Science.gov

Sample records for street landfill site

  1. Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study.

    PubMed Central

    Hertzman, C; Hayes, M; Singer, J; Highland, J

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is the conclusion of the authors that the adverse effects seen were more likely the result of chemical exposure than of perception of risk. PMID:3691438

  2. Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzman, C.; Hayes, M.; Singer, J.; Highland, J.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess.

  3. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  4. Case study of landfill reclamation at a Florida landfill site.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Johnson, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A landfill reclamation project was considered to recover landfill airspace and soil, reduce future groundwater impacts by removing the waste buried in the unlined area, and optimize airspace use at the site. A phased approach was utilized to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of the reclamation project; based on the results of these evaluations, approximately 6.8 ha of the unlined cells were reclaimed. Approximately 371,000 in-place cubic meters of waste was mined from 6.8 ha in this project. Approximately 230,600 cubic meters of net airspace was recovered due to beneficial use of the recovered final cover soil and reclaimed soil as intermediate and daily cover soil, respectively, for the current landfill operations. This paper presents the researchers' landfill reclamation project experience, including a summary of activities pertaining to reclamation operations, an estimation of reclamation rates achieved during the project, project costs and benefits, and estimated composition of the reclaimed materials. PMID:23089299

  5. 11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. (BUILDINGS 131, 130, 129, AND 128 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of site streets. 861.4 Section 861.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.4 Use of site streets. All persons using the streets of the Nevada Test Site shall do so in a careful and safe manner. (a) The Nevada Test Site Traffic Regulations supplement this section...

  7. 10 CFR 861.4 - Use of site streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of site streets. 861.4 Section 861.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.4 Use of site streets. All persons using the streets of the Nevada Test Site shall do so in a careful and safe manner. (a) The Nevada Test Site Traffic Regulations supplement this section...

  8. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  9. Landfill mining reduces site redevelopment costs

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, K.J.; White, J.R.; Mudhar, T.S.

    1994-12-31

    California-based Clean-Up Technology, Inc. teamed with property owners and agencies to execute one of the largest industrial landfill reclamation projects in the US. Site assessments indicated that the 10 acre site in Commerce, California, was used as an uncontrolled landfill from 1941 to 1953 before it was operated as a trucking terminal until the late 1980`s. Beneath a cover layer of soil and asphalt was 200,000 cubic years of a heterogeneous mixture of soil, concrete, rubber, wood, scrap metal, asphalt and other debris. In addition to the unstable nature of the fill, localized contamination of hydrogen and led made the site unsuitable for redevelopment without remediation. Clean-Up Technology designed, engineered and operated a plant to segregate debris by type, size and contamination level. This reduced the amount of contaminated material by as much as 60% and reduced costs by an estimated $5 million. The semi-automated plant performed multiple screening operations, size reduction of oversize material and separation of wood, metal, concrete and soil. The plant was designed to process the material in one pass at an average of 200 tons per hour.

  10. Optimizing landfill site selection by using land classification maps.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, M; Homaee, M; Mahmoodi, S; Pazira, E; Van Genuchten, M Th

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is a major environmental concern throughout the world. Proper landfill siting involves many environmental, economic, technical, and sociocultural challenges. In this study, a new quantitative method for landfill siting that reduces the number of evaluation criteria, simplifies siting procedures, and enhances the utility of available land evaluation maps was proposed. The method is demonstrated by selecting a suitable landfill site near the city of Marvdasht in Iran. The approach involves two separate stages. First, necessary criteria for preliminary landfill siting using four constraints and eight factors were obtained from a land classification map initially prepared for irrigation purposes. Thereafter, the criteria were standardized using a rating approach and then weighted to obtain a suitability map for landfill siting, with ratings in a 0-1 domain and divided into five suitability classes. Results were almost identical to those obtained with a more traditional environmental landfill siting approach. Because of far fewer evaluation criteria, the proposed weighting method was much easier to implement while producing a more convincing database for landfill siting. The classification map also considered land productivity. In the second stage, the six best alternative sites were evaluated for final landfill siting using four additional criteria. Sensitivity analyses were furthermore conducted to assess the stability of the obtained ranking. Results indicate that the method provides a precise siting procedure that should convince all pertinent stakeholders. PMID:25666474

  11. Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

  12. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study area. All samplers in the survey had detections of TPH, but only eight of the samplers had detections of TPH greater than 0.9 mg. Four samplers had TPH detections greater than 9 mg; the only other fuel-related compounds detected in these four samplers included toluene in three of the samplers and undecane in the fourth sampler. Three samplers deployed along the western margin of the northern landfill had detections of both diesel-and gasoline-related compounds; however, the diesel-related compounds were detected at or below method detection levels. Seven samplers in the northern study area had detections of chlorinated compounds, including three perchloroethene detections, three chloroform detections, and one 1,4-dichloro-benzene detection. One sampler on the western margin of the landfill had detections of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-tr-methylbenene below method detection levels.

  13. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  14. Brownfield landfill remediation under the Illinois EPA site remediation program

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.; Bruce, B.; Miller, J.; Wey, T.

    1999-07-01

    Brownfield type landfill remediation was completed at the Ft. Sheridan Historic Landmark District, a former Army Base Realignment and Closure Facility, in conjunction with the future development of 551 historic and new homes at this site. The project was completed during 1998 under the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) Site Remediation Program. This paper highlights the Illinois EPA's Site Remediation Program and the remediation of Landfills 3 and 4 at Fort Sheridan. The project involved removal of about 200,000 cubic yards of landfill waste, comprised of industrial and domestic refuse and demolition debris, and post-removal confirmation sampling of soils, sediment, surface water, and groundwater. The sample results were compared to the Illinois Risk-Based Cleanup levels for residential scenarios. The goal of the removal project was to obtain a No Further Remediation letter from the Illinois EPA to allow residential development of the landfill areas.

  15. Remedial design of the Fultz Landfill Site, Byesville, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaram, V.; Riesing, R.; Bloom, T.

    1994-12-31

    The Fultz Landfill Superfund (Fultz) site is a 30-acre hazardous waste landfill located near Byesville, Ohio. The site is approximately 75 miles east of Columbus and 3 miles southwest of Cambridge, the largest city in Guernsey County, Ohio. The landfill is situated on the north slope of a ridge that overlies abandoned coal mines in the Upper Freeport Coal seam. The north half of the landfill lies in an unreclaimed strip mine in the Upper Freeport Coal seam, where saturated portions of surface mine spoils and natural soils form the ``shallow aquifer``. The south half of the landfill lies 40 to 50 feet (ft.) above an abandoned, flooded deep mine in the same coal seam. The flooded deep mine forms an aquifer referred to as the ``coal mine aquifer``. This paper presents the results of design studies completed by PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC), during 1993, and the remedial design (RD) of the components specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision (ROD) for the Fultz site (EPA 1991). The remedy specified in the ROD includes a multilayer landfill cap that is compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C guidelines, a leachate collection and groundwater extraction and treatment system, and stabilizing mine voids underlying the southern portion of the site. Vinyl chloride is the only contaminant exceeding a maximum contaminant limit (MCL) in the coal mine aquifer.

  16. Soil and plant characteristics of landfill sites near Merseyside, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.

    1988-07-01

    An ecological survey of the plant and soil characteristics was carried out on three landfill sites near Merseyside, England. It was discovered that bare ground at two of the landfill areas had high levels of methane contained in the soil air (Sefton Meadows landfill: 6 8% at 35 cm and 16 35% at 65 cm below soil surface; Coalgate Lane landfill: 1 24% at 35 cm and 39 45% at 40 cm below soils surface), causing the appearance of dark grey reduced regions in the soil, a phenomenon similar to flooded soil. The wellvegetated areas at the two sites had lower levels of methane (under 7%). In areas relatively free of methane, the concentrations of mineralized N and NO3 - had significant correlations with the dry weights of vegetation (r = 0.71 with p<0.01; r=0.61 with p<0.02 accordingly), indicating the necessity of applying available nitrogen fertilizer.

  17. Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Jarrah, Omar . E-mail: aljarrah@just.edu.jo; Abu-Qdais, Hani . E-mail: hqdais@just.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    Historically, landfills have been the dominant alternative for the ultimate disposal of municipal solid waste. This paper addresses the problem of siting a new landfill using an intelligent system based on fuzzy inference. The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including topography and geology, natural resources, socio-cultural aspects, and economy and safety. The system will rank sites on a scale of 0-100%, with 100% being the most appropriate one. A weighting system is used for all of the considered factors. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  18. Bacterial community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the bacterial diversity of landfills and how environmental factors impact the diversity. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities of ten landfill leachate samples from five landfill sites in China. A total of 137 K useable sequences from the V3-V6 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were retrieved from 205 K reads. These sequences revealed the presence of a large number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the landfills (709-1599 OTUs per sample). The most predominant bacterial representatives in the landfills investigated, regardless of geographic area, included Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The phyla Fusobacteria and Tenericutes were also found for the first time to be predominant in the landfills. The phylum Fusobacteria predominated (51.5 and 48.8%) in two semi-arid landfills, and the phylum Tenericutes dominated (30.6%) at one humid, subtropical landfill. Further, a large number of Pseudomonas was detected in most samples, comprising the dominant group and accounting for 40.9 to 92.4% of the total abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis based on OTU abundance showed that the abundant taxa separated the bacterial community. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that precipitation and landfilling age significantly impact on the bacterial community structure. The bacterial community function (e.g., cellulolytic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfate-oxidizing bacteria, and xenobiotic organic compound (XOC)-degrading bacteria) was also diverse, but the pattern is unclear. PMID:25981996

  19. Lateral migration and offsite surface emission of landfill gas at City of Montreal Landfill Site.

    PubMed

    Franzidis, Jean-Pierre; Héroux, Martin; Nastev, Miroslav; Guy, Christophe

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of lateral landfill gas migration was carried out at the Saint-Michel Environmental Complex in Montreal, City of Montreal Landfill Site, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. Biogas concentration measurements and gas-pumping tests were conducted in multilevel wells installed in the backfilled overburden beside the landfill site. A migration event recorded in autumn 2004 during the maintenance shutdown of the extraction system was simulated using TOUGH-LGM software. Eleven high-density instantaneous surface monitoring (ISM) surveys of methane were conducted on the test site. Gas fluxes were calculated by geostatistical analyses of ISM data correlated to dynamic flux chamber measurements. Variograms using normal transformed data showed good structure, and kriged estimates were much better than inverse distance weighting, due to highly skewed data. Measurement-based estimates of yearly off-site surface emissions were two orders of magnitude higher than modelled advective lateral methane flux. Nucleodensimeter measurements of the porosity were abnormally high, indicating that the backfill was poorly compacted. Kriged porosity maps correlated well with emission maps and areas with vegetation damage. Pumping tests analysis revealed that vertical permeability was higher than radial permeability. All results suggest that most of the lateral migration and consequent emissions to the atmosphere were due to the existence of preferential flow paths through macropores. In December 2006, two passively vented trenches were constructed on the test site. They were successful in countering lateral migration. PMID:18578151

  20. The economic and social aspects of sanitary landfill site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in the selection of suitable sites for sanitary land fills are discussed. The economic considerations and problems of social acceptance are considered the most important. The subjects discussed are: (1) accessibility of land, (2) availability of cover material, (3) expected capacity of site, (4) cover material and compaction, (5) fire protection, (6) site location with respect to residential and industrial areas, and (7) land usage after landfill completion.

  1. Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, Talib E. Lockley, Elaine; Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K.

    2008-07-01

    A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches.

  2. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  3. 75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... AGENCY Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland, Boyd County... Brothers Landfill Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov : Follow...

  4. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  6. Choosing a municipal landfill site by analytic network process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banar, Mufide; Kose, Barbaros Murat; Ozkan, Aysun; Poyraz Acar, Ilgin

    2007-04-01

    In this study, analytic network process (ANP), one of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tools has been used to choose one of the four alternative landfill sites for the city of Eskisehir, Turkey. For this purpose, Super Decision Software has been used and benefit opportunity cost and risk (BOCR) analysis has been done to apply ANP. In BOCR analysis, each alternative site has been evaluated in terms of its benefits, costs and risks; the opportunity cluster has been examined under the benefit cluster. In this context, technical, economical and social assessments have been done for the site selection of sanitary landfill. Also, results have been compared with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) which is another MCDM technique used in the study conducted before. Finally, the current site has been determined as the most appropriate site in both methods. These methods have not been commonly used in the discipline of environmental engineering but it is believed to be an important contribution for decision makers.

  7. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-10-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  8. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  9. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented. PMID:22919857

  10. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I.; Kontaksakis, M.; Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-11-15

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  11. Empirical approach to predict leached nutrients from landfill site.

    PubMed

    Barman, Pranab Jyoti; Kartha, Suresh A; Pradhan, Bulu

    2015-05-01

    An empirical approach is made in this investigation to predict the leached concentrations of sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) in the effluents from a landfill site. Water at certain predetermined inflow filling rate is applied to a specific ponding depth, at the top of an experimental column filled with landfill refuse soil at the top (upper layer) and normal local soil at the bottom (base layer). The water infiltrates into the upper layer soil, percolates through the pores in upper and base layers, and in the process leaches the nutrients from the soils that are collected at the bottom of the column. The experimentations were for different combinations of heights of upper and base layer soils, water ponding depth, and inflow filling rates. The nutrient concentrations in the outflow leachates are measured using flame photometer. The observations showed mixed responses of leaching and trapping of nutrients in the soil layers for the various combinations. The experimental observations also inferred that the nutrient leaching is more for cases involving higher ponding depths and higher inflow filling rates. Empirical relationships with respect to the geometrical parameters, to predict the leached concentrations of Na, Ca, and K, are developed from the experimental observations using nonlinear least squares regressive techniques. Exponential equations gave the best empirical fit among various nonlinear relations in the regression technique. The empirical models also predicted well for each subcategory of independent variables that are substantiated by high correlation coefficients. PMID:25410312

  12. Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect the creek. However, most TPH detections were located in and immediately adjacent to a debris field located within the former landfill and in areas where debris was not visible, including the northwestern and southeastern parts of the study area. Two of the four soil-gas samplers installed within a former military training area adjacent to the landfill also had TPH detections above the method detection level. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (as combined BTEX mass) were detected at 0.02 microgram or greater in three soil-gas samplers installed at the northwestern boundary and in five samplers installed in the southeastern part of the study area. There was no BTEX mass detected above the method detection level in samplers installed in the debris field. Toluene was the most frequently detected BTEX compound. Compounds indicative of diesel-range organics were detected above 0.04 microgram in 12 soil-gas samplers and had a distribution similar to that of TPH, including being detected in the debris field. Undecane was the most frequently detected diesel compound. Chloroform and naphthalene were detected in eight and two soil-gas samplers, respectively. Five soil-gas samplers deployed during September 2010 were analyzed for organic compounds classified as chemical agents and explosives, but none exceeded the method detection levels. Five composite soil samples collected from within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill were analyzed for 35 inorganic constituents, but none of the constituents detected exceeded regional screening levels for industrial soils. The sample collected in the debris field exceeded background levels for aluminum, barium, calcium, chromium, lead, nickel, potassium, sodium, and zinc. Three surface-water samples were collected in September 2010 from a stormwater outfall culvert that drains to the creek and from the open channel of the creek at upstream and downstream locations relative to the outfall. Toluene was detected at 0.661 mi

  13. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  14. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  15. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  16. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  17. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  18. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

  19. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study. PMID:11958553

  20. Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.

    PubMed

    Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

    2006-07-01

    Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

  1. Landfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, M.; Monavari, S. M.; Omrani, G. A.; Shariat, M.; Hosseini, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Iran. Several environmental pollution and soil degradation problems were found as a consequence of poor planning of landfills. So recognition of the MSW landfill state is required to prevent environmental problems. The objective of this research was to study the suitability of existing municipal landfill sites using geographic information system methods. Tonekabon city in the west area of Mazandaran province, northern Iran, along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, was chosen as a case study. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines were used: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and regional screening guidelines. The results indicate that the landfills were not located in suitable sites and also that there are few suitable locations to install the landfills.

  2. Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: a review of epidemiologic literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates current epidemiologic literature on health effects in relation to residence near landfill sites. Increases in risk of adverse health effects (low birth weight, birth defects, certain types of cancers) have been reported near individual landfill sites and in some multisite studies, and although biases and confounding factors cannot be excluded as explanations for these findings, they may indicate real risks associated with residence near certain landfill sites. A general weakness in the reviewed studies is the lack of direct exposure measurement. An increased prevalence of self-reported health symptoms such as fatigue, sleepiness, and headaches among residents near waste sites has consistently been reported in more than 10 of the reviewed papers. It is difficult to conclude whether these symptoms are an effect of direct toxicologic action of chemicals present in waste sites, an effect of stress and fears related to the waste site, or an effect of reporting bias. Although a substantial number of studies have been conducted, risks to health from landfill sites are hard to quantify. There is insufficient exposure information and effects of low-level environmental exposure in the general population are by their nature difficult to establish. More interdisciplinary research can improve levels of knowledge on risks to human health of waste disposal in landfill sites. Research needs include epidemiologic and toxicologic studies on individual chemicals and chemical mixtures, well-designed single- and multisite landfill studies, development of biomarkers, and research on risk perception and sociologic determinants of ill health. PMID:10698726

  3. Does Disposing of Construction and Demolition Debris in Unlined Landfills Impact Groundwater Quality? Evidence from 91 Landfill Sites in Florida.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jon T; Jain, Pradeep; Smith, Justin; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2015-08-01

    More than 1,500 construction and demolition debris (CDD) landfills operate in the United States (U.S.), and U.S. federal regulations do not require containment features such as low-permeability liners and leachate collection systems for these facilities. Here we evaluate groundwater quality from samples collected in groundwater monitoring networks at 91 unlined, permitted CDD landfills in Florida, U.S. A total of 460,504 groundwater sample results were analyzed, with a median of 10 years of quarterly or semiannual monitoring data per site including more than 400 different chemical constituents. Downgradient concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, iron, ammonia-nitrogen, and aluminum were greater than upgradient concentrations (p < 0.05). At downgradient wells where sulfate concentrations were greater than 150 mg/L (approximately 10% of the maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in water, which suggests the presence of leachate from the landfill), iron and arsenic were detected in 91% and 43% of samples, with median concentrations of 1,900 μg/L and 11 μg/L, respectively. These results show that although health-based standards can be exceeded at unlined CDD landfills, the magnitude of detected chemical concentrations is generally small and reflective of leached minerals from components (wood, concrete, and gypsum drywall) that comprise the bulk of discarded CDD by mass. PMID:26130423

  4. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. PMID:25911065

  5. LINERS FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS AND CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report lists addresses of sanitary landfills and chemical and hazardous waste disposal sites and holding ponds with some form of impermeable lining. Liners included are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon R, ethylene propylene diene monomer, butyl rubber, conventional ...

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  7. Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Razem, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

  8. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Archaeal community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Despite the pivotal role of archaea in methane production in landfills, the identity, ecology, and functional diversity of these microorganisms and their link to environmental factors remain largely unknown. We collected 11 landfill leachate samples from six geographically distinct landfills of different ages in China and analyzed the archaeal community by bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing. We retrieved 121,797 sequences from a total of 167,583 sequences (average length of 464 bp). The archaeal community was geographically structured, and nonabundant taxa primarily contributed to the observed dissimilarities. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that the total phosphorous (TP), nitrate, and conductivity are important drivers for shaping the archaeal community. The hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales greatly dominated 9 of 11 samples, ranging from 83.7 to 99.5 %. These methanogens also dominated the remaining two samples, accounting for 70.3 and 58.8 %, respectively. Interestingly, for all of the studied Chinese landfills, 16S rRNA analysis indicated the predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. PMID:25758957

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Odusanya, David O.; Okonkwo, Jonathan O. Botha, Ben

    2009-01-15

    The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

  11. Limited site investigation of Landfills 1 and 4, Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Eddy, P.A.; Airhart, S.P.; Olsen, K.R.; Raymond, J.R.; Dahl, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The information presented in this report was collected during limited site investigation activities conducted in the vicinity of Landfills 1 and 4 at Fort Lewis. The purpose of this work was to provide a means of detecting and evaluating the impacts of these inactive landfills on ground-water quality and adjacent lands. This effort included the design and construction of ground-water monitoring systems for compliance with applicable federal and state regulations governing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-type landfills. Ground-water samples were collected from both existing (1981 and 1984) wells and the newly installed (1988) wells. The analytical results from the water samples indicate that the ground water in and around Landfill 1 contains limited contamination. Contaminants may include volatile organic compounds and nitrate. The primary concern in the area around Landfill 1 was the determination that ground water from two wells may contain cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. Nitrate levels in the downgradient wells were greater than those in upgradient wells and exceeded drinking water standards in some of the less-representative samples. Analyses of ground-water samples from wells in and around Landfill 4 indicate several contaminants may be present. These include volatile organic compounds (principally cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene), coliform, oil and grease, and perhaps some metals (iron and magnesium). The primary concern in the area around Landfill 4 was the determination that ground water from five wells contained cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene above drinking water standards. The source of contaminants beneath either landfill cannot yet be identified. Insufficient data exist to disprove or confirm either landfill as possible contributors. 19 refs., 32 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Characterization and control of odorous gases at a landfill site: a case study in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ding; Chuanyu, Cai; Bin, Hu; Yueen, Xu; Xuejuan, Zheng; Yingxu, Chen; Weixiang, Wu

    2012-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are one of the major sources of offensive odors potentially creating annoyance in adjacent communities. At the end of May 2007, an odor pollution incident occurred at the Tianziling landfill site, Hangzhou, China, where the residents lodged complaints about the intense odor from the landfill, which drew a significant attention from the government. In this study, ambient air monitoring was conducted at the Tianziling landfill site. The main odor composition of the gas samples collected on June 1st 2007 and the reduction of various odorous gases from the samples collected on June 1st 2009 due to the applied odor control techniques were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, variations of primary odorous gaseous (NH(3) and H(2)S) concentrations at different locations in the landfill site from July 2007 to June 2009 were also investigated by using classical spectrophotometric methods. Results showed that a total of 68 volatile compounds were identified among which H(2)S (56.58-579.84 ?g/m(3)) and NH(3) (520-4460 ?g/m(3)) were the notable odor components contributing to 4.47-10.92% and 83.91-93.94% of total concentrations, respectively. Similar spatial and temporal shifts of H(2)S and NH(3) concentrations were observed and were significantly affected by environmental factors including temperature, air pressure and wind direction. Odor pollution was worse when high temperature, high humidity, low air pressure, and southeast, northeast or east wind appeared. Moreover, the environmental sampling points of the dumping area and the leachate treatment plant were found to be the main odor sources at the Tianziling landfill site. The odor control technologies used in this project had a good mitigating effect on the primary odorous compounds. This study provides long-term valuable information concerning the characteristics and control of odors at landfill sites in a long run. PMID:22137772

  13. The seasonal distribution of bioaerosols in municipal landfill sites: a 3-yr study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chu-Yun; Lee, Ching-Chang; Li, Fang-Chun; Ma, Yu-Pei; Su, Huey-Jen Jenny

    Landfill is the most common way to dispose waste in many countries, and most landfill sites after closure are often considered for public recreation purposes. It is important that the pollutant levels of closed landfill areas are free of adverse health concerns. However, only limited studies have investigated the airborne biological contamination in closed landfill sites. The objective of this study was to document the bioaerosol levels in a closed landfill site while the temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects were also taken into accounts. Study site was at one sanitary landfill, taking mostly municipal wastes, in southern Taiwan. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected on tryptic soy agar (Difco) and malt extract agar (Difco) by a Burkard impactor (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd.) operating at about 10 l m -3 for 30 s. Air samples were collected sequentially in winter, spring, summer and fall in 1998, winter, spring, summer in 1999, as well as summer and fall in 2000. In addition, sampling was conducted in the morning, at noon, in the evening and the following morning during each field assessment. Levels of airborne bacteria and fungi were all far above 10 3 CFU m -3. The concentrations of culturable bacteria and fungi were higher in winter than in other seasons. The difference of bioaerosol level and fungal percentages between the undergoing-closure and closed areas was obvious, and the concentrations were higher in closed area. We therefore recommend that before any complete investigation can be conducted to assure the safety, the closed area of landfill site is probably not ready for immediate public use.

  14. Changing face of the landfill

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Integrated approach at Oregon landfill diverts wood and yard trimmings, while turning methane into power for 1,800 homes. Opened in the 1940`s as an open burn dump, Coffin Butte has evolved over the years into a sophisticated waste management facility incorporating ambitious recovery programs. While some of this change has been driven by regulatory demands, many of Valley Landfill`s innovations have come in response to market opportunities. Valley Landfill`s Processing and Recovery Center (PRC) is located a half mile down the road from the landfill site. Opened in 1990, the facility recycles urban wood waste, yard trimmings and street sweepings. The heart of this operation is a 500 hp horizontal feed, fixed-hammer grinder. Although this machine is typically used only for wood grinding, PRC was able to adapt it to handle both wood and yard trimmings by installing special feed roll assembly to compress green waste passing over the infeed belt. The facility handles approximately 40,000 cubic yards of loose green material and produces 15,000 to 18,000 yards of compost. The finished product is run through a trommel with a 5/8 inch mesh screen. Most of the compost is sold in bulk to area garden centers. A portion is processed through a 3/8 inch shaker screen and sold to a local company for use in bagged soil products. Valley Landfill is a partner in an ambitious project to generate electricity from landfill biogas.

  15. Applying Fuzzy logic and the point count system to select landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Ojha, C S P; Goyal, Manish Kumar; Kumar, Sunil

    2007-12-01

    The treatment of solid waste is currently one of the major environmental problems facing municipalities. Thousands of tonnes of waste are generated each day, requiring a large area for disposal purposes. It is difficult to find suitable areas for the construction of such sanitary landfills as numerous criteria must be met, and landfill sites vary considerably in terms of their sophistication. The selection criteria for landfill sites should be as simple as possible, and with this in mind, we have evaluated a large number of random cases for the suitability of the site for landfill purposes using the recently advocated fuzzy approach. Using the fuzzy classification, we have attempted to develop a simple classification which uses only certain point values for available attributes. A normalized average of such attributes based on the proposed classifier is further evaluated using additionally generated random data sets. The results appear to be encouraging and indicate that the present classifier can be used as a substitute for the fuzzy-based ranking of landfill sites. PMID:17564807

  16. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F.

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  17. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong

    2010-08-01

    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin). PMID:20623053

  18. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Sumathi VR; Natesan U; Sarkar C

    2008-11-01

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  19. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, V R; Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-01

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process. PMID:18060759

  20. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Sumathi, V.R. Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-15

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  1. Site Characterization of Landfill using Soil gas, Hydrochemical and Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Park, S.; Son, J.; Oh, I.

    2005-12-01

    To identify the effect of landfill waste for groundwater and unsaturated soil environment, the expedited site assessment, soil gas, geophysical prospecting, and in-situ chemical analysis of contaminants and indicators of pollution were executed. The aquifer of the study area is mainly composed of 8 to 10 m sandy sediment overlying Jurassic granite. The active sampling method was addressed to investigate the distribution of soil gas at the study area. The spatial distribution of soil gas at the depth of 80-100cm showed the boundary of buried waste and the biodegradation processes and the degree of waste decomposition. The CO2 and CH4 concentration across the disposed direction increased by the intensive decomposition of waste and this indicated the methanogenic condition of unsaturated zone of landfill. The geophysical survey at the municipal landfill was executed to delineate the size and extent of soil and groundwater contamination. The electromagnetic (EM), magnetic, and resistivity method were used for site investigation. From the EM method, we can get the information of soil conductivity directly related to the leachate of the contamination. The magnetic anomalies showed the boundary of landfill which was not identified on the surface due to soil capping. The results of geophysical survey were well matched to those of hydrogeochemical survey carried out inside and near the landfill. Electric conductivity (EC) of the groundwater sampled from low resistivity anomaly region of EM result was higher than background value and the border estimated from the magnetic survey showed good agreement with that estimated from the soil gas detection survey. The monitoring of electrical resistivity survey showed the leakage of leachate from landfill and this results well coincided with the groundwater chemistry. From the research results for groundwater quality, it was considered that the groundwater contamination by leachate from landfill is controlled by groundwater flow attributed by the original topography and liner.

  2. Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zume, J.T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Evaluation of methodologies for exposure assessment to atmospheric pollutants from a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Richard; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Robins, Alan; Jefferis, Stephan; Coy, Joanne; Wight, Jeremy; Murray, Virginia

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies around landfill sites are limited by several factors, particularly a lack of accurate exposure assessment. Traditionally, exposure estimates are based on distance between place of residence and the landfill site. However, this measure of exposure ignores the effects that environmental factors may have upon exposure. A previous epidemiological study at a landfill site in the United Kingdom provided the basis for a case study to investigate exposure assessment methodologies that could support ongoing and future epidemiological work. Estimation of relative exposure to atmospheric pollutants near the site was refined using the Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS) 3.1. Annual average concentrations were calculated around the landfill site, which was modeled as an area source with a steady release rate over its entire active surface. Local meteorological and terrain data were used in the assessment. A geographical information system (GIS) was then used to link the results of the modeling to population and other data. Sensitivity studies were included to examine the variation of predicted exposure with several modeling assumptions and hence set other uncertainties in context. No simple relationship existed between the relative individual exposure measured by distance from the site and by dispersion modeling. A reassessment of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies around landfill sites was then undertaken with the refined estimates of exposure. This concluded that use of distance from the site as a proxy for exposure could lead to significant exposure misclassification in comparison with exposure assessment using atmospheric dispersion modeling and GIS. The study also indicated that assessment of peak exposure rates (i.e., extreme concentration levels) might be necessary in some epidemiological work. Optimum strategies for increasing the probability of observing effects in the more highly exposed population can be derived by combining the results of dispersion modeling with population data and, where feasible, knowledge of the toxicology of the substances of interest. PMID:19418822

  4. Factors influencing the establishment of floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Natural revegetation on landfill sites often results in a species poor sward dominated by Elymus repens (Shaw, 1983; Davis, 1988; Wong, 1988). The aim of this study was primarily to investigate the mechanism by which E.repens achieved such apparent domination and secondly to investigate various methods to establish floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site. Low rates of germination and survival were recorded from seeds of Plantago lanceolata, Centaureau nigrand Leucanthemum vulgare sown into a sward of E.repens on a restored landfill site in Essex, even during periods with adequate soil water. Plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L. vulgare were grown in pots and transplanted into the sward of E.repens. Over the following two years a significant decrease in crown cover of these species was recorded. In areas where E.repens had been treated with herbicide or mown, seedlings and introduced plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare increased in cover over two years. Stomatal conductance of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare was reduced when these species were growing with E.repens even during periods with adequate soil water. P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare growing with E.repens on restored landfill has been shown experimentally to result in reduced cover. It is suggested that this is due to competition in combination potentially, with allelochemical effects of E.repens. Successful establishment of a floristically rich grass mix was achieved by the reduction in cover of E.repens by herbicide or mowing. On newly restored landfill a careful balance between soil treatments, fertilizer levels and subsequent management in the form of mowing must be attained in order to establish floristically rich grasslands. The results from this study show that by utilizing various management techniques a floristically rich grass mix could be established on a restored landfill site.

