-rich groundwater discharge to surface water and are also associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic in sediment and groundwater. Ironrich groundwater seeps have been observed in the wetland, streams, and pond downgradient of the landfills. Piezometers were installed in some of these locations to confirm groundwater discharge, measure vertical-flow gradients, and to provide a way to sample the discharging groundwater. Understanding the movement of leachate in groundwater is complicated by the presence of preferential flow paths through aquifer materials with differing hydraulic properties; these preferential flow paths can affect rates of recharge, geochemical conditions, and contaminant fluxes. In areas adjacent to the three capped landfills, infiltration of precipitation containing oxygenated water through permeable deltaic sediments in the former gravel pit area causes increases in dissolved oxygen concentrations and decreases in arsenic concentrations. Layered deltaic sediments produce anisotropic hydraulic characteristics and zones of high hydraulic conductivity. The glacial-sediment aquifer also includes glaciolacustrine sediments that have low permeability and limit infiltration at the surface Discharge of leachate-affected groundwater may be limited in areas of organic muck on the bottom of Whispering Pines Pond because the muck may act as a semiconfining layer. Geophysical survey results were used to identify several areas with continuous beds of muck and an underlying highresistivity layer on top of a layer of low resistivity that may represent leachate-affected groundwater. The high-resistivity layer is likely groundwater associated with oxygenated recharge, which would cause arsenic to adsorb onto aquifer sediments and reduce concentrations of dissolved arsenic in groundwater. Surface and borehole geophysical data collected in 2011 were used to identify potentially high-permeability or contaminated zones in the aquifer (preferential flowpaths) as well as low-permeability zones that may promote contamination through back diffusion. Some groundwater in parts of the glacial-sediment aquifer where the leachate plumes were present had low electrical resistivity, low dissolved oxygen, and high concentrations of a

Degnan, James R.; Harte, Philip T.

2013-01-01

154

Analysis of land suitability for the siting of inter-municipal landfills in the Cuitzeo Lake Basin, Mexico.  

PubMed

This paper presents three spatial decision-support models (Boolean logic, binary evidence and overlapping index of multiple class maps) to perform a land suitability analysis for sanitary landfill siting. The study was carried out in the basin of Lake Cuitzeo, Mexico, with the objective of locating areas that comply with environmental regulations and with the inter-municipality criterion, i.e., that are accessible by at least two municipalities. Biophysical and socio-economic data were processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The three models differ in their complexity and restrictiveness. The Boolean logic model is easier to apply and more restrictive than the other two, because it is based on the assessment of single attributes. On the other hand, the binary data and overlapping index methods are relatively more complex because they require attribute weighting. The results showed that 23 of the 28 municipalities included in the basin have at least one area that was classified as highly suitable. The most suitable areas covered from 63.8 to 204.5 km(2) (from 1.5% to 5%), and they are not distributed homogeneously, but clustered around four main sites. The larger and most suitable of these sites is located in the central part of the basin, and it can be accessed by five of the most densely populated municipalities. The proposed approach represents a low-cost alternative to support a common spatial decision-making process in developing countries. PMID:17869499

Delgado, Otoniel Buenrostro; Mendoza, Manuel; Granados, Erna López; Geneletti, Davide

2008-01-01

155

Environmental monitoring report, 1980, 1981, 1982 for the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill Sites  

SciTech Connect

During periods of remedial action activities conducted in 1980 and 1981 at designated sites in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, air, water, and sediments were sampled and analyzed to verify the adequacy of contamination control and compliance with applicable standards. Analytical results show that remedial action activities at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and vicinity properties were conducted, with few exceptions, within applicable standards. During 1982, a surveillance monitoring program was initiated at the MSP and at the former Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) site. Radioactivity was measured in air and water to allow calculation of radiation doses to the public. The resulting dose from external gamma radiation at the MSP site boundary in 1982 was approximately twice natural background and less than 40% (background included) of the Department of Energy (DOE) standard. The highest continuous occupancy dose to the bronchial epithelium (lungs) from radon exposure at the MML boundary was approximately twice the background value or about 60% (background included) of the DOE standard. 12 references, 15 figures, 28 tables.

Not Available

1984-10-01

156

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Munisport Landfill site, Dade County, North Miami, FL. (First remedial action), July 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 291-acre Munisport Landfill site, including a 170-acre, inactive municipal landfill, is within the city of North Miami, Dade County, Florida. The city of North Miami leased 291 acres to Munisport for recreational development in 1971 which began filling low-lying areas of the site with clean fill and construction debris. In 1975, a temporary permit allowed solid waste to be used as fill above the water table. However, in 1976, a State inspection found twelve 55-gallon drums that were leaking wastes onsite; a violation was issued, and these drums were removed offsite by the city. Landfilling operations ceased in 1981, but closure has not yet taken place. Leachate from the landfill waste still poses a significant threat to the aquatic organisms in the Mangrove Preserve. The ground water is no longer used for potable purposes as a result of salt water intrusion. The contaminants of concern affecting the ground water include VOCs such as benzene and toluene; other organics; metals, such as arsenic, chromium, and lead; and other inorganics.

Not Available

1990-07-26

157

Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill

K.. Spokas; J. Bogner; J. P. Chanton; M. Morcet; C. Aran; C. Graff; Y. Moreau-Le Golvan; I. Hebe

2006-01-01

158

Feasibility Study, Primary Designs and Development of Alternative Evapotranspiration Covers for Landfills and Waste Dump Sites in Tropical Locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

People generate a large and ever-increasing volume of waste, which originates in rural and urban areas, industrial operations and other activities. In spite of waste recycling, which is the solution to the huge amount of solid waste, a large part of it is deposited into landfills, dumps, etc.Landfills are, at present, the most widely used waste disposal facilities. Final cover

Francisco Jose Escobar

2010-01-01

159

Public Health Assessment for General Electric Site-East Street Area II (a/k/a GE-Housatonic River) Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, EPA Facility ID: MAD002084093 September 30, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The East Street Area 2 site of the General Electric (GE) site in Pittsfield, Massachusetts is one of 10 areas being evaluated in separate public health assessments and health consultations. In addition, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH)...

2003-01-01

160

Evaluation of the Adequacy of Hazardous Chemical Site Remediation by Landfilling1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultimately, hundreds of billions of dollars of public and private funds will be spent in the US in hazardous chemical site (Superfund and closed RCRA facilities) investigation and remediation. A critical review of the adequacy of remediation of many of these sites that are \\

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

161

Evaluation of borehole geophysical and video logs, at Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between February 1996 and November 2000, geophysical logging was conducted in 27 open borehole wells in and adjacent to the Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pa., to determine casing depth and depths of water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, and zones of vertical borehole flow. The wells range in depth from 57 to 319 feet below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so that the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, fluid-temperature, and video logs. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, and fluid-resistivity logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy.

Low, D. J.; Conger, R. W.

2001-01-01

162

Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

2012-01-01

163

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Kassouf-Kimerling Battery Site, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL. (Second Remedial Action), March 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kassouf-Dimerling Battery Disposal site, formerly known as the Timber Lake Battery Disposal site and the 58th Street Landfill, is in Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida within a 100-year floodplain area. The site consists of a 42,000 square foot landf...

1990-01-01

164

45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

165

WallStreetReporter.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each day, WallStreetReporter.com interviews the CEOs of successful public companies. Started in 1996 by the editors of Wall Street Reporter Magazine, this site includes weekly news for professional investors, as well as a searchable archive of over 3,000 past interviews soon to be available for public use.

166

Street Scene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student arts festival that involved elementary and secondary students in drawing with chalk on a city block in New York City is described. Portraiture, cartoons, landscapes, abstractions, and inventive personal logos filled the huge canvas of the street in a virtual smorgasbord. (RM)

Marshall, James B.

1985-01-01

167

Radio Wall Street  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radio Wall Street, brought to you by Investor Broadcast Network, offers current financial news for investors. RealAudio files are organized in sections including top stories, technology news, IPOs, and mutual funds. Special sections provide interviews with leading CEOs and investment analysts. Daily features and popular programs are listed at the bottom of the site.

168

Landfill NIMBY and Systems Engineering: A Paradigm for Urban Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid waste management crisis exists in many parts of the US as a result of the inability to site new landfills to replace the consumed capacity of existing landfills. Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills can, and usually do, have a significant adverse impact on the individuals who own property in, reside in, or otherwise use, areas near the landfill.

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee; Frederick Martin

169

LETTER REPORT. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS OF SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARGYLE STREET SEWER LINE AT THE UNITED NUCLEAR CORPORATION NAVAL PRODUCTS SITE, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated.

Adams, Wade C.

2012-01-24

170

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1)  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action (CAU) 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 5 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs). The corrective action investigation (CAI) of CAU 5 was conducted from October 7, 2002 through January 30, 2003, with geophysical surveys completed from March 6 through May 8, 2002, and topographic surveys conducted from March 11 through April 29, 2003. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified only at CAS 12-15-01. Those COCs included total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following single alternative was developed for consideration. Close in Place with Administrative Controls is the recommended alternative for all of the CASs in CAU 5. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate inadvertent intrusion into landfills at CAU 5.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

2003-10-24

171

Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill. Annual Site Environmental Report, Calendar Year 1985. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monitoring program at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) measures uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; and external gamma radiation dose ...

1986-01-01

172

Where Should the Landfill Go?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project where students were involved in finding the most suitable site for a landfill in their community. This two-month project was conducted using team teaching. Two twelfth grade geoscience classes were involved. (PR)

Fazio, Rosario P.; McFaden, Dennis

1993-01-01

173

Technical assistance to the Ohio Department of Health. Volatile organic compound testing of blood of persons living near the Industrial Excess Landfill NPL site, Uniontown, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Epidemiology and Medicine Branch (EMB) of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was requested by the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) to assist in evaluating volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures of persons residing near the Industrial Excess Landfill site in Uniontown, Ohio, and who had prior privately obtained tests. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate the concern that prior tests might indicate unusual VOC exposures. EMB proposed to perform an investigation that would survey the community near the landfill for self-reported diseases and health complaints and to provide some blood testing. The proposal was declined by a committee representing the affected citizens until a health assessment can be completed wherein routes of contamination from the landfill are established. The blood testing was performed on these privately evaluated people on a voluntary basis, and 13 of the 16 chose to participate. The VOC test results were within established norms for all but two participants. These two had high levels of tetrachloroethene. Also reported was the presence of a 6-carbon, 14-hydrogen compound. The level of the compound could not be quantitated because of the absence of laboratory validation standard materials.

Not Available

1988-06-01

174

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 4): Kassouf-Kimerling Battery site, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL. (Second remedial action), March 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Kassouf-Dimerling Battery Disposal site, formerly known as the Timber Lake Battery Disposal site and the 58th Street Landfill, is in Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida within a 100-year floodplain area. The site consists of a 42,000 square foot landfill area with an estimated landfill volume of 11,350 cubic yards. Surface water flows from the west marsh to the east marsh by way of a canal which cuts through the site, connects the marsh areas, and eventually discharges into the Palm River. In 1978, empty battery casings were deposited in previously excavated onsite areas. The first Operable Unit Record of Decision (ROD) addressed remediation of landfill wastes and contaminated underlying soil. The ROD addresses contamination of wetlands adjacent to the landfill. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the sediment and surface water are metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead.

Not Available

1990-03-30

175

POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed

J. A. Ross; W Walt Kubilius; T Thomas Kmetz; D D Noffsinger; K Karen M Adams

2006-01-01

176

Landfill Site Selection by Combining GIS and Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Analysis, Case Study: Bandar Abbas, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill selection in an urban area is a critical issue in the urban planning process because of its enormous impact on the economy, ecology and the environmental health of the region. With the growth of urbanization as well as the desire to live in cities, lager amount of wastes are produced and unfortunately the problem gets bigger everyday. With the

V. Akbari; M. A. Rajabi; S. H. Chavoshi; R. Shams

177

Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 2, Simulation of ground-water flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on the hydrogeology of a 26-sq-mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in central Suffolk County were collected as part of a hydrologic investigation of solute transport from the site. These data were used to develop a steady-state groundwater flow model of the upper glacial (water table) aquifer in the area. The model accounts for the leakage through confining units underlying the aquifer, seepage to streams, recharge from precipitation, and pumpage and redistribution of water. Refined estimates of aquifer and confining-unit properties were obtained through model calibrations. Water table altitudes generated by the calibrated model were used to determine groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the vicinity of the site under long-term average hydrologic conditions. Groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the study area were calculated from simulated water table altitudes generated by the calibrated flow model. Groundwater at the center of the site flows southeastward at a velocity of 1.1 ft/d. The report is the second in a three part series describing the hydrologic conditions and groundwater quality, groundwater flow, and solute transport in the vicinity of the Brookhaven landfill. (USGS)

Wexler, E. J.; Maus, P. E.

1988-01-01

178

Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ? 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

2004-12-01

179

78 FR 14773 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Landfill Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Solutions Toolkit--Landfill Standards AGENCY: International Trade...exporting their goods or services relevant to landfill environmental standards. The Department...site address, contact information, and landfill environmental standards category of...

2013-03-07

180

Sour landfill gas problem solved  

SciTech Connect

In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

1996-05-01

181

A steady state redox zone approach for modeling the transport and degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds from a landfill site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A redox zonation approach is used as a framework for obtaining biodegradation rate constants of xenobiotic compounds in a landfill plume (Grindsted, Denmark). The aquifer is physically heterogeneous in terms of a complex zonation of different geological units close to the landfill and biogeochemically heterogeneous in terms of a specified redox zonation. First-order degradation rates of six organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m/ p-xylene, and naphthalene) were calculated in the methanogenic/sulfate- and Fe-reducing zones. The numerical simulations show that all compounds are anaerobically biodegraded, but at very different rates. High rates of biodegradation of most of the compounds (except benzene) were found in the Fe-reducing zone. These rates generally agree with previously published rates. Only o-xylene and toluene were significantly biodegraded in the methanogenic/sulfate-reducing environment. All rates in this redox zone are generally much lower than previously published rates.

Lønborg, Michael J.; Engesgaard, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L.; Rosbjerg, Dan

2006-10-01

182

A steady state redox zone approach for modeling the transport and degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds from a landfill site.  

PubMed

A redox zonation approach is used as a framework for obtaining biodegradation rate constants of xenobiotic compounds in a landfill plume (Grindsted, Denmark). The aquifer is physically heterogeneous in terms of a complex zonation of different geological units close to the landfill and biogeochemically heterogeneous in terms of a specified redox zonation. First-order degradation rates of six organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m/p-xylene, and naphthalene) were calculated in the methanogenic/sulfate- and Fe-reducing zones. The numerical simulations show that all compounds are anaerobically biodegraded, but at very different rates. High rates of biodegradation of most of the compounds (except benzene) were found in the Fe-reducing zone. These rates generally agree with previously published rates. Only o-xylene and toluene were significantly biodegraded in the methanogenic/sulfate-reducing environment. All rates in this redox zone are generally much lower than previously published rates. PMID:16843568

Lønborg, Michael J; Engesgaard, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L; Rosbjerg, Dan

2006-10-10

183

Linking SLEUTH Urban Growth Modeling to Multi Criteria Evaluation for a Dynamic Allocation of Sites to Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Taking timely measures for management of the natural resources requires knowledge of the dynamic environment and land use\\u000a practices in the rapidly changing post- industrial world. We used the SLUETH urban growth modeling and a multi-criteria evaluation\\u000a (MCE) technique to predict and allocate land available to landfill as affected by the dynamics of the urban growth. The city\\u000a is Gorgan,

Abdolrassoul Mahiny; Mehdi Gholamalifard

184

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will concentrate on geophysical surveys to confirm the presence or absence of disposed waste within a CAS and verify the boundaries of disposal areas; penetrate disposal feature covers via excavation and/or drilling; perform geodetic surveys; and be used to collect both soil and environmental samples for laboratory analyses. Phase II will deal only with those CASs where a contaminant of concern has been identified. This phase will involve the collection of additional soil and/or environmental samples for laboratory analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

2002-05-28

185

N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

186

Results of the supplementary radiological survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CVP001)  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted radiological surveys at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania. The surveys were performed on October 11-13 and November 14-17, 1993, in order to provide a complete characterization prior to site remediation. The surveys included a gamma scan and a scan for surface contamination from alpha and beta-gamma emitters; measurement of direct and removable alpha and beta-gamma levels; systematic FIDLER measurements at the surface of the concrete; and the collection of samples from boreholes for radionuclide analysis. Results of the surveys revealed radionuclide concentrations and surface contamination levels in excess of applicable DOE guidelines for {sup 238}U. Radionuclide distributions were higher than typical background levels for {sup 238}U in the Springdale, Pennsylvania area.