  5. Spatial effect of new municipal solid waste landfill siting using different guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2014-01-01

    Proper implementation of landfill siting with the right regulations and constraints can prevent undesirable long-term effects. Different countries have respective guidelines on criteria for new landfill sites. In this article, we perform a comparative study of municipal solid waste landfill siting criteria stated in the policies and guidelines of eight different constitutional bodies from Malaysia, Australia, India, U.S.A., Europe, China and the Middle East, and the World Bank. Subsequently, a geographic information system (GIS) multi-criteria evaluation model was applied to determine new suitable landfill sites using different criterion parameters using a constraint mapping technique and weighted linear combination. Application of Macro Modeler provided in the GIS-IDRISI Andes software helps in building and executing multi-step models. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process technique was included to determine the criterion weight of the decision maker's preferences as part of the weighted linear combination procedure. The differences in spatial results of suitable sites obtained signifies that dissimilarity in guideline specifications and requirements will have an effect on the decision-making process. PMID:24241167

  6. Migration of contaminants through till: Implications for the selection of the landfill sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, R.E.; Howard, K.W.F. . Groundwater Research Group)

    1992-01-01

    In glaciated regions of North America, till is often regarded as the geologic medium of choice when selecting appropriate sites for landfill operations. This is especially true in southern Ontario, where intensive studies are presently being conducted to site municipal landfills to serve the Greater Toronto Area. Throughout this region many potential sites are situated on the Halton Till, a widespread surficial unit of Late Wisconsinan age. This study focuses on the hydraulic characteristics of the Halton Till utilizing two data sets from interim landfill site searches completed in 1990. Small scale methods of estimating hydraulic conductivity within the till such as rising/falling head tests and laboratory triaxial testing typically yield values on the order of 10[sup [minus]7] and 10[sup [minus]9] cm/s, respectively. In contrast, hydrochemical evidence, including the presence of elevated levels of Na, SO[sub 4], Cl and [sup 3]H within the till pore waters to depths of up to 40 meters suggests that vertical groundwater velocities may be in the order of 1.0 to 1.5 m/year. These data imply that contaminants such as farm fertilizers and road salt are migrating through the till at higher velocities than expected and that the bulk hydraulic conductivity may be 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than values estimated from field and laboratory methods. Such findings can have serious implications for impact assessment studies required for landfill siting investigations.

  7. Mathematical modeling of heavy metals contamination from MSW landfill site in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tantemsapya, N; Naksakul, Y; Wirojanagud, W

    2011-01-01

    Kham Bon landfill site is one of many municipality waste disposal sites in Thailand which are in an unsanitary condition. The site has been receiving municipality wastes without separating hazardous waste since 1968. Heavy metals including, Pb, Cr and Cd are found in soil and groundwater around the site, posing a health risk to people living nearby. In this research, contamination transport modelling of Pb, Cr and Cd was simulated using MODFLOW for two periods, at the present (2010) and 20 years prediction (2030). Model results showed that heavy metals, especially Pb and Cr migrated toward the north-eastern and south-eastern direction. The 20 years prediction showed that, heavy metals tend to move from the top soil to the deeper aquifer. The migration would not exceed 500 m radius from the landfill centre in the next 20 years, which is considered to be a slow process. From the simulation model, it is recommended that a mitigation measure should be performed to reduce the risk from landfill contamination. Hazardous waste should be separated for proper management. Groundwater contamination in the aquifer should be closely monitored. Consumption of groundwater in a 500 m radius must be avoided. In addition, rehabilitation of the landfill site should be undertaken to prevent further mobilization of pollutants. PMID:22020476

  8. Seismic characterization and dynamic site response of a municipal solid waste landfill in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, P; SivakumarBabu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; VivekAnand, K S

    2016-03-01

    Seismic design of landfills requires an understanding of the dynamic properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the dynamic site response of landfill waste during seismic events. The dynamic response of the Mavallipura landfill situated in Bangalore, India, is investigated using field measurements, laboratory studies and recorded ground motions from the intraplate region. The dynamic shear modulus values for the MSW were established on the basis of field measurements of shear wave velocities. Cyclic triaxial testing was performed on reconstituted MSW samples and the shear modulus reduction and damping characteristics of MSW were studied. Ten ground motions were selected based on regional seismicity and site response parameters have been obtained considering one-dimensional non-linear analysis in the DEEPSOIL program. The surface spectral response varied from 0.6 to 2 g and persisted only for a period of 1 s for most of the ground motions. The maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) obtained was 0.5 g and the minimum and maximum amplifications are 1.35 and 4.05. Amplification of the base acceleration was observed at the top surface of the landfill underlined by a composite soil layer and bedrock for all ground motions. Dynamic seismic properties with amplification and site response parameters for MSW landfill in Bangalore, India, are presented in this paper. This study shows that MSW has less shear stiffness and more amplification due to loose filling and damping, which need to be accounted for seismic design of MSW landfills in India. PMID:26759434

  9. Raster-based outranking method: a new approach for municipal solid waste landfill (MSW) siting.

    PubMed

    Hamzeh, Mohamad; Abbaspour, Rahim Ali; Davalou, Romina

    2015-08-01

    MSW landfill siting is a complicated process because it requires integration of several factors. In this paper, geographic information system (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) were combined to handle the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill siting. For this purpose, first, 16 input data layers were prepared in GIS environment. Then, the exclusionary lands were eliminated and potentially suitable areas for the MSW disposal were identified. These potentially suitable areas, in an innovative approach, were further examined by deploying Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) II and analytic network process (ANP), which are two of the most recent MCDA methods, in order to determine land suitability for landfilling. PROMETHEE II was used to determine a complete ranking of the alternatives, while ANP was employed to quantify the subjective judgments of evaluators as criteria weights. The resulting land suitability was reported on a grading scale of 1-5 from 1 to 5, which is the least to the most suitable area, respectively. Finally, three optimal sites were selected by taking into consideration the local conditions of 15 sites, which were candidates for MSW landfilling. Research findings show that the raster-based method yields effective results. PMID:25903176

  10. N 2O emissions at municipal solid waste landfill sites: Effects of CH 4 emissions and cover soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    Municipal solid waste landfills are the significant anthropogenic sources of N 2O due to the cooxidation of ammonia by methane-oxidizing bacteria in cover soils. Such bacteria could be developed through CH 4 fumigation, as evidenced by both laboratory incubation and field measurement. During a 10-day incubation with leachate addition, the average N 2O fluxes in the soil samples, collected from the three selected landfill covers, were multiplied by 1.75 ( p < 0.01), 3.56 ( p < 0.01), and 2.12 ( p < 0.01) from the soil samples preincubated with 5% CH 4 for three months when compared with the control, respectively. Among the three selected landfill sites, N 2O fluxes in two landfill sites were significantly correlated with the variations of the CH 4 emissions without landfill gas recovery ( p < 0.001). N 2O fluxes were also elevated by the increase of the CH 4 emissions with landfill gas recovery in another landfill site ( p > 0.05). The annual average N 2O flux was 176 ± 566 μg N 2O-N m -2 h -1 ( p < 0.01) from sandy soil-covered landfill site, which was 72% ( p < 0.05) and 173% ( p < 0.01) lower than the other two clay soil covered landfill sites, respectively. The magnitude order of N 2O emissions in three landfill sites was also coincident by the results of laboratory incubation, suggesting the sandy soil cover could mitigate landfill N 2O emissions.

  11. On-site treatment and landfilling of MSWI air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Lundtorp, K; Jensen, D L; Sørensen, M A; Mosbaek, H; Christensen, T H

    2003-02-28

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are difficult to landfill due to substantial leaching of trace metals. An on-site pretreatment prior to landfilling of APC-residues was investigated in terms of bench-scale experiments with a semidry APC-residue and a fly ash. The treatment involved mixing of the residues with a ferrous sulphate solution and subsequent oxidation of the suspension. Afterwards, the suspension was spread on a dedicated landfill section and allowed to drain by gravity through the drainage system of the landfill. The wastewater from the process, collected through the drainage system, contained large concentrations of salts (Cl: 14-30 g/l, Na: 4-9 g/l, K: 5-11 g/l, Ca: 2-12 g/l) but low concentrations of trace metals (e.g. Pb: 14-100 microg/l, Cd: <2-7 microg/l). The treated residues left in the landfills were later subject to leaching by simulated rainfall. The leachate contained low concentrations of trace metals (Pb: <120 microg/l, Cd: <2 microg/l, Cr: <485 microg/l). The leachate concentrations from the treated APC-residues were substantially reduced compared to concentrations in leachate from untreated APC-residues. Particularly in the early stages of the leaching, concentrations of trace metals were reduced by up to four orders of magnitude. PMID:12573829

  12. Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario).

  13. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  14. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Leachate management at the Glenridge Quarry Landfill Site -- present and future issues

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.J.; Reynolds, G.W.

    1997-12-31

    The Glenridge Quarry Landfill Site is located in an urban area on the brow of the Niagara Escarpment in a former rock quarry. This municipal landfill is owned and operated by the City of St. Catharines, Ontario which has a population of 130,000. The landfill has a clay liner and is equipped with leachate, storm water and groundwater collection systems. There are a number of leachate management issues that currently, and will continue to present challenges in the future. The issues discussed in this paper include: maintaining the aging leachate collection system (circa 1976) and it`s monitoring network; reducing the volume of effluent discharged to the sanitary sewer, which presently includes leachate, storm water and groundwater; accommodating variable effluent chemistry resulting from changing leachate quality and storm flow; and, pretreatment of the leachate in the sewer to prevent odors in the residential community adjacent to the landfill. Resolution of these leachate management issues involves a mix of technical innovation, traditional engineering and political solutions. Technical innovation is required to maintain and repair the aging leachate collection system. Traditional engineering solutions have been implemented to control leachate odors. Community education and political solutions are needed to allow off-site discharge of clean surface water and groundwater which presently is combined with the leachate and treated.

  16. Hydrogeology and historical assessment of a classic sequential-land use landfill site, Illinois, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Colin J.; Vagt, Peter J.

    1990-05-01

    The Blackwell site in northeastern Illinois was a classic sequential-use project combining land reclamation, a sanitary landfill, and a recreational park. This paper adds a recent assessment of leachate generation and groundwater contamination to the site's unfinished record. Hydrogeological studies show that (1) the landfill sits astride an outwash aquifer and a till mound, which are separated from an underlying dolomite aquifer by a thin, silty till; (2) leachate leaks from the landfill at an estimated average rate between 48 and 78 m3/d; (3) the resultant contaminant plume is virtually stagnant in the till but rapidly diluted in the outwash aquifer, so that no off-site contamination is detected; (4) trace VOC levels in the dolomite probably indicate that contaminants have migrated there from the landfill-derived plume in the outwash. Deviations from the original landfill concepts included elimination of a leachate collection system, increased landfill size, local absence of a clay liner, and partial use of nonclay cover. The hydrogeological setting was unsuitable for the landfill as constructed, indicating the importance of detailed geological consideration in landfill and land-use planning.

  17. Environmental state and buffering properties of underground hydrosphere in waste landfill site of the largest petrochemical companies in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musin, R. Kh; Kurlyanov, N. A.; Kalkamanova, Z. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article examines the waste landfill site of PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” built 1982. Particular attention is paid to the volume of disposed wastes and peculiarities of landfill operation. It has been revealed that the landfill negatively impacts groundwater. The increase in groundwater level and contamination degree is dependent on recharge from infiltration of precipitation that interacts with the waste in the landfill cells. Groundwater contamination follows the longitudinal distribution pattern, with maximum intensity reaching in the nearest area of the landfill. With increasing distance, concentration of all pollutants sharply reduces. Within three kilometers away from the landfill, groundwater turns to its background values indicating its quality. The landfill discharges oil, phenols, formaldehyde, benzol, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, and iron and, to a lesser extent, sulfates, chlorides and barium into the underground hydrosphere. The overlimiting concentrations of other components are caused by intensive leaching from the rocks by aggressive carbonic acid water. The concentrations of hydrocarbonates can reach 8 g/l in the groundwater within the landfill and its nearest area, however, under natural conditions, they do not exceed 0.4 g/l. This is only possible in a case of partial activity of carbon dioxide associated with destruction of organic matter disposed in the landfill. One of the processes that play an important role in groundwater quality recovery is mixing of contaminated groundwater with infiltrating precipitation.

  18. Measurement of methane emission rates from several landfill sites in Indiana, USA using an aircraft-based platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambaliza, M. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B.; Caulton, D.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J.; Possolo, A.; Crosson, E.

    2011-12-01

    Landfills are one of the most important anthropogenic sources of methane with global emission estimates ranging from 500 - 800 MtCO2-eq/yr. However, because of the spatial inhomogeneity and large areal extent of landfill sites, previous estimates of methane emissions from direct, small-scale surface enclosure techniques varied over seven orders of magnitude. As a diffuse methane source, it is a challenge to obtain an average flux estimate for a given landfill site. Here we present methane emission rates from several landfill sites in Indiana, USA estimated using a whole landfill measurement technique. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy and a mass balance approach, methane plumes from the landfill are measured downwind of the field site with an aircraft-based platform. By flying perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction, the mobility of the aircraft allows for multiple horizontal transect measurements at various altitudes up to the top of the convective boundary layer to rigorously intercept and quantify the methane plume. In this work, we will discuss our unique measurement technique as well as investigate the relationship between the measured methane emission rates to the reported annual disposal rates in these landfill sites.

  19. Landfill bioreactor design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.

    1998-12-31

    Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

  20. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-07-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  1. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  2. Decision Making on Regional Landfill Site Selection in Hormozgan Province Using Smce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majedi, A. S.; Kamali, B. M.; Maghsoudi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill site selection and suitable conditions to bury hazardous wastes are among the most critical issues in modern societies. Taking several factors and limitations into account along with true decision making requires application of different decision techniques. To this end, current paper aims to make decisions about regional landfill site selection in Hormozgan province and utilizes SMCE technique combined with qualitative and quantitative criteria to select the final alternatives. To this respect, we first will describe the existing environmental situation in our study area and set the goals of our study in the framework of SMCE and will analyze the effective factors in regional landfill site selection. Then, methodological procedure of research was conducted using Delphi approach and questionnaires (in order to determine research validity, Chronbach Alpha (0.94) method was used). Spatial multi-criteria analysis model was designed in the form of criteria tree in SMCE using IL WIS software. Prioritization of respective spatial alternatives included: Bandar Abbas city with total 4 spatial alternatives (one zone with 1st priority, one zone with 3rd priority and two zones with 4thpriority) was considered the first priority, Bastak city with total 3 spatial alternatives (one zone with 2nd priority, one zone with 3rdpriorit and one zone with 4th priority) was the second priority and Bandar Abbas, Minab, Jask and Haji Abad cities were considered as the third priority.

  3. Electrical Resistivity Inversion Constrained by Resistivity Cone Penetrometry (RCPT): Application to Landfill Site Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catt, L. M.; West, L. J.; Clark, R.; Murray, T.

    2005-05-01

    Areas of clay-rich tills in the UK are attractive sites for landfills. The relatively impermeable clays act as a barrier between landfill contents and surrounding permeable materials, but tills often contain sand and gravel deposits, which may be water-bearing and/or hydraulically connected to aquifers or surface water bodies. The sands and gravels may be missed by borehole and trial-pit led site investigations but cause flooding of landfill excavations or act as leachate flow routes. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is potentially an appropriate subsurface imaging tool for landfill site characterisation, due to its ability to distinguish permeable sand and gravel from clays.. However, engineers want more accurate identification of interface depth than standard ERT inversions supply. Here, the use of reference geoelectrical models based on Resistivity Cone Penetrometry (RCPT) data is investigated. The use of RCPT data can potentially guide the inversion algorithm towards improved solutions. A series of synthetic electrical resistivity and RCPT data from model profiles with various shaped sand bodies within a clay background were generated, and inverted with and without RCPT constraints. The ability of the guided inversion to reconstruct the original geoelectrical model was assessed quantitatively. Preliminary results indicate that using RCPT data as a constraint can significantly improve interfacial depth accuracy in the inverted data. The use of depth information to constrain 1-D layer models in resistivity sounding is already well established. Hence, an alternative approach to the incorporation of depth information is construction of a pseudo-2D resistivity profile from 1-D soundings extracted from ERT data, inverted using depth-constrained layer models. The accuracy and limitations of this approach will be compared with the reference model approach described above. Future work will include the acquisition and processing of field RCPT and ERT data.

  4. Seismic refraction studies at the Painter Street bridge site, Rio Dell, California

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of seismic refraction P- and S-wave measurements, at the site of the Painter Street bridge, in Rio Dell, California. The bridge is spanning highway US 101, 4 miles south of Fortuna, in northwestern California. This study was performed to provide an estimate of material properties for the foundation of the bridge, in support of a seismic stability analysis of the bridge performed at LLNL by D. McCallen. The Rio Dell region is seismically active and the Painter Street bridge is one of only 2 bridges of its type in California, instrumented for strong motion recordings. Measurements were made using a 12-channel Geometric/Nimbus ES 1210 Signal Enhancement Seismograph. 3 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Lee, M.B.; Diffendorf, A.F.; Hagarman, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of the landfill on top of preexisting waste beds on the shores of Onondaga Lake. The results of groundwater monitoring over a one-year period indicate no detectable chromium from the metal-waste leachate escaping through the soda ash wastes. Retention ofhexavalent chromium within the underlying highly alkaline soda ash wastes by adsorption, reduction, and precipitation suggests a viable means for in situ treatment of several metals-manufacturing waste products.

  6. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

  7. Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.

    2007-04-01

    The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

  8. A comprehensive study on landfill site selection for Kolkata City, India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Koushik; Dutta, Amit; Krishna, A P

    2014-07-01

    Kolkata is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and the capital city of the state of West Bengal. With an area of 187.33 km2 and a population of about 10 million (including a floating population of about 6 million), the city generates about 3500 Metric Ton (MT) of solid waste per day. Currently, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) disposes its waste at Dhapa (21.47 ha), where the disposal rate exceeds 3000 MT/day, and at Garden Reach (3.52 ha), where the disposal rate is 100 MT/day. Considering the exhaustion of Dhapa land space, city planners are urgently searching for an alternate disposal ground. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), under the sponsorship of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), has brought out literature developing the site selection criteria for municipal solid waste disposal ground to suit Indian conditions. The developed criteria encompass environmental conditions, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions, and ecological and societal effects. This paper attempts to locate the most suitable site for disposal of KMC area solid waste using the multicriterion decision analysis as stipulated in CPCB 2003 guidelines and the overlay analysis of geographic information system (GIS). Implications: The paper is based on landfill site selection for dumping of solid waste generated within Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area. The methodology uses GIS/remote sensing, Site Sensitivity Index (an offshoot of pairwise comparison technique developed in CPCB 2003 guidelines, Government of India), and the Delphi technique. Dhapa landfill site, where solid waste of KMC area is currently being disposed, is exhausted; the authors of this article thus found it relevant to carry out a research on the selection of an alternative landfill site. The study undertaken was comprehensive, yet presented in a lucid way so that policymakers will find easy to comprehend. PMID:25122958

  9. Health assessment for Pigeon Point Landfill Site (New Castle City Landfill), New Castle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980494603. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-11

    The Pigeon Point Landfill 180-acre site includes a former municipal landfill that reportedly received industrial wastes during the period from 1968 to 1985. Initial sampling of groundwater and leachate revealed inorganic and organic chemicals at levels of health concern; however, per anecdotal information received from EPA, subsequent sampling has not confirmed initial sampling results. Only the original sampling data were available for this health assessment and since the data are questionable, they are not reported here. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater and leachate. However, information available on the site at present is of questionable validity. Additional information on contaminants released, populations potentially exposed, and environmental pathways through which the contaminants can reach these populations is needed.

  10. Application of GIS/AHP in siting sanitary landfill: a case study in Northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Kara, Can; Doratli, Naciye

    2012-09-01

    The present study utilized a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment to evaluate the suitability of potential landfill sites in Northern Cyprus. To determine the most suitable landfill site, one of the MCE techniques, called analytical hierarchy process (AHP), was combined with a GIS to examine 12 criteria: distance from waste generation centres; distance from roads; slope; distance from surface waters; distance from groundwater areas; distance from environmentally sensitive areas; vegetation types; soil productivity; soil permeability; distance from settlements; distance from cultural sites; distance from stone quarries. The relative importance weights of these criteria were estimated using AHP and criteria maps were developed by using GIS spatial analysis. At the final stage two different suitability maps were produced using two different groups of weights. The first group suitability map had 11 052 (ha) with high suitability class, whereas the high suitability areas decreased to 5982 (ha) in the second group. Moreover, the seven potential sites identified within the first group decreased to four in the second suitability map. However, potential sites such as Gungor, Degirmenlik, Kirklar and Cayonu had similarities with higher suitability values and these same locations were regarded as suitable according to the both first and second suitability map results. PMID:22843350

  11. An evaluation of techniques to control problem bird species on landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques--pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites --at deterring three commonly recorded species--the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)--from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used. PMID:18256779

  12. Combining geographic information system, multicriteria evaluation techniques and fuzzy logic in siting MSW landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.; Voudrias, Evangelos; Petalas, Christos; Stravodimos, George

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for siting municipal solid waste landfills, coupling geographic information systems (GIS), fuzzy logic, and multicriteria evaluation techniques. Both exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria are used. Factors, i.e., non-exclusionary criteria, are divided in two distinct groups which do not have the same level of trade off. The first group comprises factors related to the physical environment, which cannot be expressed in terms of monetary cost and, therefore, they do not easily trade off. The second group includes those factors related to human activities, i.e., socioeconomic factors, which can be expressed as financial cost, thus showing a high level of trade off. GIS are used for geographic data acquisition and processing. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is the multicriteria evaluation technique used, enhanced with fuzzy factor standardization. Besides assigning weights to factors through the AHP, control over the level of risk and trade off in the siting process is achieved through a second set of weights, i.e., order weights, applied to factors in each factor group, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, thus taking into account the local site characteristics. The method has been applied to Evros prefecture (NE Greece), an area of approximately 4,000 km2. The siting methodology results in two intermediate suitability maps, one related to environmental and the other to socioeconomic criteria. Combination of the two intermediate maps results in the final composite suitability map for landfill siting.

  13. An Evaluation of Techniques to Control Problem Bird Species on Landfill Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques — pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites — at deterring three commonly recorded species — the Black-headed Gull ( Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull ( Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull ( Larus fuscus) — from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used.

  14. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 5): Metamora Landfill Site, Metamora, MI, August 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is changing a portion of the remedy selected in the operable unit one (OU1) Record of Decision (ROD) dated September 30, 1986, for the Metamora Landfill Site. Operable Unit 1 ROD (OU1 ROD) addresses the remediation of drummed waste and contaminated soils in Drum Area 1 and Drum Area 4. OU1 ROD selected off-site incineration of the drums and soils in Drum Area 1 and Drum Area 4. State lead remedial action work began in the spring of 1989 and continued until December 1990. During the summer of 1990, off-site incineration capacity became extremely limited and drums awaiting disposal began to accumulate at the site. In addition, many more drums were discovered than originally estimated in the Remedial Design. In April of 1991 a settlement was reached that addressed the completion of all remedial activity remaining at the site, including the completion of OU1.

  15. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated. PMID:26577215

  16. Combined chemical and toxicological evaluation of leachate from municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pooja; Gupta, Asmita; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, landfill leachate of three landfill sites of Delhi, India, was toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment. Raw leachate samples were collected from the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills of Delhi lacking liner systems. Samples were characterized with relatively low concentrations of heavy metals while the organic component exceeded the upper permissible limit by up to 158 times. Qualitative analysis showed the presence of numerous xenobiotics belonging to the group of halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, and other emerging contaminants. Quantitative analysis of PAHs showed that the benzo(a)pyrene-toxic equivalence quotient (BaP-TEQ) ranged from 41.22 to 285.557 ng L(-1). The human risk assessment methodology employed to evaluate the potential adverse effects of PAHs showed that the cancer risk level was lower than the designated acceptable risk of 10(-6). However, significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leachates on HepG2 cell line was observed with MTT EC50 value ranging from 11.58 to 20.44 % and statistically significant DNA damage. Thus, although the leachates contained low concentrations of PAHs with proven carcinogenic potential, but the mixture of contaminants present in leachates are toxic enough to cause synergistic or additive cytotoxicity and genotoxicity and affect human health. PMID:25578612

  17. Radiological survey results for the Peek Street site properties, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Cottrell, W.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1992-08-01

    The Peek Street Industrial Facility, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York, was operated by the General Electric Company for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1947 and 1955. A variety of operations using radioactive materials were conducted at the site, but the main activities were to design an intermediate breeder reactor and to develop a chemical process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent reactor fuel. Nonradioactive beryllium metal was machined on the site for breeder reactor application. The 4.5-acre site was decommissioned and released in October 1955. A radiological survey was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 1989. The survey included scan and grid point measurements of direct radiation levels outdoors on the five properties and inside the factory building, and radionuclide analysis of samples collected from each property. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in outdoor surface and subsurface soil samples from each property and in dust, debris, and structural materials from inside the factory building. Auger holes were logged to assess location and extent of possible subsurface residual soil radioactivity. Radionuclide concentrations were deter-mined in both indoor and outdoor water samples and in selected samples of vegetation. The presence of fixed and transferable surface residual radioactivity was investigated inside the factory building and on discarded materials outdoors on the property. High-volume air samples as well as additional selected indoor and outdoor soil samples were analyzed to determine levels of elemental beryllium.

  18. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  19. Basic hydrogeologic and remote sensing data for selection of sanitary landfill sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, H. K.; Ruth, B. E.; Degner, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste disposal were studied in Volusia County to protect the water supply in the area. Highlands in this County are of limited areal extent and, most significantly, the sand hills and ridges are in areas where recharge of the Floridan aquifer occurs. This study proves that well drained soils meeting the current State requirements are of limited areal extent. These areas should not be utilized as sanitary landfill sites! Rather, it is recommended that the Tomoka Farm Road site into the adjacent wetlands be extended. The County site on Rima Ridge recommended by Greenleaf-Telesca as the primary waste burial site in the County should be re-evaluated because of potential danger to the Daytona Beach water supply.

  20. Siting MSW landfills using MCE methodology in GIS environment (Case study: Birjand plain, Iran).

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Zeynab Karimzadeh; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The rapid municipal solid waste growth of Birjand plain causes to find an appropriate site selection for the landfill. In order to reduce the negative impacts of waste, the use of novel tools and technologies to gain a suitable site for landfill seems imperative. The present paper aimed to exhibits the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) for the landfill site selection of the Birjand plain because till date a suitable action has not been implicated. In the present research, the parameters such as environmental and socio-economical factors have been used. The factors like slope, water resources, soil parameters, landuse, fault and protected areas in the model of effective environmental criteria and the factors viz. distance from road, urban areas, village, airport, historical place, and industries in the model of socio-economic criteria were investigated and with the use of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) models were compounded and according to the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and Fuzzy Linguistic Quantifier (LQ) were aggregated. The paper focuses on the OWA method as well as an approach for integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) and OWA. OWA has been developed as a generalization of multi-criteria combination. In this study we attained comparable data via the technique of ANP and five scenarios of OWA method were used. The results of field studies, fifth scenario for the study area proposed. Based on the research findings, OWA method had a great potential and flexibility in the modeling of the complex decision-making problems. PMID:26321380

  1. Assessing the impact of historical coastal landfill sites on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many coastal and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these sites waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical sites may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test site. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in coastal systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced coastal erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.

  2. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  3. Geoelectrical investigation of old/abandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meju, Maxwell A.

    2000-05-01

    Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old/abandoned landfill sites where the records of operations are not available. The main elements of the model are the site boundaries, age and nature of anthropogenic deposits, depth and dip of the layers of refuse and sealing materials, the integrity and shape of the capping zones or separating walls and basal floor slopes, the position of concealed access roads in the site, the water table (or perched water bodies within the refuse) and the presence of leachate. The attendant geotechnical, hydrogeological, and bio-geochemical constraints at such sites are also incorporated in the model for consistency of practical solutions to landfill problems. The nature of anthropogenic deposits and the spatial-temporal characteristics of leachates are reviewed in a geoelectrical context. The analogy between waste degradation and leaching, and the well-known weathering processes of supergene mineral enrichment and saprolite formation in crystalline rocks is explored, and used to develop a conceptual resistivity-vs.-depth model for landfill sites. The main tenet of the model is that vertical conductivity profiles will attain maximum values in the zone of mineral enrichment near the water table and tail-off away from it. This conceptual resistivity model is shown to be consistent with non-invasive observations in landfill sites in different geographical environments. Power-law relationships are found to exist between some geoelectrically important hydrochemical parameters (fluid conductivity, chloride content and total dissolved solids) in leachates and leachate-contaminated groundwater from some landfill sites. Since some chemical parameters of fill are known to vary consistently with time, a plausible hydrochemical and age-deductive scheme for saturated fill is proposed for geoelectrical models of landfills without significant amounts of metal. Practical suggestions are made for a consistent approach in geoelectrical investigation and diagnosis of old landfill sites. A few field examples are used to illustrate the diagnosis approach.

  4. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD072122062. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-20

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in Human Exposure Pathways Section below, human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  5. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeology and water quality in a 4 sq mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, New York, were studied in 1981-83. The 60-acre sanitary landfill at the site was excavated in highly permeable glacial outwash that forms the upper glacial aquifer and is lined with a polyvinyl chloride membrane. Groundwater beneath the site is under water table conditions and flows southeast at approximately 1.1 ft/day. Samples from wells downgradient indicate that leachate has entered the aquifer despite the liner. A plume 3,700 ft long , 2,400 ft wide, and at least 90 ft thick was delineated based on specific conductance data. Water quality in the Magothy aquifer and in Beaverdam Creek, a groundwater fed stream 2,000 ft southeast of the landfill site, does not appear to be affected. (USGS)

  6. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazoty, A.; Fiandaca, G.; Pedersen, J.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Pedersen, J. K.

    2012-06-01

    A direct current (DC) resistivity and time domain induced polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures compared to DC surveys alone. Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill, and another seven profiles in the surroundings provide a sufficiently dense coverage of the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D laterally constrained inversion scheme, recently implemented for TDIP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model. Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth that correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by borehole data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact of the resolved geological units on the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.