Coleman, R.L.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

1995-04-01

187

Public health assessment for Grand Street Mercury Site, Hoboken, Hudson County, New Jersey, Region 2: CERCLIS Number NJ0001327733. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Health Assessment serves to evaluate the public health issues associated with the Grand Street Mercury Site (GSMS), which has recently been proposed for addition to the National Priority List (NPL). The human exposure pathways associated with known contaminated environmental media within or associated with the GSMS have been evaluated and actions have been taken and/or planned that are consistent with the protection of the public health. At the GSMS, the known contaminated media include: soil, indoor air; and building. Access to all buildings on the GSMS has been secured by USEPA and remediation is on-going. The ATSDR and the NJDHSS consider the GSMS to have represented a public health hazard in the past. Based upon the site data, adults and children were likely exposed to mercury in the building at levels of public health concern.

NONE

1998-11-27

188

Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 3, Simulation of solute transport  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A solute transport model representing a 2.3-sq mi area surrounding and downgradient from a municipal landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, N.Y. was used to simulate migration of a conservative solute (chloride) in the upper glacial aquifer. Aquifer values used in the model were: hydraulic conductivity, 200 ft/day; effective porosity, 0.30; longitudinal dispersivity, 100 ft; transverse dispersivity, 20 ft. Average concentration of chloride was set at 875.0 mg/L in leachate and 10 mg/L in recharge and in ambient groundwater. Entry of leachate into the aquifer was assumed to have begun in 1977. Chloride concentrations in the simulated plume after 6 years of travel matched reasonably well the chloride data collected in October-December 1982. After 12 years of travel, the simulated plume extended 6,200 ft and was 2,600 ft wide. Maximum predicted concentration at the site boundary was 160 mg/L. Additional simulations were made to test the model 's ability to predict the effect of several remedial strategies on the movement of solutes. These included capping the landfill with an impermeable surface, removal of contaminated groundwater through four recovery wells, and a combination of the first two actions. (USGS)

Wexler, E. J.

1988-01-01

189

Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

Chiriac, R., E-mail: rodica.chiriac@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); De Araujos Morais, J. [Universite Federal de Paraiba, Campus I Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Carre, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bayard, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Chovelon, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-11-15

190

Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

NONE

1994-02-01

191

Leachate migration analysis of landfill in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of water resources by landfill leachate is a growing problem. The threat of migrating leachate originating from landfill sites is an important issue for water quality and waste management. Because of this, waste management companies often struggle with the challenge of containing and controlling leachate migration. This study of leachate migration is carried out for a landfill site in

T. Berhe; W. Wu; T. Doanh

2009-01-01

192

44. Dudley Street station. View from Tower 'F' looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Dudley Street station. View from Tower 'F' - looking South - toward Bartlett Street Garage site of the former Guild Street elevated storage yard. The Bartlett Building (burned June 27, 1982) is on the right. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

193

Landfills as a biorefinery to produce biomass and capture biogas.  

PubMed

While landfilling provides a simple and economic means of waste disposal, it causes environmental impacts including leachate generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the introduction of gas recovery systems, landfills provide a potential source of methane (CH4) as a fuel source. Increasingly revegetation is practiced on traditionally managed landfill sites to mitigate environmental degradation, which also provides a source of biomass for energy production. Combustion of landfill gas for energy production contributes to GHG emission reduction mainly by preventing the release of CH4 into the atmosphere. Biomass from landfill sites can be converted to bioenergy through various processes including pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the role of landfills as a biorefinery site by focusing on the potential volumes of CH4 and biomass produced from landfills, the various methods of biomass energy conversion, and the opportunities and limitations of energy capture from landfills. PMID:23069612

Bolan, N S; Thangarajan, R; Seshadri, B; Jena, U; Das, K C; Wang, H; Naidu, R

2013-05-01

194

77 FR 67399 - State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Including On-Site Leased Workers From APC Workforce Solutions II, LLC, D/B/A...Department revealed that workers leased from APC Workforce Solutions II, LLC, doing business...to include on-site workers leased from APC Workforce Solutions II, LLC,...

2012-11-09

195

GeoChip-based Analysis of Groundwater Microbial Diversity in Norman Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norman Landfill is a closed municipal solid waste landfill located on an alluvium associated with the Canadian River in Norman, Oklahoma. It has operated as a research site since 1994 because it is typical of many closed landfill sites across the U.S. Leachate from the unlined landfill forms a groundwater plume that extends downgradient approximately 250 m from the

Zhenmei Lu; Zhili He; Victoria Parisi; Sanghoon Kang; Ye Deng; Joy Van Nostrand; Jason Masoner; Isabelle Cozzarelli; Joseph Suflita; Jizhong Zhou

2010-01-01

196

Landfill Fires: Their Magnitude, Characteristics, and Mitigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fires occurring at landfill sites across the United States are an ongoing, complex problem that has existed for decades. Landfill fires threaten the environment through toxic pollutants emitted into the air, water, and soil. These fires also pose a risk t...

2002-01-01

197

Landfill Leachate Disposal with Irrigated Vetiver Grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stotts Creek Landfill is a major waste depot of the Tweed Shire receiving wastes from both Tweed Heads and Murwillumbah townships and neighboring local government areas. Disposal of leachate is a major concern of the Shire as the landfill site is close to agricultural areas. An effective and low cost leachate disposal system is needed, particularly during summer high rainfall

Ian Percy; Paul Truong

198

In situ nitrogen management in controlled bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of leachate from landfills vary according to site-specific conditions. Leachates from “old” landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation of the nitrogenous fractions of biodegradable substrates, with decreases in concentration mainly attributable to leachate washout. At landfills where leachate containment, collection and recirculation is practiced to accelerate decomposition of readily biodegradable organic

Turgut T. Onay; Frederick G. Pohland

1998-01-01

199

RISKS POSED BY UNSANITARY LANDFILL LEACHATE TO GROUNDWATER QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poorly regulated landfill disposal is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess the risks posed by unsanitary landfill leachates to groundwater quality. The case study presented examines the town of ?orlu in the Tekirda? Province of Turkey, where various types of waste are disposed into unsanitary landfill sites without any separation or classification of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. The

Esra Tinmaz; Atakan Ongen

200

Purification of landfill leachate with reverse osmosis and nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

On many landfill sites the most environmentally friendly and economical way to treat landfill leachate is to reduce its volume by 75 to 80% using reverse osmosis and then return the concentrate to the landfill by controlled reinjection. If this procedure is not yet authorized by local authorities then the treatment process must achieve very high rates of recovery by

Thomas A. Peters

1998-01-01

201

Comparative Landfills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from ATEEC will explain solid and hazardous waste management. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require about two hours of class time, plus a few minutes a day for several weeks. The purpose of the lesson is to demonstrate what happens to garbage in landfills, and compare it to the process of burying trash. The activity is explained in depth in this lesson plan handout. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

Wishart, Ray

2013-06-19

202

Attenuation of landfill leachate at two uncontrolled landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation characteristics of landfill leachate were examined for two uncontrolled landfills in Korea. The two landfills containing municipal wastes without appropriate bottom liner and leachate treatment system have different landfill age, waste volume, and most importantly different hydrogeologic settings. One landfill (Cheonan landfill) is situated in an open flat area while the other (Wonju landfill) is located in a valley.

Jin-Yong Lee; Jeong-Yong Cheon; Hyung-Pyo Kwon; Hee-Sung Yoon; Seong-Sun Lee; Jong-Ho Kim; Joung-Ku Park; Chang-Gyun Kim

2006-01-01

203

Engineered Municipal Waste Landfills: Climate Significance, Benefits, and some Landfill "Geophysics"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills have unique features: Wastes worldwide emit biogenic methane to the atmosphere of magnitude comparable to the total atmospheric buildup between 1980 and 1990. Carbon sequestered in landfills is large in geologic terms Management of decomposition in landfilled waste is desirable: (a) Control of waste decomposition and methane promises over tenfold cheaper greenhouse gas abatement compared to most other greenhouse gas abatement strategies. This is due in part to carbon sequestration and landfill gas energy offset of fossil fuel consumption (b) Landfill gas energy potential worldwide, is up to 1% of world energy. Use of landfill gas conserves a resource otherwise wasted (c) Monetary benefits of landfill life extension from decomposition and rapid volume reduction can be quite attractive This is a benefit for the US, where landfills are increasingly difficult and expensive to site. (d) Landfills containing mixed waste can be significant sources of atmospheric and groundwater pollutants needing control. Control is possible from advancing landfill management approaches (e) The stabilization of waste lessens pollutant risk and needs for costly long-term landfill aftercare. Greater control of landfill decomposition has been advocated in the form of "controlled" or "bioreactor" landfills. (SWANA, 1999; Reinhart and Townsend, 1996). Field trials are encouraging by several environmental/monetary criteria. Control of moisture and temperature have given fivefold or more acceleration of methane generation (Augenstein et al, 1998, 2000). There has been rapid volume loss of the landfilled waste as well, with conversion of waste organics to gas. Many trials over years have shown potential for abatement of pollutants in landfill leachate. Demonstration work by the solid waste management community attests to the benefits potential. Increasing field demonstrations, have been accompanied by observation and/or solution of several issues. As noted the heat generation in landfills may become controlling, Heat can be dissipated, but at energy and monetary cost. Increased waste liquid content, required for biological activity has been a concern. Offsetting risk is the accelerated treatment of many dissolved contaminants in landfill liquid with time. It has proven possible to manage liquid flows within environmental and regulatory constraints. There have been concerns about containment by chemosynthetic lining of leachate liquids draining from landfills. Yet molecular bonds of lining under anaerobic conditions could be expected to last for centuries (and in fact up to millenia). There is of course no landfill experience over millenia but analogous compounds of geologic relevance have shown very desirable long term stability. Two other areas being investigated are waste slope stability and the precipitation of carbonate salts The climate significance and geophysical issues with landfills will be discussed, and some experimental findings leading to conclusions will be reviewed

Augenstein, D.; Yazdani, R.

2002-12-01

204

Downing Street Says  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's hard to sort out the world of political spin in the United States, and certainly the situation in Britain is rather similar in this regard. Fortunately, a collection of civic-minded individuals have created this website, which serves to bring the daily briefings offered by the British Prime Minister's Official Spokesmen direct to internet browsers. Essentially, twice a day (when Parliament is in session) a select coterie of political journalists is briefed by the PM's Official Spokesmen, and then they are allowed to ask brief questions. This site brings together these official statements and the queries (and responses) brought up by the political journalists who attend these briefings at 10 Downing Street. The site was started in February 2004, and visitors can view an archive of all the briefings since then and post their own comments as well. Additionally, there is a section that explains these meetings and the impetus for creating such a site.

205

Landfill sustainability and aftercare completion criteria.  

PubMed

Although many countries are increasing their efforts to recycle and to re-use waste materials, landfilling will still be needed in order to dispose of wastes which cannot be recycled or treated in other ways. Since landfills will most probably be present for a long time, measures will have to be taken to reduce their (long-term) emissions. The European Commission has delegated the competent authorities to decide to end aftercare and several member states have provided regulations for this purpose. However, there is currently no guidance for long-term risk assessment to support an aftercare completion procedure for landfills. The aim of this study is to provide examples of current regulations and to demonstrate an alternative approach for a quantitative risk assessment of landfill leachate. The presented modelling approach clearly demonstrates the added value of site specific risk assessments of the long-term emissions from landfills and might provide a basis for application when the acceptance criteria for landfill will be revisited in the future. In addition, the modelling approach can be used as one of the toolboxes to perform assessments of the long-term emissions from landfill leachates and might help the competent authorities to decide whether the remaining emission potential is acceptable or not. Moreover, the results imply that local environmental conditions contribute to the acceptability of landfill emissions and are important factors in choosing a landfill location. PMID:20921059

Scharff, Heijo; van Zomeren, André; van der Sloot, Hans A

2011-01-01

206

POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION  

SciTech Connect

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

2006-11-17

207

Assessment of odorous VOCs released from a main MSW landfill site in Istanbul-Turkey via a modelling approach.  

PubMed

An air pollution modeling study was conducted to investigate the odorous effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a sanitary landfill area on ambient air quality. The atmospheric dispersion of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and 22 VOCs was modeled. Industrial Source Complex v3 Short Term (ISCST3) model was used to estimate hourly concentrations of odorous VOCs over the nearest residential area. Odor thresholds of VOCs of interest were also found in the literature. Results showed that short-term averages of three odorous VOCs, namely ethyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide, exceeded their odor thresholds, which are reported to be 0.022, 0.138 and 11.1 microg/m(3), respectively, at several points within the domain. Their highest concentrations within Gokturk County were estimated to be 0.09387 microg/m(3) for ethyl mercaptan, 0.07934 microg/m(3) for methyl mercaptan and 6.315 microg/m(3) for hydrogen sulfide. Short-term model results revealed the occasional odor problems being reported for Gokturk County. Hourly concentrations were used to obtain frequencies of odor episodes in Gokturk County via a probability analysis. The results showed that ethyl mercaptan concentrations did not exceed its odor threshold during more than 8.84% of the time. Similarly, the maximum odor episode frequencies for methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide were 0.98% and 0.34% of the time, respectively. PMID:19285797

Saral, Arslan; Demir, Selami; Yildiz, Senol

2009-08-30

208

First Report of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant from Thermophilic Bacterium Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus MK01 Newly Isolated from Municipal Landfill Site.  

PubMed

A biosurfactant-producing thermophile was isolated from the Kahrizak landfill of Tehran and identified as a bacterium belonging to the genus Aneurinibacillus. A thermostable lipopeptide-type biosurfactant was purified from the culture medium of this bacterium and showed stability in the temperature range of 20-90 °C and pH range of 5-10. The produced biosurfactant could reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 43 mN/m with a CMC of 1.21 mg/mL. The strain growing at a temperature of 45 °C produces a substantial amount of 5 g/L of biosurfactant in the medium supplemented with sunflower oil as the sole carbon source. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the biosurfactant production using sunflower oil, sodium nitrate, and yeast extract as variables. The optimization resulted in 6.75 g/L biosurfactant production, i.e., 35 % improved as compared to the unoptimized condition. Thin-layer chromatography, FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical composition analysis confirmed the lipopeptide structure of the biosurfactant. PMID:24781982

Sharafi, Hakimeh; Abdoli, Mahya; Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Samie, Nima; Alidoust, Leila; Abbasi, Habib; Fooladi, Jamshid; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

2014-07-01

209

Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation  

SciTech Connect

Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

None

1981-11-01

210

14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

211

The impact of Mpererwe landfill in Kampala–Uganda, on the surrounding environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mpererwe landfill site receives solid wastes from the city of Kampala, Uganda. This study was carried out to assess and evaluate the appropriateness of the location and operation of this landfill, to determine the composition of the solid waste dumped at the landfill and the extent of contamination of landfill leachate to the neighbouring environment (water, soil and plants). Field

M. Mwiganga; F. Kansiime

2005-01-01

212

Methane emissions from MBT landfills.  

PubMed

Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency ("Umweltbundesamt"), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18-24 m(3)CH(4)/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH(4)/(m(2)h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000-135,000 t CO(2-eq.)/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government. PMID:23756351

Heyer, K-U; Hupe, K; Stegmann, R

2013-09-01

213

Landfill to Learning Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission (NJMC) Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ and operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory brings hands-on scientific experiences to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that come to our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

Venner, L.; Lewicki, S.

2008-11-01

214

Turning landfill gas into kilowatts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that in West Berlin, German waste officials decided to handle their landfill gas problem by building a cogeneration facility to harness the gas energy. The Berlin-Wannsee municipal waste disposal site was opened in 1954 and closed in 1980. The former gravel pit was 33 feet deep and covered 600,000 square yards. It was refilled with 11 million

Feit

1991-01-01

215

77 FR 8253 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site ACTION: Notice...on behalf of EPA, in connection with the Hidden Lane Landfill Superfund Site, Sterling, Loudoun County,...

2012-02-14

216

Street Design and Street Use: Comparing Traffic Calmed and Home Zone Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research compares the street activity in two very comparable streets over exactly the same period using time lapse cameras. The aim of the research has been to assess which approaches to street design might encourage the street life and activity most envisioned in the UK's national residential street guidance Manual for Streets. The two streets are directly comparable apart

Mike Biddulph

2012-01-01

217

Assessment of subsurface chlorinated solvent contamination using tree cores at the front street site and a former dry cleaning facility at the Riverfront Superfund site, New Haven, Missouri, 1999-2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tree-core sampling has been a reliable and inexpensive tool to quickly assess the presence of shallow (less than about 30 feet deep) tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in soils and ground water at the Riverfront Superfund Site. This report presents the results of tree-core sampling that was successfully used to determine the presence and extent of chlorinated solvent contamination at two sites, the Front Street site (operable unit OU1) and the former dry cleaning facility, that are part of the overall Riverfront Superfund Site. Traditional soil and ground-water sampling at these two sites later confirmed the results from the tree-core sampling. Results obtained from the tree-core sampling were used to design and focus subsequent soil and ground-water investigations, resulting in substantial savings in time and site assessment costs. The Front Street site is a small (less than 1-acre) site located on the Missouri River alluvium in downtown New Haven, Missouri, about 500 feet from the south bank of the Missouri River. Tree-core sampling detected the presence of subsurface PCE contamination at the Front Street site and beneath residential property downgradient from the site. Core samples from trees at the site contained PCE concentrations as large as 3,850 mg-h/kg (micrograms in headspace per kilogram of wet core) and TCE concentrations as large as 249 mg-h/kg. Soils at the Front Street site contained PCE concentrations as large as 6,200,000 mg/kg (micrograms per kilogram) and ground-water samples contained PCE concentrations as large as 11,000 mg/L (micrograms per liter). The former dry cleaning facility is located at the base of the upland that forms the south bank of the Missouri River alluvial valley. Tree-core sampling did not indicate the presence of PCE or TCE contamination at the former dry cleaning facility, a finding that was later confirmed by the analyses of soil samples collected from the site. The lateral extent of PCE contamination in trees was in close agreement with the extent of subsurface PCE contamination determined using traditional soil and ground-water sampling methods. Trees growing in soils containing PCE concentrations of 60 to 5,700 mg/kg or larger or overlying ground water containing PCE concentrations from 5 to 11,000 mg/L generally contained detectable concentrations of PCE. The depth to contaminated ground water was about 20 to 25 feet below the land surface. Significant quantitative relations [probability (p) values of less than 0.05 and correlation coefficient (r2) values of 0.88 to 0.90] were found between PCE concentrations in trees and subsurface soils between 4 and 16 feet deep. The relation between PCE concentrations in trees and underlying ground water was less apparent (r2 value of 0.17) and the poor relation is thought to be the result of equilibrium with PCE concentrations in soil and vapor in the unsaturated zone. Based on PCE concentrations detected in trees at the Front Street site and trees growing along contaminated tributaries in other operable units, and from field hydroponic experiments using hybrid poplar cuttings, analysis of tree-core samples appears to be able to detect subsurface PCE contamination in soils at levels of several hundred micrograms per liter or less and PCE concentrations in the range of 8 to 30 mg/L in ground water in direct contact with the roots. Loss of PCE from tree trunks by diffusion resulted in an exponential decrease in PCE concentrations with increasing height above the land surface in most trees. The rate of loss also appeared to be a function of the size and growth characteristics of the tree as some trees exhibited a linear loss with increasing height. Diffusional loss of PCE in small (0.5-inch diameter) trees was observed to occur at a rate more than 10 times larger than in trees 6.5 inches in diameter. Concentrations of PCE also exhibited directional variability around the tree trunks and concentration differe

Schumacher, John G.; Struckhoff, Garrett C.; Burken, Joel G.

2004-01-01

218

Landfill methane balance: Model and practical applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rational mass-balance framework is described for improved quantification of landfill methane processes at a given site. The methane balance model examines the partitioning of methane generated into methane recovered (via extraction systems), methane emi...

J. Bogner K. Spokas

1995-01-01

219

Numerical assessment of a landfill compliance limit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The PLASM and Random Walk ground-water flow and contaminant transport models were used to assess the potential impact of various proposed regulatory compliance distances on landfill siting. Contaminant transport modeling was performed for 16 generalized geological sequences representative of hydrogeological conditions over an estimated 90 to 95 percent of Illinois. Results of this modeling indicate that about 50 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable for landfilling of nonhazardous wastes if the compliance distance was 100 feet. With a compliance distance of 500 feet, about 55 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable. This work demonstrates the utility of computer modeling in the development of regulations governing landfill siting.

Hensel, Bruce, R.; Keefer, Donald, A.; Griffin, Robert, A.; Berg, Richard, C.

1991-01-01

220

Landfill alternative offers powerful case.  

PubMed

With many of Europe's landfill sites now close to capacity, and the EU Landfill Directive requiring that, by 2020, the amount of waste sent to landfill should be just 35% of the volume similarly disposed of in 1995, pressure is mounting to find environmentally acceptable waste disposal alternatives. At a recent IHEEM waste seminar, Gary Connelly, a technical consultant at environmental technology consultancy the Cameron Corporation, described a technology which he explained can effectively convert 85% of the European Waste Catalogue of materials into an inert residue, is "cleaner and cheaper" than incineration, and can generate both electricity an waste heat. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, a key target market is healthcare facilities. PMID:21585140

Baillie, Jonathan

2011-04-01

221

Venice Park landfill: Working with the community  

SciTech Connect

Venice Park landfill was one of the first sites to be permitted under Michigan's proposed Public Act 641. PA 641 essentially changed the rules and regulations for landfills from the simple design of digging a hole and filling it. It also upgraded standards to those that are more sophisticated, including liners, leachate collection systems, and gas extraction systems. In 1992, methane gas from the landfill was collected into wells drilled into the trash varying in depth from 30-50 feet in depth. A vacuum pulls the gas from the trash into the wells, then through a piping system. The landfill uses about 80-100 kilowatts in-house. The remainder of the gas is sold to Consumers Power Co. which uses landfill gas to supply power to homes.

McAdams, C.L.

1993-09-01

222

Soil seed bank of the waste landfills in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restoration of urban landfill is a topic of growing interest in reclamation ecology as the acreage of abandoned sites near cities increases. The goals of this study were to assess the ecological status of waste landfills and to elucidate the role of seed banks in the establishment of vegetation at these sites. The study sites were located at five

Kee Dae Kim; Eun Ju Lee

2005-01-01

223

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

2013-03-01

224

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

2013-04-01

225

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

2013-01-01

226

Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant

W. J. Waugh; M. K. Kastens; L. R. L. Sheader; C. H. Benson; W. H. Albright; P. S. Mushovic

2008-01-01

227

H2S removal and bacterial structure along a full-scale biofilter bed packed with polyurethane foam in a landfill site.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide accumulated under a cover film in a landfill site was treated for 7 months by a full-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes. Sampling ports were set along the biofilter bed to investigate H2S removal and microbial characteristics in the biofilter. The H2S was removed effectively by the biofilter, and over 90% removal efficiency was achieved in steady state. Average elimination capacity of H2S was 2.21 g m(-3) h(-1) in lower part (LPB) and 0.41 g m(-3) h(-1) in upper part (UPB) of the biofilter. Most H2S was eliminated in LPB. H2S concentration varied along the polyurethane foam packed bed, the structure of the bacterial communities showed spatial variation in the biofilter, and H2S removal as well as products distribution changed accordingly. The introduction of odorants into the biofilter shifted the distribution of the existing microbial populations toward a specific culture that could metabolize the target odors. PMID:23989036

Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Yan, Xu; Liu, Junxin

2013-11-01

228

Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify what is most important to the quality of life (QoL) of those who experience homelessness by directly soliciting the views of homeless and hard-to-house Canadians themselves. These individuals live within a unique social context that differs considerably from that of the general population. To understand the life areas that are most important to them, it is critical to have direct input from target populations of homeless and hard-to-house persons. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 140 individuals aged 15 to 73?years who were homeless or hard-to-house to explore the circumstances in which they were living and to capture what they find to be important and relevant domains of QoL. Participants were recruited in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Vancouver. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Six major content themes emerged: Health/health care; Living conditions; Financial situation; Employment situation; Relationships; and Recreational and leisure activities. These themes were linked to broader concepts that included having choices, stability, respect, and the same rights as other members of society. Conclusions These findings not only aid our understanding of QoL in this group, but may be used to develop measures that capture QoL in this population and help programs and policies become more effective in improving the life situation for persons who are homeless and hard-to-house. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study.

2012-01-01

229

Assessing the environmental risks associated with contaminated sites: Definition of an Ecotoxicological Classification index for landfill areas (ECRIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing ecological risk in quantitative terms is a site-specific complex procedure requiring evaluation of all possible pathways taken by the chemicals from the contamination source to the targets to be protected. Unfortunately, too many cases lack of physico-chemical and ecotoxicological data makes impossible to quantify the ecological risk. We present the Ecotoxicological Classification Risk Index for Soil (ECRIS), a new

V. Senese; E. Boriani; D. Baderna; A. Mariani; M. Lodi; A. Finizio; S. Testa; E. Benfenati

2010-01-01

230

2-Liter Landfill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners gain a better understanding of how household/school waste breaks down in a landfill. Learners collect trash and then create miniature landfills in 2-liter bottles. Learners record observations about their landfills at least once a week for a month. This activity is part of a larger curriculum related to amphibians and conservation.

Aquarium, Omaha'S H.

2009-01-01

231

Municipal Landfill Gas Condensate,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New regulations relative to air emissions from municipal landfills may require the installation of gas collection systems at landfills. As landfill gas (LFG) is collected, water and other vapors in the gas condense in the system or are purposely removed i...

J. Briggs

1987-01-01

232

Evaluating pollution potential of leachate from landfill site, from the Pune metropolitan city and its impact on shallow basaltic aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate produced by municipal solid waste dumping site near the metropolitan city of Pune, India was examined for its pollution\\u000a potential and impact on surrounding shallow basaltic aquifers. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters during post- and pre-monsoon\\u000a seasons (Nov 2006 and May 2007) were determined to assess the seasonal variation in the leachate pollution index (LPI) as\\u000a well as in the groundwater

Sanjay S. Kale; Ajay K. Kadam; Suyash Kumar; N. J. Pawar

2010-01-01

233

Gaseous methyl- and inorganic mercury in landfill gas from landfills in Florida, Minnesota, Delaware, and California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal waste landfills contain numerous sources of mercury which could be emitted to the atmosphere. Their generation of methane by anaerobic bacteria suggests that landfills may act as bioreactors for methylated mercury compounds. Since our previous study at a single Florida landfill, gaseous inorganic and methylated mercury species have now been identified and quantified in landfill gas at nine additional municipal landfills in several regions of the US. Total gaseous mercury occurs at concentrations in the ?g m -3 range, while methylated compounds occur at concentrations in the ng m -3 range at all but one of the landfill sites. Dimethylmercury is the predominant methylated species, at concentrations up to 100 ng m -3, while monomethyl mercury was generally lower. Limited measurements near sites where waste is exposed for processing (e.g. working face, transfer areas) suggest that dimethylmercury is released during these activities as well. Although increasing amounts of landfill gas generated in the US are flared (which should thermally decompose the organic mercury to inorganic mercury), unflared landfill gas is a potentially important anthropogenic source of methylated mercury emissions to the atmosphere.

Lindberg, S. E.; Southworth, G.; Prestbo, E. M.; Wallschläger, D.; Bogle, M. A.; Price, J.

234

Diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils with and without landfill gas recovery systems.  

PubMed

Aerobic CH4 oxidation plays an important role in mitigating CH4 release from landfills to the atmosphere. Therefore, in this study, oxidation activity and community of methanotrophs were investigated in a subtropical landfill. Among the three sites investigated, the highest CH4 concentration was detected in the landfill cover soil of the site (A) without a landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, although the refuse in the site had been deposited for a longer time (?14-15 years) compared to the other two sites (?6-11 years) where a LFG recovery system was applied. In April and September, the higher CH4 flux was detected in site A with 72.4 and 51.7gm(-2)d(-1), respectively, compared to the other sites. The abundance of methanotrophs assessed by quantification of pmoA varied with location and season. A linear relationship was observed between the abundance of methanotrophs and CH4 concentrations in the landfill cover soils (R=0.827, P<0.001). The key factors influencing the methanotrophic diversity in the landfill cover soils were pH, the water content and the CH4 concentration in the soil, of which pH was the most important factor. Type I methanotrophs, including Methylococcus, Methylosarcina, Methylomicrobium and Methylobacter, and type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis) were all detected in the landfill cover soils, with Methylocystis and Methylosarcina being the dominant genera. Methylocystis was abundant in the slightly acidic landfill cover soil, especially in September, and represented more than 89% of the total terminal-restriction fragment abundance. These findings indicated that the LFG recovery system, as well as physical and chemical parameters, affected the diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils. PMID:24332193

Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Qi; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Wang, Jing; He, Ruo

2014-05-01

235

Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant transpiration seasonally return it to the atmosphere. The cover at Monticello uses local soils and a native plant community to mimic the natural soil water balance. The cover is fundamentally an evapotranspiration (ET) design with a capillary barrier. A 3-hectare drainage lysimeter was embedded in the cover during construction of the disposal cell in 2000. The lysimeter consists of a geo-membrane liner below the capillary barrier that directs percolation water to a monitoring system. Soil water storage is determined by integration of point water content measurements. Meteorological parameters are measured nearby. Plant cover, shrub density, and leaf area index (LAI) are monitored annually. The cover performed well over the 7-year monitoring period (2000-2007). The cumulative percolation was 4.2 mm (0.6 mm yr{sup -1}), satisfying an EPA goal of an average percolation of <3.0 mm yr{sup -1}. Almost all percolation can be attributed to the exceptionally wet winter and spring of 2004-2005 when soil water content slightly exceeded the water storage capacity of the cover. The diversity, percent cover, and LAI of vegetation increased over the monitoring period, although the density of native shrubs that extract water from deeper in the cover has remained less than revegetation targets. DOE and EPA are applying the monitoring results to plan for long-term surveillance and maintenance and to evaluate alternative cover designs for other waste disposal sites. (authors)

Waugh, W.J.; Kastens, M.K.; Sheader, L.R.L. [Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Mushovic, P.S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, CO (United States)

2008-07-01

236

Landfills in New York City: 1844--1994  

SciTech Connect

Historic topographic maps are reviewed to locate landfills constructed within New York City during four time intervals between 1844 and 1994. A total of 184.75 km{sup 2} (45,650 acres) of landfill are identified (approximately 20% of the study area). Data are not available to determine the fill composition at most sites but literature sources indicate that municipal solid waste (MSW) has been an important source of fill since at least 1891. Qualitative temporal trends in the spatial distribution of landfills and the composition and thickness of MSW landfills are observed. The oldest landfills are clustered in the vicinity of the early urban center (southern New York County) but expand in spatial distribution after the turn of this century. Logs of borings through 10 MSW landfills show that waste landfills built prior to the mid-1950s contain abundant ash (coal ash is common in the oldest landfills) and are relatively thin (3--7 m) with no topographic mounding. In MSW landfills built since that time, uncombusted organic matter is abundant, thicknesses increase greatly (16--27 m), and pronounced topographic mounding is observed. Most landfills identified in this study were built on tidal wetlands. Fine-grained wetland deposits underlying the landfills and close proximity to large surface-water bodies favor lateral transport of leachate from MSW landfills in shallow ground water and local discharge to surface water. The wide distribution of historic landfills and common use of MSW for fill indicates that these sites should be considered in investigations of ground water, surface water, and sediment quality in New York City and other urban areas where extensive historic landfilling has occurred.

Walsh, D.C. [NYSDEC, Long Island City, NY (United States); LaFleur, R.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences

1995-07-01

237

The Braxton property consists of approximately 19 acres of undeveloped, forested land, located south of the intersection of Bush Road and Old Philadelphia Road in Abingdon. The former Bush Valley Landfill (MD002) is located directly east of the site. Residential properties surround the site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental investigations in 1990 detected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater and a soil gas survey of the property indicated that landfill gases were found along the eastern portions of the site. In 1992, as part of the development of an adjacent parcel, an environmental investigation was conducted on the Braxton Property. This investigation detected VOCs in the groundwater.

Art O'Connell

238

Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates collected in Japan in 1996 were determined by gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer (GC\\/MS). Bisphenol A was found in seven of 10 sites investigated. All the hazardous waste landfills with leachates contaminated by bisphenol A were controlled. The concentrations of bisphenol A ranged from 1.3 to 17,200 ?g\\/l with a median concentration

Takashi Yamamoto; Akio Yasuhara; Hiroaki Shiraishi; Osami Nakasugi

2001-01-01

239

Methane Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane oxidation in the cover soil of the Khmet'evo municipal landfill in Moscow oblast was investigated. Methane emission from the experimental site of the landfill was highly heterogeneous. At a depth of 45–60 cm, the pore gas mainly consisted of CH4 (60–70%) and CO2 (30–40%). In the upper layers of the cover soil, the concentration of these gases sharply decreased.