  7. Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazoty, A.; Fiandaca, G.; Pedersen, J.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Pedersen, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    A DC resistivity (DC) and Time Domain Induced Polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures, when compared to DC surveys alone. Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill and another seven profiles in the surroundings, giving a dense coverage over the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D Laterally Constrained Inversion scheme, recently implemented for IP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model. Results show that it is possible to both resolve the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth, which correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill, and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by boreholes data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact that the resolved geological units have in the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.

  8. Work plan for the radiological survey for the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 site, Knoxville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This work plan establishes the methods and requirements for performing a radiological survey at the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee (DWI 1630 Site) in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The radiological survey will identify the radiological contamination level of the equipment and debris stored at the DWI 1630 Site. The data generated from the survey activities will support the decisions for characterization of the equipment/debris and aid in subsequent disposition and waste handling. The survey activities to be performed under this work plan include an equipment radiological survey, a walkover survey, and an immunoassay testing for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This work plan includes a quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) project plan, a health and safety (H&S) plan, and a waste management plan.

  9. Combining AHP with GIS for landfill site selection: a case study in the Lake Beyşehir catchment area (Konya, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan; Nas, Bilgehan; Karagüzel, Remzi

    2010-11-01

    Landfills are the most common method for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. However, determining the location of landfill sites is a difficult and complex process because it must combine social, environmental and technical parameters. Additionally, it depends on several criteria and regulations. The main objective of this study was to select of a landfill site for the Lake Beyşehir catchment area. The Beyşehir Lake is the largest freshwater lake and drinking water reservoir in Turkey, but there is no controlled landfill site in the region. Therefore, the landfill site should be determined such that the lake is protected. To determine the most suitable landfill site, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was combined with a geographic information system (GIS) to examine several criteria, such as geology/hydrogeology, land use, slope, height, aspect and distance from settlements, surface waters, roads, and protected areas (ecologic, scientific or historic). Each criterion was evaluated with the aid of AHP and mapped by GIS. Data were assorted into four suitability classes within the study area, i.e., high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 3.24%, 7.55%, 12.70% and 2.81%, of the study area, respectively. Additionally, 73.70% was determined to be completely unsuitable for a landfill site. As a result, two candidate landfill sites are suggested and discussed. The final decision for landfill site selection will require more detailed field studies. PMID:20594819

  10. An integrated multi criteria approach for landfill siting in a conflicting environmental, economical and socio-cultural area.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Mahmodi, Shahla

    2012-08-01

    Landfill site selection is a complicated multi criteria land use planning that should convince all related stakeholders with different insights. This paper addresses an integrating approach for landfill siting based on conflicting opinions among environmental, economical and socio-cultural expertise. In order to gain optimized siting decision, the issue was investigated in different viewpoints. At first step based on opinion sampling and questionnaire results of 35 experts familiar with local situations, the national environmental legislations and international practices, 13 constraints and 15 factors were built in hierarchical structure. Factors divided into three environmental, economical and socio-cultural groups. In the next step, the GIS-database was developed based on the designated criteria. In the third stage, the criteria standardization and criteria weighting were accomplished. The relative importance weights of criteria and subcriteria were estimated, respectively, using analytical hierarchy process and rank ordering methods based on different experts opinions. Thereafter, by using simple additive weighting method, the suitability maps for landfill siting in Marvdasht, Iran, was evaluated in environmental, economical and socio-cultural visions. The importance of each group of criteria in its own vision was assigned to be higher than two other groups. In the fourth stage, the final suitability map was obtained after crossing three resulted maps in different visions and reported in five suitability classes for landfill construction. This map indicated that almost 1224 ha of the study area can be considered as best suitable class for landfill siting considering all visions. In the last stage, a comprehensive field visit was performed to verify the selected site obtained from the proposed model. This field inspection has confirmed the proposed integrating approach for the landfill siting. PMID:22503155

  11. EM induction and magnetic surveys at large landfill sites using GPS for postitional control

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.B.; Kirkpatrick, T.M.; Holtzclaw, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) induction and magnetic surveys were conducted at two large landfill sites, totaling 76 acres, using a global positioning system (GPS) as the positional control method. The surveys were conducted at Tinker AFB in Oklahoma, as part of a Phase II Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation. The objectives of the investigation were to delineate the boundaries of known landfill trenches and determine whether features seen in aerial photographs represented previously unidentified trenches. The GPS method of survey control was chosen rather than the conventional local grid approach because site conditions included extremely rugged surface topography, thick vegetation, and several swampy areas that precluded the establishment of precisely spaced, straight lines. The alternative would have required civil surveying and extensive vegetation removal. The GPS allowed local navigation and re-orientation to avoid obstacles and field hazards while continuing to collect valid, accurately located geophysical data. The use of differentially corrected GPS data for this investigation proved to be an excellent way to obtain geophysical survey control at a reduced level of effort; however, it added complexity to the surveys that had to be planned for both in the field and during data processing. Specialized processing techniques were developed to overcome minor satellite signal {open_quote}dropouts,{close_quote} and to allow for proper time-synchronization and merging of the geophysical and GPS data.

  12. Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Kilda, R.; Poskas, G.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

  13. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals. PMID:23528999

  14. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians and citizens – all have to be part of the decision process when siting a new waste management facility. The opinions of the young respondents were significantly influenced by their level of environmental knowledge.

  15. School StreetMonroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    School Street-Monroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & Monroe Streets, on south by Jefferson Street, on west by Hope Avenue, & on east by Parker Avenue & site of Canal Street, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  16. A GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR SELECTION OF LANDFILL SITES: a case study from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, S. M.; Shehhi, B. Al

    2012-07-01

    Landfill sites receive 92% of total annual solid waste produced by municipalities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill location for the Abu Dhabi municipal area are determined by integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) analysis. To identify appropriate landfill sites, eight input map layers including proximity to urban areas, proximity to wells and water table depth, geology and topography, proximity to touristic and archeological sites, distance from roads network, distance from drainage networks, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identified potential areas showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. Results revealed that 30% of the study area was identified as highly suitable, 25% as suitable, and 45% as unsuitable. The selection of the final landfill site, however, requires further field research.

  17. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. PMID:25002369

  18. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: surveying the views of the next generation.

    PubMed

    Feo, Giovanni De; Williams, Ian D

    2013-12-01

    The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p<0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders - technicians, politicians and citizens - all have to be part of the decision process when siting a new waste management facility. The opinions of the young respondents were significantly influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. PMID:24054780

  19. Evaluation of the attenuating properties of selected Greek clays for toxic inorganic elements in landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Mimides, T; Perraki, T

    2000-05-15

    Heavy metal attenuation properties of selected clay material collected from miscellaneous Greek sites is investigated and tested in the laboratory for their suitability, either as liners in hydrologically unsafe sites or as earth covers for sanitary landfill sites. Eleven potentially hazardous elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) generated by a co-disposal landfill leachate have been considered. Experimental column and static equilibrium methods for the determination of dispersion and adsorption are described. Molecular diffusion dominates the migration phenomena with a velocity range between 1.3 x 10(-5) and 3.5 x 10(-4) cm/s throughout the experiments. A simple way to evaluate dispersion coefficients from breakthrough curves gave values of between 3.90 x 10(-6) and 3.5 x 10(-4) cm2/s, with a mean value of 1.5 x 10(-5). Static adsorption equilibrium studies supported by column runs showed that Freundlich (F = kCn) isotherms express in a better way the assimilative capacities of the tested clays, with k and n values ranging from 0.06 to 1.99 and 0.55 to 1.48 correspondingly. Mathematical models involving non-linear parabolic equations are involved. The experimental data, together with finite difference techniques and some physical clay characteristics, produced trilinear textural diagrams and predictive flow transport convection-dispersion breakthrough curves for a quick estimation of the attenuating properties of clays for heavy metals. PMID:10843327

  20. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory. PMID:25784608

  1. Complete genome of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38, an oxalotrophic bacterium isolated from municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yong, Delicia; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-11-20

    Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38 is a bacterium isolated from a former sanitary landfill site. Here, we present the complete genome of P. pnomenusa RB38 in which an oxalate utilization pathway was identified. The genome analysis suggested the potential of this strain as an effective biocontrol agent against oxalate-producing phytopathogens. PMID:26393955

  2. Bidirectional gas movement through landfill cover materials, Volume 1: Instrumentation and preliminary site investigations at Mallard North Landfill, Dupage County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Brubaker, K.; Tome, C.; Vogt, M.; Gartman, D.

    1988-02-01

    Since the first commercial landfill gas recovery system was installed in 1975 at the Palos Verdes Landfill in southern California (Zimmerman et al., 1983), there have been few systematic research efforts aimed at understanding gas dynamics in the landfill and, in particular, gas exchange between the landfill and the atmosphere through the cover materials. To maximize the amount of landfill gas available to a recovery system, the impact of processes by which gas is vented or consumed in near-surface zones must be minimized. This report describes a project undertaken to monitor the flow of gas in a landfill. Data from the observations are presented. 32 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. 76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City, Adams County, CO AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice and request for public...

  4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  5. Field Performance of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final cover At A Humid Site

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Abichou, Tarek; Mcdonald, Eric V.; Tyler, Scott W.; Rock, Steven

    2006-11-01

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA to evaluate how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a landfill final cover changed over a 4-yr service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed CE Database subject headings: landfill, hydrogeology, compacted soils, lysimeters, desiccation continuous monitoring of the water balance. Patterns in the drainage (i.e., flow from the bottom of the cover) record suggest that preferential flow paths developed in the clay barrier soon after construction, apparently in response to desiccation cracking. After four years, the clay barrier was excavated and examined for changes in soil structure and hydraulic conductivity. Tests were conducted in situ with a sealed double-ring infiltrometer and two-stage borehole permeameters and in the laboratory on hand-carved blocks taken during construction and after four years of service. The in situ and laboratory tests indicated that the hydraulic conductivity increased approximately three orders of magnitude (from ? 10-7 to ? 10-4 cm s-1) during the service life. A dye tracer test and soil structure analysis showed that extensive cracking and root development occurred throughout the entire depth of the barrier layer. Laboratory tests on undisturbed specimens of the clay barrier indicated that the hydraulic conductivity of damaged clay barriers can be under-estimated significantly if small specimens (e.g., tube samples) are used for hydraulic conductivity assessment. The findings also indicate that clay barriers must be protected from desiccation and root intrusion if they are expected to function as intended, even at sites in warm, humid locations.

  6. Assessment of impact on health of residents living near the Nant-y-Gwyddon landfill site: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fielder, H M P; Poon-King, C M; Palmer, S R; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To compare indices of health in a population living near a landfill site with a population matched for socioeconomic status and to review environmental monitoring data. Design Ecological study with small area statistics and environmental reports. Setting Electoral wards in valleys of South Wales. Subjects Populations in the five wards near the landfill site who had formally complained of odours (exposed population), and comparison populations in 22 wards in the same unitary authority within the same fifth of Townsend score. Outcome measures Mortality, rates of hospital admission, measures of reproductive health (proportion of all births and stillbirths of infants weighing <2500 g; rates of admissions for spontaneous abortion; rates of all reported congenital malformations). Environmental data on site emissions. Results There were no consistent differences in mortality, rates of hospital admissions, or proportion of low birthweight infants between the two populations. There was an increased maternal risk of having a baby with a congenital abnormality in residents near the site, both before its opening (relative risk 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.85; P<0.001) and after (1.9; 1.23 to 2.95; P=0.003 ). Environmental monitoring showed that hydrogen sulphide from the site was probably responsible for odours. Conclusions The area surrounding the landfill site has an increased rate of reported congenital malformations, which predated the opening of the landfill, although the cluster of cases of gastroschisis postdated its opening. Several chemicals emitted from the site, including hydrogen sulphide and benzene, were found in air samples in the nearby community. Further studies of the reproductive risk in such communities are needed to examine the safety of waste disposal sites. PMID:10617518

  7. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1979-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water-quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. As part of this study, a water-quality monitoring network was established at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County. Water-quality samples were collected at 27 surface-water sites and 97 ground-water sites at 5 landfills from 1979-92. Samples were analyzed for selected physical and biological characteristics, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, organic compounds, and suspended sediment. Analyses for constituents of concern are presented in tables and as graphical time series plots. Results from all analyses are compiled in tabular form in appendixes.

  8. Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chabuk, Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Hussain, Hussain Musa; Knutsson, Sven; Pusch, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km(2) with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km(2) and 8.204 km(2) These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030. PMID:26965404

  9. Indirect measurements of field-scale hydraulic conductivity of waste from two landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Fleming, I R

    2011-12-01

    Management and prediction of the movement and distribution of fluids in large landfills is important for various reasons. Bioreactor landfill technology shows promise, but in arid or semi-arid regions, the natural content of landfilled waste may be low, thus requiring addition of significant volumes of water. In more humid locations, landfills can become saturated, flooding gas collection systems and causing sideslope leachate seeps or other undesirable occurrences. This paper compares results from two different approaches to monitoring water in waste. At the Brock West Landfill in eastern Canada, positive pore pressures were measured at various depths in saturated waste. The downward seepage flux through the waste is known, thus the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the waste at this landfill was determined to be 3 × 10(-7)cm/s. By comparison, the Spadina Landfill in western Canada is predominantly unsaturated. The infiltration of moisture into the waste was measured using moisture sensors installed in boreholes which determined arrival time for moisture fronts resulting from major precipitation events as well as longer-term change in moisture content resulting from unsaturated drainage during winter when frozen ground prevented infiltration. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from these data ranged from approximately 10(-6)cm/s for the slow winter drainage in the absence of significant recharge to 10(-2)cm/s or higher for shallow waste subject to high infiltration through apparent preferential pathways. These two very different approaches to field-scale measurements of vertical hydraulic conductivity provide insight into the nature of fluid movement in saturated and unsaturated waste masses. It is suggested that the principles of unsaturated seepage apply reasonably well for landfilled waste and that the hydraulic behavior of waste is profoundly influenced by the nature and size of voids and by the degree of saturation prevailing in the landfill. PMID:21903374

  10. Aspergillus fumigatus and mesophilic moulds in air in the surrounding environment downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Olivier; Robert, Samuel; Debeaupuis, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Non-hazardous waste landfilling has the potential to release biological agents into the air, notably mould spores. Some species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, may be a cause of concern for at-risk nearby residents. However, air concentration in the surrounding environment of non-hazardous waste landfill sites is poorly documented. An extensive sampling programme was designed to investigate the relationship between culturable mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations in air and distance downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites. On-site and off-site repeated measurements were performed at four landfill sites during cold and warm seasons. A high-flow air-sampler device was selected so as to allow peak concentration measurement. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explain variability in the concentrations in air over time and across sites, seasons, instantaneous meteorological conditions and discharged waste tonnage. Concentrations of mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus at off-site upwind sampling locations were compared with concentrations at each of the downwind sampling locations. At the tipping face location, peak concentration reached 480,000CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and 9300CFUm(-3) for A. fumigatus. Compared with upwind background levels, these concentrations were, on average, approximately 20 and 40 times higher respectively. A steep decline in the concentration of both mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus was observed between the tipping face location and the downwind property boundary (reduction by 77% and 84% respectively), followed by a low decline leading to a 90% and 94% reduction in concentration at 200m from the property boundary and beyond. With the 200m and 500m downwind sampling point values added together, the 97.5th percentile of concentration was 6013CFUm(-3) and 87CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus, respectively. Other determining factors were the discharged waste tonnage, the season, instantaneous temperature and wind velocity for mesophilic mould, and instantaneous temperature for A. fumigatus. At 200m and 500 downwind from the property boundary, mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations were still higher than the local background level. However, whilst statistically significant, this increase does not suggest an excess risk to nearby residents' health when compared with the wide range of outdoor background levels reported in literature. These findings suggest that moulds and A. fumigatus may be transported beyond 200m from the property boundary in concentrations above those found locally upwind of the landfill site. Nevertheless, for exposure assessment purposes, comparison should also be made with background levels in wider areas which are either residential or through which people travel to work for example. PMID:26915642

  11. Water-quality data from a landfill-leachate treatment and disposal site, Pinellas County, Florida, January 1979-August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Fernandez, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data collected between January 1979 and August 1980 at the landfill leachate treatment site in Pinellas County, Fla., are presented. Data include field and laboratory measurements of physical properties, major chemical constituents , nitrogen and phosphorus species, chemical oxygen demand, trace metals, coliform bacteria, taxonomy of macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton, and chlorophyll analyses. Data were collected as part of a study to determine water-quality changes resulting from aeration and ponding of leachate pumped from landfill burial trenches and for use in determining the rate of movement and quality changes as the leachate migrates through the surficial aquifer. Samples were collected from 81 surficial-aquifer water-quality monitoring wells constructed in January 1975, February 1979, and March 1979, and 8 surface-water quality monitoring sites established in January 1975, February 1978, and November 1978. (USGS)

  12. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  13. TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

  14. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: what is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    PubMed

    Spokas, K; Bogner, J; Chanton, J P; Morcet, M; Aran, C; Graff, C; Golvan, Y Moreau-Le; Hebe, I

    2006-01-01

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1). Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery. PMID:16198554

  15. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Results of the radiological and beryllium verification survey at the Peek Street Site, Schenectady, New York (SY001V)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Johnson, C.A.; Carrier, R.F.; Allred, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent verification radiological and non-radioactive beryllium survey at the Peek Street site, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York. The purpose of the survey, conducted during 1993 and continuing through January 1994, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any beryllium concentrations or radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at one meter indoors and outdoors, alpha and beta scans inside the structure, and the collection of soil, dust and debris samples and smears for radionuclide and beryllium analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological and beryllium measurements on the property were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on all data collected, the industrial property at 425 Peek Street and the adjacent state-owned bike path in Schenectady, New York, conforms to all applicable radiological and non-radioactive beryllium guidelines established for this site by DOE and approved by the State of New York.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Land and Gas Reclamation Landfill Site, Williamstown, WI, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The document presents the decision of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) that no further source control interim action is necessary at the Land and Gas Reclamation Landfill site in the Town of Williamstown, Dodge County, Wisconsin. The WDNR has determined that no further source control interim action is necessary at this site for this first operable unit. The reason for this determination is that the source control action which was implemented under the Dodge County Circuit Court Order has eliminated potential exposure to source related contaminants, except for contaminants in the groundwater, which will be addressed in the second operable unit.

  18. Improved Site Characterization Using Microbiological Community Profiles from Landfill-leachate Contaminated Groundwater and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Mouser, P. J.; Besaw, L.

    2004-12-01

    Microbiological profiles and general water quality were sampled from groundwater monitoring wells surrounding a leaky municipal landfill in northeastern New York. Microbial samples were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis, and water quality was tested for pH, temperature, redox, turbidity, and specific conductance. The bacterial profiles for each sample location were incorporated into an artificial neural network for the purpose of improving site characterization using multiple types of data. A classification artificial neural network was trained to predict the water quality based on the microbial profile by detecting relationships and structure between samples. Additional site data was used for testing and validation of the network

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  20. Essentials of Literacy: From A Pilot Site at Davis Street School To District-Wide Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Fay E.; Murray, Edward T.

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, reading instruction has changed and so has the School Development Program's (SDP) Essentials of Literacy (EOL) process. Beginning as a teaching suggestion at one New Haven, Connecticut school, Lincoln Bassett, EOL became a pilot project at Davis Street School in New Haven for the 1996-1997 school year and continues to be an…

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, CT. (First remedial action), September 1990. (Supplemental). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 34-acre Beacon Heights Landfill site is on the northwest corner of an 82-acre property in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. The ROD supplements the 1985 ROD by resolving those determinations left open in the 1985 ROD, including the manner and locations of leachate treatment/disposal; cleanup levels for soil deemed impracticable to cap in areas contiguous to the landfill; and the need for air pollution controls on the landfill gas vents. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, ground water, surface water, and air are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  2. Wintertime Correlation Between Black Carbon and Particle Size in a Street and Rural Site in Santiago de Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramsch, E. V.; Reyes, F.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the correlation between black carbon and particle size in three sites in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in the winter of 2009 and performed a detailed comparison. Two of the sites are located near busy streets in Santiago de Chile. The other site was located in a rural area about 30 km upwind from downtown with little influence from vehicles, but large influence from wood burning. The particle size distribution was measured with a DMPS (Whalin, 2001) in the range from 10 to 700 nm. Simultaneously, black carbon was measured with an optical monitor developed at the University of Santiago (Gramsch, 2004). It is well known that the smaller particles (~ 10 - 40 nm ) are emitted directly by the engines of vehicles, which later condensate or coagulate in the atmosphere to form larger particles. In our measurements, the street site is mostly influenced by diesel vehicles which emit large amounts of black carbon. We have divided the particle size measurements in four groups (10 - 40 nm, 41- 69 nm, 79 - 157 nm and 190 - 700 nm) in order to compare with the carbon monitor. The highest correlation (0.98) in the site near the street between black carbon and the particles was obtained with the 190 - 700 nm. The correlation with the 79 - 157 nm group was slightly less (0.93). A comparison between the hourly average curves for black carbon and the 190 - 700 nm group show a similar shape during the whole day. In the rural site, the number of particles in the 10 - 40 nm group was 10 times lower than in the street, but the number of particles in the 190 - 700 nm group was only two times smaller. This fact is an indication that wood burning does not generate particles smaller than ~ 80 - 100 nm. The best correlation in the rural site between the black carbon and the particles was also with the 190 - 700 nm group. However, the correlation was lower (0.86) than in the street site. The hourly average curves for black carbon and the 190 - 700 nm group show a similar shape during the night (10 PM - 6 AM), but differ during the day. These measurements indicate that black carbon measurements may be more sensitive to emission from diesel vehicles than wood burning. This work was supported by the University of Santiago (Dicyt), the National Commission for the Environment (CONAMA) and the Regional Government of the Metropolitan Region (GORE).. Gramsch, E., Cereceda-Balic, F., Ormeño, I., Palma, G., Oyola, P., 2004. Use of the light absorption coefficient to monitor elemental carbon and PM2.5. Example of Santiago de Chile. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 54, 799-808 Wahlin, P., Palmgren, F., Van Dingenen, R., 2001. Experimental studies of ultrafine particles in streets and the relationship to traffic. Atmospheric Environment 35 (Suppl. 1), 63-69..

  3. Contaminant transport in the sub-surface soil of an uncontrolled landfill site in China: site investigation and two-dimensional numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Thomas, Hywel R; Sedighi, Majid; Masum, Shakil A; Ran, Qihua

    2016-02-01

    A field investigation of contaminant transport beneath and around an uncontrolled landfill site in Huainan in China is presented in this paper. The research aimed at studying the migration of some chemicals present in the landfill leachate into the surrounding clayey soils after 17 years of landfill operation. The concentrations of chloride and sodium ions in the pore water of soil samples collected at depths up to 15 m were obtained through an extensive site investigation. The contents of organic matter in the soil samples were also determined. A two-dimensional numerical study of the reactive transport of sodium and chloride ion in the soil strata beneath and outside the landfill is also presented. The numerical modelling approach adopted is based on finite element/finite difference techniques. The domain size of approximately 300 × 30 m has been analysed and major chemical transport parameters/mechanisms are established via a series of calibration exercises. Numerical simulations were then performed to predict the long-term behaviour of the landfill in relation to the chemicals studied. The lateral migration distance of the chloride ions was more than 40 m which indicates that the advection and mechanical dispersion are the dominant mechanism controlling the contaminant transport at this site. The results obtained from the analysis of chloride and sodium migration also indicated a non-uniform advective flow regime of ions with depth, which were localised in the first few metres of the soil beneath the disposal site. The results of long-term simulations of contaminant transport indicated that the concentrations of ions can be 10 to 30 times larger than that related to the allowable limit of concentration values. The results of this study may be of application and interest in the assessment of potential groundwater and soil contamination at this site with a late Pleistocene clayey soil. The obtained transport properties of the soils and the contaminant transport mechanisms can also be used for the design of engineered barriers for the control of the long-term pollution of the site. PMID:26429140

  4. Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

  5. Identification and assessment of water pollution as a consequence of a leachate plume migration from a municipal landfill site (Tucumán, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diego S; Puchulu, María E; Georgieff, Sergio M

    2014-06-01

    Landfills constitute potential sources of different pollutants that could generate human health and environmental problems. While some landfills currently work under the protection of a bottom liner with leachate collection, it was demonstrated that migration could take place even yet with these cautions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the pollution caused by a leachate plume from a municipal landfill that is affecting both groundwater and surface waters. The research was carried out at Pacará Pintado landfill in northwestern Argentina. Analysis of water samples indicates that leachate is affecting groundwater under the landfill area and an abandoned river channel hydraulically connected. In the center of the landfill area, the plume is anoxic and sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese reduction zones were identified. Leachate plume presented high concentration of organic matter, Fe, Mn, NH(4)(+), Cl(-) and Cr reaching an extension of 900 m. The presence of a leachate plume in a landfill site with a single liner system implies that the use of this groundwater pollution control method alone is not enough especially if permeable sediments are present below. PMID:24142186

  6. Radiocarbon-Dated Pollen and Sediment Records From Near the Boylston Street Fishweir Site in Boston, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, Paige E.; Webb, Thompson

    1994-03-01

    A radiocarbon-dated pollen record near the Boylston Street Fishweir site in Boston; Massachusetts, provides a regional and local record of vegetation changes from the middle Holocene to present. The stratigraphy begins about 5630 ± 90 yr B.P. with a marine transgression and is continuous up to the historic backfilling of the Back Bay area about 100 yr B.P. When pollen began accumulating at the site, the immediate area resembled the swamp forests growing today in southern New England. Fresh- and brackish-water vegetation was present before the area near the site was submerged. While these vegetation changes occurred locally, oak forest grew in the region. Correlation of this stratigraphy with archaeological data collected from 500 Boylston Street indicates that between 4700 and 3700 yr B.P., a number of fence-like alignments ("weirs"), were probably placed within existing channels and/or along shorelines to capture fish and other marine animals as they moved with the tidal flow.

  7. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. ImagesFIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 7. PMID:738247

  8. Landfill disposal systems.

    PubMed

    Slimak, K M

    1978-12-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated.A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual inspections and any repairs can be made without disturbing the waste. The surface seal landfill does not employ a subsurface barrier. The surface seal landfill successfully addresses each of the four environmental problems listed above, provided that this landfill design is utilized for dry wastes only and is located at a site which provides protection from groundwater and temporary perched water tables. PMID:738247

  9. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD001145671. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-26

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  10. Landfills in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Glebs, B. )

    1994-03-01

    The 21st century landfill will have the proper public and customer image from the environmental standpoint. The landfill of the 21st century will provide diverse services right at the landfill. You will not only have burial of waste, but a bioremediation pad for handling certain petro-chemical soils and a reuse area for concrete and rubble. Landfills will reuse special wastes. The industry now has more than seven specialized industrial wastes approved for landfill cover. So, instead of spending money for landfill cover or alternative cover like foam, landfills will actually get paid for the landfill cover. The landfill of the 21st century will have some level of recycling and composting. The sites will broaden their service base to make sure that the customer will be able to bring the wide variety of waste to one place. All of this technology will be designed to function at the landfill to keep waste out of the landfill. From a regulatory standpoint, obviously 21st century landfills will exceed all of the standards. It will be a given that the landfill will have liners, leachate collection, leachate treatment, and gas recovery and, probably, reuse. The 21st century landfill will receive a very different waste type. It will have less municipal solid waste and a greater volume of special waste-compatible, nonhazardous waste.

  11. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  12. Leaky Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

  13. Priorities determination using novel analytic hierarchy process and median ranked sample set, case study of landfill siting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, N. E. Ahmad; Basri, H.

    2015-02-01

    Integrating environmental, social, political, and economical attributes enhances the decision making process. Multi criteria decision making (MCDM) involves ambiguity and uncertainty due to various preferences. This study presents a model to minimize the uncertainty and ambiguity of human judgments by means of integrating the counter stakeholders with median ranked sample set (MRSS) and Analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The model uses landfill site selection as a MCDM problem. Sixteen experts belong to four clusters that are government, private, institution, and non-governmental organisations participated and their preferences were ranked in four by four matrix. Then the MRSS and the AHP were used to obtain the priorities of landfill siting criteria. Environmental criteria have the highest priority that equals to 48.1% and the distance from surface water, and the faults zones are the most important factors with priorities equal to 18% and 13.7% respectively. In conclusion, the hybrid approach that integrates counter stakeholders MRSS, and AHP is capable of being applied to complex decision making process and its outputs are justified.

  14. Spectroscopic and wet chemical characterization of solid waste organic matter of different age in landfill sites, southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bumler, Rupert; Kgel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Landfill sites are potential sources of hazardous emissions by degradation and transformation processes of waste organic matter. Its chemical composition and microbial degradability are key factors for risk management, after-care, and estimation of potential emissions. The aim of the study is to provide information about composition and extent of transformation of waste organic matter in four landfill sites in Bavaria, Southern Germany by means of (13)C NMR spectroscopy, acid-hydrolyzable carbohydrates, chloroform-methanol extractable lipids, acid-hydrolyzable proteins, and lignin compounds after CuO oxidation. Ten samples of about 20 to 25 yr, 15 to 20 yr, and 5 to 10 yr of deposition each were taken at 2 m depth intervals by grab drilling till 10-m depth. Increasing temperatures from about 15 degrees C at 2-m depth to >40 degrees C at 10-m depth are found at some of the sites, representing optimum conditions for mesophile methane bacteria. Moisture contents of 160 to 310 g kg(-1) (oven dry), however, provide limiting conditions for anaerobic biodecay. Spectroscopic and chemical variables generally indicate a low extent of biodegradation and transformation at all sites despite a considerable heterogeneity of the samples. Independent of the time and depth of deposition more than 50% of the carbohydrate fraction of the waste organic matter provide a high potential for methane emissions and on-site energy production. There was no significant accumulation of long-chain organic and aromatic compounds, and of lignin degradation products even after more than 25 yr of rotting indicating higher extent of decomposition or stabilization of the waste organic matter. Installation of seepage water cleaning and recirculation systems are recommended to increase suboptimal moisture contents with respect to microbial methanogenesis, energy production, and long-term stabilization of municipal solid waste. PMID:18178887

  15. The distributions of BTEX compounds in the ambient atmosphere of the Nan-Ji-Do abandoned landfill site in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young

    In this study, the concentrations of major aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which include benzene, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, and ethylbenzene were measured at the Nan-Ji-Do (NJD) landfill site during the spring and fall season of 2000. According to our study, the mean (and median) concentration values for these VOC species were computed to be 1.65 (1.12) ppb for benzene, 9.62 (6.63) ppb for toluene, 1.84 (1.08) ppb for m, p-xylene, 0.83 (0.46) ppb for o-xylene, and 1.17 (0.78) ppb for ethylbenzene; large differences in two statistical terms appear to originate from the consistent occurrences of data sets with unusually high concentrations such that they induce eccentricities in the predictable, Gaussian-type patterns of their frequency distribution. The concentration levels of major aromatic species in our study area, when compared with those of other environmental settings, are slightly higher or comparable to those typically found in urbanized areas affected by various anthropogenic source types. The findings of the moderately high concentration levels at NJD may reflect at least partially the effects of efficient mixing at high elevation of 95 m, despite the fact that large quantities of VOCs are emitted from this landfill area. Inspection of our measurement data further indicated that in many occasions these VOCs can be subordinate to different, but distinctive, patterns of periodicity over diurnal or seasonal scale. Results of correlation analysis indicate that toluene is correlated most significantly and abundantly with both VOC and the concurrently determined environmental parameters, while benzene lacks strong correlations even with other aromatic VOCs. In light of the peculiarity in the behavior of benzene, we suggest that the processes affecting BTEX levels in the landfill area may be distinguished from other source processes that can also be important in the urbanized areas.