A. Yu. Kallistova; M. V. Kevbrina; V. K. Nekrasova; M. V. Glagolev; M. I. Serebryanaya; A. N. Nozhevnikova

2005-01-01

240

Landfill gas generation and migration: Review of current research  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regard to gas migration, a field investigation is examining bidirectional gas movement through landfill cover materials by processes of pressure and diffusional flow. The purpose of the study is to quantify gas loss from the landfill reservoir by natural venting and air influx due to pumping on recovery wells. Two field sites - a humid site with clay cover

J. Bogner; C. Rose; M. Vogt; D. Gartman

1987-01-01

241

CRITICAL FACTORS CONTROLLING VEGETATION GROWTH ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study identifies some of the critical factors that affect tree and shrub growth on reclaimed sanitary landfill sites and determines which woody species are adaptable to the adverse growth conditions of such sites. Trees planted at the Edgeboro Landfill, East Brunswick, New J...

242

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

Bechtel Nevada

1998-08-31

243

Implementation of the semi-aerobic landfill system (Fukuoka method) in developing countries: A Malaysia cost analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the existing solid waste landfill sites in developing countries are practicing either open dumping or controlled dumping. Proper sanitary landfill concepts are not fully implemented due to technological and financial constraints. Implementation of a fully engineered sanitary landfill is necessary and a more economically feasible landfill design is crucial, particularly for developing countries. This study was carried out

Theng Lee Chong; Yasushi Matsufuji; Mohd Nasir Hassan

2005-01-01

244

Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity to airports, roads, and transmission lines. The result of study showed that there is a range of 29 to 81 locations that are potentially feasible for the placement of large and medium-scale wind turbines in city of Chicago. Twenty nine of these sites were found to be most suitable. The study has limitations in that some of the data used were incomplete and some additional variables that needed to be considered, such as, the effects of passing trains on wind turbines and acceptance of urban dwellers of wind turbines in their city. Despite these limitations, the framework of this research can be applied to improve the study for the city of Chicago by considering additional variables and to extend it to other areas of study, and raise awareness of renewable energy, and the possibilities and flexibility of wind energy.

Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

245

Street Youth & AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

246

Widening Sesame Street.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the developmental history of Sesame Street from the initial efforts to obtain funding and set goals to present day importation of programs to other countries. It is recommended that Sesame Street producers incorporate Piagetian theories on cognitive development in order to realize learning gains. (Author)

Beck, T. Kay

1979-01-01

247

All About Sesame Street.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behind-the-scenes story of "Sesame Street" is told from its origin as a "good idea," through the development of the Children's Television Workshop, to the casting of the now familiar characters, Susan, Bob, Gordon, Mr. Hooper, and the Muppets. Details of producing the show are described with anecdotes. The effect of "Sesame Street" on its…

Feinstein, Phylis

248

1. The intersection of Central Street with Main Street. Franklin ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. The intersection of Central Street with Main Street. Franklin Grocery Company building at left center. View looking west. - Franklin Grocery Company Building, 1 South Main Street, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

249

Characterization of malodorous sulfur compounds in landfill gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze the composition of landfill gas (LFG) with respect to malodorous components, the concentrations of several reduced sulfur compounds (RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H2S); methyl mercaptan (CH3SH); dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S); carbon disulfide (CS2); and dimethyl disulfide ((CH3)2S2)) were determined from four municipal landfill sites—initialed W, B, H, and N—in Korea. The S gas concentrations measured in these landfill

Ki-Hyun Kim; YJ Choi; EC Jeon; Young Sunwoo

2005-01-01

250

Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills  

SciTech Connect

Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

2004-07-01

251

Environmental diagnosis methodology for municipal waste landfills.  

PubMed

A large number of countries are involved in a process of transformation with regard to the management of municipal solid waste. This process is a consequence of environmental requirements that occasionally materialise in legislation, such as the European Council Directive 31/99/EC on waste release in the European Union. In some cases, the remediation of old landfills can be carried out in compliance with environmental requirements; in other cases, it is necessary to proceed with the closure of the landfill and to assimilate it into its own environment. In both cases, it is necessary to undertake a diagnosis and characterisation of the impacted areas in order to develop an adequate action plan. This study presents a new methodology by which environmental diagnosis of landfill sites may be carried out. The methodology involves the formulation of a series of environmental indeces which provide information concerning the potential environmental problems of the landfills and the particular impact on different environmental elements, as well as information related to location, design and operation. On the basis of these results, it would be possible to draw up action plans for the remediation or closure of the landfill site. By applying the methodology to several landfills in a specific area, it would be possible to prioritize the order of actions required. PMID:15905084

Calvo, F; Moreno, B; Zamorano, M; Szanto, M

2005-01-01

252

LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

253

Report: management problems of solid waste landfills in Kuwait.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates current operational practices in municipal solid waste landfills in Kuwait to provide existing knowledge on uncontrolled landfilling and associated problems of solid waste disposal in developing countries. The current landfilling practices are safe neither for humans nor for the environment. The landfill sites receive all kinds of wastes such as food wastes, oil products, debris, dead animals, agricultural wastes, chemical wastes, wastewater and sewage sludge. The wastes are dumped, spread and compacted in an uncontrolled manner and cover material is not applied regularly. Dust created within the landfill site and gas emissions cause a public nuisance. The characteristics of leachate formed indicate high organic content and presence of heavy metals, salts and nutrients. There are no provisions for leachate or landfill gas collection at the landfill sites. Recommendations for adjustment in landfill operation have been made in recognition of the transition period that is experienced in proceeding from the past and present to the future management of landfills in Kuwait to safeguard the public health and protect the environment. PMID:12363092

Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

2002-08-01

254

Street & Smith's Preservation Access Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For thousands of Americans throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, dime novels and pulp magazines were their first experiences with the emerging world of mass-produced material culture. One such purveyor was the Street & Smith publishing house, which began in 1855 and published a wide variety of popular literature (such as homemaking magazines, comics, and dime novels) for over 100 years. These products didn't often have a great deal of originality, as the company viewed fiction as a commodity, and editors dictated plots and characters to writers, a list that included Horatio Alger, Upton Sinclair, and Jack London. This Web site, an online exhibit presented by the Syracuse University Library, pays homage to this publishing house with a number of scanned digitized images of the Street & Smith dime novels, a cover art gallery, and a collection of images immortalizing that most famous comic strip character, the Yellow Kid.

255

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

2002-01-01

256

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

2000-01-01

257

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CAPILLARY BARRIER FINAL LANDFILL COVERS FACT SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The fact sheet provides an overview of two alternative landfill cover designs. It briefly describes advantages and limitations, performance, costs, design and site considerations, and monitoring parameters associated with these cover designs. The document also includes 20 site ...

258

[Street violence in Arhus].  

PubMed

As part of a one-year prospective investigation of all violent accidents in Arhus undertaken in the casualty departments and the Medicolegal Institute, the extent and severity of street violence were analysed and compared with violence in and near pubs. Street violence constituted 26% of all accidents due to violence and involved 1.3 persons per day. 75% were blameless and 68% of these were attacked outside the region where they lived. Violence in the street, in pubs and in the vicinity of pubs was concentrated in the centre of the city, in the evening and night hours, at weekends and involved young men. Street violence and violence in the vicinity of pubs differed from violence in pubs in that significantly more of the victims were blameless (approximately 75%), several persons were the perpetrators (approximately 40%) and blows and kicks were combined (approximately 15%). As assessed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the lesions sustained in street injury did not differ from those of violence in or near pubs: 86% were minor injuries, 11% moderate and none proved fatal. 75% of the victims could be treated completely in the casualty department or by the general practitioner or dentist. Street violence is concentrated to the middle of the city, at weekends and in the evening and night hours and is similar in many ways to violence in and near pubs. The authors consider that exposure to street violence is, to a great extent, connected with participation in night life of the city. PMID:1996497

Petersen, K K; Schrøder, H M; Charles, A V; Eiskjaer, S P

1991-01-21

259

Hydrogeology of a landfill, Pinellas County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a high water table is subject to tidal flooding. Altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shells; a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay; and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. The rate of lateral movement of ground water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; however, the rate of movement along the boundary of the landfill cells is about 20 feet per year. Vertical movement through the confining layer is about 0.005 foot per year. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Leachate migration downward into the Floridan aquifer is not indicated, but data do indicate leachate is migrating from the oldest section of the landfill site through the surficial aquifer. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of slug-flow leachate. (USGS)

Fernandez, Mario, Jr.

1983-01-01

260

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

2013-01-01

261

Safe Streets in Tacoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Tacoma, Washington, the Safe Street Campaign united the schools, government agencies, labor groups, community and religious organizations, businesses, youth, and substance abuse agencies in responding to gangs and drugs. (MLF)

Nebgen, Mary

1990-01-01

262

Analysis of Street Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the content of street drugs available to a college campus and a community is presented. Emphasis is given to the adulterants and substitutions encountered in the illicit preparations. (Author)

James, Stuart H.; Bhatt, Sudhir

1972-01-01

263

Main Street Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several years ago the National Trust for Historic Preservation developed the Main Street Program to assist small, primarily rural, communities to revitalize their downtown economic bases. The program has four major components: organization, promotion, des...

1987-01-01

264

14. Photocopy of 'Chapel Street, view east from Church Street, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photocopy of 'Chapel Street, view east from Church Street, 1892-1894' (from New Haven Colony Historical Society, New Haven, CT, negative #25,608) George R. Bradley, photographer - Exchange Building, 121-127 Church Street, 855-871 Chapel Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

265

15. Photocopy of 'Chapel Street, corner of Church Street, Exchange ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of 'Chapel Street, corner of Church Street, Exchange Building, c. 1895' (from New Haven Colony Historical Society New Haven, CT), photographer unknown - Exchange Building, 121-127 Church Street, 855-871 Chapel Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

266

A statistical model for landfill surface emissions.  

PubMed

Landfill operators require a rapid, simple, low-cost, and accurate method for estimation of landfill methane surface emissions over time. Several methods have been developed to obtain instantaneous field measurements of landfill methane surface emissions. This paper provides a methodology for interpolating instantaneous measurements over time, taking variations in meteorological conditions into account. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of three factors on landfill methane surface emissions: air temperature, pressure gradient between waste and atmosphere, and soil moisture content of the cover material. On the basis of a statistical three-factor and two-level full factorial design, field measurements of methane emissions were conducted at the City of Montreal landfill site during the summer of 2004. Three areas were measured: test area 1 (4800 m2), test area 2 (1400 m2), and test area 3 (1000 m2). Analyses of variance were performed on the data. They showed a significant statistical effect of the three factors and the interaction between temperature and soil moisture content on methane emissions. Analysis also led to the development of a multifactor correlation, which can be explained by the underlying processes of diffusive and advective flow and biological oxidation. This correlation was used to estimate total emissions of the three test areas for July and August 2004. The approach was validated using a second dataset for another area adjacent to the landfill. PMID:20222535

Héroux, Martin; Guy, Christophe; Millette, Denis

2010-02-01

267

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1992 from wells of the LFW series located at the sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. This data is submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A).

Not Available

1992-08-01

268

ESTIMATING LEACHATE PRODUCTION FROM CLOSED HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous wastes disposed of in landfills may continue to drain for several years after site closure. The report presents suitable analytical methods for predicting the flow of leachate to underdrains from closed hazardous waste landfills. Leachate sources include waste fluids as...

269

Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1992 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A).

Thompson, C.Y.

1992-11-01

270

STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES FOR PLANTING VEGETATION ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

A manual was developed for those charged with establishing a vegetative cover on completed landfills. Special problems associated with growing plants on these sites are discussed, and step-by-step procedures are given for converting a closed landfill to a variety of end uses requ...

271

Colour removal from landfill leachate by coagulation and flocculation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation processes for removing colour from a semi-aerobic landfill leachate from one of the landfill sites in Malaysia. Four types of coagulant namely aluminium (III) sulphate (alum), ferric (III) chloride, ferrous (II) sulphate and ferric (III) sulphate were studied using standard jar test apparatus. Results indicated that ferric chloride

Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Salina Alias; Mohd. Nordin Adlan; Faridah; A. H. Asaari; Mohd. Shahrir Zahari

2007-01-01

272

Odor modeling methodology for determining the odor buffer distance for sanitary landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to create a methodology whereby reductions in off-site odor migrations resulting from operational and design changes in new or expanded sanitary landfills can be evaluated. The Ann Arbor Sanitary Landfill was chosen as a prototype landfill to test a hypothesis for this study. This study is a unique approach to odor prediction at sanitary

Song; Dukman

1991-01-01

273

Emission of non CO2 greenhouse gases from landfills of different age located in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill gas is a product of the natural biological decomposition of organic material contained in wastes deposited in landfills. This denomination generically indicates a gas mixture made of methane and carbon dioxide. These gases are produced until most of the organic material in the waste has been degraded. Emissions from municipal landfill sites are therefore potentially harmful to both local

Michela Maione; Jgor Arduini; Matteo Rinaldi; Filippo Mangani; Bruno Capaccioni

2005-01-01

274

Technical and economic assessment of power generation from landfill gas in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on the technical, economic and environmental assessment of stand-alone and grid connected electricity generation from landfill gas in South Africa. Theoretical models are developed in Matlab to calculate the methane production potential of three Western Cape landfill sites in order to assess their suitability for landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects. Then Homer package is used to

K. Sekgoele; S. P. Chowdhury

2011-01-01

275

7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. The tall, narrow building in the middle of the photo is 10 North Warren Street. Signs saying 'Saddlery,' 'Carriage,' and 'Hardware' on the building indicate that the photo was taken during the tenancy of Claffery & Slack (1888-1914). - 10 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), 10 North Warren Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

276

The Street and Its Image.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied development of identity as street children in Montevideo, Uruguay. Found that children without income-generating activity lack self-definition as street children but recognize the street as a place of apprenticeship, knowing they can return to institutions or to parents. Working children view the street as a workplace and meeting place,…

Lucchini, Riccardo

1996-01-01

277

Characterization of a landfill-derived contaminant plume in glacial and bedrock aquifers, NE Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater contamination by organic and inorganic chemicals is a regional and national problem; landfills are major potential contaminant sources. In the study of the Blackwell landfill, DuPage County, Illinois the contaminant plume is delineated and related to the site history and hydrogeology. Leachate leakage is attributed partly to landfill construction problems. The landfill is located partly on a sand-and-gravel aquifer

C. J. Booth; P. J. Vagt

1986-01-01

278

A decision support system for assessing landfill performance  

SciTech Connect

Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills.

Celik, Basak [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Inoenue Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan [Middle East Technical University, Department of Computer Engineering, Inoenue Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Unlue, Kahraman, E-mail: kunlu@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Inoenue Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2010-01-15

279

A decision support system for assessing landfill performance.  

PubMed

Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills. PMID:19836225

Celik, Ba?ak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlü, Kahraman

2010-01-01

280

Street youth and AIDS.  

PubMed

An attempt is made to characterize the population of homeless street youth who are living marginally and to describe aspects of this population's dynamics, motivations, values, and aspirations. Street youth, ranging in age from birth to 21, are on the street for one reason or another--dire poverty in the home, which necessitates their working on the street to supplement the family income, because they have been rejected by parents or guardians, because they have left home due to violence in the home, drug or alcohol use by family members, or because of lack of a place where they feel they can be "themselves." These conditions make street youths particularly vulnerable to HIV infection, not to mention malnutrition, stress, and drug use. Their violently accelerated emotional maturation, ignorance, alcohol- and drug-induced confusion, together with the exploitation and sexual abuse of which they are often victims, are additional factors that contribute to sexual practices that may lead to HIV infection. PMID:1389867

Bond, L S; Mazin, R; Jiminez, M V

1992-01-01

281

Landfill Gas Production from Large Landfill Simulators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two sizes of landfill simulators or test cells; one set containing approximately 320 kg wet weight of municipal solid wastes (MSW) and the other set containing 2555 kg wet weight of MSW were used to measure the amount and composition of gases produced fro...

L. W. Jones R. J. Larson P. G. Malone

1984-01-01

282

LANDFILL GAS PRODUCTION FROM LARGE LANDFILL SIMULATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two sizes of landfill simulators or test cells; one set containing approximately 320 kg wet weight of municipal solid wastes (MSW) and the other set containing 2555 kg wet weight of MSW were used to measure the amount and composition of gases produced from MSW under typical landf...