  16. Health assessment for Mason County Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Pere Marquette Township, Mason County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980794465. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Mason County Landfill Site is located approximately three miles south of the City of Ludington and one mile east of Lake Michigan in Pere Marquette Township, Mason County, Michigan. The landfill received general refuse, garbage, industrial refuse, liquids and sludges, and industrial wastes. The landfill was closed to further dumping and disposal in August 1978. Surface-soil contaminants of concern are lead and arsenic. Ground water contaminants of concern are benzene, 1,1-dichloroethene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, acetone, sodium, lead, zinc, and manganese. Surface-water contaminants of concern are cadmium, chromium, manganese, selenium, silver, sodium, beryllium and antimony. Sediment contaminant of concern is arsenic. The site is of potential health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to VOCs, inorganics, and metals may occur/be occurring/have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption.

  17. The landfill reinjection of concentrated leachate: findings from a monitoring study at an Italian site.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Orsi, Sirio; Gentili, Emiliano; Meoni, Carlo

    2010-09-15

    The membrane-based processes are among the most used techniques for leachate treatment in modern landfills but its environmental, technical and economical sustainability strongly depends on the disposal of concentrated leachate that is produced there. This paper presents the monitoring study of the landfill of the municipality of Monsummano Terme (Pistoia province, Tuscany, Italy) named "Il Fossetto" where concentrated leachate obtained during membrane treatment is recirculated. The findings resulting from the first 30 months of monitoring of concentrated leachate recirculation show that leachate production did not increase significantly and that only a few quality parameters (i.e. COD, Nickel and Zinc) presented a moderate increase. Moreover, the latest data on biogas composition seem to indicate a reduction in methane content that, if confirmed, could be related to the partial inhibition of methanogens due to the competition of sulphate reducing bacteria. The non-accumulation of other conservative pollutants such as Ammonia Nitrogen and Chloride in the leachate is still under investigation and needs to be better clarified. The overall sustainability of the reinjection as a means of disposing of the concentrated leachate produced by membrane treatment should be further analysed and evaluated in the long term. PMID:20554388

  18. Beneficial use of landfill gas at the Burnsville sanitary landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, M.; Morely, J.; Kitts, S.

    1995-08-01

    A beneficial use study was conducted to determine the most economical method of converting landfill gas to energy at the Burnsville Sanitary Landfill. The existing 98.5-acre landfill is permitted for nine million cubic yards of municipal solid waste and estimated to generate significant quantities of landfill gas. The beneficial use study reviewed four options to utilize the landfill gas, as follows; generate electric power and utilize on site; generate electric power and sell to local utility; clean up the landfill gas and sell to natural gas company; and sell landfill gas to nearby asphalt and concrete plants in the summer months, then to 15 commercial businesses for heat in the winter months. The study concluded that it is most economical to generate electricity and sell power to the local utility. Since May 1994, 3.2 megawatts of power have been generated. Upon site closure, the potential for 4.8 megawatts of power generation may exist.

  19. Site Specific Landfill CH4 Emissions: Shortcomings of National GHG Inventory Guidelines and a New Process-Based Approach Linked to Climate and Soil Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Corcoran, M.

    2012-12-01

    Current (2006) IPCC national GHG inventory guidelines for landfill CH4, which estimate CH4 generation from the mass of waste in place, have high uncertainties, cannot be reliably related to measured emissions at specific sites, and lack comprehensive field validation. Moreover, measured landfill CH4 emissions vary over a wide range from >1000 g/m2/d down to negative values (uptake of atmospheric CH4). Literature over the last decade has emphasized that the major factors controlling emissions in these highly managed soil systems are gaseous transport rates as affected by the thickness and physical properties of cover soils, methanotrophic CH4 oxidation in cover materials as a function of seasonal soil microclimate. and the presence or absence of engineered gas extraction. Thus we developed and field validated a new site specific annual inventory model that incorporates specific soil profile properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5° scale global climatic models. Based on 1D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely available JAVA tool which models a typical annual cycle for CH4 emissions from site specific daily, intermediate, and final landfill cover designs. This new approach, which is compliant with IPCC Tier III criteria, was originally field validated at two California sites (Monterey County; Los Angeles County), with limited field validation at three additional California sites. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist. We report here on improvements and expanded international field validation for CALMIM 5.2 in collaboration with research groups in the U.S., Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.odeled and measured annual cycle of landfill CH4 emissions for Austrian site. Cover consists of 50 cm sand & gravel overlain by 110 cm loam & sandy loam. No gas recovery. Site 100% vegetated.

  20. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  1. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1980-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddins, W.H.; Cardinell, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, to study, among other things, the effects of solid waste disposal on the water quality in Mecklenburg County. Water quality samples (747 inorganic and 168 organic) were collected at 20 surface water sites and 53 monitoring wells at four selected landfills from 1980 to 1986. Samples were analyzed for 142 selected physical and biological parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace metals, and (or) organic compounds. Results from all analyses are presented in tabular form in the appendices. Each appendix is divided into a surface water and a groundwater section. Within each water quality table the data is presented in the following order: field measurements, physical properties, biological constituents (if analyzed), major cations, major anions, dissolved and total solids, nutrients, trace inorganic constituents, and organic constituents.

  2. Landfill Methane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

  3. Necessity for Establishment of Inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Landfills and Contaminated Sites for an Evaluation of Mobilisation Risk by Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The landfilling of persistent hazardous compounds with a tendency to migrate, such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a major pollution challenge. Historic dumping and landfilling in badly engineered and unsuitably located sites has resulted in widespread contamination from the landfilling of HCH, HCB and PCB wastes around former production sites. In the case of PCBs this has been exacerbated by subsequent landfilling of contaminated products (oils, capacitors, sealants and other building residues). In most cases locations and amounts are not or vaguely known but impacts are increasingly discovered by monitoring in the most advanced countries with sophisticated monitoring schemes in place. These reveal that entire river systems are being contaminated by these old dumps and contaminated sites and that expensive remediation work is required for to reduce further contamination. In addition more recently other (halogenated) chemicals exhibiting the characteristics of POPs have emerged including e.g. brominated aromatic compounds (e.g. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants) widely used as flame retardants for electronics; textiles, furniture; upholstery; insulation foam etc.) and fluorinated organic pollutants (e.g. PFOS or PFOA used in carpets, textiles, furniture, paper coating etc.). As products containing these chemicals reach the end of their life these hazardous compounds increasingly ended and end up in the waste stream. In most countries a large proportion of these wastes are disposed to landfills. In developing countries and those with economies in transition almost all this waste is landfilled. Consequently the quantities of POPs in municipal waste landfills have increased the last two decades. Therefore in addition to chemical landfills also municipal landfills increasingly become POPs deposits and sources. Because of their persistence and relative mobility, these compounds will persist in landfills for many decades and probably centuries. Over these extended time frames landfill engineering systems, including basal and capping liners, gas and leachate collection systems will inevitably degrade and loose their abilities to contain contamination. Furthermore consideration must now be given to the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. This is likely to result in higher temperatures with increased volatalisation of semi-volatile compounds; longer dry periods with drying of surface caps; together with higher intensity rainfall events and increased flooding risks. These effects will impact on the integrity of the containment systems. It is therefore inevitable that more of the deposited POPs will leach into rivers, lakes and the larger environment via escaping leachate, ground or surface water as well as escaping to atmosphere by volatilisation. At the same time our reliance on water resources is likely to increase. In order to evaluate the associated risks for human exposure and biodiversity, inventories of deposited POPs and other PBTs need to be established, their locations comprehensively mapped and linked to future flooding scenarios for prediction of contamination of the precious water resources. This interdisciplinary task will require the cooperation between POPs experts, geotechnical engineers, contaminated site/landfill experts, water management specialists and geoscientists working on climate change and flooding.

  4. Environmental monitoring report, 1980, 1981, 1982 for the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    During periods of remedial action activities conducted in 1980 and 1981 at designated sites in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, air, water, and sediments were sampled and analyzed to verify the adequacy of contamination control and compliance with applicable standards. Analytical results show that remedial action activities at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and vicinity properties were conducted, with few exceptions, within applicable standards. During 1982, a surveillance monitoring program was initiated at the MSP and at the former Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) site. Radioactivity was measured in air and water to allow calculation of radiation doses to the public. The resulting dose from external gamma radiation at the MSP site boundary in 1982 was approximately twice natural background and less than 40% (background included) of the Department of Energy (DOE) standard. The highest continuous occupancy dose to the bronchial epithelium (lungs) from radon exposure at the MML boundary was approximately twice the background value or about 60% (background included) of the DOE standard. 12 references, 15 figures, 28 tables.

  5. 77 FR 67399 - State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including..., applicable to workers and former workers of State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliation Team, Quincy, Massachusetts. The workers were engaged in activities related to the supply of cash reconciliation services....

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Munisport Landfill site, Dade County, North Miami, FL. (First remedial action), July 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-26

    The 291-acre Munisport Landfill site, including a 170-acre, inactive municipal landfill, is within the city of North Miami, Dade County, Florida. The city of North Miami leased 291 acres to Munisport for recreational development in 1971 which began filling low-lying areas of the site with clean fill and construction debris. In 1975, a temporary permit allowed solid waste to be used as fill above the water table. However, in 1976, a State inspection found twelve 55-gallon drums that were leaking wastes onsite; a violation was issued, and these drums were removed offsite by the city. Landfilling operations ceased in 1981, but closure has not yet taken place. Leachate from the landfill waste still poses a significant threat to the aquatic organisms in the Mangrove Preserve. The ground water is no longer used for potable purposes as a result of salt water intrusion. The contaminants of concern affecting the ground water include VOCs such as benzene and toluene; other organics; metals, such as arsenic, chromium, and lead; and other inorganics.

  7. [Street children].

    PubMed

    Roncević, Nevenka; Stojadinović, Aleksandra; Batrnek-Antonić, Daliborka

    2013-01-01

    According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non-governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop-in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street. PMID:24502109

  8. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering a suitable methodology was developed. The feasibility of site selection in the study area based on different criteria was used to obtain the layered data by integrating Remote Sensing and GIS. This methodology is suitable for all practical applications in other cities, also.

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:27155859

  10. Evaluation of borehole geophysical and video logs, at Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, D.J.; Conger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1996 and November 2000, geophysical logging was conducted in 27 open borehole wells in and adjacent to the Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pa., to determine casing depth and depths of water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, and zones of vertical borehole flow. The wells range in depth from 57 to 319 feet below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so that the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, fluid-temperature, and video logs. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, and fluid-resistivity logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy.

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Syosset Landfill Site, operable unit 2, Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY, March 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for the second operable unit (OU2) for the Syosset Landfill site (the Site), located in the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York. This operable unit addresses the fate and transport of the contaminants in the groundwater emanating from the Site. EPA is consultation with the State of New York has determined that contamination is limited and does not pose a significant threat to human health or the environment; therefore, remediation is not appropriate. This determination is based on the OU2 Remedial Investigation and the expected successful implementation of the OU1 remedy.

  12. Characterization of bacterial diversity at different depths in the Moravia Hill landfill site at Medellin, Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods was used to assess bacterial diversity at different depths within a former solid waste dump in Medellín, Colombia. Sampling sites included a densely populated area, which is built upon 40 m of solid waste (domestic, industrial, agric...

  13. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city. PMID:23369323

  14. a New Framework for Geospatial Site Selection Using Artificial Neural Networks as Decision Rules: a Case Study on Landfill Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujayyab, S. K. M.; Ahamad, M. A. S.; Yahya, A. S.; Saad, A.-M. H. Y.

    2015-10-01

    This paper briefly introduced the theory and framework of geospatial site selection (GSS) and discussed the application and framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The related literature on the use of ANNs as decision rules in GSS is scarce from 2000 till 2015. As this study found, ANNs are not only adaptable to dynamic changes but also capable of improving the objectivity of acquisition in GSS, reducing time consumption, and providing high validation. ANNs make for a powerful tool for solving geospatial decision-making problems by enabling geospatial decision makers to implement their constraints and imprecise concepts. This tool offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty. Specifically, ANNs are decision rules implemented to enhance conventional GSS frameworks. The main assumption in implementing ANNs in GSS is that the current characteristics of existing sites are indicative of the degree of suitability of new locations with similar characteristics. GSS requires several input criteria that embody specific requirements and the desired site characteristics, which could contribute to geospatial sites. In this study, the proposed framework consists of four stages for implementing ANNs in GSS. A multilayer feed-forward network with a backpropagation algorithm was used to train the networks from prior sites to assess, generalize, and evaluate the outputs on the basis of the inputs for the new sites. Two metrics, namely, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic tests, were utilized to achieve high accuracy and validation. Results proved that ANNs provide reasonable and efficient results as an accurate and inexpensive quantitative technique for GSS.

  15. The metal-leaching and acid-neutralizing capacity of MSW incinerator ash co-disposed with MSW in landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Lo, Huang-Mu; Liao, Yuan-Lung

    2007-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash and fly ash were used as landfill cover or were co-disposed with MSW to measure their potential metal-releasing and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) in landfill sites. Five lysimeters (height 1.2m, diameter 0.2m), simulating landfill conditions, were used in the experiment. Four contained either bottom ash (BA) or fly ash (FA) with BA:MSW ratios of 100 and 200 g L(-1) and FA:MSW ratios of 10 and 20 g L(-1), and the fifth was the control, which contained no ash. The lysimeters were arranged so as to contain four layers, with BA or FA placed on top of MSW within each layer. Each lysimeter was recirculated with 100mL leachate using peristaltic pumps, and 100mL of the leachate was collected weekly to measure the soluble metal concentrations. The results showed that the concentrations of soluble alkali metals measured in the leachate were in the order Ca>K>Na>Mg. In addition, the concentrations of soluble alkali metals of Ca and K collected from the lysimeters containing FA were found to be higher than the concentrations from the lysimeters containing BA. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were found to be <1 mg L(-1) except for Pb, which reached 2 mg L(-1). These results suggest that for alkali metals there might be an ANC consistent with the results of an acid titration curve, which would provide suitable conditions for anaerobic digestion of the MSW in the landfill. Furthermore, heavy metals and trace metals were found in concentrations, which were too low to exert inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion, and thus they could serve as micronutrients to exert beneficial rather than detrimental effects on landfill biostabilization. PMID:17008003

  16. The use of GPR and VES in delineating a contamination plume in a landfill site: a case study in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porsani, Jorge L.; Filho, Walter M.; Elis, Vagner R.; Shimeles, Fisseha; Dourado, João C.; Moura, Helyelson P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the application of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method, or Georadar, in outlining a zone of contamination due to solid residues at the waste burial site of Rio Claro in the state of São Paulo, SE Brazil. A total of eight GPR profiles with 50- and 100-MHz antennae were surveyed. Six profiles were located within the landfill site and the remaining two were outside. The main objective of the GPR survey was to evaluate the side extension of contamination. A Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) survey was performed at four points within the site in order to investigate the vertical extent of the contamination plume and to define the bottom of the landfill. Two additional VESs were done outside the landfill with the purpose of determining the top of the ground water table and the geoelectric stratigraphy of the background. From the interpretation of the GPR profiles, it was possible to locate the top of the contamination plume and to infer that it was migrating laterally beyond the limits of the waste disposal site. This was observed along the profile situated close to the highway SP-127, which was about 20 m from the limit of the site. The signature of the contaminant appears as a discontinuous reflector that is believed to be a shallow ground water table. The discontinuity is marked by a shadow zone, which is characteristic of conductive contaminant residues. The contamination did not move far enough to reach a sugar cane plantation located at approximately 100 m from the border of the site. In the regions free from contamination, the ground water table was mapped at approximately 10 m of depth, and it was characterized by a strong and continuous reflector. The radar signal penetrated deep enough and enabled the identification of a second reflector at approximately 14 m deep, interpreted as the contact between the Rio Claro and the Corumbataı´ formations. The contact is marked by the presence of gravel characterized by ferruginous concretes, which cause the strong amplitude reflection in the GPR profile. Within the landfill site, the quantitative interpretation of the VES results showed the contamination zone. The base of the landfill varies between 11 and 15 m deep. Outside the landfill site, the VES results showed no indication of contamination and allowed the determination of the top of the ground water table and the contact between the Rio Claro and the Corumbataı´ formations. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology and information from several boreholes, about 17 m depth, on average. The bottom of the landfill reaches a maximum of 14.5 m depth.

  17. Integrating multi-criteria evaluation techniques with geographic information systems for landfill site selection: a case study using ordered weighted average.

    PubMed

    Gorsevski, Pece V; Donevska, Katerina R; Mitrovski, Cvetko D; Frizado, Joseph P

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis approach for evaluating the suitability for landfill site selection in the Polog Region, Macedonia. The multi-criteria decision framework considers environmental and economic factors which are standardized by fuzzy membership functions and combined by integration of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and ordered weighted average (OWA) techniques. The AHP is used for the elicitation of attribute weights while the OWA operator function is used to generate a wide range of decision alternatives for addressing uncertainty associated with interaction between multiple criteria. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated by different OWA scenarios that report landfill suitability on a scale between 0 and 1. The OWA scenarios are intended to quantify the level of risk taking (i.e., optimistic, pessimistic, and neutral) and to facilitate a better understanding of patterns that emerge from decision alternatives involved in the decision making process. PMID:22030279

  18. 45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Mobile Robots for Localizing Gas Emission Sources on Landfill Sites: Is Bio-Inspiration the Way to Go?

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Neumann, Patrick P.; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully “translated” into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  20. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    PubMed

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  1. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  2. Landfill reclamation attracts attention and questions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    Landfill mining or reclamation has fit neatly into the recycling/reuse mindset. In heralding the first California landfill reclamation project at the Caspar Landfill municipal solid waste (MSW) site in May 1994, a California state official described it as ''win-win. Nobody loses''. Speaking at a session at the annual meeting of the Solid Waste Management Association of North America (SWANA), held August 2--6, 1994, Joanne R. Guerriero, senior project engineer, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. (White Plains, NY), said landfill reclamation--the excavation of a landfill using conventional mining technology to recover and reuse resources--can: extend the life of existing landfill sites and reduce the need for siting new landfills; decrease the area requiring closure; remediate an environmental concern by removing a contaminant source; reclaim marketable recyclables; and capture energy through waste combustion.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action (CAU) 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 5 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs). The corrective action investigation (CAI) of CAU 5 was conducted from October 7, 2002 through January 30, 2003, with geophysical surveys completed from March 6 through May 8, 2002, and topographic surveys conducted from March 11 through April 29, 2003. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified only at CAS 12-15-01. Those COCs included total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following single alternative was developed for consideration. Close in Place with Administrative Controls is the recommended alternative for all of the CASs in CAU 5. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate inadvertent intrusion into landfills at CAU 5.

  4. Street sweeping and stormwater regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the role of street sweeping in meeting the requirements of the Clean Water Act stormwater regulations. The article identifies those industrial and municipal activities which are covered by the regulations and cites frequent sweeping of site surfaces for industry and street sweeping for municipalities as an integral part of compliance plans.

  5. Hydrogeologic framework, arsenic distribution, and groundwater geochemistry of the glacial-sediment aquifer at the Auburn Road landfill superfund site, Londonderry, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate continues to be generated from landfills at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund Site in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Impermeable caps on the three landfills at the site inhibit direct infiltration of precipitation; however, high water-table conditions allow groundwater to interact with landfill materials from below, creating leachate and ultimately reducing conditions in downgradient groundwater. Reducing conditions can facilitate arsenic transport by allowing it to stay in solution or by liberating arsenic adsorbed to surfaces and from geologic sources, such as glacial sediments and bedrock. The site occupies a 180-acre parcel of land containing streams, ponds, wetlands, and former gravel pits located in glacial sediment. Four areas, totaling 14 acres, including three landfills and one septage lagoon, were used for waste disposal. The site was closed in 1980 after volatile organic compounds associated with industrial waste dumping were detected. The site was added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List in 1982, and the landfills were capped in 1996. Although volatile organic compound concentrations in groundwater have declined substantially, some measurable concentrations remain. Temporally variable and persistent elevated arsenic concentrations have been measured in groundwater affected by the landfill leachate. Microbial consumption of carbon found in leachate is a driver of reducing conditions that liberate arsenic at the site. In addition to sources of carbon in landfill leachate, wetland areas throughout the site also could contribute carbon to groundwater, but it is currently unknown if any of the wetland areas have downward or reversing gradients that could allow the infiltration of surface water to groundwater. Red-stained sediments and water indicate iron-rich groundwater discharge to surface water and are also associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic in sediment and groundwater. Ironrich groundwater seeps have been observed in the wetland, streams, and pond downgradient of the landfills. Piezometers were installed in some of these locations to confirm groundwater discharge, measure vertical-flow gradients, and to provide a way to sample the discharging groundwater. Understanding the movement of leachate in groundwater is complicated by the presence of preferential flow paths through aquifer materials with differing hydraulic properties; these preferential flow paths can affect rates of recharge, geochemical conditions, and contaminant fluxes. In areas adjacent to the three capped landfills, infiltration of precipitation containing oxygenated water through permeable deltaic sediments in the former gravel pit area causes increases in dissolved oxygen concentrations and decreases in arsenic concentrations. Layered deltaic sediments produce anisotropic hydraulic characteristics and zones of high hydraulic conductivity. The glacial-sediment aquifer also includes glaciolacustrine sediments that have low permeability and limit infiltration at the surface Discharge of leachate-affected groundwater may be limited in areas of organic muck on the bottom of Whispering Pines Pond because the muck may act as a semiconfining layer. Geophysical survey results were used to identify several areas with continuous beds of muck and an underlying highresistivity layer on top of a layer of low resistivity that may represent leachate-affected groundwater. The high-resistivity layer is likely groundwater associated with oxygenated recharge, which would cause arsenic to adsorb onto aquifer sediments and reduce concentrations of dissolved arsenic in groundwater. Surface and borehole geophysical data collected in 2011 were used to identify potentially high-permeability or contaminated zones in the aquifer (preferential flowpaths) as well as low-permeability zones that may promote contamination through back diffusion. Some groundwater in parts of the glacial-sediment aquifer where the leachate plumes were present had low electrical resistivity, low dissolved oxygen, and high concentrations of arsenic. Low-resistivity zones in the underlying bedrock were associated with fractures that also may contain leachate. Although surveying the fractured bedrock was not a specific objective of this study, the results suggest that such a survey would help to determine if leachate and associated concentrations of arsenic are migrating downward into the fractured-bedrock-aquifer system. An uncalibrated, one-dimensional, reactive-transport model was used to assess several conditions that affect arsenic mobility. The results indicate that reductive dissolution and desorption from glacial sediments control dissolved arsenic concentrations. Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify key data that are needed in order to accurately assess the time required for arsenic concentrations to fall to levels below the maximum contaminant level at the site. Quantifying this time will require accurate characterization of carbon, sediment-surface sorption sites, and groundwater fluxes at the site.

  6. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  7. Where Should the Landfill Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Rosario P.; McFaden, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project where students were involved in finding the most suitable site for a landfill in their community. This two-month project was conducted using team teaching. Two twelfth grade geoscience classes were involved. (PR)

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 4): Kassouf-Kimerling Battery site, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL. (Second remedial action), March 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-30

    The Kassouf-Dimerling Battery Disposal site, formerly known as the Timber Lake Battery Disposal site and the 58th Street Landfill, is in Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida within a 100-year floodplain area. The site consists of a 42,000 square foot landfill area with an estimated landfill volume of 11,350 cubic yards. Surface water flows from the west marsh to the east marsh by way of a canal which cuts through the site, connects the marsh areas, and eventually discharges into the Palm River. In 1978, empty battery casings were deposited in previously excavated onsite areas. The first Operable Unit Record of Decision (ROD) addressed remediation of landfill wastes and contaminated underlying soil. The ROD addresses contamination of wetlands adjacent to the landfill. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the sediment and surface water are metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead.

  9. A New IPCC Tier 4 Site-Specific Model for Landfill Methane Emissions Inclusive of Seasonal Methane Oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project was initiated in the U.S. by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in cooperation with the California Integrated Waste Management Board and the California Air Resources Board to develop improved methods for landfill methane emissions for the California greenhouse gas inventory. This 3-...

  10. LETTER REPORT. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS OF SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARGYLE STREET SEWER LINE AT THE UNITED NUCLEAR CORPORATION NAVAL PRODUCTS SITE, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Wade C.

    2012-01-24

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated.

  11. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 2, Simulation of ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.; Maus, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Data on the hydrogeology of a 26-sq-mi area surrounding the Brookhaven landfill site in central Suffolk County were collected as part of a hydrologic investigation of solute transport from the site. These data were used to develop a steady-state groundwater flow model of the upper glacial (water table) aquifer in the area. The model accounts for the leakage through confining units underlying the aquifer, seepage to streams, recharge from precipitation, and pumpage and redistribution of water. Refined estimates of aquifer and confining-unit properties were obtained through model calibrations. Water table altitudes generated by the calibrated model were used to determine groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the vicinity of the site under long-term average hydrologic conditions. Groundwater velocities and probable flow paths in the study area were calculated from simulated water table altitudes generated by the calibrated flow model. Groundwater at the center of the site flows southeastward at a velocity of 1.1 ft/d. The report is the second in a three part series describing the hydrologic conditions and groundwater quality, groundwater flow, and solute transport in the vicinity of the Brookhaven landfill. (USGS)

  12. Impacts of landfill New Source Performance Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, W.G.; McGuigan, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    On May 30, 1991, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a Rule to control landfill gas (LFG) emissions under the authority of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Since that time the Rule has been modified significantly, with an emphasis on regulating large US landfills. To date, landfill owners and operators have not been affected by this new CAA regulation. However, with the Rule promulgated in early 1996 and its subsequent implementation by the states to follow by the end of the year, landfill owners and operators need to understand these new requirements and their associated costs. To this end, the goal of this paper is to provide insight into the impacts of the Rule on individual landfill sites. By performing the emission analyses specified in the Rule on actual landfills, and comparing these sites to others, an understanding can be gained on the potential impacts of the NSPS Rule`s requirements on individual landfills.

  13. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the Middlesex Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R W; Cottrell, W D; Goldsmith, W A; Christian, D J; Haywood, F F; Wagner, E B; Crawford, D J; Doane, R W; Shinpaugh, W H

    1980-04-01

    A radiological survey was conducted at the Middlesex Municipal Landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey. In 1948, dirt contaminated with pitchblende ores was brought to this site from a former ore sampling plant in Middlesex. This survey was conducted in order to characterize the present radiological condition of the site and to determine the extent to which contamination is being transported from the site by natural means such as by drainage. The survey included measurement of (1) radionuclide concentrations in surface and subsurface soil on the site; (2) radionuclide concentrations in surface and subsurface water on the site and in Bound Brook; (3) beta-gamma dose rates and external gamma radiation levels on and near the site; and (4) the rate of /sup 222/Rn emanation from the soil on the site. It was found that most of the contamination on the site is in the top 14 ft of soil; however, there is little contamination of surface soil on the site. Average radon emanation rates, average external gamma radiation levels, and average beta-gamma dose rates on the site do not appear to be significantly higher than background levels. Furthermore, radionuclide concentrations in water taken from Bound Brook near the site were far below guide values stated in federal guidelines.

  14. Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ≈ 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

  15. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, S.A. . E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. . E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. . E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

    2007-07-01

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

  16. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices. PMID:25258630

  17. Landfills in karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.H. ); Memon, B.A.; LaMoreaux, P.E. )

    1994-06-01

    State and Federal regulations have established restrictions for location of hazardous waste and municipal, solid waste landfills. Regulations require owners/operators to demonstrate that the hydrogeology has been completely characterized at proposed landfills, and that locations for monitoring wells have been properly selected. Owners/operators are also required to demonstrate that engineering measures have been incorporated in the design of the municipal solid waste landfills, so that the site is not subject to destabilizing events, as a result of location in unstable areas, such as karst terrains. Karst terrains are typically underlain by limestone or dolomite, and may contain a broad continuum of karst features and karst activity. Preliminary investigation of candidate sites will allow ranking of the sites, rejection of some unsuitable sites, and selection of a few sites for additional studies. The complexity of hydrogeologic systems, in karst terrains, mandates thorough hydrogeologic studies to determine whether a specific site is, or can be rendered, suitable for a land disposal facility. Important components of hydrogeologic studies are: field mapping of structural and stratigraphic units; interpretation of sequential aerial photographs; test drilling and geophysical analyses; fracture analyses; seasonal variation in water-levels; spatial variation of hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and aquiclude; velocity and direction of movement of ground water within aquifers; determination of control for recharge, discharge, and local base level; and evaluation of the effects of man's activities, such as pumping, dewatering and construction.

  18. A steady state redox zone approach for modeling the transport and degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds from a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lønborg, Michael J.; Engesgaard, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-10-01

    A redox zonation approach is used as a framework for obtaining biodegradation rate constants of xenobiotic compounds in a landfill plume (Grindsted, Denmark). The aquifer is physically heterogeneous in terms of a complex zonation of different geological units close to the landfill and biogeochemically heterogeneous in terms of a specified redox zonation. First-order degradation rates of six organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m/ p-xylene, and naphthalene) were calculated in the methanogenic/sulfate- and Fe-reducing zones. The numerical simulations show that all compounds are anaerobically biodegraded, but at very different rates. High rates of biodegradation of most of the compounds (except benzene) were found in the Fe-reducing zone. These rates generally agree with previously published rates. Only o-xylene and toluene were significantly biodegraded in the methanogenic/sulfate-reducing environment. All rates in this redox zone are generally much lower than previously published rates.