283

The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management. PMID:20935025

Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

2011-01-01

284

Landfill to Learning Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

Venner, Laura

2008-05-01

285

Developing and testing a street audit tool using Google Street View to measure environmental supportiveness for physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Walking for physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits for adults. Increasingly research has focused on associations between walking behaviours and neighbourhood environments including street characteristics such as pavement availability and aesthetics. Nevertheless, objective assessment of street-level data is challenging. This research investigates the reliability of a new street characteristic audit tool designed for use with Google Street View, and assesses levels of agreement between computer-based and on-site auditing. Methods The Forty Area STudy street VIEW (FASTVIEW) tool, a Google Street View based audit tool, was developed incorporating nine categories of street characteristics. Using the tool, desk-based audits were conducted by trained researchers across one large UK town during 2011. Both inter and intra-rater reliability were assessed. On-site street audits were also completed to test the criterion validity of the method. All reliability scores were assessed by percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Results Within-rater agreement was high for each category of street characteristic (range: 66.7%-90.0%) and good to high between raters (range: 51.3%-89.1%). A high level of agreement was found between the Google Street View audits and those conducted in-person across the nine categories examined (range: 75.0%-96.7%). Conclusion The audit tool was found to provide a reliable and valid measure of street characteristics. The use of Google Street View to capture street characteristic data is recommended as an efficient method that could substantially increase potential for large-scale objective data collection.

2013-01-01

286

BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

287

Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

NONE

1995-06-01

288

"Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

2009-01-01

289

Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former C.H. Schnoor and Company Site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CPV001)  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company Site in Springdale, Pennsylvania. The survey was performed from August to October of 1994. The purpose of the survey was to verify that the site was remediated to levels below DOE guidelines from FUSRAP sites. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company Site confirm that the residual uranium contamination at the site is below DOE FUSRAP guidelines for unrestricted use.

Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.; Foley, R.D. [and others

1995-09-01

290

Cyclic characterization of OII landfill solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of predesign studies for closure of the Operating Industries, Inc. (OII) landfill Superfund site, field and laboratory studies were combined with back analyses of strong motion data to characterize the behavior of the OII solid waste when subjected to strong earthquake shaking. Small strain shear modulus values for the solid waste material were established on the basis of

Neven Matasovic?; Edward Kavazanjian Jr.

1998-01-01

291

Radioactive Material in the West Lake Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. The report ...

1988-01-01

292

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

293

FIELD VERIFICATION OF LINERS FROM SANITARY LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Liner specimens from three existing landfill sites were collected and examined to determine the changes in their physical properties over time and to validate data being developed through laboratory research. Samples examined included a 15-mil PVC liner from a sludge lagoon in Ne...

294

1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., RI. sec. 4215, mp 141.67/.77. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

295

Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill gas, originating from the anaerobic biodegradation of the organic content of waste, consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, with traces of volatile organic compounds. Pressure, concentration and temperature gradients that develop within the landfill result in gas emissions to the atmosphere and in lateral migration through the surrounding soils. Environmental and safety issues associated with the landfill gas require control of off-site gas migration. The numerical model TOUGH2-LGM (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat-Landfill Gas Migration) has been developed to simulate landfill gas production and migration processes within and beyond landfill boundaries. The model is derived from the general non-isothermal multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2, to which a new equation of state module is added. It simulates the migration of five components in partially saturated media: four fluid components (water, atmospheric air, methane and carbon dioxide) and one energy component (heat). The four fluid components are present in both the gas and liquid phases. The model incorporates gas-liquid partitioning of all fluid components by means of dissolution and volatilization. In addition to advection in the gas and liquid phase, multi-component diffusion is simulated in the gas phase. The landfill gas production rate is proportional to the organic substrate and is modeled as an exponentially decreasing function of time. The model is applied to the Montreal's CESM landfill site, which is located in a former limestone rock quarry. Existing data were used to characterize hydraulic properties of the waste and the limestone. Gas recovery data at the site were used to define the gas production model. Simulations in one and two dimensions are presented to investigate gas production and migration in the landfill, and in the surrounding limestone. The effects of a gas recovery well and landfill cover on gas migration are also discussed.

Nastev, Miroslav; Therrien, René; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre

2001-11-01

296

Bellinzona Street Scene Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bellinzona is a city in Switzerland famous for it’s three castles. It’s location at the foot of the Alps made it a strategic point for fortification since the Roman Empire. This photograph shows a street scene in Bellinzona during the late 1960s.

Chet Smolski

1969-01-01

297

Saving Mango Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

Van Winkle, Katie

2012-01-01

298

Washington Street's "Soul Survivors"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes as an example of what a non-school agency is doing to ease desegregation the Greater Dallas Human Relations Commission's sponsorship of the Washington Street "Soul Survivors," a group of 12 blacks and 12 whites performing race relations-oriented entertainment. (JM)

Simms, Richard

1973-01-01

299

Benjamin Franklin Street Academy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this evaluation report of the sixth year of operation of the Benjamin Franklin-Urban League Street Academy in New York City, it is recommended that the program be continued for the seventh year despite the poorer than expected student gains in all studied components and the sporadic student attendance pattern and high dropout rate. Students…

Wohl, Seth F.

300

Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 mT of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 mT was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the

C. Yu; P. Merry-Libby; J. Y. Yang

1985-01-01

301

Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

NONE

1996-04-01

302

Sesame Street: Socialization by Surrogate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews some of the controversy surrounding "Sesame Street's" treatment of the socialization progress of preschool television viewers. Examined in detail are those portions of "Sesame Street" programs which contribute to children's learning of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Some comparisons are made between "Sesame Street"…

Felsenthal, Norman A.

303

Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethenes Under Oxidation-Reduction Conditions and Potentiometric Surfaces in Two Trichloroethene-Contaminated Zones at the Double Eagle and Fourth Street Superfund Sites in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Double Eagle Refining Superfund site and the Fourth Street Abandoned Refinery Superfund site are in northeast Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, adjacent to one another. The Double Eagle facility became a Superfund site on the basis of contamination from lead and volatile organic compounds; the Fourth Street facility on the basis of volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and acid-base neutral compounds. The study documented in this report was done to investigate whether reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes under oxidation-reduction conditions is occurring in two zones of the Garber-Wellington aquifer (shallow zone 30?60 to 75 feet below land surface, deep zone 75 to 160 feet below land surface) at the sites; and to construct potentiometric surfaces of the two water-yielding zones to determine the directions of ground-water flow at the sites. The presence in some wells of intermediate products of reductive dechlorination, dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, is an indication that reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene is occurring. Dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.5 milligram per liter) indicate that consumption of dissolved oxygen likely had occurred in the oxygen-reducing microbial process associated with reductive dechlorination. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (generally less than 2.0 and 0.06 milligrams per liter, respectively) indicate that nitrate reduction probably is not a key process in either aquifer zone. Concentrations of ferrous iron greater than 1.00 milligram per liter in the majority of wells sampled indicate that iron reduction is probable. Concentrations of sulfide less than 0.05 milligram per liter in all wells indicate that sulfate reduction probably is not a key process in either zone. The presence of methane in ground water is an indication of strongly reducing conditions that facilitate reductive dechlorination. Methane was detected in all but one well. In the shallow zone in the eastern part of the study area, ground water flowing from the northwest and south coalesces in a potentiometric trough, then moves westward and ultimately northwestward. In the western part of the study area, ground water in the shallow zone flows northwest. In the deep zone in the eastern part of the study area, ground water generally flows northwestward; and in the western part of the study area, ground water in the deep zone generally flows northward.

Braun, Christopher L.

2004-01-01

304

AIR POLLUTION IN A CITY STREET  

PubMed Central

Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and 1·7 times as much 3:4-benzpyrene as were present in the general atmosphere of the City of London as estimated from samples taken at the control sites. One of these sites was chosen because it was only 150 feet away from the street; analyses yielded no evidence that the traffic contributed to the pollution sampled there. Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in the early part of the study and the results showed that traffic appeared to add little to the background level. The concentrations of lead found were below those held to be safe by many authorities. Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in greater detail elsewhere, sometimes reached the accepted industrial maximum allowable concentration of 100 p.p.m.

Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

1965-01-01

305

Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

Munsell, Devon R.

306

Municipal landfill leachate management  

SciTech Connect

From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

Kusterer, T.; Willson, R. [Montgomery County Div. of Solid Waste Services, Rockville, MD (United States); Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J. [Roy F. Weston Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

307

Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

None

1981-01-01

308

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

Venner, Laura

2008-09-01

309

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

Venner, Laura

2008-05-01

310

Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished

B. Han; V. N. Gallagher; P. T. Imhoff; R. Yazdani; P. Chiu

2004-01-01

311

Effect of an uncontrolled fire and the subsequent fire fight on the chemical composition of landfill leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill leachates sampled during and after an accidental landfill fire were analysed and the levels of selected metals and chemical compounds compared to those occurring in the leachate under normal conditions. The fire at the landfill site was put out by excavation and cooling by use of water. The investigation during the fire and fire fight revealed a moderate increase

Joar Karsten Øygard; Amund Måge; Elin Gjengedal; Tore Svane

2005-01-01

312

Wall Street Research Net (WSRN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wall Street Research Net (WSRN) Web page is now available with over 2,700 links to help professional and private investors locate economic data and perform fundamental research on actively traded companies. The Company Information section of WSRN has entries for 5,414 companies. Currently, there are 2,720 links to such items as SEC documents, company home pages, annual reports, press releases and other investor information, and stock price information from MIT. The Economic Research section contains links to economic databases around the globe such as the U.S. Department of Commerce and the better university sites. The Research section contains links to independent providers of research to the investment community. See it now while it's in beta test. In the Fall it will be available for a "nominal fee."

1997-01-01

313

Suitability of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental Protection Agency for the simulation of the water balance of landfill cover systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover systems are widely used to safeguard landfills and contaminated sites. The evaluation of the water balance is crucial\\u000a for the design of landfill covers. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental\\u000a Protection Agency was developed for this purpose. This paper discusses some limitations of version 2 of this model and some\\u000a operational difficulties for

K. Berger; S. Melchior; G. Miehlich

1996-01-01

314

Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

1971-01-01

315

Carriage of bacteria by proboscises, legs, and feces of two species of flies in street food vending sites in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Flies are widely recognized as potential reservoirs and vectors of bacteria. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess meat-poultry and local fruit juice processing and vending sites for their hygienic status and the presence of houseflies, Musca domestica, and blow flies, Lucilia caesar, for bacterial carriage. The hygienic status results revealed the presence of waste and sewage nearby which provided food and harborage for flies. On the two sites, the M. domestica population was dominant ranging from 76.48 to 91.30%, while the L. caesar population rate ranged from 8.70 to 23.52%. Using specific growth media for bacteria and biochemical tests, bacterial carriage of pooled fly proboscises, legs, and feces were assessed. For both flies, 66.67 to 100% of feces pools were positive for Shigella, Salmonella, and streptococci, while 35.41 to 82.05% of leg and proboscis pools were positive for the same bacteria. In assessment, 0 to 2.56% of feces pools and 8.33 to 28.20% of leg and proboscis pools were staphylococci positive. Coliforms were detected in 100% of pooled organs, while 10 x 10(3) to 1.1 x 10(3) CFU with predominance of coliforms, streptococci, and Shigella were counted on legs and feces of houseflies captured on the two vending sites. Blow flies from the same vending site had an organ bacterial load in the range of 3 x 10(2) to 2.7 x 10(3) CFU per organ. Coliforms, Shigella, and streptococci were present in high numbers. Staphylococci was noticed in low numbers in all parts tested of both flies. Captured housefly and blow fly bacteria-releasing frequency through feces was estimated at 5 to 35 CFU per feces sample for Salmonella and 85 to 495 CFU per feces sample for Shigella. PMID:16924933

Barro, Nicolas; Aly, Savadogo; Tidiane, Ouattara Cheik Amadou; Sababénédjo, Traoré Alfred

2006-08-01

316

MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

317

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1988-04-01

318

Landfills in New York City: 1844--1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic topographic maps are reviewed to locate landfills constructed within New York City during four time intervals between 1844 and 1994. A total of 184.75 km² (45,650 acres) of landfill are identified (approximately 20% of the study area). Data are not available to determine the fill composition at most sites but literature sources indicate that municipal solid waste (MSW) has

Daniel C. Walsh; Robert G. LaFleur

1995-01-01

319

Silica in landfill leachates: implications for clay mineral stabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SiO2 contents of landfill leachates have been monitored (together with other constituents) for up to 21 sampling locations at 3 landfill sites in Cheshire, England, at 6 month intervals over a 2 a period. The observed SiO2 values average 26.9 mg\\/l SiO2 (s.d. 12.1 mg\\/1), and show no variation that can be attributed to the transition from acetogenesis to

J. A. Owen; D. A. C. Manning

1997-01-01

320

Attenuation of landfill leachate at two uncontrolled landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation characteristics of landfill leachate were examined for two uncontrolled landfills in Korea. The two landfills containing municipal wastes without appropriate bottom liner and leachate treatment system have different landfill age, waste volume, and most importantly different hydrogeologic settings. One landfill (Cheonan landfill) is situated in an open flat area while the other (Wonju landfill) is located in a valley. Variations of various parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO{3/-}), sulfate (SO{4/2-}), and chloride (Cl-) were examined along groundwater flow path. All these parameters were analyzed every month for a year. In the interior of the landfills, typical anaerobic conditions revealed by low DO and NO3 concentrations, negative ORP values, high NH3, alkalinity, and Cl- concentrations were observed. Generally, higher levels of contaminants (DOC, NH3, and Cl-) were detected in the dry season while they were greatly lowered in the wet season. Significantly, large decrease of Cl- concentration in the wet season indicates that the dilution or mixing is one of dominant attenuation mechanisms of leachate. But detailed variation behaviors in the two landfills are different and they were largely dependent on permeability of surface and subsurface layers. The intermediately permeable surface of the landfills receives part of direct rainfall infiltration but most rainwater is lost to fast runoff. The practically impermeable surface of clayey silt (paddy field) at immediately adjacent to the Cheonan landfill boundary prevented direct rainwater infiltration and hence redox condition of the ground waters were largely affected by that of the upper landfill and the less permeable materials beneath the paddy fields prohibited dispersion of the landfill leachate into down gradient area. In the Wonju landfill, there are three different permeability divisions, the landfill region, the sandy open field and the paddy field. Roles of the landfill and paddy regions are very similar to those at the Cheonan. The very permeable sandy field receiving a large amount of rainwater infiltration plays a key role in controlling redox condition of the down gradient area and contaminant migration. This paper reports details of the attenuation and redox conditions of the landfill leachates at the two uncontrolled landfills.

Lee, Jin-Yong; Cheon, Jeong-Yong; Kwon, Hyung-Pyo; Yoon, Hee-Sung; Lee, Seong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Joung-Ku; Kim, Chang-Gyun

2006-12-01

321

Hyrogeology and Leachate Plume Delineation at a Closed Municipal Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Norman operated a solid-waste municipal landfill at two sites in the Canadian River alluvium in Cleveland County, Oklahoma from 1970 to 1985. The sites, referred to as the west and east cells of the landfill, were originally excavations in the...

C. J. Becker

2002-01-01

322

Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the medium grain-size fraction was nearly the same for streets within both land-use types at 0.004 p

Sorenson, Jason R.

2013-01-01

323

Leachate migration analysis of landfill in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination of water resources by landfill leachate is a growing problem. The threat of migrating leachate originating from landfill sites is an important issue for water quality and waste management. Because of this, waste management companies often struggle with the challenge of containing and controlling leachate migration. This study of leachate migration is carried out for a landfill site in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. During the study, field investigations like geophysical methods supplemented with laboratory works are executed. From the investigations the soil layers, their thickness and properties and the level of groundwater are identified and determined. The SEEP/w, hydrogeologic model, and CTRAN/w, contaminant transport model, are simultaneously used to construct a finite element, two-dimensional simulation of the problem of the landfill site. From the analysis, leachates from the landfills are migrating downstream and the contaminating potential for groundwater is high. This contamination is found to have a relative value of 20 to 30% of the initial concentration of the contaminant in the landfill. Moreover, the time span required to attain these concentration value are determined from the analysis.

Berhe, T.; Wu, W.; Doanh, T.

2009-04-01

324

Landfill modelling in LCA - a contribution based on empirical data.  