  19. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will concentrate on geophysical surveys to confirm the presence or absence of disposed waste within a CAS and verify the boundaries of disposal areas; penetrate disposal feature covers via excavation and/or drilling; perform geodetic surveys; and be used to collect both soil and environmental samples for laboratory analyses. Phase II will deal only with those CASs where a contaminant of concern has been identified. This phase will involve the collection of additional soil and/or environmental samples for laboratory analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  1. Assessment of DNA Damage by RAPD in Paracentrotus lividus Embryos Exposed to Amniotic Fluid from Residents Living Close to Waste Landfill Sites

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Maurizio; Guida, Marco; De Felice, Bruna; Santafede, Daniela; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Scognamiglio, Marianna; Ferrara, Cinzia; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental chemicals on residents living near landfills. The study was based on samples of amniotic fluid from women living in the intensely polluted areas around the Campania region of Italy compared to a nonexposed control group. We evaluated the genetic effects that this amniotic fluids collected in contaminated sites had on Paracentrotus lividus embryos. DNA damage was detected through changes in RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA) profiles. The absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicated deletions in Paracentrotus lividus DNA exposed to the contaminated amniotic fluids when compared to equal exposure to uncontaminated fluids. These results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate DNA sequences representing genetic alterations induced in P. lividus embryos. Using this method, we identified two candidate target regions for DNA alterations in the genome of P. lividus. Our research indicates that RAPD-PCR in P. lividus embryo DNA can provide a molecular approach for studying DNA damage from pollutants that can impact human health. To our knowledge, this is the first time that assessment of DNA damage in P. lividus embryos has been tested using the RAPD strategy after exposure to amniotic fluid from residents near waste landfill sites. PMID:20706694

  2. Ground-water flow and solute transport at a municipal landfill site on Long Island, New York; Part 3, Simulation of solute transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wexler, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A solute transport model representing a 2.3-sq mi area surrounding and downgradient from a municipal landfill site in the Town of Brookhaven, N.Y. was used to simulate migration of a conservative solute (chloride) in the upper glacial aquifer. Aquifer values used in the model were: hydraulic conductivity, 200 ft/day; effective porosity, 0.30; longitudinal dispersivity, 100 ft; transverse dispersivity, 20 ft. Average concentration of chloride was set at 875.0 mg/L in leachate and 10 mg/L in recharge and in ambient groundwater. Entry of leachate into the aquifer was assumed to have begun in 1977. Chloride concentrations in the simulated plume after 6 years of travel matched reasonably well the chloride data collected in October-December 1982. After 12 years of travel, the simulated plume extended 6,200 ft and was 2,600 ft wide. Maximum predicted concentration at the site boundary was 160 mg/L. Additional simulations were made to test the model 's ability to predict the effect of several remedial strategies on the movement of solutes. These included capping the landfill with an impermeable surface, removal of contaminated groundwater through four recovery wells, and a combination of the first two actions. (USGS)

  3. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  4. Bringing new life to old landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Rabasca, L.

    1996-01-01

    On the West Coast, Waste Management, Inc. is bringing new life to old landfills. The Bradley Landfill in Sun Valley, CA, just outside of Los Angeles, is being transformed into a recycling park, while a few hundred miles north, in the San Francisco Bay Area, an old landfill is now home to a transfer station and recycling center. WMI began transforming the landfill in the early 1990s.The first change was to process wood and green waste rather than landfilling it. In 1993, WMI added a sorting facility, and in 1994, after the Jan. 17 Northridge earthquake, the company added a construction and demolition debris (C and D) facility. There also is a landfill gas collection facility on the site. In the future, WMI hopes to add the following facilities: composting, railhaul, alternative fuels production, tire processing, and soil remediation. WMI also hopes several companies that use recycled materials as feedstock will build their plants at the landfill.

  5. Results of the supplementary radiological survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CVP001)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1995-04-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted radiological surveys at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania. The surveys were performed on October 11-13 and November 14-17, 1993, in order to provide a complete characterization prior to site remediation. The surveys included a gamma scan and a scan for surface contamination from alpha and beta-gamma emitters; measurement of direct and removable alpha and beta-gamma levels; systematic FIDLER measurements at the surface of the concrete; and the collection of samples from boreholes for radionuclide analysis. Results of the surveys revealed radionuclide concentrations and surface contamination levels in excess of applicable DOE guidelines for {sup 238}U. Radionuclide distributions were higher than typical background levels for {sup 238}U in the Springdale, Pennsylvania area.

  6. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  7. N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  8. Provenance of white marbles from the nabatean sites of Qase Al Bint and colonnaded street baths at Petra, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Jaber, Nizar; al-Saad, Ziad; Shiyyab, Adnan; Degryse, Patrick

    Intercultural relations and trade are important components of understanding of historical interrelationships between regions and cultures. One of the most interesting objects of trade is stone, because of the expense and difficulty of its transport. Thus, the source of marble used in the Nabatean city of Petra was investigated using established petrological, geochemical and isotopic analyses. Specifically, marble from Qasr al Bint and the Colonnaded Street baths were sampled and investigated. The results of these analyses show that the marbles came from sources in Asia Minora and Greece. The most likely sources of the marble are the quarries of Thasos, Penteli, Prokennesos and Dokimeion. The choice of marble followed the desired utilitarian and aesthetic function of the stone. These results show that active trade in stone was part of the cultural interaction of the period.

  9. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  10. Landfill gas collection system efficiencies - facts and fallacies

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, F.A.; Yardley, J.R.

    1996-11-01

    Landfill gas collection and treatment systems are becoming one of the primary control systems necessary to effectively operate and maintain both active and, in a number of cases, closed landfill sites. The emphasis on the development and use of landfill gas collection systems over the last 20 years and specifically in the last 5 to 10 years relates to such items as: (1) the development of larger landfills; (2) the increase in the rate of waste acceptance at landfills; (3) the development of urban areas around existing landfills; (4) the siting of landfills closer to urban areas; and (5) the issues dealing with landfill gas release to the environment from both a global environmental perspective and a human health perspective. Over the last several years, the emphasis in landfill gas collection assessments has slowly been re-orienting from {open_quotes}How much landfill gas is collected?{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}How much landfill gas is released without treatment or use?{close_quotes}. Working on this premise, it is the rate and characteristics of the landfill gas (LFG) released that controls whether or not a landfill will have a LFG related issue. A range of LFG emissions from a landfill should be able to be estimated which represent emission rates at which released LFG has potential to become an issue at a site.

  11. Claymax landfill cap

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.L.

    1989-12-15

    A commercial product called Claymax'' consisting of one-quarter inch of bentonite clay between two geotextile sheets is a candidate landfill cap to replace kaolin caps. A permeability apparatus incorporating a 20 foot water head was operated for 56 days to estimate a Claymax permeability of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec compared with 10{sup {minus}8}, the EPA max for a burial site cap. 1 fig.

  12. Landfills as a biorefinery to produce biomass and capture biogas.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Thangarajan, R; Seshadri, B; Jena, U; Das, K C; Wang, H; Naidu, R

    2013-05-01

    While landfilling provides a simple and economic means of waste disposal, it causes environmental impacts including leachate generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the introduction of gas recovery systems, landfills provide a potential source of methane (CH4) as a fuel source. Increasingly revegetation is practiced on traditionally managed landfill sites to mitigate environmental degradation, which also provides a source of biomass for energy production. Combustion of landfill gas for energy production contributes to GHG emission reduction mainly by preventing the release of CH4 into the atmosphere. Biomass from landfill sites can be converted to bioenergy through various processes including pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the role of landfills as a biorefinery site by focusing on the potential volumes of CH4 and biomass produced from landfills, the various methods of biomass energy conversion, and the opportunities and limitations of energy capture from landfills. PMID:23069612

  13. Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

    2010-01-07

    The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

  14. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. PMID:22647548

  15. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.L. . E-mail: d.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  16. In situ denitrification in controlled landfill systems

    SciTech Connect

    Onay, T.T.; Pohland, F.G.

    1996-11-01

    The characteristics of leachate from landfill disposal sites vary according to the operational stage of the landfill. Leachates from old landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation of nitrogenous fractions of biodegradable refuse substrates. The relative concentration accumulating as stabilization progresses is also influenced by washout as leachate is collected and removed for external treatment. However, in landfills operated as bioreactors with leachate containment, collection and in situ recirculation to accelerate decomposition of readily available organic fractions of the refuse, leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations may accumulate to much higher levels. High leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations in landfill leachate have been reported, resulting in separate treatment challenges if direct discharge to either land or receiving waters is practiced. External treatment options for landfill leachate may involve complex physical-chemical and/or biological processes for removal of both high-strength organic and inorganic fractions, including nitrogen. Such separate leachate treatment systems are often costly and difficult to control on a continuum. Therefore, this study focused on the investigation of landfill ammonia nitrogen generation patterns, and the potential for its in situ attenuation and conversion in landfills constructed to permit sequential nitrification and denitrification using leachate recirculation. Accordingly, the landfill is constructed and operated as a controlled bioreactor system, with opportunity to convert ammonia to nitrate by nitrification and nitrate to nitrogen gas by denitrification. The results presented in this paper focus on in situ landfill denitrification of nitrified ammonia.

  17. Proximity of Florida sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats. Data on individual landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Lambou, V.W.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The report documents the proximity of sanitary landfills included in the study in Florida to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.). The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory maps. The nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats was determined by drawing three concentric regions around the point representing the location of each landfill. The radii of the concentric regions were: 1/4 mile, 1/2 mile, and 1 mile. A companion report summarizes the statewide results. The data on individual landfills include general facilities/site data and wetlands/deepwater habitat data. The facilities have the potential to adversely affect sensitive ecosystems, such as wetlands and deepwater habitats, either through habitat alterations or through the migration of contaminants from sanitary landfills.

  18. Proximity of Louisiana sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats. Data on individual landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Lambou, V.W.; Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1989-12-01

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. This report documents the proximity of sanitary landfills included in the study in Louisiana to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.). The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory maps. The nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats was determined by drawing three concentric regions around the point representing the location of each landfill. The radii of the concentric regions were: 1/4 mile, 1/2 mile, and 1 mile. A companion report summarizes the statewide results. The data on individual landfills include general facility/site data and wetlands/deepwater habitat data. These facilities have the potential to adversely affect sensitive ecosystems, such as wetlands and deepwater habitats, either through habitat alterations or through the migration of contaminants from sanitary landfills.

  19. Proximity of Georgia sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats. Data on individual landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Moerlins, J.E.; Herndon, R.C.; Lambou, V.W.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1989-12-01

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. This report documents the proximity of sanitary landfills included in the study in Georgia to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.). The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory maps. The nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats was determined by drawing three concentric regions around the point representing the location of each landfill. The radii of the concentric regions were: 1/4 mile, 1/2 mile, and 1 mile. A companion report summarizes the statewide results. The data on individual landfills include general facility/site data and wetlands/deepwater habitat data. These facilities have the potential to adversely affect sensitive ecosystems, such as wetlands and deepwater habitats, either through habitat alterations or through the migration of contaminants from sanitary landfills.

  20. Cleaner Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

  1. Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill--a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Min; Liu, Ming-Chao

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to illegal discharges of wastewater, known as the "Cd rice" incidence. Cadmium laden soil was transferred to a constructed landfill in an industrial park 15 years after the incident. Possible leakage of the landfill was suspected by committee members of a supervising board for the remediation process, and a preliminary ecological risk evaluation was requested. A possible risk scenario was that groundwater contamination due to the leachate containing Cd and Pb from the landfill could result in pollution of coastal water, and subsequently produce toxic effects to aquatic organisms. Chemical dissipation in groundwater systems was simulated and short-term chronic toxicity tests on larvae of three local aquatic species were also performed to determine the no-observed adverse-effect concentrations (NOAECs), as well as the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), of the two metals in the organisms tested. The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) to PNECs, was used for risk characterization. A worst-case-scenario calculation showed that the maximum Cd concentration at 60 m and farther downstream from the site in the groundwater system would be 0.0028 mg l(-1) with a maximum initial concentration of 0.65 mg l(-1) in the leachate, while for Pb, the highest concentration of 0.044 mg l(-1) would be reached at a distance of 40 m and farther, which was based on an initial concentration of 4.4 mg l(-1) in the leachate; however, both cases would only occur 80 years after the initiation of leakage. A presumed dilution factor of 100 was used to calculate the PECs based on the maximum initial concentrations. The Cd and Pb's PNECs for three aquatic animals were 0.01 to approximately 0.1 mg l(-1), higher than their PECs in coastal water, resulting in HQs less than 1 for the scenario described. We concluded that if a leakage does occur, the ecological impact would be minimal because a majority of the metals will be retained in the soil phase and the remaining, if released into the aquatic system, cannot reach high enough concentrations to produce toxicity to marine animals. PMID:15964610

  2. 626628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626628 North Eutaw Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    626-628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626-628 North Eutaw Street & 400-412 Druid Hill Avenue on a block bounded by North Eutaw Street, George Street, Jaspar Street, & Druid Hill Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. Engineered Municipal Waste Landfills: Climate Significance, Benefits, and some Landfill "Geophysics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenstein, D.; Yazdani, R.

    2002-12-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills have unique features: Wastes worldwide emit biogenic methane to the atmosphere of magnitude comparable to the total atmospheric buildup between 1980 and 1990. Carbon sequestered in landfills is large in geologic terms Management of decomposition in landfilled waste is desirable: (a) Control of waste decomposition and methane promises over tenfold cheaper greenhouse gas abatement compared to most other greenhouse gas abatement strategies. This is due in part to carbon sequestration and landfill gas energy offset of fossil fuel consumption (b) Landfill gas energy potential worldwide, is up to 1% of world energy. Use of landfill gas conserves a resource otherwise wasted (c) Monetary benefits of landfill life extension from decomposition and rapid volume reduction can be quite attractive This is a benefit for the US, where landfills are increasingly difficult and expensive to site. (d) Landfills containing mixed waste can be significant sources of atmospheric and groundwater pollutants needing control. Control is possible from advancing landfill management approaches (e) The stabilization of waste lessens pollutant risk and needs for costly long-term landfill aftercare. Greater control of landfill decomposition has been advocated in the form of "controlled" or "bioreactor" landfills. (SWANA, 1999; Reinhart and Townsend, 1996). Field trials are encouraging by several environmental/monetary criteria. Control of moisture and temperature have given fivefold or more acceleration of methane generation (Augenstein et al, 1998, 2000). There has been rapid volume loss of the landfilled waste as well, with conversion of waste organics to gas. Many trials over years have shown potential for abatement of pollutants in landfill leachate. Demonstration work by the solid waste management community attests to the benefits potential. Increasing field demonstrations, have been accompanied by observation and/or solution of several issues. As noted the heat generation in landfills may become controlling, Heat can be dissipated, but at energy and monetary cost. Increased waste liquid content, required for biological activity has been a concern. Offsetting risk is the accelerated treatment of many dissolved contaminants in landfill liquid with time. It has proven possible to manage liquid flows within environmental and regulatory constraints. There have been concerns about containment by chemosynthetic lining of leachate liquids draining from landfills. Yet molecular bonds of lining under anaerobic conditions could be expected to last for centuries (and in fact up to millenia). There is of course no landfill experience over millenia but analogous compounds of geologic relevance have shown very desirable long term stability. Two other areas being investigated are waste slope stability and the precipitation of carbonate salts The climate significance and geophysical issues with landfills will be discussed, and some experimental findings leading to conclusions will be reviewed

  4. First report of a lipopeptide biosurfactant from thermophilic bacterium Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus MK01 newly isolated from municipal landfill site.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Hakimeh; Abdoli, Mahya; Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Samie, Nima; Alidoust, Leila; Abbasi, Habib; Fooladi, Jamshid; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2014-07-01

    A biosurfactant-producing thermophile was isolated from the Kahrizak landfill of Tehran and identified as a bacterium belonging to the genus Aneurinibacillus. A thermostable lipopeptide-type biosurfactant was purified from the culture medium of this bacterium and showed stability in the temperature range of 20-90 °C and pH range of 5-10. The produced biosurfactant could reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 43 mN/m with a CMC of 1.21 mg/mL. The strain growing at a temperature of 45 °C produces a substantial amount of 5 g/L of biosurfactant in the medium supplemented with sunflower oil as the sole carbon source. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the biosurfactant production using sunflower oil, sodium nitrate, and yeast extract as variables. The optimization resulted in 6.75 g/L biosurfactant production, i.e., 35% improved as compared to the unoptimized condition. Thin-layer chromatography, FTIR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical composition analysis confirmed the lipopeptide structure of the biosurfactant. PMID:24781982

  5. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  6. Assessment of odorous VOCs released from a main MSW landfill site in Istanbul-Turkey via a modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Saral, Arslan; Demir, Selami; Yildiz, Senol

    2009-08-30

    An air pollution modeling study was conducted to investigate the odorous effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a sanitary landfill area on ambient air quality. The atmospheric dispersion of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and 22 VOCs was modeled. Industrial Source Complex v3 Short Term (ISCST3) model was used to estimate hourly concentrations of odorous VOCs over the nearest residential area. Odor thresholds of VOCs of interest were also found in the literature. Results showed that short-term averages of three odorous VOCs, namely ethyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide, exceeded their odor thresholds, which are reported to be 0.022, 0.138 and 11.1 microg/m(3), respectively, at several points within the domain. Their highest concentrations within Gokturk County were estimated to be 0.09387 microg/m(3) for ethyl mercaptan, 0.07934 microg/m(3) for methyl mercaptan and 6.315 microg/m(3) for hydrogen sulfide. Short-term model results revealed the occasional odor problems being reported for Gokturk County. Hourly concentrations were used to obtain frequencies of odor episodes in Gokturk County via a probability analysis. The results showed that ethyl mercaptan concentrations did not exceed its odor threshold during more than 8.84% of the time. Similarly, the maximum odor episode frequencies for methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide were 0.98% and 0.34% of the time, respectively. PMID:19285797

  7. 14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Reducing landfill gas emissions and energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, A.

    1998-12-31

    Landfill gas (LFG) is collected from the White Street Municipal Sanitary Landfill in Greensboro, North Carolina. This gas is transported by a three mile pipeline to Cone Mill`s White Oak Plant where it is burned in a retrofitted boiler to generate process and heating steam. The operation started in December, 1996 and by early 1997 sufficient gas was available to generate 30,000 lb/hr of 350 psig saturated steam on a continuous basis. Since then, the project has increased the capacity of the LFG production by one-third to just under 2 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) with the addition of new collection wells as areas of the landfill are closed.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  10. Landfill to Learning Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, L.; Lewicki, S.

    2008-11-01

    Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission (NJMC) Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ and operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory brings hands-on scientific experiences to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that come to our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

  11. Proximity of New Jersey sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats: data on individual landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Lambou, V.W.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1990-02-01

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of the report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in the study in New Jersey to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.). The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory maps. The data on individual landfills include: (1) general facility/site data, and (2) wetlands/deepwater habitat data.

  12. Assessment of subsurface chlorinated solvent contamination using tree cores at the front street site and a former dry cleaning facility at the Riverfront Superfund site, New Haven, Missouri, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.; Struckhoff, Garrett C.; Burken, Joel G.

    2004-01-01

    Tree-core sampling has been a reliable and inexpensive tool to quickly assess the presence of shallow (less than about 30 feet deep) tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in soils and ground water at the Riverfront Superfund Site. This report presents the results of tree-core sampling that was successfully used to determine the presence and extent of chlorinated solvent contamination at two sites, the Front Street site (operable unit OU1) and the former dry cleaning facility, that are part of the overall Riverfront Superfund Site. Traditional soil and ground-water sampling at these two sites later confirmed the results from the tree-core sampling. Results obtained from the tree-core sampling were used to design and focus subsequent soil and ground-water investigations, resulting in substantial savings in time and site assessment costs. The Front Street site is a small (less than 1-acre) site located on the Missouri River alluvium in downtown New Haven, Missouri, about 500 feet from the south bank of the Missouri River. Tree-core sampling detected the presence of subsurface PCE contamination at the Front Street site and beneath residential property downgradient from the site. Core samples from trees at the site contained PCE concentrations as large as 3,850 mg-h/kg (micrograms in headspace per kilogram of wet core) and TCE concentrations as large as 249 mg-h/kg. Soils at the Front Street site contained PCE concentrations as large as 6,200,000 mg/kg (micrograms per kilogram) and ground-water samples contained PCE concentrations as large as 11,000 mg/L (micrograms per liter). The former dry cleaning facility is located at the base of the upland that forms the south bank of the Missouri River alluvial valley. Tree-core sampling did not indicate the presence of PCE or TCE contamination at the former dry cleaning facility, a finding that was later confirmed by the analyses of soil samples collected from the site. The lateral extent of PCE contamination in trees was in close agreement with the extent of subsurface PCE contamination determined using traditional soil and ground-water sampling methods. Trees growing in soils containing PCE concentrations of 60 to 5,700 mg/kg or larger or overlying ground water containing PCE concentrations from 5 to 11,000 mg/L generally contained detectable concentrations of PCE. The depth to contaminated ground water was about 20 to 25 feet below the land surface. Significant quantitative relations [probability (p) values of less than 0.05 and correlation coefficient (r2) values of 0.88 to 0.90] were found between PCE concentrations in trees and subsurface soils between 4 and 16 feet deep. The relation between PCE concentrations in trees and underlying ground water was less apparent (r2 value of 0.17) and the poor relation is thought to be the result of equilibrium with PCE concentrations in soil and vapor in the unsaturated zone. Based on PCE concentrations detected in trees at the Front Street site and trees growing along contaminated tributaries in other operable units, and from field hydroponic experiments using hybrid poplar cuttings, analysis of tree-core samples appears to be able to detect subsurface PCE contamination in soils at levels of several hundred micrograms per liter or less and PCE concentrations in the range of 8 to 30 mg/L in ground water in direct contact with the roots. Loss of PCE from tree trunks by diffusion resulted in an exponential decrease in PCE concentrations with increasing height above the land surface in most trees. The rate of loss also appeared to be a function of the size and growth characteristics of the tree as some trees exhibited a linear loss with increasing height. Diffusional loss of PCE in small (0.5-inch diameter) trees was observed to occur at a rate more than 10 times larger than in trees 6.5 inches in diameter. Concentrations of PCE also exhibited directional variability around the tree trunks and concentration differe

  13. Geosynthetics conquer the landfill law

    SciTech Connect

    Derian, L.; Gharios, K.M. . Solid Waste Management Div.); Kavazanjian, E. Jr.; Snow, M.S. )

    1993-12-01

    Los Angeles' last operating landfill is undergoing a 4 million m[sup 3] expansion using innovative materials in the liner system to overcome difficult site conditions. The design represents the first approved alternative in California -- and perhaps in the nation -- to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act's Subtitle D regulations for liner systems. This article examines the regulatory journey that led to approval and the liner's design and construction. Steep slopes at Los Angeles' only operating municipal solid-waste landfill (MSW) forced designers to use an innovative geosynthetic liner and leachate collection system. Its use sets a precedent for alternatives to the prescriptive regulations for liner systems present in Subtitle D of the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). To provide uninterrupted service at the landfill, design and construction proceeded concurrently with regulatory approval.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Venice Park landfill: Working with the community

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, C.L.

    1993-09-01

    Venice Park landfill was one of the first sites to be permitted under Michigan's proposed Public Act 641. PA 641 essentially changed the rules and regulations for landfills from the simple design of digging a hole and filling it. It also upgraded standards to those that are more sophisticated, including liners, leachate collection systems, and gas extraction systems. In 1992, methane gas from the landfill was collected into wells drilled into the trash varying in depth from 30-50 feet in depth. A vacuum pulls the gas from the trash into the wells, then through a piping system. The landfill uses about 80-100 kilowatts in-house. The remainder of the gas is sold to Consumers Power Co. which uses landfill gas to supply power to homes.

  18. Sulfate and organic matter concentration in relation to hydrogen sulfide generation at inert solid waste landfill site - Limit value for gypsum.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    In order to suggest a limit value for gypsum (CaSO4) for the suppression of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at an inert solid waste landfill site, the relationship between raw material (SO4 and organic matter) for H2S generation and generated H2S concentration, and the balance of raw material (SO4) and product (H2S) considering generation and outflow were investigated. SO4 concentration should be less than approximately 100mg-SO4/L in order to suppress H2S generation to below 2000ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration should be less than approximately 200mg-C/L assuming a high SO4 concentration. The limit value for SO4 in the ground is 60mg-SO4/kg with 0.011wt% as gypsum dihydrate, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the limit value in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision (560mg-SO4/kg-waste). The limit value for SO4 in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision is high and TOC is strictly excluded. The cumulative amount of SO4 outflow through the liquid phase is much larger than that through the gas phase. SO4 concentration in pore water decreases with time, reaching half the initial concentration around day 100. SO4 reduction by rainfall can be expected in the long term. PMID:26123977

  19. H2S removal and bacterial structure along a full-scale biofilter bed packed with polyurethane foam in a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Han, Yunping; Yan, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide accumulated under a cover film in a landfill site was treated for 7 months by a full-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes. Sampling ports were set along the biofilter bed to investigate H2S removal and microbial characteristics in the biofilter. The H2S was removed effectively by the biofilter, and over 90% removal efficiency was achieved in steady state. Average elimination capacity of H2S was 2.21 g m(-3) h(-1) in lower part (LPB) and 0.41 g m(-3) h(-1) in upper part (UPB) of the biofilter. Most H2S was eliminated in LPB. H2S concentration varied along the polyurethane foam packed bed, the structure of the bacterial communities showed spatial variation in the biofilter, and H2S removal as well as products distribution changed accordingly. The introduction of odorants into the biofilter shifted the distribution of the existing microbial populations toward a specific culture that could metabolize the target odors. PMID:23989036

  20. Flooding of municipal solid waste landfills--an environmental hazard?

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

    2009-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills pose a long-lasting risk for humans and the environment. While landfill emissions under regular operating conditions are well investigated, landfill behaviour and associated emissions in case of flooding are widely unknown, although damages have been documented. This paper aims at developing a methodology for determining the proportion of MSW landfills endangered by flooding, and at evaluating the impact flooded landfills might have on the environment during a flood event. The risk of flooding of MSW landfills is assessed by using information about flood risk zones. Out of 1064 landfills investigated in Austria, 312 sites or about 30% are located in or next to areas flooded on average once in 200 years. Around 5% of these landfills are equipped with flood protection facilities. Material inventories of 147 landfill sites endangered by flooding are established, and potential emissions during a flood event are estimated by assuming the worst case of complete landfill leaching and erosion. The environmental relevance of emissions during flooding is discussed on the basis of a case study in the western part of Austria. Although environmental hazards need to be assessed on a site- and event-specific basis, the results indicate that flooded MSW landfills represent in general small environmental risks for the period of flooding. The longer term consequences of flooding are discussed in a next paper. PMID:19345983

  1. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  2. Learning from Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which students developed an all-class laboratory activity called "The Decomposition of Organic and Inorganic Substances in a Landfill". Explores what conditions are necessary to facilitate decomposition in a landfill. (SAH)

  3. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  4. MUNICIPAL LANDFILL GAS CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New regulations relative to air emissions from municipal landfills may require the installation of gas collection systems at landfills. As landfill gas (LFG) is collected, water and other vapors in the gas condense in the system or are purposely removed in the normal treatment of...

  5. LANDFILL GAS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane from landfills contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. The development of cost-effective methods for measuring diffuse emissions from landfills remains a difficult issue for regulators and landfill operators. Currently, two major options are available: (1) above-ground methods which quantif...

  6. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify what is most important to the quality of life (QoL) of those who experience homelessness by directly soliciting the views of homeless and hard-to-house Canadians themselves. These individuals live within a unique social context that differs considerably from that of the general population. To understand the life areas that are most important to them, it is critical to have direct input from target populations of homeless and hard-to-house persons. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 140 individuals aged 15 to 73 years who were homeless or hard-to-house to explore the circumstances in which they were living and to capture what they find to be important and relevant domains of QoL. Participants were recruited in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Vancouver. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Six major content themes emerged: Health/health care; Living conditions; Financial situation; Employment situation; Relationships; and Recreational and leisure activities. These themes were linked to broader concepts that included having choices, stability, respect, and the same rights as other members of society. Conclusions These findings not only aid our understanding of QoL in this group, but may be used to develop measures that capture QoL in this population and help programs and policies become more effective in improving the life situation for persons who are homeless and hard-to-house. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study. PMID:22894551

  7. Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Kastens, M.K.; Sheader, L.R.L.; Benson, C.H.; Albright, W.H.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant transpiration seasonally return it to the atmosphere. The cover at Monticello uses local soils and a native plant community to mimic the natural soil water balance. The cover is fundamentally an evapotranspiration (ET) design with a capillary barrier. A 3-hectare drainage lysimeter was embedded in the cover during construction of the disposal cell in 2000. The lysimeter consists of a geo-membrane liner below the capillary barrier that directs percolation water to a monitoring system. Soil water storage is determined by integration of point water content measurements. Meteorological parameters are measured nearby. Plant cover, shrub density, and leaf area index (LAI) are monitored annually. The cover performed well over the 7-year monitoring period (2000-2007). The cumulative percolation was 4.2 mm (0.6 mm yr{sup -1}), satisfying an EPA goal of an average percolation of <3.0 mm yr{sup -1}. Almost all percolation can be attributed to the exceptionally wet winter and spring of 2004-2005 when soil water content slightly exceeded the water storage capacity of the cover. The diversity, percent cover, and LAI of vegetation increased over the monitoring period, although the density of native shrubs that extract water from deeper in the cover has remained less than revegetation targets. DOE and EPA are applying the monitoring results to plan for long-term surveillance and maintenance and to evaluate alternative cover designs for other waste disposal sites. (authors)

  8. Hazardous pollutants in class II landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.A.; Porter, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    Class II landfills accept nontoxic municipal trash. Their gaseous emissions were originally assumed to be relatively free of hazardous substances. However, one Class II site in Southern California was found to be emitting enough vinyl chloride to exceed the California Air Quality Standard of 10 ppb for a 24-hour average in surrounding neighborhood. This paper presents a summary of the results of the analysis of landfill gas from over 20 additional Class II landfills. Ambient air surveys were conducted around five of the landfills. About 90% of the landfills contained measurable amounts of vinyl chloride and/or benzene. The concentrations exceeded 1 ppm in about half of the sites studied. Vinyl chloride is produced in situ by the action of bacteria on chlorinated solvents, and can be found in landfills that have been closed for over 30 years. The relative amounts of methane and vinyl chloride vary so much within a single landfill that methane measurements cannot be used as a surrogate for vinyl chloride.