PubMed

Landfills at various stages of development, depending on their age and location, can be found throughout Europe. The type of facilities goes from uncontrolled dumpsites to highly engineered facilities with leachate and gas management. In addition, some landfills are designed to receive untreated waste, while others can receive incineration residues (MSWI) or residues after mechanical biological treatment (MBT). Dimension, type and duration of the emissions from landfills depend on the quality of the disposed waste, the technical design, and the location of the landfill. Environmental impacts are produced by the leachate (heavy metals, organic loading), emissions into the air (CH(4), hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons) and from the energy or fuel requirements for the operation of the landfill (SO(2) and NO(x) from the production of electricity from fossil fuels). To include landfilling in an life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach entails several methodological questions (multi-input process, site-specific influence, time dependency). Additionally, no experiences are available with regard to mid-term behaviour (decades) for the relatively new types of landfill (MBT landfill, landfill for residues from MSWI). The present paper focuses on two main issues concerning modelling of landfills in LCA: Firstly, it is an acknowledged fact that emissions from landfills may prevail for a very long time, often thousands of years or longer. The choice of time frame in the LCA of landfilling may therefore clearly affect the results. Secondly, the reliability of results obtained through a life-cycle assessment depends on the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data. Therefore the choice of the general approach, using multi-input inventory tool versus empirical results, may also influence the results. In this paper the different approaches concerning time horizon and LCI will be introduced and discussed. In the application of empirical results, the presence of data gaps may limit the inclusion of several impact categories and therefore affect the results obtained by the study. For this reason, every effort has been made to provide high-quality empirical LCI data for landfills in Central Europe. PMID:17433660

Obersteiner, Gudrun; Binner, Erwin; Mostbauer, Peter; Salhofer, Stefan

2007-01-01

325

Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in

T. G. Townsend; W. L. Miller; Hyung-Jib Lee; J. F. K. Earle

1996-01-01

326

Temperature as an indicator of landfill behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of landfill temperature measurements both as a means of understanding landfill behavior and the interpretation of anomalous data points is explored by demonstration in a case study application. The availability of a pathway facilitating easy intrusion of atmospheric OZ into a landfill is shown to cause aerobic conditions and spontaneous combustion, during landfill pumping experiments. The landfill temperature

A. J. Crutcher; F. A. Rovers; E. A. McBean

1982-01-01

327

Characterization of a landfill-derived contaminant plume in glacial and bedrock aquifers, Dupage County, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of the Blackwell landfill, DuPage County, Illinois, the contaminant plume is delineated and related to the site history and hydrogeology. Leachate leakage is attributed partly to landfill construction problems. The landfill is located partly on a sand-and-gravel aquifer and partly on thick, low permeability till, all overlying an important dolomite aquifer. A roughly concentric contaminant plume surrounds

Vagt

1987-01-01

328

Development of computer simulations for landfill methane recovery  

SciTech Connect

Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs simulating methane recovery systems in landfills have been developed. These computer programs model multicomponent combined pressure and diffusional flow in porous media. Each program and the processes it models are described in this report. Examples of the capabilities of each program are also presented. The two-dimensional program was used to simulate methane recovery systems in a cylindrically shaped landfill. The effects of various pump locations, geometries, and extraction rates were determined. The three-dimensional program was used to model the Puente Hills landfill, a field test site in southern California. The biochemical and microbiological details of methane generation in landfills are also given. Effects of environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, temperature, and nutrients on methane generation are discussed and an analytical representation of the gas generation rate is developed.

Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.; Sykes, R.M.

1981-12-01

329

Children's Recollections of "Sesame Street."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a pilot study which collected preadolescents' retrospective reports of their preschool experiences with the television program, "Sesame Street." One-hundred-five fifth and sixth graders ranging from 9 to 12 years of age were asked to think back to when they viewed "Sesame Street" in their younger years and to respond to…

Bempechat, Janine; And Others

330

Geochemical processes in landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present review focusses on the qualitative long-term perspectives of processes and mechanisms controlling the interactions of critical pollutants with organic and inorganic substrates both in "reactor landfills" and in deposits, which already consist of rock-like material ("final storage quality"). The behavior of pollutants in landfills is determined by the chemistry of interstitial solutions, i.e. by pH and redox conditions, and concentration of inorganic and organic ligands; in "reactor landfills" these conditions are widely variable as a result of biochemical reactions, while "final storage quality" implies less variations of chemical interactions. In both alternatives, however, prediction of short- and long-term effects on groundwater quality should be based on the proportion of "active species" of compounds ("mobility concept"). Qualitative assessment of potentially mobile pollutants may involve a controlled significative intensivation of important parameters such as pH-values. Using sequential extraction rearrangements of specific solid "phases" can be evaluated prior to the actual remobilisation of the pollutant into the dissolved phase. From a geochemical point of view the "reactor landfill" is characterized by labile conditions during the initial aerobic and acid anaerobic phases, the former mainly due to uncontrolled interactions with organic solutes. On the other hand, final storage quality, which is defined by the composition of earth crust material, in most cases is not attained by simple incineration of municipal waste, i.e. by reduction of organic fractions only. There is, in particular, the problem of easily soluble minerals, such as chlorides. Nonetheless the type of inorganic residue deposits will increasingly receive prevalence as a method of final storage for municipal wastes in the future.

Förstner, Ulrich; Kersten, Michael; Wienberg, Reinhard

331

Geohydrologic site characterization of the municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geohydrologic conditions of the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army. The 106.03-acre MSWLF has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The MSWLF, located about 1,200 feet east of the nearest occupied structure, is estimated to receive an average of approximately 56 tons of municipal solid waste per day and, at a fill rate of 1-4 acres per year, is expected to reach its capacity by the year 2004. The MSWLF is located in the Hueco Bolson, 4 miles east of the Franklin Mountains. Elevations at the MSWLF range from 3,907 to 3,937 feet above sea level. The climate at the MSWLF and vicinity is arid continental, characterized by an abundance of sunny days, high summer temperatures, relatively cool winters typical of arid areas, scanty rainfall, and very low humidity throughout the year. Average annual temperature near the MSWLF and vicinity is 63.3 degrees Fahrenheit and annual precipitation is 7.8 inches. Potential evaporation in the El Paso area was estimated to be 65 inches per year. Soils at and adjacent to the MSWLF are nearly level to gently sloping, have a fine sandy loam subsoil, and are moderately deep over caliche. The MSWLF is underlain by Hueco Bolson deposits of Tertiary age and typically are composed of unconsolidated to slightly consolidated interbedded sands, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. Individual beds are not well defined and range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to about 100 feet. The primary source of ground water in the MSWLF area is in the deposits of the Hueco Bolson. A relatively thick vadose zone of approximately 300 feet overlies the aquifer of the Hueco Bolson deposits in the vicinity of the MSWLF. A deep water table prevails for all of the study area. Whether any perched water zones exist below the MSWLF is unknown. Under current conditions, extensive ground-water development by the City of El Paso encompasses the MSWLF. Hydraulic characteristics of the Hueco Bolson vary significantly as a result of the nonuniform nature of the individual beds. Wells in the vicinity of the MSWLF range in depth from about 600 feet to greater than 1,200 feet. Recharge resulting from direct infiltration of precipitation is minor due to the high evaporation and low precipitation rates. The hydraulic gradient in the vicinity of the MSWLF is generally to the south but may vary due to pumpage of a well located on the northeast corner of the perimeter boundary. Ground-water monitoring data for the MSWLF vicinity show a water-level decline of 55.65 feet from November 1958 to December 1987. Depth to water at the northeast corner of the MSWLF as of July 26, 1994, was 325.8 feet below land surface. The city-operated Shearman Well Field, located north of the MSWLF, is a primary source of ground water for the City of El Paso. The test-pumping rate of well JL-49-05-914 (the well nearest to the MSWLF having test-pumping data) was 1,972 gallons per minute on July 20, 1992; the static water level prior to pumping was 317.54 feet below land surface. El Paso Water Utilities reports that the pumping level after 8 hours of pumping was 367.80 feet below land surface, resulting in a drawdown of 50.26 feet, transmissivity of 22,200 feet squared per day (166,000 gallons per day per foot), and specific capacity of 39.2 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. After the well was shut off, the well recovered to a static water level of 317.46 feet below land surface on July 21, 1992. Ground wat

Abeyta, Cynthia G.

1996-01-01

332

21. 3RD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH G STREET, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. 3RD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH G STREET, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH WEST SIDES OF WAREHOUSES 331, 332, 333, ETC. ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

333

The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers  

SciTech Connect

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

2002-02-26

334

The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers.  

SciTech Connect

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (within the last 50 years) and have been selected for the evaluation of processes and changes on ET covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when cover maintenance would be discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end (1,000 years or more) of the compliance period. The late to mid-Holocene surfaces are both abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminescence analysis. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites is being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified and the mode of disturbance, to help set baseline conditions. Similar to the other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water-balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time. Results of analog site work and resultant modifications to design, monitoring and maintenance of ET covers on the NTS will be compared with results of a similar study being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), where ET cover closures are planned as well. The comparison will help to distinguish potential regional differences needed in ET cover design. Although both sites are at similar latitudes, the NTS is located in a transition zone between the Mojave and southern Great Basin deserts, while SNL is located in the northern Chihuahuan desert. Differences in vegetation and seasonality of precipitation between the sites are significant.

David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

2001-10-18

335

Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México.  

PubMed

In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:18595685

Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches

2008-01-01

336

Aerobic in situ stabilization of Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher: leachate quality after 1 year of operation.  

PubMed

Modern landfill understanding points out controlled operation of landfills. Emissions from landfills are caused mainly by anaerobic biodegradation processes which continue for very long time periods after landfill closure. In situ landfill stabilization aims controlled reduction of emissions towards reduced expenditures as well as aftercare measures. Since April 2010, a new in situ stabilization technique is being applied at a pilot scale landfill (BAIV) within Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher. This new method utilizes intermittent aeration and leachate recirculation for waste stabilization. In this study, influence of this technique on leachate quality is investigated. Among many other parameters, leachate analyses were conducted for COD, BOD(5), NH(4)-N, NO(2)-N, NO(3)-N, TKN and chloride besides continuously on site recorded pH, electrical conductivity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). Results from leachate quality analyses showed that biological activity in the landfill was accelerated resulting in initial higher leachate strength and reduced emission potential of landfill. During full scale in situ aeration, ambient conditions differ from optimized laboratory scale conditions which mainly concern temperature increase and deficient aeration of some landfill parts (Ritzkowski and Stegmann, 2005). Thus, as a field application results of this study have major importance on further process optimization and application. PMID:22938814

Öncü, G; Reiser, M; Kranert, M

2012-12-01

337

Landfill gas generation and migration: Review of current research II  

SciTech Connect

With regard to gas migration, a field investigation is examining bidirectional gas movement through landfill cover materials by processes of pressure and diffusional flow. The overall purpose of the study is to quantify gas loss from the landfill reservoir by natural venting and air influx due to pumping on recovery wells. Two field sites--a humid site, with vegetated clay cover and a semiarid site with unvegetated sandy silt cover--have been instrumented to examine vertical gas movement through cover materials. Results from the past year's work at the semiarid site indicates that rates of CH/sub 4/ flux out of the landfill surface may be as high as 2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ g cm/sup /minus/2/ sec/sup /minus/1/ (6.3 /times/ 10/sup 2/ Kg m/sup /minus/1/ yr/sup /minus/1/) during dry soil conditions. Such high rates represent both the loss of an energy resource and a significance factor in global warming trends since atmospheric CH/sub 4/ contributes to the greenhouse effect. An independent estimate has suggested that 8--15% of global atmospheric CH/sub 4/ is attributable to landfill sources. The second project is addressing landfill gas generation. The major goal is to develop simple assay techniques to examine the gas production potential of landfilled refuse. Refuse samples extracted from various depths in a landfill are being subjected to Biochemical Methane Production (BMP) assays with periodic qualitative examination of microbial populations. Triplicate assays of unamended refuse (controls) are compared to assays with added moisture, nutrients, and bacterial seed. To date, moisture addition is the single most important variable in stimulating gas production, particularly in samples with visible soil content. 56 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogner, J.; Vogt, M.; Piorkowski, R.

1989-01-01

338

Modeling landfill gas production and movement: Principal landfill gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landfill gas generation and movement model is presented in this dissertation. The model is based on solution of a Darcy's law formulation of single component fluid flow in porous media in three dimensions, using a finite element technique. The effects of varying gas production rates, material porosities, and landfill covers, liners, and gas extraction wells are incorporated in the

1991-01-01

339

Quantifying Uncontrolled Landfill Gas Emissions from Two Florida Landfills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate fugitive loss from two different municipal landfills which were reported to be operating as a wet or bioreactor landfill and have an area regarded as a control cell (where no additional liquid was added). Fugitive ...

2009-01-01

340

Transforming an open dump into a sanitary landfill: a development effort in waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upgrading a crude dump site into a sanitary landfill is a very challenging task; Matuail landfill site in Dhaka posed just\\u000a such a challenge. From the very beginning, the existing disposal site had been used for the crude dumping of solid wastes.\\u000a All types of solid wastes were haphazardly disposed of all over the site. The existing drainage channels of

Tariq Bin Yousuf

2009-01-01

341

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

342

Street Love”: How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. Born African men, to document\\u000a how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. Born African men between the ages of 16–65, frame and use “street life”\\u000a as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; Journal of Black Psychology 34(1):3–31, 2008). Qualitative data was

Yasser Arafat Payne; Hanaa A. Hamdi

2009-01-01

343

Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 mT of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 mT was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the pathway analysis for the onsite and near-site resident scenarios, the radiation dose rates and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater would be below the regulatory requirements for both the short-term and long-term scenarios. Hence, the potential health risks to maximally exposed individuals due to radioactive releases from the Middlesex landfill would be insignificant.

Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

1985-01-01

344

The use of GPR and VES in delineating a contamination plume in a landfill site: a case study in SE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the application of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method, or Georadar, in outlining a zone of contamination due to solid residues at the waste burial site of Rio Claro in the state of São Paulo, SE Brazil. A total of eight GPR profiles with 50- and 100-MHz antennae were surveyed. Six profiles were located

Jorge L. Porsani; Walter M. Filho; Vagner R. Elis; Fisseha Shimeles; João C. Dourado; Helyelson P. Moura

2004-01-01

345

Management of leadchate from Army sanitary landfills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Leachate production--the dissolution of soluble constituents and the introduction of microbial byproducts into water--is a natural consequence of operating a sanitary landfill. The amount and characteristics of the leachate produced depend primarily on the contents of the wastes being disposed, the geologic and hydrologic characteristics at the disposal site, the precipitation pattern, and the region's climate. Generally, the potential for leachate formation is greatest in humid areas where rainfall is plentiful, and in landfills where groundwater lies near the surface. All Army landfills, whether old or new, closed or active, generate leachate. However, those with the greatest potential for producing leachate are on installations in the eastern and southeastern sections of the country and on the West Coast--areas where rainfall is significant. This report provides information on landfill leachate management that will be useful to installation environmental coordinators and other management personnel. the information will be helpful for identifying leachate problems and locating data and technical assistance for solving these problems. Information is also provided to help personnel who must establish a new sanitary landfill requiring leachate control or investigate possible problems with older or inactive landfills.

Gardiner, W.P.; Maloney, S.W.

1986-07-01

346

Applying guidance for methane emission estimation for landfills  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of methane emission from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Both the United Nations and the European Union have adopted protocols to ensure quantification of methane emission from individual landfills. The purpose of these protocols is to disclose emission data to regulators and the general public. Criteria such as timeliness, completeness, certainty, comparability, consistency and transparency are set for inclusion of emission data in a publicly accessible database. All methods given as guidance to landfill operators to estimate landfill methane emissions are based on models. In this paper the consequences of applying six different models for estimates of three landfills are explored. It is not the intention of this paper to criticise or validate models. The modelling results are compared with whole site methane emission measurements. A huge difference in results is observed. This raises doubts about the accuracy of the models. It also indicates that at least some of the criteria previously mentioned are not met for the tools currently available to estimate methane emissions from individual landfills. This will inevitably lead to compiling and comparing data with an incomparable origin. Harmonisation of models is recommended. This may not necessarily reduce uncertainty, but it will at least result in comparable, consistent and transparent data.

Scharff, Heijo [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl; Jacobs, Joeri [NV Afvalzorg, Postbus 2, 1566 ZG Assendelft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.jacobs@afvalzorg.nl

2006-07-01

347

Assessment of Kuwait's Al-Qurain landfill using remotely sensed data.  