  9. Assessing sanitary landfill stabilization using winter and summer waste streams in simulated landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, R

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide a better understanding and to further define the stabilization processes involved in a typical municipal landfill representative of the city of Calgary, Canada, area. The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the composition of the solid waste constituents entering the landfill site, (2) to assess the relative decomposition of various waste components in the simulated test cells, (3) to parametize selected chemical and physical changes occurring during the stabilization process and (4) to determine water absorptive capacity of the different waste constituents. The results of the long term landfill stabilization using simulated landfill cell systems filled with winter and summer waste streams, respectively, have illustrated the potential changes that may occur with time with such systems. Based on the results, it can be inferred that the seasonal variation in waste composition deposited in a landfill will likely effect the rate of decomposition and settlement, chemical and physical characteristics of the leachate, moisture sorbing capacity of the site as well as variation in seasonal contaminants. Assuming that the results from the simulated landfills used during this study can be extrapolated to larger-scale landfill operations, it seems that summer waste streams pose a higher pollution threat to the environment than winter waste streams. The several trends observed in this study and the conclusions reported herein would have wide applications in landfill management. PMID:11846282

  10. Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

    In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity to airports, roads, and transmission lines. The result of study showed that there is a range of 29 to 81 locations that are potentially feasible for the placement of large and medium-scale wind turbines in city of Chicago. Twenty nine of these sites were found to be most suitable. The study has limitations in that some of the data used were incomplete and some additional variables that needed to be considered, such as, the effects of passing trains on wind turbines and acceptance of urban dwellers of wind turbines in their city. Despite these limitations, the framework of this research can be applied to improve the study for the city of Chicago by considering additional variables and to extend it to other areas of study, and raise awareness of renewable energy, and the possibilities and flexibility of wind energy.

  11. Metal content and particle size distribution of street sediments and street sweeping waste.

    PubMed

    German, J; Svensson, G

    2002-01-01

    During recent years the interest in street sweeping as a pollutant control measure has increased. For planning of street sweeping programs and disposal of street sweeping waste there is a need to investigate the composition of street sweeping waste and the effect of street sweeping on the remaining sediments on the street. Particle size distribution and heavy metal concentration has been measured for street sweeping waste, street sediments before sweeping and remaining sediments after sweeping. The results show that the concentrations of heavy metals are a function of particle diameter and proportional to the inverse of the particle diameter, i.e. the highest concentrations are found in finest fractions. Regression equations for metal concentrations as a function of particle diameter are presented. According to Swedish guidelines for environmental quality of contaminated sites, heavy metal concentration in the sweeping waste can not be considered as a serious problem. The largest amount of metals and sediment is found in the sandy fractions (0.125-0.5 mm). The street sweeper is more effective in removing coarse sediments than fine. This means that the street sediments after sweeping are finer than the sediments before. PMID:12380991

  12. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the cost of electricity. Currently, PREPA has an average electric rate of $0.119/kWh. Based on past electric rate increases in Puerto Rico and other islands in the Caribbean, this rate could increase to $0.15/kWh or higher in a relatively short amount of time. In the coming years, increasing electrical rates and increased necessity for clean power will continue to improve the feasibility of implementing solar PV systems at these sites.

  13. CRITICAL FACTORS CONTROLLING VEGETATION GROWTH ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study identifies some of the critical factors that affect tree and shrub growth on reclaimed sanitary landfill sites and determines which woody species are adaptable to the adverse growth conditions of such sites. Trees planted at the Edgeboro Landfill, East Brunswick, New J...

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  15. Bioreactor landfills: experimental and field results.

    PubMed

    Warith, Mostafa

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. This paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out to determine the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation and nutrient balance on the rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation. Higher rates of MSW biodegradation eventually cause a reduction of the contaminant life span of the landfill and decrease in the cost of long term monitoring. The study indicated that the smaller the size of the MSW the faster the biodegradation rate of the waste. In addition, the paper presents the results of leachate recirculation on solid waste biodegradation in a full-scale landfill site, which is located in Nepean, Ontario, Canada. The leachate was recirculated into the landfilled solid waste for 8 years through infiltration lagoons. Similar results to those obtained in the laboratory scale experiments were noted. The average pH of the leachate in the early stages of recirculation was on the acidic range of the pH scale, however, the pH value was in the range of 7-8 after 2 years of leachate recirculation. The concentration of chloride remained fairly constant at about 1000 mg/l during the leachate recirculation period. A decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was observed. Recovery of landfill air space was also noted because of the enhanced subsidence and decomposition of the solid waste. PMID:11942706

  16. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, L.

    2008-11-01

    Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ, operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

  17. Landfill mining: Development of a cost simulation model.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pinkel, Michael; Polansek, Stephanie; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Landfill mining permits recovering secondary raw materials from landfills. Whether this purpose is economically feasible, however, is a matter of various aspects. One is the amount of recoverable secondary raw material (like metals) that can be exploited with a profit. Other influences are the costs for excavation, for processing the waste at the landfill site and for paying charges on the secondary disposal of waste. Depending on the objectives of a landfill mining project (like the recovery of a ferrous and/or a calorific fraction) these expenses and revenues are difficult to assess in advance. This situation complicates any previous assessment of the economic feasibility and is the reason why many landfills that might be suitable for landfill mining are continuingly operated as active landfills, generating aftercare costs and leaving potential hazards to later generations. This article presents a newly developed simulation model for landfill mining projects. It permits identifying the quantities and qualities of output flows that can be recovered by mining and by mobile on-site processing of the waste based on treatment equipment selected by the landfill operator. Thus, charges for disposal and expected revenues from secondary raw materials can be assessed. Furthermore, investment, personnel, operation, servicing and insurance costs are assessed and displayed, based on the selected mobile processing procedure and its throughput, among other things. For clarity, the simulation model is described in this article using the example of a real Austrian sanitary landfill. PMID:26858240

  18. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  19. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

    2004-07-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  20. Application of hydrogeology and groundwater-age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at the site of a landfill to the Mahomet Aquifer, near Clinton, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Buszka, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey used interpretations of hydrogeologic conditions and tritium-based groundwater age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at a landfill site near Clinton, Illinois (the “Clinton site”) where a chemical waste unit (CWU) was proposed to be within the Clinton landfill unit #3 (CLU#3). Glacial deposits beneath the CWU consist predominantly of low-permeability silt- and clay-rich till interspersed with thin (typically less than 2 feet in thickness) layers of more permeable deposits, including the Upper and Lower Radnor Till Sands and the Organic Soil unit. These glacial deposits are about 170 feet thick and overlie the Mahomet Sand Member of the Banner Formation. The Mahomet aquifer is composed of the Mahomet Sand Member and is used for water supply in much of east-central Illinois.Eight tritium analyses of water from seven wells were used to evaluate the overall age of recharge to aquifers beneath the Clinton site. Groundwater samples were collected from six monitoring wells on or adjacent to the CLU#3 that were open to glacial deposits above the Mahomet aquifer (the upper and lower parts of the Radnor Till Member and the Organic Soil unit) and one proximal production well (approximately 0.5 miles from the CLU#3) that is screened in the Mahomet aquifer. The tritium-based age estimates were computed with a simplifying, piston-flow assumption: that groundwater moves in discrete packets to the sampled interval by advection, without hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing.Tritium concentrations indicate a recharge age of at least 59 years (pre-1953 recharge) for water sampled from deposits below the upper part of the Radnor Till Member at the CLU#3, with older water expected at progressively greater depth in the tills. The largest tritium concentration from a well sampled by this study (well G53S; 0.32 ± 0.10 tritium units) was in groundwater from a sand deposit in the upper part of the Radnor Till Member; the shallowest permeable unit sampled by this study. That result indicated that nearly all groundwater sampled from well G53S entered the aquifer as recharge before 1953. Tritium was detected in a trace concentration in one sample from a second monitoring well open to the upper part of the Radnor Till Member (well G07S; 0.11 ± 0.09 tritium units), and not detected in samples collected from two monitoring wells open to a sand deposit in the lower part of the Radnor Till Member, from two samples collected from two monitoring wells open to the Organic Soil unit, and in two samples collected from a production well screened in the middle of the Mahomet aquifer (a groundwater sample and a sequential replicate sample). The lack of tritium in five of the six groundwater samples collected from the shallow permeable units beneath CLU#3 site and the two samples from the one Mahomet aquifer well indicates an absence of post-1952 recharge. Groundwater-flow paths that could contribute post-1952 recharge to the lower part of the Radnor Till Member, the Organic Soil unit, or the Mahomet aquifer at the CLU#3 are not indicated by these data.Hypothetical two-part mixtures of tritium-dead, pre-1953 recharge water and decay-corrected tritium concentrations in post-1952 recharge were computed and compared with tritium analyses in groundwater sampled from monitoring wells at the CLU#3 site to evaluate whether tritium concentrations in groundwater could be represented by mixtures involving some post-1952 recharge. Results from the hypothetical two-part mixtures indicate that groundwater from monitoring well (G53S) was predominantly composed of pre-1953 recharge and that if present, younger, post-1955 recharge, contributed less than 2.5 percent to that sample. The hypothetical two-part mixing results also indicated that very small amounts of post-1952 recharge composing less than about 2.5 percent of the sample volume could not be distinguished in groundwater samples with tritium concentrations less than about 0.15 TU.The piston-flow based age of recharge determined from the tritium concentration in the groundwater sample from monitoring well G53S yielded an estimated maximum vertical velocity from the land surface to the upper part of the Radnor Till Member of 0.85 feet per year or less. This velocity, ifassumed to apply to the remaining glacial till deposits above the Mahomet aquifer, indicates that recharge flows through the 170 feet of glacial deposits between the base of the proposed chemical waste unit and the top of the Mahomet aquifer in a minimum of 200 years or longer. Analysis of hydraulic data from the site, constrained by a tritium-age based maximum groundwater velocity estimate, computed minimum estimates of effective porosity that range from about 0.021 to 0.024 for the predominantly till deposits above the Mahomet aquifer.Estimated rates of transport of recharge from land surface to the Mahomet aquifer for the CLU#3 site computed using the Darcy velocity equation with site-specific data were about 260 years or longer. The Darcy velocity-based estimates were computed using values that were based on tritium data, estimates of vertical velocity and effective porosity and available site-specific data. Solution of the Darcy velocity equation indicated that maximum vertical groundwater velocities through the deposits above the aquifer were 0.41 or 0.61 feet per year, depending on the site-specific values of vertical hydraulic conductivity (laboratory triaxial test values) and effective porosity used for the computation. The resulting calculated minimum travel times for groundwater to flow from the top of the Berry Clay Member (at the base of the proposed chemical waste unit) to the top of the Mahomet aquifer ranged from about 260 to 370 years, depending on the velocity value used in the calculation. In comparison, plausible travel times calculated using vertical hydraulic conductivity values from a previously published regional groundwater flow model were either slightly less than or longer than those calculated using site data and ranged from 230 to 580 years.Tritium data from 1996 to 2011 USGS regional sampling of groundwater from domestic wells in the confined part of the Mahomet aquifer—which are 2.5 to about 40 miles from the Clinton site—were compared with site-specific data from a production well at the Clinton site. Tritium-based groundwater-age estimates indicated predominantly pre- 1953 recharge dates for USGS and other prior regional samples of groundwater from domestic wells in the Mahomet aquifer. These results agreed with the tritium-based, pre-1953 recharge age estimated for a groundwater sample and a sequential replicate sample from a production well in the confined part of the Mahomet aquifer beneath the Clinton site.The regional tritium-based groundwater age estimates also were compared with pesticide detections in samples from distal domestic wells in the USGS regional network that are about 2.5 to 40 miles from the Clinton site to identify whether very small amounts of post-1952 recharge have in places reached confined parts of the Mahomet aquifer at locations other than the Clinton site in an approximately 2,000 square mile area of the Mahomet aquifer. Very small amounts of post-1952 recharge were defined in this analysis as less than about 2.5 percent of the total recharge contributing to a groundwater sample, based on results from the two-part mixing analysis of tritium data from the Clinton site. Pesticide-based groundwater-age estimates based on 22 detections of pesticides (13 of these detections were estimated concentrations), including atrazine, deethylatrazine (2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino- s-triazine), cyanazine, diazinon, metolachlor, molinate, prometon, and trifluralin in groundwater samples from 10 domestic wells 2.5 to about 40 miles distant from the Clinton site indicate that very small amounts of post-1956 to post-1992 recharge can in places reach the confined part of the Mahomet aquifer in other parts of central Illinois. The relative lack of tritium in these samples indicate that the amounts of post-1956 to post-1992 recharge contributing to the 10 domestic wells were a very small part of the overall older groundwater sampled from those wells.The flow process by which very small amounts of pesticide-bearing groundwater reached the screened intervals of the 10 domestic wells could not be distinguished between well-integrity related infiltration and natural hydrogeologic features. Potential explanations include: (1) infiltration through man-made avenues in or along the well, (2) flow of very small amounts of post-1956 to post-1992 recharge through sparsely distributed natural permeable aspects of the glacial till and diluted by mixing with older groundwater, or (3) a combination of both processes.Presuming the domestic wells sampled by the USGS in 1996–2011 in the regional study of the confined part of the Mahomet aquifer are adequately sealed and produce groundwater that is representative of aquifer conditions, the regional tritium and pesticide-based groundwater-age results indicate substantial heterogeneity in the glacial stratigraphy above the Mahomet aquifer. The pesticide-based groundwater-age estimates from the domestic wells distant from the Clinton site also indicate that parts of the Mahomet aquifer with the pesticide detections can be susceptible to contaminant sources at the land surface. The regional pesticide and tritium results from the domestic wells further indicate that a potential exists for possible contaminants from land surface to be transported through the glacial drift deposits that confine the Mahomet aquifer in other parts of central Illinois at faster rates than those computed for recharge at the Clinton site, including CLU#3. This analysis indicates the potential value of sub-microgram-per-liter level concentrations of land-use derived indicators of modern recharge to indicate the presence of very small amounts of modern, post-1952 age recharge in overall older, pre-1953 age groundwater.

  1. A new system for groundwater contamination hazard rating of landfills.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Datta, Manoj; Nema, Arvind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, several unregulated landfills exist adjacent to large cities, releasing harmful contaminants to the underlying aquifer. Normally, landfills are constructed to hold three types of waste, namely hazardous waste, municipal solid waste, and construction and demolition waste. Hazardous waste and municipal solid waste landfills are of greater importance as these pose greater hazard to groundwater, in comparison with landfills holding waste from construction and demolition. The polluting landfills need to be prioritized to undertake necessary control and remedial measures. This paper assesses existing site hazard rating systems and presents a new groundwater contamination hazard rating system for landfills, which can be used for site prioritization. The proposed system is based on source-pathway-receptor relationships and evaluates different sites relative to one another. The system parameters have been selected based on literature. The Delphi technique is used to derive the relative importance weights of the system parameters. The proposed system is compared with nine existing systems. The comparison shows that the site hazard scores produced by the existing systems for hazardous waste, municipal solid waste, and construction and demolition waste landfills are of the same order of magnitude and tend to overlap each other but the scores produced by the proposed system for the three types of landfills vary almost by an order of magnitude, which shows that the proposed system is more sensitive to the type of waste. The comparison further shows that the proposed system exhibits greater sensitivity also to varied site conditions. The application of different systems to six old municipal solid waste landfills shows that whereas the existing systems produce clustered scores, the proposed system produces significantly differing scores for all the six landfills, which improves decision making in site ranking. This demonstrates that the proposed system makes a better tool for prioritization of landfills for adopting control measures and remediation. PMID:19836127

  2. The potential for aeration of MSW landfills to accelerate completion

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Charlotte; Gronow, Jan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-07-01

    Landfilling is a popular waste disposal method, but, as it is practised currently, it is fundamentally unsustainable. The low short-term financial costs belie the potential long-term environmental costs, and traditional landfill sites require long-term management in order to mitigate any possible environmental damage. Old landfill sites might require aftercare for decades or even centuries, and in some cases remediation may be necessary. Biological stabilisation of a landfill is the key issue; completion criteria provide a yardstick by which the success of any new technology may be measured. In order for a site to achieve completion it must pose no risk to human health or the environment, meaning that attenuation of any emissions from the site must occur within the local environment without causing harm. Remediation of old landfill sites by aerating the waste has been undertaken in Germany, the United States, Italy and The Netherlands, with considerable success. At a pilot scale, aeration has also been used in newly emplaced waste to accelerate stabilisation. This paper reviews the use of aerobic landfill worldwide, and assesses the ways in which the use of aerobic landfill techniques can decrease the risks associated with current landfill practices, making landfill a more sustainable waste disposal option. It focuses on assessing ways to utilise aeration to enhance stabilisation. The results demonstrated that aeration of old landfill sites may be an efficient and cost-effective method of remediation and allow the date of completion to be brought forward by decades. Similarly, aeration of newly emplaced waste can be effective in enhancing degradation, assisting with completion and reducing environmental risks. However, further research is required to establish what procedure for adding air to a landfill would be most suitable for the UK and to investigate new risks that may arise, such as the possible emission of non-methane organic compounds.

  3. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  4. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  5. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  6. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CAPILLARY BARRIER FINAL LANDFILL COVERS FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fact sheet provides an overview of two alternative landfill cover designs. It briefly describes advantages and limitations, performance, costs, design and site considerations, and monitoring parameters associated with these cover designs. The document also includes 20 site ...

  7. HENRY STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HENRY STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF NORTH ELEVATION - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

  9. Hydrogeology of a landfill, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a high water table is subject to tidal flooding. Altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shells; a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay; and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. The rate of lateral movement of ground water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; however, the rate of movement along the boundary of the landfill cells is about 20 feet per year. Vertical movement through the confining layer is about 0.005 foot per year. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Leachate migration downward into the Floridan aquifer is not indicated, but data do indicate leachate is migrating from the oldest section of the landfill site through the surficial aquifer. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of slug-flow leachate. (USGS)

  10. Horizontal collectors for landfill gas collection and migration control

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowski, J.G.

    1995-08-01

    Landfill owners and operators are forever challenged with properly managing landfill gas (LFG). Collecting this LFG has evolved into an art, as well as a science. Technical expertise and sheer creativity complementary skills required to successfully manage both LFG collection and migration. The vertical LFG collection well has been an essential component for landfill owners and operators for over three decades. They have proved troublesome, however, for active landfill owners who attempt to collect LFG from the midst of an active site-the vertical wells prove more a {open_quotes}target{close_quotes} for refuse collection vehicles disposing their load, than for effective, long term LFG collection. Active and inactive/closed landfill owners must also contend with LFG migration at or near the refuse boundary. Multiple vertical LFG wells must be used to control LFG migration and surface emissions. Vertical LFG wells do work, but at significant expense of the landfill owner. In the past 10 years, the use of horizontal LFG wells or collectors has gained momentum, both for effectiveness and cost. The City of Los Angeles, Bureau of Sanitation operates one active Class III landfill and manages five closed Class III landfills. At Lopez Canyon Landfill (active), horizontal LFG collection wells were installed as early as 1987, for LFG collection. At Toyon Canyon Landfill (closed), horizontal collection wells were installed in 1992 and 1994 for LFG migration and surface emissions control.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, D.; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Toshinori

    1998-01-01

    The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste material exhibits heterogeneous engineering properties that vary over locations and time within a landfill. These factors, combined with the fact that a landfill is not fully saturated, render a traditional soil mechanics approach less attractive for settlement prediction. An empirical approach of expressing settlement rate using logarithmic and power relationships is commonly used in conjunction with an observational procedure. In this paper, validity of these functions is reexamined based on published settlement results from three landfill sites. A hyperbolic function is proposed as an improved tool to simulate the settlement-time relationships, as well as to detect final settlement. The relationships between the parameters of these empirical functions and water content are examined.

  13. ESTIMATING LEACHATE PRODUCTION FROM CLOSED HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous wastes disposed of in landfills may continue to drain for several years after site closure. The report presents suitable analytical methods for predicting the flow of leachate to underdrains from closed hazardous waste landfills. Leachate sources include waste fluids as...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMPIRICAL MODEL OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field study of 21 U.S. landfills with gas recovery systems, to gather information that can be used to develop an empirical model of methane (CH4) emissions. Site-specific information includes average CH4 recovery rate, landfill size, tons of refuse (...

  15. STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES FOR PLANTING VEGETATION ON COMPLETED SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manual was developed for those charged with establishing a vegetative cover on completed landfills. Special problems associated with growing plants on these sites are discussed, and step-by-step procedures are given for converting a closed landfill to a variety of end uses requ...

  16. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    SciTech Connect

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of whole landfill site methane emission at 15 landfills. • Multiple on-site source identification and quantification. • Quantified methane emission from shredder waste and composting. • Large difference between measured and reported methane emissions. - Abstract: Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h{sup −1}, corresponding to 0.7–13.2 g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41–81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y{sup −1}. This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y{sup −1} estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for 2011.

  17. 75 FR 8986 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... the project proposes to use alternative landfill design and cover, it requires a site-specific... Regional Landfill Project on the Campo Indian Reservation, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... sublease for the proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project (proposed action) on the Campo Indian...

  18. Emissions of Nonmethane Organic Compounds at an Illinois (USA) Landfill: Preliminary Field Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.; Niemann, M.; Niemann, L.; Baker, J.

    1997-08-01

    Current US regulatory models for estimating emissions of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require field validation to determine if the models are realistic. A project was initiated to begin to develop a field method for direct measurement of landfill NMOC emissions and, concurrently, develop improved sampling and analysis methods for individual NMOCs in landfill gas matrices. Two contrasting field sites at the Greene Valley Landfill, DuPage County, Illinois, USA, were established.

  19. Analysis of Street Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stuart H.; Bhatt, Sudhir

    1972-01-01

    A study of the content of street drugs available to a college campus and a community is presented. Emphasis is given to the adulterants and substitutions encountered in the illicit preparations. (Author)

  20. A decision support system for assessing landfill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, Basak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlue, Kahraman

    2010-01-15

    Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills.

  1. Landfills for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Poland, R. )

    1994-01-01

    In the next 10 years, the role of landfills will not change significantly. Landfills are, and will continue to be, the cornerstone of any waste services system. A number of factors will, however, cause adjustments in the way landfills function. The character of the waste is also changing. Mankind will see more treated industrial residue in future years. Certain types of these materials have, in the past, gone to hazardous waste disposal sites. These are non-hazardous wastes, but generators found a certain comfort in sending them to hazardous waste facilities that had double composite liners, leachate collection, and financial assurance. With the new technical standards and environmental security of sanitary landfills, there will be a reluctance on the part of generators to pay a premium to send this waste to a hazardous waste site. There is also a growing interest in treating characteristic'' hazardous waste to a level where it is no longer hazardous and can be placed in a sanitary landfill.

  2. 7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. The tall, narrow building in the middle of the photo is 10 North Warren Street. Signs saying 'Saddlery,' 'Carriage,' and 'Hardware' on the building indicate that the photo was taken during the tenancy of Claffery & Slack (1888-1914). - 10 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), 10 North Warren Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  3. 18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING NORTH, For the purpose of clarity and simplicity, directions relate to the nearly north-south orientation of the Naval Supply Center, and not to true north. The alignment of streets and buildings in the NSC are roughly related to magnetic north, and are thus about 10 degrees clockwise from true north. WITH BUILDINGS 222 AND 221 ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. The biological impact of landfill leachate on nearby surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, S.W.

    1994-12-31

    Five landfill sites were evaluated for their potential to adversely impact the biotic community of surface waters. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity tests were used to determine the toxicity of water samples collected from landfill monitoring wells and the nearest surface water. Four of the five landfill sites exhibited acute or chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, or Pimephales promelas. Toxicity identification procedures performed on water samples revealed toxic responses to metals and one toxic response to organic compounds. Surface water toxicity at an industrial landfill is most likely due to zinc from a tire production facility. Iron and a surfactant were determined to be the probable causes for toxicity at two municipal solid waste landfills.

  5. Investigating landfill leachate as a source of trace organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Anumol, Tarun; Barlaz, Morton; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Landfill leachate samples (n=11) were collected from five USA municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and analyzed for ten trace organic pollutants that are commonly detected in surface and municipal wastewater effluents (viz., carbamazepine, DEET, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, PFOA, PFOS, primidone, sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). Carbamazepine, DEET, PFOA and primidone were detected in all leachate samples analyzed and gemfibrozil was detected in samples from four of the five-landfill sites. The contaminants found in the highest concentrations were DEET (6900-143000 ng L(-1)) and sucralose (<10-621000 ng L(-1)). Several compounds were not detected (fluoxetine) or detected infrequently (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and PFOS). Using the average mass of DEET in leachate amongst the five landfills and scaling the mass release from the five test landfills to the USA population of landfills, an order of magnitude estimate is that over 10000 kg DEET yr(-1) may be released in leachate. Some pharmaceuticals have similar annual mean discharges to one another, with the estimated annual discharge of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, primidone equating to 53, 151 and 128 kg year(-1). To the authors knowledge, this is the first time that primidone has been included in a landfill leachate study. While the estimates developed in this study are order of magnitude, the values do suggest the need for further research to better quantify the amount of chemicals sent to wastewater treatment facilities with landfill leachate, potential impacts on treatment processes and the significance of landfill leachate as a source of surface water contamination. PMID:25753851

  6. Landfill to Learning Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  7. A decision support tool for landfill methane generation and gas collection.

    PubMed

    Emkes, Harriet; Coulon, Frédéric; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a decision support tool (DST) to enhance methane generation at individual landfill sites. To date there is no such tool available to provide landfill decision makers with clear and simplified information to evaluate biochemical processes within a landfill site, to assess performance of gas production and to identify potential remedies to any issues. The current lack in understanding stems from the complexity of the landfill waste degradation process. Two scoring sets for landfill gas production performance are calculated with the tool: (1) methane output score which measures the deviation of the actual methane output rate at each site which the prediction generated by the first order decay model LandGEM; and (2) landfill gas indicators' score, which measures the deviation of the landfill gas indicators from their ideal ranges for optimal methane generation conditions. Landfill gas indicators include moisture content, temperature, alkalinity, pH, BOD, COD, BOD/COD ratio, ammonia, chloride, iron and zinc. A total landfill gas indicator score is provided using multi-criteria analysis to calculate the sum of weighted scores for each indicator. The weights for each indicator are calculated using an analytical hierarchical process. The tool is tested against five real scenarios for landfill sites in UK with a range of good, average and poor landfill methane generation over a one year period (2012). An interpretation of the results is given for each scenario and recommendations are highlighted for methane output rate enhancement. Results demonstrate how the tool can help landfill managers and operators to enhance their understanding of methane generation at a site-specific level, track landfill methane generation over time, compare and rank sites, and identify problems areas within a landfill site. PMID:26168873

  8. Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

  9. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  10. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management. PMID:20935025

  11. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  12. POTENTIAL CLOGGING OF LANDFILL DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential clogging of landfill drainage systems was investigated, with particular emphasis on hazardous waste sites. The study accomplished five basic tasks: (1) to provide general background on the subject of drain clogging, (2) to examine the potential for clogging in leach...

  13. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  14. FIELD VERIFICATION OF LINERS FROM SANITARY LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liner specimens from three existing landfill sites were collected and examined to determine the changes in their physical properties over time and to validate data being developed through laboratory research. Samples examined included a 15-mil PVC liner from a sludge lagoon in Ne...

  15. Developing and testing a street audit tool using Google Street View to measure environmental supportiveness for physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking for physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits for adults. Increasingly research has focused on associations between walking behaviours and neighbourhood environments including street characteristics such as pavement availability and aesthetics. Nevertheless, objective assessment of street-level data is challenging. This research investigates the reliability of a new street characteristic audit tool designed for use with Google Street View, and assesses levels of agreement between computer-based and on-site auditing. Methods The Forty Area STudy street VIEW (FASTVIEW) tool, a Google Street View based audit tool, was developed incorporating nine categories of street characteristics. Using the tool, desk-based audits were conducted by trained researchers across one large UK town during 2011. Both inter and intra-rater reliability were assessed. On-site street audits were also completed to test the criterion validity of the method. All reliability scores were assessed by percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Results Within-rater agreement was high for each category of street characteristic (range: 66.7%-90.0%) and good to high between raters (range: 51.3%-89.1%). A high level of agreement was found between the Google Street View audits and those conducted in-person across the nine categories examined (range: 75.0%-96.7%). Conclusion The audit tool was found to provide a reliable and valid measure of street characteristics. The use of Google Street View to capture street characteristic data is recommended as an efficient method that could substantially increase potential for large-scale objective data collection. PMID:23972205

  16. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  17. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,

  18. Low-cost treatment of landfill leachate using peat.

    PubMed

    Heavey, M

    2003-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive obliges member states to collect and treat leachate from landfill sites. In regions of high population density, this is commonly achieved through discharge of the leachate to the municipal sewerage system. In Ireland, rural landfills can be a long distance from a suitable sewerage system, resulting in high transportation costs. On-site treatment systems, when used elsewhere, are mainly aerobic treatment systems, which are costly to construct and operate. There is a particular need for low-cost, low-maintenance leachate treatment systems for small low-income landfills, and for closed landfills, where long-term running costs of aerobic systems may be unsustainable. In 1989, this research work was initiated to investigate the use of local peat for the treatment of leachate from a small rural landfill site. In 1997, following the award of grant-aid under the EU LIFE Programme, a full-scale leachate treatment plant was constructed, using local un-drained peat as the treatment medium. When the LIFE Project ended in February 2001, leachate treatment research continued at the site using a pre-treated peat as the treatment medium. The treatment levels achieved using both types of peat are discussed in this paper. It is concluded that landfill leachate may be successfully treated using a low-cost peat bed to achieve almost 100% removal of both BOD and ammonia. PMID:12893018

  19. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C[sub 1]C[sub 4] hydrocarbons; the C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  20. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons; the C{sub 5}-C{sub 10} normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  1. 1. General oblique view from south side of Canal Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General oblique view from south side of Canal Street showing Paper Machine Building at southwest corner of site; view to northeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  2. 3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME LEFT CENTER; 21 AT MID-LEFT CENTER; 4 AT LEFT CENTER; RUNDBOGENSTIL TOWER AT CENTER; BUILDING 3 RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 2 AT EXTREME RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 3 IS THE OLDEST BUILDING ON SITE AND WAS BUILT CIRCA 1850 - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  3. 52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water Company site, along covered Dundee Canal prism, toward Dayton Avenue and Botany Worsted Mills - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  4. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former C.H. Schnoor and Company Site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CPV001)

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.; Foley, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company Site in Springdale, Pennsylvania. The survey was performed from August to October of 1994. The purpose of the survey was to verify that the site was remediated to levels below DOE guidelines from FUSRAP sites. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company Site confirm that the residual uranium contamination at the site is below DOE FUSRAP guidelines for unrestricted use.

  5. Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2005-06-01

    More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates. PMID:16022414

  6. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of the chemical oxidation methods for landfill stabilization.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-ah; Tameda, Kazuo; Hanashima, Masataka; Yamada, Tatsuyoshi; Higuchi, Sotaro

    2009-03-01

    As the stabilization criteria for landfill sites, only chemical criteria for the leachate discharges from the landfill sites have been used in Japan and many other countries. Recently, chemical oxidation has been developed as a method for the early-stabilization of landfills. However, by-products that are difficult to detect by chemical analysis can be produced by this method. Therefore, toxicity tests are useful tools for detecting the changes of leachate quality after application of this method. The heat source in the A landfill was analyzed by organic position inquiry technology, and ozone-treated leachate was sprayed back to the heat source in the landfill. Toxicity changes of the leachate after the spray were monitored using Microtoxtrade mark, ToxScreen-II, and DaphTox tests. The hardly-degradable organic matter was efficiently removed and toxicities of the leachate in the heat source decreased after the application. These toxicity results were significantly related to chemical oxygen demand (COD) changes. Thus, it was concluded that the toxicity tests were effective for monitoring the leachate quality after applying the chemical oxidation method for landfill stabilization, and its incorporation to establish the criteria for early-stabilization of landfill sites needs to be considered. PMID:18838260

  8. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  9. Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities. PMID:10417373

  10. Electrochemical treatability of refractory pollutants in landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Li-Choung; Chang, Juu-En; Wen, Ten-Chin

    1995-12-31

    Landfill leachate treatment is the most troublesome aspect of the landfill management. Investigation of leachate characteristics at two landfill sites in Taiwan showed that the biological processes were inefficient for the treatment of leachate, regardless of whether an anaerobic or aerobic process was used. In addition, conventional flocculation/sedimentation processes were also ineffective for post-treatment of leachate effluents from biological treatment processes. The discharged leachate still contained lots of refractory pollutants and it failed to meet the effluent quality standards of the R.O.C. (COD < 500 mg/L, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N < 20 mg/L). In an attempt to improve leachate effluent quality, in this study, an electrochemical oxidation process was applied to treat the landfill leachate after biodegradation. Results from both batch and continuous experiments indicate that over 90% of COD and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N in the landfill leachate are removed by the electrochemical oxidation process. In addition, the electrochemical oxidation process also demonstrated a good efficacy for the removal of refractory compounds. After electrolysis, the chlorinated organic matters (as TOX) in the landfill leachate was reduced from 19.4 to less than 2 mg Cl/L and the BOD/COD ratio of the landfill leachate was also improved from 0.05 to 0.71. These results indicate that the electrochemical oxidation process is a promising process for the treatment of landfill leachate. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Tritium in surface soils at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, J.L.; Goering, T.J.; McVey, M.D.

    1996-03-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessment and remediation of the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The Mixed Waste Landfill is an inactive, low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. The Mixed Waste Landfill was subject to an extensive surface soil sampling program for tritium in July 1993. Results indicate that surface soils at the landfill contain significant levels of tritium. The classified area of the landfill contains the highest levels of tritium. Results also indicate that tritium has migrated beyond the fenced boundary of the classified area of the landfill.

  12. Municipal landfill leachate management

    SciTech Connect

    Kusterer, T.; Willson, R.; Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

  13. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  14. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  15. Saving Mango Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

  16. Coping with Street Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Margot

    This guide to coping with street gangs is aimed at the young person who may be considering gang membership or who is afraid of gang violence. Understanding gangs leads to the ability to cope with the problems they pose. Part I explores "What Gangs Are," explaining characteristics of gangs and why young people join them. It is essential that…

  17. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  18. Feasibility study for utilization of landfill gas at the Royalton Road Landfill, Broadview Heights, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-09-01

    The technical viability of landfill gas recovery has been previously demonstrated at numerous sites. However, the economics of a full scale utilization system are dependent on proper market conditions, appropriate technologies, landfill gas quantity and quality, and public/purchaser acceptance. The specific objectives of this feasibility study were to determine: The available markets which might purchase landfill gas or landfill gas derived energy products; An extraction system concept design and to perform an on-site pumping test program; The landfill gas utilization technologies most appropriate for the site; Any adverse environmental, health, safety, or socioeconomic impacts associated with the various proposed technologies; The optimum project economics, based on markets and processes examined. Findings and recommendations were presented which review the feasibility of a landfill gas utilization facility on the Royalton Road Landfill. The three identified utilization alternatives are indeed technically feasible. However, current market considerations indicate that installation of a full scale system is not economically advisable at this time. This final report encompasses work performed by SCS Engineers from late 1980 to the present. Monitoring data from several extraction and monitoring wells is presented, including pumping rates and gas quality and quantity analysis. The Market Analysis Data Form, local climatological data, and barometric pressure data are included in the appendix section. 33 figures, 25 tables.

  19. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)

  20. Quantification of Methane Emissions From Street Level Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lavoie, T. N.; Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The problem of identifying, attributing, and quantifying methane emissions from urban sources such as landfills, waste-water treatment facilities and natural gas distribution systems is an active area of research. This interest is fueled, in part, by recent measurements indicating that urban emissions are a significant source of methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas) and in fact may be substantially higher than current inventory estimates. As a result, developing methods for locating and quantifying emissions from urban methane sources is of great interest to industries such as landfill owners, and governmental agencies. In an attempt to identify major methane source locations and emissions in the city of Indianapolis, systematic measurements of CH4 concentrations and meteorology data were made at street level using multiple vehicles equipped with cavity ring-down spectrometers. A number of discrete sources were detected at methane molar ratios in excess of 15 times background levels. The street level data is analyzed with plume inversion models including Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) software, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and backward Lagrangian Simulations (bLS) to identify source location and emission rates. The methodology for analyzing the street level data and our estimates of CH4 emissions from various sources in the city of Indianapolis will be presented.

  1. AGU Fall Meeting Street Pedestrians

    Pedestrians cross 4th Street outside the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco while traffic waits at a stoplight. In the foreground are street banners for the AGU Fall Meeting. In the background is the Moscone Convention Center - West building....

  2. Street Children in Contemporary Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altanis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the problem of street children in Greece, within the context of global research on street children. The article draws on preliminary findings from recent research on street children in the urban centre of Athens. This is an under-researched area, with weak policy responses to a problem associated with recent…

  3. Landfill gas collection from an operating bioreactor landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, T.G.; Miller, W.L.; Reinhart, G.A.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of landfills as controlled bioreactors under wet conditions offers the potential for safer and more effective management of landfilled solid waste relative to traditional dry landfill systems. The effects of different environmental conditions on the degree and rate of landfill stabilization have been evaluated in a number of pilot-scale studies during the previous twenty years. These studies have demonstrated that increased levels of moisture in the waste and the recycle of leachate through the waste increase the rate of waste stabilization. Benefits of leachate recycle, including leachate hydrologic management and in-situ leachate treatment, make leachate recycle an attractive option for some landfill operators. A number of landfill currently practice leachate recycle throughout the United States. This paper reviews recent results regarding gas collection from an operating bioreactor landfill in Alachua County, Florida.

  4. Optimization of leachate treatment using persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process: case study: Deir El-Balah Landfill Site, Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; Arafa, Anwar I; El-Sebaie, Olfat D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of employing H2O2 reagent in persulfate activation to treat stabilized landfill leachate. A central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationships between operating variables, such as persulfate and H2O2 dosages, pH, and reaction time, to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for the following two responses proved to be significant with very low probabilities (<0.0001): chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal. The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 116 min, 4.97 g S2O8(2-), 7.29 g H2O2 dosage and pH 11. The experimental results were corresponding well with predicted models (COD and NH3-N removal rates of 81% and 83%, respectively). The results obtained in the stabilized leachate treatment were compared with those from other treatment processes, such as persulfate only and H2O2 only, to evaluate its effectiveness. The combined method (i.e., /S2O8(2-)/H2O2) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD and NH3-N compared with other studied applications. PMID:26744940

  5. Radioactivity and elemental analysis in the Ruseifa municipal landfill, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Tarazi, E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a low background gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples from various locations within the Ruseifa municipal landfill in Jordan. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. The maximum and minimum annual outdoor effective doses were found to be 103 and 36microSva(-1) in the old landfill and Abu-Sayaah village, respectively. The annual outdoor effective dose at the recent landfill site was found to be 91microSva(-1). The annual effective dose equivalents from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation at the old landfill and the recent landfill were higher than the typical worldwide value of 70microSva(-1). Thus, some remediation of the soils on both old and recent landfills should be considered before any development for public activities. This could be achieved by mixing with clean soil from areas which are known to have lower radiation background. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cr, and Ba in the three sites included in this study were found to be higher than the background levels in the soil samples of the control area (Abu-Sayaah village). The enrichment factors for the above three elements were calculated and found to be: complex building site: Zn=2.52 and Ba=1.33; old landfill site: Cr=1.88, Zn=3.64, and Ba=1.26; and recent landfill site: Cr=1.57, Zn=2.19, and Ba=1.28. There was a strong negative correlation between the concentrations of the metallic elements (Mg, Al, Mn, Fe and Rb) and the concentrations of Zn, Ba, and Cr. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between Zn, Ba, and Cr. Thus these elements were enriched in the solid waste. PMID:18215446

  6. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  7. Measured gas emissions from four landfills in south africa and some implications for landfill design and methane recovery in semi-arid climates.

    PubMed

    Fourie, A B; Morris, J W F

    2004-12-01

    The magnitude of annual global emissions of methane from municipal solid waste landfills without landfill gas control systems implies that these landfills are significant contributors to the atmospheric load of greenhouse gases. There have been a number of field studies undertaken internationally to measure actual fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from landfills, with a view to corroborating modelled predictions of the contribution of landfills to the global greenhouse gas budget. The vast majority of these studies have been undertaken in more temperate climates and in developed countries. This paper reports a study of landfill gas emissions from four large landfills located in the semi-arid interior of South Africa. A static accumulation chamber was used and measurements were made at each site over a period of two to three days. The results were analysed by three different methods, all of them leading to the same general conclusion that landfill gas emission rates were lower than expected. A common conclusion based on results from all four sites was that capping of landfills in semi-arid climates with low permeability covers would probably significantly retard the already low rate of waste degradation and thus gas generation. While this may be regarded as advantageous in the short term, it cannot be relied upon in perpetuity as clayey landfill covers will inevitably desiccate and crack in a semiarid environment. In addition, reasonable after-care periods for such landfills are likely to extend well beyond the currently stipulated 30-year period, and efforts to encourage energy recovery from landfills may be hampered because gas generation rates decrease as the waste dries out under conditions of minimal recharge from precipitation. A landfill cover that allows small amounts of percolation of rainfall into the waste may therefore in fact be beneficial in semiarid climates, although care would need to be taken to carefully regulate this infiltration. PMID:15666447

  8. A heliospheric vortex street

    SciTech Connect

    Burlaga, L.F. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that the periodic meridional (north-south) flows observed by Voyager 2 in the neighborhood of 20-25 AU were produced by a heliospheric vortex street. The separation of the vortices was approximately 6 AU in the radial direction, and the vortices were carried away from the sun at a speed of approximately 425 km/s. This hypothesis can account for the observed {plus minus}5{degree} deflections in the flow with a period of 25.5 days, and it predicts small amplitude fluctuations in the bulk speed with two maxima per solar rotation, which is consistent with the observations in 1986. A variety of meridional flow profiles is predicted, depending on the position of the spacecraft relative to the symmetry axis of the vortex street. A definitive test of this hypothesis would be provided by simultaneous observations from two spacecraft with a latitudinal separation of the order of the vortex diameter.

  9. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the medium grain-size fraction was nearly the same for streets within both land-use types at 0.004 pounds per curb-mile per day. Accumulation rates within the coarsest and finest grain-size fractions on multifamily streets were about 11 and 82 times greater than those on the commercial streets. Median washoff of total P was 58 and 48 percent from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively, and generally increased with decreasing grain size. Total P median reductions resulting from a single pass of a regenerative-air street cleaner on streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types were about 82 and 62 percent, respectively, and were similar in terms of grain size between both land-use types. A Source Loading and Management Model for Microsoft Windows (WinSLAMM) was applied to a 21.8 acre subcatchment in Cambridge, Mass. The subcatchment area consists of mostly commercial and multifamily land-use types to evaluate the potential reductions of total and particulate solids, and P attributed to street cleaning. Rainwater runoff from rooftops represented between 20 and 50 percent of the total basin runoff. Street surfaces only accounted for about 20 percent of the total basin runoff. Monthly applications of mechanical-brush and vacuum-assisted street cleaners within the subcatchment as defined by SLAMM for areas with long-term (24-hour) on-street parking and monthly parking controls using five average climatic years resulted in total solid reductions of about 3 and 5 percent, respectively. Simulating the regenerative-air street cleaner tested as part of this study resulted in total solid reductions of about 16 percent. Increasing street cleaning frequency to three times weekly increased total solids removal for mechanical-brush, vacuum-assisted, and regenerative-air street cleaners to about 6, 14, and 19 percent, respectively. Monthly applications of mechanical-brush, vacuum-assisted, and regenerative-air street cleaners within the subcatchment resulted in total P reductions of about 1, 3, and 8 percent, respectively. A street cleaning frequency of three times each week for each of the three street-cleaner types increased total P removal to about 3, 7, and 9 percent, respectively.

  10. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  11. HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface ...

  12. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method.

    PubMed

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h(-1), corresponding to 0.7-13.2 g m(-2)d(-1), with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41-81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y(-1). This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y(-1), which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y(-1) estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for 2011. PMID:25442105

  13. 77 FR 8253 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: Hidden Lane Landfill... Landfill Superfund Site, Sterling, Loudoun County, Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the... comments are submitted within the specified comment period. Comments received after the close of...

  14. The effects of the built environment, traffic patterns, and micrometeorology on street level ultrafine particle concentrations at a block scale: Results from multiple urban sites.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonsik; Ranasinghe, Dilhara; Bunavage, Karen; DeShazo, J R; Wu, Lisa; Seguel, Rodrigo; Winer, Arthur M; Paulson, Suzanne E

    2016-05-15

    This study attempts to explain explicitly the direct and quantitative effects of complicated urban built-environment on near-road dispersion and levels of vehicular emissions at the scale of several city blocks, based on ultrafine particle concentrations ([UFP]). On short timescales, ultrafine particles are an excellent proxy for other roadway emissions. Five measurement sites in the greater Los Angeles with different built environments but similar mesoscale meteorology were explored. After controlling for traffic, for most sampling days and sites, morning [UFP] were higher than those in the afternoon due to limited dispersion capacity combined with a relatively stable surface layer. [UFP] at the intersection corners were also higher than those over the sampling sites, implying that accelerating vehicles around the intersections contributed to [UFP] elevation. In the calm morning, the areal aspect ratio (Ararea), developed in this study for real urban configurations, showed a strong relationship with block-scale [UFP]. Ararea includes the building area-weighted building height, the amount of open space, and the building footprint. In the afternoon, however, when wind speeds were generally higher and turbulence was stronger, vertical turbulence intensity σw was the most effective factor controlling [UFP]. The surrounding built environment appears to play an indirect role in observed [UFP], by affecting surface level micrometeorology. The effects are substantial; controlling for traffic, differences in Ararea and building heterogeneity were related to differences in [UFP] of factors of two to three among our five study sites. These results have significant implications for pedestrian exposure as well as transit-oriented urban planning. PMID:26938315

  15. Analysis of Ammonia Toxicity in Landfill Leachates

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Takuya; Nemoto, Keisuke; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Hatano, Ayumi; Shoji, Ryo; Naruoka, Tomohiro; Yamada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and toxicity test with D. magna were conducted on leachates from an industrial waste landfill site in Japan. Physicochemical analysis detected heavy metals at concentrations insufficient to account for the observed acute toxicity. The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. Based on joint toxicity with additive effects of unionized ammonia and ammonium ions, the unionized ammonia toxicity (LC50,NH3(aq)) was calculated as 3.3 ppm, and the toxicity of ammonium ions (LC50,NH4+) was calculated as 222 ppm. Then, the contribution of ammonia toxicity in the landfill leachate toxicity was calculated as 58.7 vol% of the total toxicity in the landfill leachate. Other specific toxicants masked by ammonia's toxicity were detected. Contribution rate of the toxicants other than by ammonia was 41.3 vol% of the total toxicity of the landfill leachate. PMID:23724289

  16. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-01

    According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH4 produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH4/CO2 ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3-1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0-2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH4+CO2% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills. PMID:25488731

  17. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. PMID:26347181

  18. Public health assessment for Islip Municipal Sanitary Landfill (a/k/a Blydenburgh Road Landfill) Hauppauge, Suffolk County, New York, Region 2. Cerclis No. NYD980506901. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-22

    The Islip Landfill site (also known as the Blydenburgh Landfill), which is on the National Priorities List (NPL), is in the Town of Islip, Suffolk County, New York. On-site and off-site groundwater is contaminated with chlorinated solvents. As many as 18 private water supply wells downgradient from the landfill are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In late 1979 and during the early part of 1980, the Town`s consultant determined that soil gas was migrating from the landfill onto neighboring properties. Based on the information reviewed and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry`s (ATSDR) criteria, the Islip Landfill was a public health hazard in the past.

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-09-30

    This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

  20. Understanding natural and induced gas migration through landfill cover materials: the basis for improved landfill gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical pressure and concentration gradients in landfill cover materials are being examined at the Mallard North Landfill in Dupage County, IL. The goal of this project is to understand venting of landfill gas and intrusion of atmospheric gases into the landfill in response to changing meteorological conditions (particularly barometric pressure and precipitation) and pumping rates at recovery wells. Nests of probes for directly measuring soil gas pressures have been installed in areas of fractured and unfractured silty clay till cover materials. The probes are at three depths: shallow (0.6 m), intermediate (1.2 m), and deep (in the top of the refuse). Preliminary results from fall 1985 suggest that soil gas pressures respond quickly to changes in barometric pressure but that concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen respond more slowly to changing soil moisture conditions. An important near-surface process that limits the total amount of methane available to a gas recovery system is the activity of methanotrophs (methane-oxidizing bacteria) in oxygenated cover materials. The results of this project will be used to quantify landfill mass balance relations, improve existing predictive models for landfill gas recovery systems, and improve landfill cover design for sites where gas recovery is anticipated.

  1. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  2. The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers.

    SciTech Connect

    David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

    2001-10-18

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (within the last 50 years) and have been selected for the evaluation of processes and changes on ET covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when cover maintenance would be discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end (1,000 years or more) of the compliance period. The late to mid-Holocene surfaces are both abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminescence analysis. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites is being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified and the mode of disturbance, to help set baseline conditions. Similar to the other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water-balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time. Results of analog site work and resultant modifications to design, monitoring and maintenance of ET covers on the NTS will be compared with results of a similar study being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), where ET cover closures are planned as well. The comparison will help to distinguish potential regional differences needed in ET cover design. Although both sites are at similar latitudes, the NTS is located in a transition zone between the Mojave and southern Great Basin deserts, while SNL is located in the northern Chihuahuan desert. Differences in vegetation and seasonality of precipitation between the sites are significant.

  3. Geohydrologic site characterization of the municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1996-01-01

    Geohydrologic conditions of the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army. The 106.03-acre MSWLF has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The MSWLF, located about 1,200 feet east of the nearest occupied structure, is estimated to receive an average of approximately 56 tons of municipal solid waste per day and, at a fill rate of 1-4 acres per year, is expected to reach its capacity by the year 2004. The MSWLF is located in the Hueco Bolson, 4 miles east of the Franklin Mountains. Elevations at the MSWLF range from 3,907 to 3,937 feet above sea level. The climate at the MSWLF and vicinity is arid continental, characterized by an abundance of sunny days, high summer temperatures, relatively cool winters typical of arid areas, scanty rainfall, and very low humidity throughout the year. Average annual temperature near the MSWLF and vicinity is 63.3 degrees Fahrenheit and annual precipitation is 7.8 inches. Potential evaporation in the El Paso area was estimated to be 65 inches per year. Soils at and adjacent to the MSWLF are nearly level to gently sloping, have a fine sandy loam subsoil, and are moderately deep over caliche. The MSWLF is underlain by Hueco Bolson deposits of Tertiary age and typically are composed of unconsolidated to slightly consolidated interbedded sands, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. Individual beds are not well defined and range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to about 100 feet. The primary source of ground water in the MSWLF area is in the deposits of the Hueco Bolson. A relatively thick vadose zone of approximately 300 feet overlies the aquifer of the Hueco Bolson deposits in the vicinity of the MSWLF. A deep water table prevails for all of the study area. Whether any perched water zones exist below the MSWLF is unknown. Under current conditions, extensive ground-water development by the City of El Paso encompasses the MSWLF. Hydraulic characteristics of the Hueco Bolson vary significantly as a result of the nonuniform nature of the individual beds. Wells in the vicinity of the MSWLF range in depth from about 600 feet to greater than 1,200 feet. Recharge resulting from direct infiltration of precipitation is minor due to the high evaporation and low precipitation rates. The hydraulic gradient in the vicinity of the MSWLF is generally to the south but may vary due to pumpage of a well located on the northeast corner of the perimeter boundary. Ground-water monitoring data for the MSWLF vicinity show a water-level decline of 55.65 feet from November 1958 to December 1987. Depth to water at the northeast corner of the MSWLF as of July 26, 1994, was 325.8 feet below land surface. The city-operated Shearman Well Field, located north of the MSWLF, is a primary source of ground water for the City of El Paso. The test-pumping rate of well JL-49-05-914 (the well nearest to the MSWLF having test-pumping data) was 1,972 gallons per minute on July 20, 1992; the static water level prior to pumping was 317.54 feet below land surface. El Paso Water Utilities reports that the pumping level after 8 hours of pumping was 367.80 feet below land surface, resulting in a drawdown of 50.26 feet, transmissivity of 22,200 feet squared per day (166,000 gallons per day per foot), and specific capacity of 39.2 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. After the well was shut off, the well recovered to a static water level of 317.46 feet below land surface on July 21, 1992. Ground wat

  4. A heliospheric vortex street?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that the periodic meridional (north-south) flow observed by Voyager 2 in the neighborhood of 20-25 AU were produced by a heliospheric vortex street. The separation of the vortices was approximately 6 AU in the radial direction, and the vortices were carried away from the sun at a speed of approximately 425 km/s. This hypothesis can account for the observed + or - 5 degree deflections in the flow with a period of 25.5 days, and it predicts small amplitude fluctuations in the bulk speed with two maxima per solar rotation, which is consistent with observations in 1986.

  5. Comparison between controlled landfill reactor and conditioned landfill bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feng; Chen, Wan-Zhi; Song, Fu-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. The laboratory-scale simulators of landfill reactors treating municipal solid wastes were studied, the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation, nutrient balance, pH value, moisture content and temperature on the rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation were determined, and it indicated the optimum pH value, moisture content and temperature decomposing MSW. The results of waste biodegradation were compared with that of the leachate-recirculated landfill simulator and conservative sanitary landfill simulator. In the control experiment the antitheses of a decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was shown. An obvious enhancement of effective disposal from conservative sanitary landfill (CSL) simulator, to the leachate-recirculated landfill (LRL) simulator and to the conditioned bioreactor landfill (CBL) simulator would be noted, through displaying the compared results of solid waste settlement, heavy metal concentration in leachate, methane production rate, biogas composition, BOD and COD as well as their ratio. PMID:15559832

  6. A case study: Environmental benefit plan for Blydenburgh Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.M.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Town of Islip, New York, encompasses 285 square kilometers (110 square miles) along the southern shore of Suffolk County, Long Island. The Town relied upon Blydenburgh Landfill for the disposal of its estimated 290 kilotonnes per year (320,000 tons per year) of municipal solid waste (MSW) without having to contract for off-Long Island hauling and disposal. In 1983, the Long Island Landfill Law was enacted and effectively banned landfilling of raw garbage on most of Long Island after December 18, 1990. The act precluded the economic development of new landfill capacity for the Town. Blydenburgh Landfill was projected to reach capacity in early 1987 and close. To conserve landfill capacity for residential use, the Town prohibited commercial haulers from the landfill in the fall of 1986. In response, the Mobro barge departed Long Island City on March 22, 1987 loaded with commercial MSW that was no longer accepted at the Blydenburgh site. Negative publicity surrounded the Mobro barge and the continuing need to provide for waste disposal. In response, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the Town`s Resource Recovery Agency entered into an Order on Consent on May 12, 1987. This allowed for continued operations and a vertical MSW {open_quotes}piggyback{close_quotes} expansion on top of a closed and capped portion of the existing 181,000 square meter (44.8 acre) landfill mound. In addition, the Order on Consent permitted construction of a separate 12,000 square meter (3.0 acre) ash residue vertical piggyback expansion adjacent to the MSW piggyback expansion. Both expansions were designed for and constructed on top of existing landfilled MSW.

  7. Installation of geosynthetic clay liners at California MSW landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, M.; Jesionek, K.S.; Dunn, R.J.; Kavazanjian, E. Jr.

    1997-11-01

    The California regulations for liner systems at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require that alternatives to the prescriptive federal Subtitle D liner system have a containment capability greater than that of the prescriptive system. Regulators may also require a demonstration that use of the prescriptive system is burdensome prior to approval of an alternative liner design. This paper presents seven case histories of the design and installation of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) as an alternative to the low-permeability soil component of the prescriptive Subtitle D composite liner system at MSW landfills in California. These case histories cover GCLs from different manufacturers and landfill sites with a wide range of conditions including canyon landfills with slopes as steep as 1H:1V.

  8. Development of computer simulations for landfill methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.; Sykes, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs simulating methane recovery systems in landfills have been developed. These computer programs model multicomponent combined pressure and diffusional flow in porous media. Each program and the processes it models are described in this report. Examples of the capabilities of each program are also presented. The two-dimensional program was used to simulate methane recovery systems in a cylindrically shaped landfill. The effects of various pump locations, geometries, and extraction rates were determined. The three-dimensional program was used to model the Puente Hills landfill, a field test site in southern California. The biochemical and microbiological details of methane generation in landfills are also given. Effects of environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, temperature, and nutrients on methane generation are discussed and an analytical representation of the gas generation rate is developed.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect

    Lettis, William

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  10. 8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PARK AVENUE EAST OF CEDAR STREET (400 Block). THE MARCHION HARDWARE BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY W.W. HISLOP, AND BUILT IN 1895. THE GROUND FLOOR WAS RENOVATED SOME TIME IN THE 1930s. IN THE CENTER IS THE IMPERIAL BLOCK (ca. 1920), AND THE FULLER DRUG COMPANY (1918-1932).THE FULLER SITE WAS OCCUPIED BY THE HIGHLAND THEATER FROM 1932 TO 1972, AND RETAINS MUCH OF THE INTERIOR DECORATION FROM THAT PERIOD - Anaconda Historic District, Park & Commercial Streets, Main Street vicinity, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  11. Perpetual landfilling through aeration of the waste mass; lessons from test cells in Georgia (USA).

    PubMed

    Read, A D; Hudgins, M; Phillips, P

    2001-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices. PMID:11530917

  12. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  13. View of South TwentyEighth Street from south boundary of Easter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Eighth Street from south boundary of Easter Hill project site. Buildings No. 15, 16, 41, 46, 45, and 48 from left to right. Church Building at right foreground is not an element of Easter Hill object site. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment intersects at left, 9th street segment intersects alley at right. View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. Aerobic in situ stabilization of Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher: leachate quality after 1 year of operation.

    PubMed

    Öncü, G; Reiser, M; Kranert, M

    2012-12-01

    Modern landfill understanding points out controlled operation of landfills. Emissions from landfills are caused mainly by anaerobic biodegradation processes which continue for very long time periods after landfill closure. In situ landfill stabilization aims controlled reduction of emissions towards reduced expenditures as well as aftercare measures. Since April 2010, a new in situ stabilization technique is being applied at a pilot scale landfill (BAIV) within Landfill Konstanz Dorfweiher. This new method utilizes intermittent aeration and leachate recirculation for waste stabilization. In this study, influence of this technique on leachate quality is investigated. Among many other parameters, leachate analyses were conducted for COD, BOD(5), NH(4)-N, NO(2)-N, NO(3)-N, TKN and chloride besides continuously on site recorded pH, electrical conductivity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). Results from leachate quality analyses showed that biological activity in the landfill was accelerated resulting in initial higher leachate strength and reduced emission potential of landfill. During full scale in situ aeration, ambient conditions differ from optimized laboratory scale conditions which mainly concern temperature increase and deficient aeration of some landfill parts (Ritzkowski and Stegmann, 2005). Thus, as a field application results of this study have major importance on further process optimization and application. PMID:22938814

  16. Perspective view of the Rex Theater, 240 A Street West, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Rex Theater, 240 A Street West, view looking north - Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

  17. Proximity of Pennsylvania sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats: Statewide results

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Lambou, V.W.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1989-12-01

    Sanitary landfills can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of the report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in the study in Pennsylvania to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers, lakes, streams, bays, etc.). The sanitary landfills were identified on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory maps. The nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfills to wetlands and deepwater habitats was determined by drawing three concentric regions around the point representing the location of each landfill. The radii of the concentric regions were: 1/4 mile, 1/2 mile, and 1 mile. A companion report summarizes the statewide results. The data on individual landfills include: (1) general facility/site data, and (2) wetlands/deepwater habitat data.

  18. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  19. 1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street (west) facade (long side). North of the D Street facade is the Edward Abner Building (413-415 9th Street) and north of it is the Ferree Building (417 9th Street). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

  1. MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  2. OUTER LOOP LANDFILL CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the interim data reaulting from a CRADA between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. at the outer Loop Landfill Bioreactor research project located in Louisville, KY. Recently updated data will be presented covering landfill solids, gas being collecte...

  3. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  4. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS ON UNDERLYING SOILS AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three municipal landfill sites in the eastern and central United States were studied to determine the effects of the disposal facilities on surrounding soils and groundwater. Borings were made up the groundwater gradient, down the groundwater gradient and through the landfill. So...

  5. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulation (40CFR Part 258) went into effect. hese regulations are applicable to landfills reclining solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operations, and closure of MSW landfills. hese regulat...

  6. AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB AFTER REMEDIAL CLEANUP OF TWO LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of two landfills at which interim remedial cleanup measures have been performed. The landfill sites are in the Bloomington, Indiana area. The sampling locations and methods used were ...