PubMed

Kuwait's Al-Qurain landfill problem resulted from indiscriminate dumping of domestic and industrial waste in an abandoned quarry in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The landfill and surrounding areas were set aside for a government housing project without an environmental assessment of the impact of the landfill on the project. Inhabitants of the newly constructed housing area experienced persistent foul odor emanating from the landfill site. Since then, the issue has generated a lot of public interests, and several remediation measures have been adopted. In this preliminary study, several remotely sensed data consisting of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), IKONOS, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquired between 1972 and 2000 were processed and assessed for their usefulness to study and monitor the landfill site. The imagery provided a historical perspective of how the areas had changed over the last 30 years. Other useful information of the landfill obtained from the satellite imagery included the spatial extent, spectral reflectance, surface temperature, and surface roughness. The landfill site showed higher surface temperatures compared to the immediate surrounding areas-a process that could accelerate the biodegradation and the release of landfill gases. Such dataset could be incorporated into a GIS for the long-term monitoring of the site. PMID:15027819

Kwarteng, A Y; Al-Enezi, A

2004-01-01

348

Biodegradation of organics in landfill leachate by immobilized white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor BCC 8725  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilized Trametes versicolor BCC 8725 was evaluated for the biodegradation of the organic components of four different types of landfill leachate collected at different time periods and locations from the Nonthaburi landfill site of Thailand in batch treatment. The effects of carbon source, ammonia and organic loading on colour, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, and

Jenjira Saetang; Sandhya Babel

2012-01-01

349

Treatment of Landfill Leachate by Subsurface-Flow Constructed Wetland: A Microcosm Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcosm test was conducted to evaluate the role of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) and different substrates (including coal refuse, fly ash, cinder, soil and gravel) in purifying landfill leachate collected at Likeng landfill site of Guangzhou City, which contained high levels of COD (1354 mg\\/L) and NH4 + -N (502 mg\\/L). The experiment lasted for 75 days with the

Xuerui Lin; Chongyu LAN; Wensheng Shu

350

AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB AFTER REMEDIAL CLEANUP OF TWO LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of two landfills at which interim remedial cleanup measures have been performed. The landfill sites are in the Bloomington, Indiana area. The sampling locations and methods used were ...

351

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS ON UNDERLYING SOILS AND GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Three municipal landfill sites in the eastern and central United States were studied to determine the effects of the disposal facilities on surrounding soils and groundwater. Borings were made up the groundwater gradient, down the groundwater gradient and through the landfill. So...

352

Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste

D. W. Lee; J. C. Wang; D. C. Kocher

1995-01-01

353

Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition

Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

2010-01-01

354

Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa+grass, miscanthus and black

Thomas G. Reichenauer; Andrea Watzinger; Johann Riesing; Martin H. Gerzabek

2011-01-01

355

Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground water at the Normal Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma. Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and

James A. Erdman; Scott Christenson

2000-01-01

356

OUTER LOOP LANDFILL CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will describe the interim data reaulting from a CRADA between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. at the outer Loop Landfill Bioreactor research project located in Louisville, KY. Recently updated data will be presented covering landfill solids, gas being collecte...

357

SUSTAINABLE LANDFILL AND BIOLOGICAL STABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landfill represents the most common way of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. On the other hand the anaerobic degradation of the biodegradable fraction of the landfilled MSW, causes several environmental problems such as the production of methane, VOC odors and leachate, the presence of vectors more - insects, rodents, and birds - public health hazard, explosions and plants toxicity.

Barbara Scaglia; Fabrizio Adani

358

Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

1977-01-01

359

Heavy metals in street and house dust in Bahrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 106 street and household dusts have been sampled throughout Bahrain and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The sampling sites were divided into seven categories, including the control site. Results showed that dust samples contained significant levels of the metals studied compared with the control values. The mean values

M. Salim Akhter; Ismail M. Madany

1993-01-01

360

Sesame Street: Magic or Malevolence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite its unusual potential, both educational and social, it seems that Sesame Street may be exposing children to unnecessary aggression...(which) often goes unpunished and, occasionally, is actively rewarded." (Author)

Ratliff, Anne R.; Ratliff, Richard G.

1972-01-01

361

Twenty Years on Sesame Street.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history and production of the TV program Sesame Street and its educational contribution to society. Also discusses the affective and cognitive goals and teaching methodology of the program. (RJC)

Lystad, Mary

1989-01-01

362

Street Gang Crime in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

revenge, while another may be associated with expansion of a drug business into new territory. Consequently, street gangs and the crimes in which they engage can- not be viewed as monolithic in nature. This Research in Brief describes these and other patterns of street gang-related vio- lence in a major U.S. city-Chicago. All available information, including Chicago police records of

R. Block; Carolyn Rebecca Block

1993-01-01

363

The World According to Sesame Street  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over thirty years of experience in the United States, Sesame Street has become a much loved fixture on public television, and one that enjoys a broad base of support. For many young people from age 6 to 36, itâÂÂs hard to imagine a childhood without such familiar faces as Bert, Ernie, Big Bird, and of course, that lovely curmudgeon, Oscar the Grouch. As some visitors may already know, Sesame Street is on the air in over 120 countries, and in its many different versions, the program is modified to accommodate the different cultural traditions of those places, while always incorporating its primary themes of tolerance and mutual respect. This site, created by Independent Lens, explores that process, and is meant as a companion to their recent documentary on this subject. As with previous Independent Lens companion websites, visitors can learn about the filmmakers, along with offering their own inquiries. Finally, visitors will also get a chance to explore the different versions of Sesame Street around the globe, including programs in Kosovo, Bangladesh, and South Africa.

2006-01-01

364

Identification of dynamic properties of OII landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of landfills during strong earthquake shaking is a matter of considerable concern and deserves to be studied more extensively. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of the OII landfill materials using strong motion recordings, available field measurements, and simplified physical models. Although the earthquakes recorded at the OII landfill generated shear strains as large as 0.08%, the landfill

V. Morochnik; J. P. Bardet; B. Hushmand

1998-01-01

365

Perspective view of Wilcox Building (7 North E Street), with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Wilcox Building (7 North E Street), with Eli Cafe (7 North E Street), the Palace Saloon (11 North E Street), and Fetsche's (15 North E Street) to left of frame, view looking north on E Street - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

366

When Street Sex Workers Are Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women who engage in street sex work experience pregnancies and become mothers. Unfortunately, little research has examined how their pregnancies and parenting impact themselves as street sex workers and their street sex work. In this qualitative research study, 16 mothers who were currently involved in street sex work in a Midwestern city of the United States participated in semistructured

Christine M. Sloss; Gary W. Harper

2004-01-01

367

Report: landfill alternative daily cover: conserving air space and reducing landfill operating cost.  

PubMed

Title 40, Part 258 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria, commonly referred to as Subtitle D, became effective on October 9, 1993. It establishes minimum criteria for solid waste disposal facility siting, design, operations, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, and closure and postclosure maintenance, while providing EPA-approved state solid waste regulatory programs flexibility in implementing the criteria. Section 258.21(a) [40 CFR 258.21(a)] requires owners or operators of municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) units to cover disposed solid waste with 30cm of earthen material at the end of the operating day, or at more frequent intervals, if necessary, to control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging. This requirement is consistent with already existing solid waste facility regulations in many states. For many MSWLFs, applying daily cover requires the importation of soil which increases landfill operating costs. Daily cover also uses valuable landfill air space, reducing potential operating revenue and the landfill's operating life. 40 CFR 258.21 (b) allows the director of an approved state to approve alternative materials of an alternative thickness if the owner or operator demonstrates that the alternative material and thickness will control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging without presenting a threat to human health and the environment. Many different types of alternative daily cover (ADC) are currently being used, including geosynthetic tarps, foams, garden waste, and auto shredder fluff. These materials use less air space than soil and can reduce operating costs. This paper discusses the variety of ADCs currently being used around the country and their applicability to different climates and operating conditions, highlighting the more unusual types of ADC, the types of demonstrations necessary to obtain approval of ADC, and the impact on landfill air space and operating costs of ADC use. PMID:11525478

Haughey, R D

2001-02-01

368

Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

Rasmussen, P. P.; Shockley, J. C.; Hargadine, D. A.

1994-01-01

369

Perspective view of the IOOF Building, 5 North F Street, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of the IOOF Building, 5 North F Street, corner of F and Center Streets - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

370

Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner of F and 2nd Streets North, view looking southeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

371

Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, corner of Center and F Streets, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

372

11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

373

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Kummer Sanitary Landfill, Northern Township, Beltrami County, MN. (Third Remedial Action), September 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 35-acre Kummer Sanitary Landfill site is an inactive mixed municipal waste landfill in Northern Township, Beltrami County, Minnesota, approximately one mile west of Lake Bemidji. A large residential area lies approximately 1,000 feet east of the site,...

1990-01-01

374

Public Health Assessment for Munisport Landfill, North Miami, Dade County, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD084535442.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Munisport Landfill site is an inactive landfill in, and owned by, the City of North Miami, Florida. The site is an urban area adjacent to the Oleta River Recreational Area, a state mangrove preserve, and Biscayne Bay. Soil, sediments, surface water, a...

1993-01-01

375

Health assessment for Dover Municipal Landfill, Stratford County, Dover, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD980520191. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Dover Municipal Landfill is an inactive landfill located on Tolend Road in the western corner of Dover, New Hampshire. Specific wastes include municipal trash, leather tanning wastes, industrial solvents, and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge. Contamination at the landfill exists in on-site groundwater, leachate, sediments, and soil. The Dover Municipal Landfill site is of potential public health concern due the potential risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

Not Available

1989-04-12

376

Landfill Reclamation Feasibility Study for the Montauk Landfill. Town of East Hampton, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A landfill reclamation feasibility study was performed at Montauk Landfill in East Hampton, Long Island, New York. The purpose of the study was to determine whether landfill reclamation is a technically and economically feasible alternative to conventiona...

1998-01-01

377

VISUAL QUALITY OF RESIDENTIAL STREETS: BOTH STREET AND YARD TREES MAKE A DIFFERENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has shown that street trees have a powerful impact on how people judge the esthetic quality of residential streets. In the study reported here, observers' ratings of the scenic quality of streets in photographs showed that trees on private property in front of homes also enhance the quality of the view down the street. Street trees contribute most

Herbert W. Schroeder; William N. Cannon

378

I want you to know that the David Suzuki Foundation supports the call for local municipal, provincial and federal governments to use alternative means of dealing with waste other than land-filling it wherever possible. This is especially important where valuable freshwater and ecosystem services would be degraded by landfill creation and maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

I get repeated requests from people all across the country for help in dealing with landfill siting issues. All too often landfills come forward as the preferred solution for dealing with waste because the costs of land-filling appear low when compared to other methods of waste management and disposal. However, this is usually the result of not factoring the value

David Suzuki

379

Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux. PMID:18574960

Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong

2008-01-01

380

Performance-based landfill design: development of a design component selection matrix using GIS and system simulation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing environmentally safe and economically feasible landfills can be a challenging task due to complex interactions that need to be taken into account between landfill size, waste and site characteristics. The main focus of this study is, by interfacing the geographic information systems (GIS) with system simulation models (SSM), to develop a methodology and a landfill design component selection matrix that can enable the determination of landfill design components providing the desired performance with minimal design details. In this paper, the conceptual framework and applications of the developed methodology demonstrating the selection of landfill design components that are suitable for the existing site conditions are presented. The conceptual model defines design variables, performance criteria and design components of a landfill. GIS and SSM are used to handle the site-specific data and to evaluate the landfill performance, respectively. Results indicate that the landfills having the same design characteristics show different performance under different site conditions; therefore, a landfill design that is technically and economically feasible should be selected on the basis of performance.

Tarhan, Ba?ak; Ünlü, Kahraman

2005-11-01

381

Release and conversion of ammonia in bioreactor landfill simulators.  

PubMed

Bioreactor landfills are an improvement to normal sanitary landfills, because the waste is stabilised faster and the landfill gas is produced in a shorter period of time in a controlled way, thus enabling CH(4) based energy generation. However, it is still difficult to reach, within 30 years, a safe status of the landfill due to high NH(4)(+) levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate and NH(4)(+) is extremely important when defining the closure of landfill sites, due to its potential to pollute aquatic environments and the atmosphere. The effect of environmental conditions (temperature, fresh versus old waste) on the release of NH(4)(+) was assessed in experiments with bench (1 L) and pilot scale (800 L) reactors. The NH(4)(+) release was compared to the release of Cl(-) and BOD in the liquid phase. The different release mechanisms (physical, chemical, biological) of NH(4)(+) and Cl(-) release from the solid into the liquid phase are discussed. The NH(4)(+) level in the liquid phase of the pilot scale reactors starts decreasing after 100 days, which contrasts real-scale observations, where the NH(4)(+) level increases or remains constant. Based on the absence of oxygen in the simulators, the detectable levels of hydrazin and the presence of Anammox bacteria, it is likely that Anammox is involved in the conversion of NH(4)(+) into N(2). Nitrogen release was shown to be governed by physical and biological mechanisms and Anammox bacteria are serious candidates for the nitrogen removal process in bioreactor landfills. These results, combined with carbon removal and improved hydraulics, will accelerate the achievement of environmental sustainability in the landfilling of municipal solid waste. PMID:20884112

Lubberding, Henk J; Valencia, Roberto; Salazar, Rosemarie S; Lens, Piet N L

2012-03-01

382

Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

1991-05-01

383

Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described, resulting in a separate flowsheet for every contractor. The resulting fractions and materials were described in detail to obtain an inventory of the bulk material. Based on the characteristics from the obtained fractions, all possible valorisation pathways are listed, suggesting a Waste to Material (WtM) or a Waste to Energy (WtE) valorisation pathway. Fractions that needed further treatment were also discussed. The results of the separation tests proved to be very promising and delivered well sorted waste streams. The composition of the waste material, on the other hand, proved to be less beneficial to be economically feasible. Due to the high amount of sand and clay (up to 90wt%) in the Zuienkerke landfill the share of instant recoverable materials proved to be very limited. Due to the limited number of tests concerning the separation and valorisation of landfilled waste, the feasibility of ELFM in the short term is not fully described yet. Based on the first experiences, the main drivers to introduce the ELFM concept on these type of landfills are the necessity of urgent remediation actions and the reclamation of land. The added value of land reuse for the future might close the financial gap in a significant way, making the implementation of ELFM feasible on former landfills. 1 Jones et al.,2010: "the safe conditioning, excavation and integrated valorisation of landfilled waste streams as both materials and energy, using innovative transformation technologies and respecting the most stringent social and ecological criteria".

Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

2014-05-01

384

Migrating landfill gas proves challenging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Located in the San Fernando Valley at the foothills of the San Gabriel mountains, the 41-acre Sheldon-Arleta Landfill originated as one of many gravel pits in the area and was operated by CalMat as a gravel quarry pit from the mid 1950s until 1962. In 1967, methane gas was detected in the residential dwellings located across from the landfill along

J. G. Dobrowolski; A. S. Dellinger

1994-01-01

385

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

386

Radioactive Material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. The report ...

1988-01-01

387

Kern Valley Sanitary Landfill Erosion Evaluation and Drop Structure Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kern Valley Waste Management Facility (KVWMF), which consists of the Kern Valley Sanitary Landfill (KVSL) and Recycling\\/Transfer Station, is located southeast of Kernville on Cyrus Canyon in Kern County, California. The site is upstream of the Lake Isabella reservoir, in a mountainous region with high intensity storms. Unmitigated flood flows have the potential to cause extensive damage to the

Bryan A. Stirrat; Michael A. Cullinane

2002-01-01

388

Occurrence of Phthalate Esters in MSW Landfill Area, Wuhan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of groundwater, leachates, surface water and soils were collected from 22 sites in the Municipal solid waste landfill area in Wuhan, Central China. Sixteen phthalate esters (PAEs) were detected by gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that there were one or several PAEs in all the samples and the concentrations of total PAEs in groundwater, leachates, surface water, and

Ying Liang; Hui Liu; Dan Zhang; Cheng Wang; Hecheng Liang; Hesheng Cai

2008-01-01

389

MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT REGION I LANDFILL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses a new measurement technology for characterizing emissions from large area sources. This work was funded by EPA's Monitoring and Measurement for the 21st Century Initiative, or 21M2. The site selected for demonstrating this technology is a superfund landfil...

390

Field Performance Of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m ), instrumen...

391

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

none,

1988-06-01

392

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

NONE

1996-08-01

393

Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

NONE

1996-11-01

394

Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

Chase, J.

1999-07-29

395

The mob: from 42nd Street to Wall Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focuses on the infiltration of the US stock market by organised crime in the shape of La Cosa Nostra (LCN). Defines what organised crime is and goes on to the history of Cosa Nostra, its reasons for tackling Wall Street and how it does this, analysing two specific cases of infiltration: Mob Stocks and Operation Uptick. Describes the various sectors

P. Kevin Carwile; Valerie Hollis

2004-01-01

396

Production and Management of Leachate from Municipal Landfills: Summary and Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment was made to evaluate production and management of leachate from municipal landfills for purposes of identifying practical information and techniques which may be useful to design engineers and site operators. Also assessed were: advantages, ...

B. Eichenberger I. Melnyk J. C. S. Lu R. J. Stearns

1984-01-01

397

Environmental Impacts, Institutional Problems, and Research Needs of Sanitary Landfill Methane Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solid waste disposal sites may become public and corporate assets when landfill gas (LFG) energy extraction systems are applied. When methane gas, the primary component of LFG, is extracted, a useful energy source is developed and explosion and fire hazar...

G. M. Kaszynski J. R. LaFevers R. L. Beck K. L. Harrington F. Kremer

1981-01-01

398

Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

Gharabaghi, B. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: bgharaba@uoguelph.ca; Singh, M.K. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Inkratas, C. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: cinkrata@uoguelph.ca; Fleming, I.R. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ian.fleming@usask.ca; McBean, E. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca

2008-07-01

399

Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills.  

PubMed

The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use "generic" published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects. PMID:17897819

Gharabaghi, B; Singh, M K; Inkratas, C; Fleming, I R; McBean, E

2008-01-01

400

Outreach health services for street youth.  

PubMed

A voluntary health agency operated a clinic at a drop-in center for street youth. Six hundred nine youths were seen, with an average age of 16 years, 9 months. There were 2,086 diagnoses made during 1,895 visits. Respiratory, dermatologic, and gynecologic problems represented 56% of all diagnoses. Pregnancy tests accounted for 38% of all procedures, 50% of all medications dispensed were either oral antibiotics or decongestants, and 17% of the visits resulted in referrals. This chart review revealed that street youth seen at a drop-in center sought care for common medical problems. Problems related to substance abuse and sexually transmitted diseases were seen much less frequently than anticipated. Elements critical to the success of this clinic included its on-site location, hours of operation when teenagers were using other services, close working relationships between clinic and center staffs, the capability to perform a few simple laboratory procedures, and an on-site pharmacy. PMID:1772896

Reuler, J B

1991-11-01

401

Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-12-31

402

Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-01-01

403

Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers  

SciTech Connect

Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to asses the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into underlying waste. Conventional covers employing resistive barriers as well as alternative covers relying on water-storage principles were monitored in large (10 x 20), instrumented drainage lysimeters over a range of climates at field sites in the United States. Surface runoff was a small fraction of the water balance (0-10%, 4% on average) and was nearly insensitive to the cover slope, cover design, or climate. Lateral drainage from internal drainage layers was also a small fraction of the water balance (0-5%, 2.0% on average). Average percolation rates for the conventional covers with composite barriers (geomembrane over fine soil) typically were less than 12 mm/yr (1.4% of precipitation) at humid locations and 1.5 mm/yr (0.4% of precipitation) at arid, semiarid, and subhumid locations. Average percolation rates for conventional covers with soil barriers in humid climates were between 52 and 195 mm/yr (6-17% of precipitation), probably due to preferential flow through defects in the soil barriers. Average percolation rates for alternative covers ranged between 33 and 160 mm/yr (6 and 18% if precipitation) in humid climates and generally less than 2.2 mm/yr (0.4% of precipitation) in arid, semiarid, and subhumid climates. One half (five) of the alternative covers in arid, semiarid, and subhumid climates transmitted less than 0.1 mm of percolation, but two transmitted much more percolation (26.8 and 52 mm) than anticipated during design. The data collected support conclusions from other studies that detailed, site-specific design procedures are very important for successful performance of alternative landfill covers.

Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Roesler, Arthur C.; Abichou, Tarek; Apiwantragoon, Preecha; Lyles, Bradley F.; Rock, S A.

2004-11-15

404

Design, Build and Test Your Own Landfill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students design and build model landfills using materials similar to those used by engineers for full-scale landfills. Their completed small-size landfills are "rained" on and subjected to other erosion processes. The goal is to create landfills that hold the most garbage, minimize the cost to build and keep trash and contaminated water inside the landfill to prevent it from causing environmental damage. Teams create designs within given budgets, test the landfills' performance, and graph and compare designs for capacity, cost and performance.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder,

405

Environmental impact of an urban landfill on a coastal aquifer (El Jadida, Morocco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Jadida landfill is one among many uncontrolled dumping sites in Morocco with no bottom liner. About 150tons\\/day of solid wastes from mixed urban and industrial origins are placed directly on the ground. At the site of this landfill, the groundwaters circulate deeply (10–15m) in the Cenomanian rock (calcareous–marl), which is characterised by an important permeability from cracks. The

Amina Chofqi; Abedelkader Younsi; El Kbir Lhadi; Jacky Mania; Jacques Mudry; Alain Veron

2004-01-01

406

Reclamation of sanitary landfills: A case study in Shelby County, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 30,000 sanitary landfills were in operation in the United States in 1976; today, there are <7,000. The remaining 23,000 closed sites can be reclaimed to actually enhance the surrounding community; cost is the only limiting factor. Abandoned sanitary landfill sites do have problems, namely leachates, methane build-up, and subsidence. However, with modern techniques and planning, these problems can be

P. M. Riddick; S. Kirsch; Hsiang-Te Kung

1992-01-01

407

Landfill gas generation and migration: Review of current research  

SciTech Connect

With regard to gas migration, a field investigation is examining bidirectional gas movement through landfill cover materials by processes of pressure and diffusional flow. The purpose of the study is to quantify gas loss from the landfill reservoir by natural venting and air influx due to pumping on recovery wells. Two field sites - a humid site with clay cover and a semiarid site with sand cover - have been instrumented to examine vertical gas movement through cover materials. Results from the humid site indicate that concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen in soil gas vary seasonally with soil moisture; up to 10E5 g methane m/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/ are vented through the cover materials at the humid site (area of 17 ht); and during prolonged wet weather, pressure gradients of more than 2 kPa may develop between the cover materials and top of refuse, indicating that pressure flow is periodically an important mechanism for gas transport. Addressing landfill gas generation, the goal is to develop simple assay techniques to examined the gas production potential of landfilled refuse. Refuse samples extracted from various depths in a landfill are being leached by three different methods to separate microbial mass and substrate. The leachates are being subjected to Biochemical Methane Production (BMP) assays with periodic qualitative examination of microbial populations using fluorescence microscopy of live cultures and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Triplicate assays of the leachates that produce insignificant quantities of biogas after 90 days incubation are being amended with sucrose, a nutrient broth, or a bacterial seed. Response of gas production to each of the three amendments was similar across all samples, regardless of the leaching method originally employed, with nutrient addition producing the most stable long-term biogas production with the highest methane content. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogner, J.; Rose, C.; Vogt, M.; Gartman, D.

1987-01-01

408

Street Gang Violence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels and descriptors of violence among European street gangs are summarized from studies reported primarily under the aegis of the Eurogang Program initiated in 1997 and continuing still. European gang violence is placed in the context of its American counterpart, of European non-gang youth violence, and of the definitional and structural components of the Eurogang Program. European gangs in over

Malcolm W. Klein; Frank M. Weerman; Terence P. Thornberry

2006-01-01

409

Genetics of Sesame Street Characters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaches genetics and inheritance using the characters from Sesame Street. Asks students to create a gene map of their favorite character and determine those genes passing to the next generation. Includes a genetics activity sheet and genetic information on the characters. (YDS)

Raye, Susan

2001-01-01

410

Youth and the City Streets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

1992-01-01

411

Genetics of Sesame Street TM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By enlisting the of Elmo, Zoe, Grover, and friends, the author brought a genetics unit to life. In this week-long unit, the students (1) create a gene map for a particular Sesame Street character, (2) move the resulting chromosomes through the steps of me

Raye, Susan

2001-02-01

412

Heroin Use and Street Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between heroin use and street crime has been studied for the better part of this century, but the findings have been inconclusive. Research in this area has been limited to analyses of criminality in terms of arrest data, and samples have been drawn only from officially known populations of drug users. The present study focuses on a sample

James A. Inciardi

1979-01-01

413

Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.  

PubMed

Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions. PMID:21354776

Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

2011-05-01

414

The impact of Mpererwe landfill in Kampala Uganda, on the surrounding environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mpererwe landfill site receives solid wastes from the city of Kampala, Uganda. This study was carried out to assess and evaluate the appropriateness of the location and operation of this landfill, to determine the composition of the solid waste dumped at the landfill and the extent of contamination of landfill leachate to the neighbouring environment (water, soil and plants). Field observations and laboratory measurements were carried out to determine the concentration of nutrients, metals and numbers of bacteriological indicators in the landfill leachate. The landfill is not well located as it is close to a residential area (<200 m) and cattle farms. It is also located upstream of a wetland. The landfill generates nuisances like bad odour; there is scattering of waste by scavenger birds, flies and vermin. Industrial and hospital wastes are disposed of at the landfill without pre-treatment. The concentration of variables (nutrients, bacteriological indicators, BOD and heavy metals) in the leachate were higher than those recommended in the National Environment Standards for Discharge of Effluent into Water and on Land. A composite sample that was taken 1500 m down stream indicated that the wetland considerably reduced the concentration of the parameters that were measured except for sulfides. Despite the fact that there was accumulation of metals in the sediments, the concentration has not reached toxic levels to humans. Soil and plant analyses indicated deficiencies of zinc and copper. The concentration of these elements was lowest in the leachate canal.

Mwiganga, M.; Kansiime, F.

415

Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

El-Fadel, Mutasem, E-mail: mfadel@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)

2012-11-15

416

APPLICATION OF MULTI-SCALE ASSESSMENT AND MODELLING OF LANDFILL LEACHATE MIGRATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK-BASED CONTAMIANTED LAND ASSESSMENT, LANDFILL REMEDIATION, AND GROUNDWATER PROTECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before remediating a landfill site, an investigation of geophysical characteristics must be conducted. The methods and instruments applied during the site assessment play an important role in providing accurate information about subsurface site characteristics. This information is also used in risk estimation models to determine the rate and direction of contaminant migration. Such models are often used to understand contaminated

Tanya D. Splajt; Lynne E. Frostick; Graham Ferrier

417

A Profile of Juvenile Street Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to fill the need for empirically derived information to determine the most salient factors which differentiate street gang youths from youths in comparable neighborhoods who remain independent of the street gang. (Author)

Friedman, C. Jack; And Others

1975-01-01

418

ACCELERATION OF SOLID WASTE BIODEGRADATION IN TROPICAL LANDFILL USING BIOREACTOR LANDFILL CONCEPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a process based approach in landfill design and operation has been developed called bioreactor landfill. A bioreactor landfill is managed to accelerate decomposition of the organic wastes by controlling moisture content, recycling nutrients and seeding of microorganisms by circulating leachate back into the landfill cell. This research investigated the beneficial effect of using this concept in accelerating the biodegradation

C. Chiemchaisri; W. Chiemchaisri; U. Nonthapund; S. Sittichoktam

419

Proximity of Pennsylvania sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats: Data on individual landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of the reports is to summarize the proximity of sanitary landfills in Pennsylvania to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.) and present data on the individual landfills. The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and

R. C. Herndon; J. E. Moerlins; V. W. Lambou; R. L. Gebhard

1989-01-01

420

Proximity of Delaware sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats: Data on individual landfills. Part B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of the reports is to summarize the proximity of sanitary landfills in Delaware to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.) and present data on the individual landfills. The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and

R. L. Gebhard; R. C. Herndon; J. E. Moerlins; V. W. Lambou

1989-01-01

421

Public health assessment for Fultz Landfill, Byesville, Guernsey County, Ohio, Region 5. CERCLIS No. OHD980794630. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fultz Landfill, placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1982, is in Guernsey County, Ohio, 0.5 miles north of Byesville, Ohio. The landfill is a privately owned, former sanitary landfill which reportedly accepted hazardous waste. State and local involvement at the site started in 1968. The landfill ceased operations in 1985. Disposal of hazardous waste at the Fultz Landfill site contaminated the soil, leachate, surface water, sediments, and groundwater. On-site groundwater contains very high concentrations of arsenic, barium, chromium, and lead. Groundwater on-site also contains vinyl chloride, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The Fultz Landfill site is considered a public health hazard because of the potential impact on drinking water sources in the surrounding area. The public should be restricted from entering the landfill. There are no indications humans have been or are being exposed to on-site and/or off-site contaminants. Therefore, the site is not being considered for follow-up activities at this time.

Not Available

1993-03-31

422

Landfill mining: Giving garbage a second chance  

SciTech Connect

Some communities face the problems of lack of landfill space and lack of landfill cover dirt. In some cases, existing landfills may be mined to reclaim dirt for use as cover material and to recover space for reuse. Such mining also has the potential of recovering recyclables and incinerator fuels. Machinery to reclaim refuse deposits, and their heterogeneous composted ingredients, was successfully tested at two Florida landfills in June 1987. One of the Florida mining tests, at the Collier County landfill near the city of Naples, had goals of demonstrating an economical mechanical system to separate the depository's ingredients into usable or redisposable components, and to see if the method could enable the county to avoid the expenses associated with permanent closure of a full landfill. This paper describes the history of the Collier County landfill, the equipment and feasibility test, economics, the monitoring of odors, landfill gas, and heavy metals, and results of the test.

Cobb, C.C.; Ruckstuhl, K. (SPM Group, Inc., Preston, MN (USA))

1988-08-01

423

The Fate of Nitrogen in Bioreactor Landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although bioreactor landfills have many advantages associated with them, challenges remain, including the persistence of ammonia-nitrogen in the leachate. It has been suggested that ammonia-nitrogen is one of the most significant long-term pollution problem in landfills and is likely a parameter that will determine when landfill postclosure monitoring may end. The fate of nitrogen in bioreactor landfills is not well

N. D. Berge; D. R. Reinhart; T. G. Townsend

2005-01-01

424

Control network for modern street lighting systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a control network for a LED street lighting system. The use of LEDs is being considered a promising solution to modern street lighting systems, due to their longer lifetime, higher luminous efficiency and higher CRI. The proposed control network enables disconnection of the street lighting system from the mains during peak load time, reducing its impact in

Gustavo W. Denardin; Carlos H. Barriquello; Alexandre Campos; Rafael A. Pinto; Marco A. Dalla Costa; Ricardo N. do Prado

2011-01-01

425

VIEW NORTHEASTELMER STREET CENTERBUILDING 102ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHTBUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW NORTHEAST-ELMER STREET CENTER-BUILDING 102-ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHT-BUILDING 101-CLARK STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

426

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Ripon City Landfill, Fond du Lac County, Ripon, WI, March 27, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Ripon FF/LN landfill Superfund site is located at the intersection of Highways FF and NN in the Town of Ripon, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. The selected source control remedy is Alternative O, Composite Landfill Cap and Passive Gas Venting in conjunction with a groundwater monitoring plan.

NONE

1996-06-01

427

Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste

Hoe I. Ling; Dov Leshchinsky; Yoshiyuki Mohri; Toshinori Kawabata

1998-01-01

428

BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

429

Landfill gas management: View from Italy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Landfilling is the most widely used waste disposal system in Italy. More than 85% of the total refuse produced is landfilled, as the other ways still have many problems. People do not easily accept landfilling, and many regions of the country have very di...

F. De Poli S. Pasqualini

1993-01-01

430

Bioreactor landfills: experimental and field results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. This paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out to determine the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation and nutrient balance on the rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation. Higher rates of MSW biodegradation eventually

Mostafa Warith

2002-01-01

431

The decomposition of forest products in landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of forest products are disposed of in landfills annually. The fate of this vast pool of carbon is important since carbon sequestration and the generation of landfill gases have important implications for global warming. Published estimates of methane yields were used to estimate the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere from landfilled forest products. These calculations suggest

J. A. Micales; K. E. Skog

1997-01-01

432

Landfills as atmospheric methane sources and sinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanitary landfills are recognized as globally significant sources of atmospheric methane, but field measurements are rare. Existing country-specific landfill emissions have been estimated from solid waste statistics and a series of assumptions regarding methane generation and emission rates. There has been no attempt to reconcile the national and global estimates with limited field data on landfill methane emissions which range

J. Bognerl; K. Spokas; E. Burton; R. Sweeney; V. Corona

1995-01-01

433

Environmental Impacts of Solid Waste Landfilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inevitable consequences of the practice of solid waste disposal in landfills are gas and leachate generation due primarily to microbial decomposition, climatic conditions, refuse characteristics and landfilling operations. The migration of gas and leachate away from the landfill boundaries and their release into the surrounding environment present serious environmental concerns at both existing and new facilities. Besides potential health hazards,

Mutasem El-Fadel; Angelos N. Findikakis; James O. Leckie

1997-01-01

434

Remote Access to Landfill Slope Design Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study creates a landfill design application in a server that can be accessed by engineers via the World Wide Web. Through this system, engineers can complete a side slope design and\\/or landfill evaluation. Instead of using traditional engineering computa- tion techniques to analyze a problem, this study presents a new method that uses a data- base to analyze landfill

Yih-ping Huang

2005-01-01

435