  7. Assessment of Kuwait's Al-Qurain landfill using remotely sensed data.

    PubMed

    Kwarteng, A Y; Al-Enezi, A

    2004-01-01

    Kuwait's Al-Qurain landfill problem resulted from indiscriminate dumping of domestic and industrial waste in an abandoned quarry in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The landfill and surrounding areas were set aside for a government housing project without an environmental assessment of the impact of the landfill on the project. Inhabitants of the newly constructed housing area experienced persistent foul odor emanating from the landfill site. Since then, the issue has generated a lot of public interests, and several remediation measures have been adopted. In this preliminary study, several remotely sensed data consisting of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), IKONOS, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquired between 1972 and 2000 were processed and assessed for their usefulness to study and monitor the landfill site. The imagery provided a historical perspective of how the areas had changed over the last 30 years. Other useful information of the landfill obtained from the satellite imagery included the spatial extent, spectral reflectance, surface temperature, and surface roughness. The landfill site showed higher surface temperatures compared to the immediate surrounding areas-a process that could accelerate the biodegradation and the release of landfill gases. Such dataset could be incorporated into a GIS for the long-term monitoring of the site. PMID:15027819

  8. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

  9. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia. PMID:22455994

  10. Health assessment for Seattle Municipal Landfill (Kent Highlands Landfill) Kent, King County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD980639462. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-12

    The Kent Highlands Landfill, also known as the Seattle Municipal Landfill, is located in Kent, Washington, approximately 14 miles south of Seattle. The landfill operated from 1968 to 1986 and accepted municipal waste from Seattle and surrounding areas. The wastes consisted of residential, industrial, and commercial materials. The site, which has been proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List, is inoperative and closure activities are under way. Leachate and soil gases, mostly methane, are now detected at the site. The leachate is reported to contain organic contaminants and some heavy metals. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry considers the Kent Highlands Landfill a potential public health concern because of the presence of methane gases generated on-site and the possible migration of contaminants from the site to surface water in the vicinity and possibly contaminating edible aquatic life.

  11. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Lindberg; M.J. Hartman

    1999-08-17

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters.

  12. Trends in landfill leachate characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurek, M.

    1995-12-31

    Leachate may be defined as the water or other liquid that has been contaminated by dissolved or suspended materials due to contact with solid waste or gases within the landfill. Research shows that leachate composition is a function of various factors such as rainfall, refuse permeability, refuse depth, and landfill age. Of these factors, landfill age has been found to have the greatest effect on leachate composition. Generally, leachate from new landfills will be higher in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and will show a steady decline leveling off at about 10 years. Traditionally, leachate treatment methods have been based on the leachate`s metals, COD, and ammonia concentrations. A different approach based on mass of contaminant released from the landfill may be more appropriate. This paper presents data from a landfill (Landfill A) showing mass of contaminant release over a period of time. This paper also presents a different design approach based on leachate mass contaminant release in lieu of a design approach based on leachate concentrations.

  13. Landfill gas-fired power plant pays cost of operating landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on recovery of energy from refuse that has become increasingly attractive in the past decade. The continuing urbanization of our society has created major challenges in the disposal of our waste products. Because of public concern over the potential presence of toxins, and for other environmental reasons, management and regulation of active and inactive landfills have become much more stringent and costly. Palos Verdes landfill, owned jointly by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts and Los Angeles County, is located about three miles from the Pacific Ocean in the city of Rolling Hills Estates, Calif. The landfill was closed in 1980. The garbage was covered with six to eight feet of soil, and the area was landscaped. Part of this area has already been developed as the South Coast Botanical Gardens and Ernie Howlett Park. The remainder is scheduled to become a golf course. As refuse decays within a landfill, the natural anaerobic biological reaction generates a low-Btu methane gas along with carbon dioxide, known as landfill gas (LFG). The gas also contains other less desirable trace components generated by the decomposing garbage. Uncontrolled, these gases migrate to the surface and escape into the atmosphere where they generate environmental problems, including objectionable odors. The Sanitation Districts have installed a matrix of gas wells and a gas collection system to enable incineration of the gas in flares. This approach reduced aesthetic, environmental and safety concerns. However, emissions from the flares were still a problem. The Sanitation Districts then looked at alternatives to flaring the gas, one of which was electrical generation. Since the Sanitation Districts have no on-site use for thermal energy, power generation for use in the utility grid was deemed the most feasible alternative.

  14. Photochemistry of reduced sulfur compounds in a landfill environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun

    This study examines the distribution characteristics of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs such as DMS, CS 2, H 2S, DMDS, and CH 3SH) and their photochemical reactions in landfill air. The photochemical conversions of RSCs to a further oxidized form, SO 2 were evaluated in the landfill site using a photochemical box model. Measurements of RSCs were carried out from landfill areas in Daegu, Korea, during a wintertime period (e.g., 13-16 Jan 2004). This study indicated that H 2S was the most dominant RSC in the landfill, with the concentrations of 4.2±5.8 ppbv. The chemical species of RSCs, which may exert influences on the SO 2 production depending on sampling conditions, were found to include DMS, DMDS, and H 2S. In general, the RSC contribution to the observed SO 2 levels was insignificant in the sampling sites investigated. Overall, the extent of the RSC oxidation to the observed SO 2 varied dramatically during the sampling period. The photochemical conversion of the RSCs in the landfill environment can account for about 15% of the observed SO 2, on average. There was a strong correlation between DMS and SO 2 concentration levels during the study period.

  15. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes. PMID:26423286

  16. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses. PMID:28677

  17. 1. E Street (north) facade and 8th Street (east) side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. E Street (north) facade and 8th Street (east) side. The next property south on 8th Street is the Potomac Electric Power Company station (422 8th Street), south of that is Lansburgh's Warehouse (410 8th Street), and south of that is 408 8th Street and then a parking lot. - Simon Oppenheimer & Brother Building, 800 E Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  19. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  20. Health assessment for Dover Municipal Landfill, Stratford County, Dover, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD980520191. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-12

    The Dover Municipal Landfill is an inactive landfill located on Tolend Road in the western corner of Dover, New Hampshire. Specific wastes include municipal trash, leather tanning wastes, industrial solvents, and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge. Contamination at the landfill exists in on-site groundwater, leachate, sediments, and soil. The Dover Municipal Landfill site is of potential public health concern due the potential risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

  1. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT LADWP MAIN STREET SERVICE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-10

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from September 2003 to August 2004. The data for the month of September 2004 was not available at the time this report was prepared. An addendum to this report will be prepared and transmitted to the Department of Energy once this data becomes available. This fuel cell power plant was originally intended to be installed at an American Airlines facility located at Los Angeles International Airport, however, due to difficulties in obtaining a site, the plant was ultimately installed at the LADWP's Distributed Generation Test Facility at it's Main Street Service Center.

  2. Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner of F and 2nd Streets North, view looking southeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  3. The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  4. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. 43. August, 1970 SOUTH SIDE OF UNION STREET, NO. 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. August, 1970 SOUTH SIDE OF UNION STREET, NO. 10, NOT VISIBLE ON STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. Leachate plumes in ground water from Babylon and Islip landfills, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimmel, Grant E.; Braids, O.C.

    1977-01-01

    Landfills operated by the towns of Babylon and Islip in southwest and central Suffolk County, N.Y., contain urban refuse , incinerated garbage, and scavenger (cesspool) waste; some industrial refuse is deposited at the Babylon site. The Islip landfill was started in 1933, the Babylon landfill in 1947. The landfills are in contact with and discharge leachate into the highly permeable upper glacial aquifer hydraulic conductivity 190 to 500 ft/d. The aquifer is 74 feet thick at the Babylon landfill and 170 feet thick at the Islip landfill. The leachate-enriched water occupies the entire thickness of the aquifer beneath both landfills, but hydrologic boundaries retard downward migration of the plumes to deeper aquifers. The Babylon plume is 1,900 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to about 700 feet near its terminus 10,000 feet from the landfill. The Islip plume is 1,400 feet wide at the landfill and narrows to 500 feet near its terminus 5,000 feet from the landfill. Hydrochemical maps and sections show the distribution of the major chemical constituents of the plumes. The most highly leachate-enriched ground water obtained was from the Babylon site; it contained 860 mg/liter sodium, 110 mg/liter potassium, 565 mg/liter calcium, 100 mg/liter magnesium, 2,700 mg/liter bicarbonate, and 1,300 mg/liter chloride. Simulation of the movement and dispersion of the Babylon plume with a mathematical dispersion model indicated the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion to be about 60 feet squared per day and the ground-water velocity to be 1 ft/d. However, the velocity determined from the hydraulic gradient and public-supply wells in the area was 4 ft/d, which would cause a plume four times as long as that predicted by the model. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. LANDFILL CONTAINMENT AND COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its research and field experiences has developed control strategies for hazardous and municipal solid waste landfills and surface impoundments. hese control strategies include liner and cover systems. he liner systems include doubl...

  10. Pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants within a leachate plume downgradient of a municipal landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Christenson, Scott C.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water samples collected from the Norman Landfill research site in central Oklahoma were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program's national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water contaminants (OWCs) in ground water. Five sites, four of which are located downgradient of the landfill, were sampled in 2000 and analyzed for 76 OWCs using four research methods developed by the USGS. OWCs were detected in water samples from all of the sites sampled, with 22 of the 76 OWCs being detected at least once. Cholesterol (a plant and animal steroid), was detected at all five sites and was the only compound detected in a well upgradient of the landfill. N,Ndiethyltoluamide (DEET used in insect repellent) and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (fire-retardant) were detected in water samples from all four sites located within the landfill-derived leachate plume. The sites closest to the landfill had more detections and greater concentrations of each of the detected compounds than sites located farther away. Detection of multiple OWCs occurred in the four sites located within the leachate plume, with a minimum of four and a maximum of 17 OWCs detected. Because the landfill was established in the 1920s and closed in 1985, many compounds detected in the leachate plume were likely disposed of decades ago. These results indicate the potential for long-term persistence and transport of some OWCs in ground water.

  11. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, L.D.; Phelan, J.M.; Prindle, N.K.; Purvis, S.T.; Stormont, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    The Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. The mission of the MWLID is to assess, implement and transfer technologies and systems that lead to quicker, safer, and more efficient remediation of buried chemical and mixed-waste sites. The MWLID focus is on two landfills at SNL in Albuquerque, New Mexico: The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed-Waste Landfill (MWL). These landfills received chemical, radioactive and mixed wastes from various SNL nuclear research programs. A characterization system has been designed for the definition of the extent and concentration of contamination. This system includes historical records, directional drilling, and emplacement membrane, sensors, geophysics, sampling strategy, and on site sample analysis. In the remediation task, in-situ remediation systems are being designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) and heavy metals from soils. The VOC remediation includes vacuum extraction with electrical and radio-frequency heating. For heavy metal contamination, electrokinetic processes are being considered. The MWLID utilizes a phased, parallel approach. Initial testing is performed at an uncontaminated site adjacent to the CWL. Once characterization is underway at the CWL, lessons learned can be directly transferred to the more challenging problem of radioactive waste in the MWL. The MWL characterization can proceed in parallel with the remediation work at CWL. The technologies and systems demonstrated in the MWLID are to be evaluated based on their performance and cost in the real remediation environment of the landfills.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, L.D.; Phelan, J.M.; Prindle, N.K.; Purvis, S.T.; Stormont, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. The mission of the MWLID is to assess, implement and transfer technologies and systems that lead to quicker, safer, and more efficient remediation of buried chemical and mixed-waste sites. The MWLID focus is on two landfills at SNL in Albuquerque, New Mexico: The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed-Waste Landfill (MWL). These landfills received chemical, radioactive and mixed wastes from various SNL nuclear research programs. A characterization system has been designed for the definition of the extent and concentration of contamination. This system includes historical records, directional drilling, and emplacement membrane, sensors, geophysics, sampling strategy, and on site sample analysis. In the remediation task, in-situ remediation systems are being designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and heavy metals from soils. The VOC remediation includes vacuum extraction with electrical and radio-frequency heating. For heavy metal contamination, electrokinetic processes are being considered. The MWLID utilizes a phased, parallel approach. Initial testing is performed at an uncontaminated site adjacent to the CWL. Once characterization is underway at the CWL, lessons learned can be directly transferred to the more challenging problem of radioactive waste in the MWL. The MWL characterization can proceed in parallel with the remediation work at CWL. The technologies and systems demonstrated in the MWLID are to be evaluated based on their performance and cost in the real remediation environment of the landfills.

  14. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux. PMID:18574960

  15. Tracer method to measure landfill gas emissions from leachate collection systems.

    PubMed

    Fredenslund, Anders M; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a method developed for quantification of gas emissions from the leachate collection system at landfills and present emission data measured at two Danish landfills with no landfill gas collection systems in place: Fakse landfill and AV Miljø. Landfill top covers are often designed to prevent infiltration of water and thus are made from low permeable materials. At such sites a large part of the gas will often emit through other pathways such as the leachate collection system. These point releases of gaseous constituents from these locations cannot be measured using traditional flux chambers, which are often used to measure gas emissions from landfills. Comparing tracer measurements of methane (CH(4)) emissions from leachate systems at Fakse landfill and AV Miljø to measurements of total CH(4) emissions, it was found that approximately 47% (351 kg CH(4) d(-1)) and 27% (211 kg CH(4) d(-1)), respectively, of the CH(4) emitting from the sites occurred from the leachate collection systems. Emission rates observed from individual leachate collection wells at the two landfills ranged from 0.1 to 76 kg CH(4) d(-1). A strong influence on emission rates caused by rise and fall in atmospheric pressure was observed when continuously measuring emission from a leachate well over a week. Emission of CH(4) was one to two orders of magnitude higher during periods of decreasing pressure compared to periods of increasing pressure. PMID:20378325

  16. Tips for profitable landfill acquisitions

    SciTech Connect

    Nangunoori, R.K.; Duffy, D.P.

    1994-05-01

    There is a gap between the amount of solid wastes generated and te landfill capacity. The acquisition of existing facilites and their remaining disposal space are a good option. The acquisitions by large firms have slowed down, but those by secondary and regional firms have increased. This paper presents information which could aid the prospective buyer and related staffing in making a feasible decision to acquire a sanitary landfill.

  17. Release and conversion of ammonia in bioreactor landfill simulators.

    PubMed

    Lubberding, Henk J; Valencia, Roberto; Salazar, Rosemarie S; Lens, Piet N L

    2012-03-01

    Bioreactor landfills are an improvement to normal sanitary landfills, because the waste is stabilised faster and the landfill gas is produced in a shorter period of time in a controlled way, thus enabling CH(4) based energy generation. However, it is still difficult to reach, within 30 years, a safe status of the landfill due to high NH(4)(+) levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate and NH(4)(+) is extremely important when defining the closure of landfill sites, due to its potential to pollute aquatic environments and the atmosphere. The effect of environmental conditions (temperature, fresh versus old waste) on the release of NH(4)(+) was assessed in experiments with bench (1 L) and pilot scale (800 L) reactors. The NH(4)(+) release was compared to the release of Cl(-) and BOD in the liquid phase. The different release mechanisms (physical, chemical, biological) of NH(4)(+) and Cl(-) release from the solid into the liquid phase are discussed. The NH(4)(+) level in the liquid phase of the pilot scale reactors starts decreasing after 100 days, which contrasts real-scale observations, where the NH(4)(+) level increases or remains constant. Based on the absence of oxygen in the simulators, the detectable levels of hydrazin and the presence of Anammox bacteria, it is likely that Anammox is involved in the conversion of NH(4)(+) into N(2). Nitrogen release was shown to be governed by physical and biological mechanisms and Anammox bacteria are serious candidates for the nitrogen removal process in bioreactor landfills. These results, combined with carbon removal and improved hydraulics, will accelerate the achievement of environmental sustainability in the landfilling of municipal solid waste. PMID:20884112

  18. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described, resulting in a separate flowsheet for every contractor. The resulting fractions and materials were described in detail to obtain an inventory of the bulk material. Based on the characteristics from the obtained fractions, all possible valorisation pathways are listed, suggesting a Waste to Material (WtM) or a Waste to Energy (WtE) valorisation pathway. Fractions that needed further treatment were also discussed. The results of the separation tests proved to be very promising and delivered well sorted waste streams. The composition of the waste material, on the other hand, proved to be less beneficial to be economically feasible. Due to the high amount of sand and clay (up to 90wt%) in the Zuienkerke landfill the share of instant recoverable materials proved to be very limited. Due to the limited number of tests concerning the separation and valorisation of landfilled waste, the feasibility of ELFM in the short term is not fully described yet. Based on the first experiences, the main drivers to introduce the ELFM concept on these type of landfills are the necessity of urgent remediation actions and the reclamation of land. The added value of land reuse for the future might close the financial gap in a significant way, making the implementation of ELFM feasible on former landfills. 1 Jones et al.,2010: "the safe conditioning, excavation and integrated valorisation of landfilled waste streams as both materials and energy, using innovative transformation technologies and respecting the most stringent social and ecological criteria".

  19. Field Performance Of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m ), instrumen...

  20. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Ayalon, O. . E-mail: agofira@tx.technion.ac.il; Becker, N.; Shani, E.

    2006-07-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT REGION I LANDFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses a new measurement technology for characterizing emissions from large area sources. This work was funded by EPA's Monitoring and Measurement for the 21st Century Initiative, or 21M2. The site selected for demonstrating this technology is a superfund landfil...

  2. Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, O; Becker, N; Shani, E

    2006-01-01

    The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park. PMID:16376068

  3. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE AT PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project investigated the discharge of landfill leachate into a municipal waste water collection system with subsequent treatment at the municipal treatment plant. The research article points out that leachates from disposal sites can be mixed with municipal wastewater and tre...

  4. The landfill methane balance: Model and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1995-10-01

    A rational mass-balance framework is described for improved quantification of landfill methane processes at a given site. The methane balance model examines the partitioning of methane generated into methane recovered (via extraction systems), methane emitted, methane oxidized, methane migrated, and methane storage. This model encourages use of field-based data to better quantify rates of methane recovery and emissions.

  5. Calibration of the U.S. EPA`s landfill air emissions estimation model for dispersion modelling of vinyl chloride at municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Alberico, J.J.; Handy, B.; Chadder, D.S.

    1997-12-31

    Ambient air quality monitoring programs of vinyl chloride have been conducted at two municipal landfills -- Eastview and Britannia -- in Ontario, Canada. These programs were designed to provide actual data as a basis for better estimating impacts of vinyl chloride emitted from the landfills on the surrounding environment. Dispersion modelling was conducted to replicate vinyl chloride levels measured during the sampling programs. This was accomplished by using the vinyl chloride emission rates determined by the US EPA`s Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model and modelling the same meteorological conditions and sampling locations recorded during the monitoring program. This emissions model is known to produce conservative estimates of gas emissions from landfills. Predicted vinyl chloride levels were generally much higher than the measured values at both landfill sites. Based on statistical comparisons of the data sets, it was found that predicted vinyl chloride levels were 4 and 51 times higher than levels measured at the Eastview and Britannia Landfill sites, respectively. These reduction factors were applied to the emission rates estimated by the emissions model and the predicted impacts were re-assessed. These reduction factors ensure a more realistic prediction of vinyl chloride levels but still ensure that the predicted levels were generally higher than the measured levels. The air quality impact, when generated using the adjusted model, indicated no need for mitigation measures such as landfill gas collection and destruction.

  6. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  8. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  9. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final PDWS for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria.

  10. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  11. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  12. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  13. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  14. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report represents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  15. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  17. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

  18. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills.

    PubMed

    Gharabaghi, B; Singh, M K; Inkratas, C; Fleming, I R; McBean, E

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use "generic" published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects. PMID:17897819

  19. Implementation of the semi-aerobic landfill system (Fukuoka method) in developing countries: a Malaysia cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Theng Lee; Matsufuji, Yasushi; Hassan, Mohd Nasir

    2005-01-01

    Most of the existing solid waste landfill sites in developing countries are practicing either open dumping or controlled dumping. Proper sanitary landfill concepts are not fully implemented due to technological and financial constraints. Implementation of a fully engineered sanitary landfill is necessary and a more economically feasible landfill design is crucial, particularly for developing countries. This study was carried out by focusing on the economics from the development of a new landfill site within a natural clay area with no cost of synthetic liner up to 10 years after its closure by using the Fukuoka method semi-aerobic landfill system. The findings of the study show that for the development of a 15-ha landfill site in Malaysia with an estimated volume of 2,000,000 m(3), the capital investment required was about US 1,312,895 dollars, or about US 0.84 dollars/tonne of waste. Assuming that the lifespan of the landfill is 20 years, the total cost of operation was about US 11,132,536 dollars or US 7.15 dollars/tonne of waste. The closure cost of the landfill was estimated to be US 1,385,526 dollars or US 0.89 dollars/tonne of waste. Therefore, the total cost required to dispose of a tonne of waste at the semi-aerobic landfill was estimated to be US 8.89 dollars. By considering an average tipping fee of about US 7.89 dollars/tonne of waste in Malaysia in the first year, and an annual increase of 3% to about US 13.84 dollars in year-20, the overall system recorded a positive revenue of US 1,734,749 dollars. This is important information for the effort of privatisation of landfill sites in Malaysia, as well as in other developing countries, in order to secure efficient and effective landfill development and management. PMID:16009304

  20. Studies of soil gas, gas generation, and shallow microbial activity at Mallard North Landfill, Dupage County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.; Vogt, M.; Miller, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Three types of investigations at the Mallard North Landfill during the last five years have led to the development of useful field and laboratory techniques for better understanding gas generation, gas migration, and shallow microbial processes at any landfill. This paper summarizes the techniques with reference to representative results from Mallard North and discusses their general applicability to landfill site investigations. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Reclamation of sanitary landfills: A case study in Shelby County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Riddick, P.M.; Kirsch, S.; Kung, Hsiang-Te )

    1992-07-01

    Approximately 30,000 sanitary landfills were in operation in the United States in 1976; today, there are <7,000. The remaining 23,000 closed sites can be reclaimed to actually enhance the surrounding community; cost is the only limiting factor. Abandoned sanitary landfill sites do have problems, namely leachates, methane build-up, and subsidence. However, with modern techniques and planning, these problems can be overcome. Across the nation, old landfills have been converted into golf courses, parks, ski resorts, libraries, and even methane power plants. In some cases, a community's property value has actually increased after reclamation of the local landfill. Shelby County, in southwestern Tennessee, currently has four closed sanitary landfills. Only one site has been fully utilized as a recreational facility. At this site, four soccer fields are home to over 150 league soccer teams. Two sites are home to airplane radio-control clubs, although most land at these sites is currently unused. The fourth site is completely unused and up for sale. All of these closed sanitary landfills have potential use as recreation areas, but, as is often the case, lack of money and initiative is preventing development. 7 refs.

  2. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Roesler, Arthur C.; Abichou, Tarek; Apiwantragoon, Preecha; Lyles, Bradley F.; Rock, S A.

    2004-11-15

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to asses the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into underlying waste. Conventional covers employing resistive barriers as well as alternative covers relying on water-storage principles were monitored in large (10 x 20), instrumented drainage lysimeters over a range of climates at field sites in the United States. Surface runoff was a small fraction of the water balance (0-10%, 4% on average) and was nearly insensitive to the cover slope, cover design, or climate. Lateral drainage from internal drainage layers was also a small fraction of the water balance (0-5%, 2.0% on average). Average percolation rates for the conventional covers with composite barriers (geomembrane over fine soil) typically were less than 12 mm/yr (1.4% of precipitation) at humid locations and 1.5 mm/yr (0.4% of precipitation) at arid, semiarid, and subhumid locations. Average percolation rates for conventional covers with soil barriers in humid climates were between 52 and 195 mm/yr (6-17% of precipitation), probably due to preferential flow through defects in the soil barriers. Average percolation rates for alternative covers ranged between 33 and 160 mm/yr (6 and 18% if precipitation) in humid climates and generally less than 2.2 mm/yr (0.4% of precipitation) in arid, semiarid, and subhumid climates. One half (five) of the alternative covers in arid, semiarid, and subhumid climates transmitted less than 0.1 mm of percolation, but two transmitted much more percolation (26.8 and 52 mm) than anticipated during design. The data collected support conclusions from other studies that detailed, site-specific design procedures are very important for successful performance of alternative landfill covers.

  3. Field water balance of landfill final covers.

    PubMed

    Albright, William H; Benson, Craig H; Gee, Glendon W; Roesler, Arthur C; Abichou, Tarek; Apiwantragoon, Preecha; Lyles, Bradley F; Rock, Steven A

    2004-01-01

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into underlying waste. Conventional covers employing resistive barriers as well as alternative covers relying on water-storage principles were monitored in large (10 x 20 m), instrumented drainage lysimeters over a range of climates at 11 field sites in the United States. Surface runoff was a small fraction of the water balance (0-10%, 4% on average) and was nearly insensitive to the cover slope, cover design, or climate. Lateral drainage from internal drainage layers was also a small fraction of the water balance (0-5.0%, 2.0% on average). Average percolation rates for the conventional covers with composite barriers (geomembrane over fine soil) typically were less than 12 mm/yr (1.4% of precipitation) at humid locations and 1.5 mm/yr (0.4% of precipitation) at arid, semiarid, and subhumid locations. Average percolation rates for conventional covers with soil barriers in humid climates were between 52 and 195 mm/yr (6-17% of precipitation), probably due to preferential flow through defects in the soil barrier. Average percolation rates for alternative covers ranged between 33 and 160 mm/yr (6 and 18% of precipitation) in humid climates and generally less than 2.2 mm/yr (0.4% of precipitation) in arid, semiarid, and subhumid climates. One-half (five) of the alternative covers in arid, semiarid, and subhumid climates transmitted less than 0.1 mm of percolation, but two transmitted much more percolation (26.8 and 52 mm) than anticipated during design. The data collected support conclusions from other studies that detailed, site-specific design procedures are very important for successful performance of alternative landfill covers. PMID:15537955

  4. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ustohalova, Veronika . E-mail: veronika.ustohalova@uni-essen.de; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-07-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section.

  5. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling.

    PubMed

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-01-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section. PMID:16406761

  6. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  7. Electrodegradation of landfill leachate in a flow electrochemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Peterson Bueno; Bertazzoli, Rodnei

    2005-01-01

    Sanitary landfills are the major method used today for the disposal and management of municipal solid waste. Decomposition of waste and rainfall generate leachate at the bottom of landfills, causing groundwater contamination. In this study, leachate from a municipal landfill site was treated by electrochemical oxidation in a pilot scale flow reactor, using oxide-coated titanium anode. The experiments were conducted under a constant flow rate of 2000 lh(-1) and the effect of current density on chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and ammonium removal was investigated. At a current density of 116.0 mA cm(-2) and 180 min of processing, the removal rates achieved were 73% for COD, 57% for TOC, 86% for color and 49% for ammonium. The process proved effective in degrading leachate, despite this effluent's usual refractoriness to treatment. PMID:15522331

  8. Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1991-12-31

    Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

  9. Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

    1991-01-01

    Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

  10. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  11. Impact of changes in barometric pressure on landfill methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla; McDermitt, Dayle

    2014-07-01

    Landfill methane emissions were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Our results show that landfill methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission, a phenomenon called barometric pumping. There was up to a 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions due to changes in barometric pressure. Wavelet coherence analysis revealed a strong spectral coherency between variations of barometric pressure and methane emission at periodicities ranging from 1 day to 8 days. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that at least 10 days of continuous measurements was needed in order to capture 90% of the total variance in the methane emission time series at our landfill site. From our results, it is clear that point-in-time measurements taken at monthly or longer time intervals using techniques such as the trace plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method will be subject to large variations in measured emission rates because of the barometric pumping phenomenon. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions from landfills based on such measurements could yield uncertainties, ranging from 28.8% underestimation to 32.3% overestimation. Our results demonstrate a need for continuous measurements to quantify annual total landfill emissions. This conclusion may apply to the study of methane emissions from wetlands, peatlands, lakes, and other environmental contexts where emissions are from porous media or ebullition. Other implications from the present study for hazard gas monitoring programs are also discussed.

  12. Potential for enhanced phytoremediation of landfills using biosolids--a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Despite the use of recyclable materials increasing worldwide, waste disposal to landfill remains the most common method of waste management because it is simple and relatively inexpensive. Although landfill disposal is an effective waste management system, if not managed correctly, a number of potential detrimental environmental impacts have been identified including soil and ground water contamination, leachate generation, and gas emissions. In particular, improper post-closure treatment of landfills or deterioration of the conventional clay landfill capping were shown to result in land degradation which required remediation to secure contaminants within the landfill site. Phytoremediation is an attractive technology for landfill remediation, as it can stabilize soil and simultaneously remediate landfill leachate. In addition, landfill phytoremediation systems can potentially be combined with landfill covers (Phytocapping) for hydrological control of infiltrated rainfall. However, for the successful application of any phytoremediation system, the effective establishment of appropriate, desired vegetation is critical. This is because the typically harsh and sterile nature of landfill capping soil limits the sustainable establishment of vegetation. Therefore, the physicochemical properties of landfill capping soils often need to be improved by incorporating soil amendments. Biosolids are a common soil amendment and will often meet these demanding conditions because they contain a variety of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, as well as a large proportion of organic matter. Such amendment will also ameliorate the physical properties of the capping soils by increasing porosity, moisture content, and soil aggregation. Contaminants which potentially originate from biosolids will also be remediated by activities congruent with the establishment of plants and bacteria. PMID:19939550

  13. Uncontrolled methane emissions from a MSW landfill surface: influence of landfill features and side slopes.

    PubMed

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Viviani, Gaspare

    2013-10-01

    Sanitary landfills for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal have been identified as one of the most important anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4) emissions; in order to minimize its negative effects on the environment, landfill gas (LFG) recovery is a suitable tool to control CH4 emissions from a landfill site; further, the measurement of CH4 emissions can represent a good way to evaluate the effectiveness of LFG recovering systems. In general, LFG will escape through any faults in the landfill capping or in the LFG collection system. Indeed, some areas of the capping can be more permeable than others (e.g. portions of a side slope), especially when considering a temporarily capped zone (covered area that is not expected to receive any further waste for a period of at least 3 months, but for engineering reasons does not have a permanent cap yet). These areas, which are characterized by abnormal emissions, are usually defined as "features": in particular, a feature is a small, discrete area or an installation where CH4 emissions significantly differ from the surrounding zones. In the present study, the influence that specific features have on CH4 emissions has been investigated, based on direct measurements carried out in different seasons by means of a flux chamber to the case study of Palermo (IT) landfill (Bellolampo). The results showed that the flux chamber method is reliable and easy to perform, and the contoured flux maps, obtained by processing the measured data were found to be a suitable tool for identifying areas with abnormal (high) emissions. Further, it was found that a relationship between methane emission rates and landfill side slope can be established. Concerning the influence of the temporary HDPE cover system on CH4 recovery efficiency, it contributed to a significant decrease of the free surface area available for uncontrolled emissions; this aspect, coupled to the increase of the CH4 volumes collected by the LFG recovery system, led to a significant increase of the recovery efficiency. PMID:23465313

  14. The dynamics of vortex streets in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2015-07-01

    We develop a model to numerically study the dynamics of vortex streets in channel flows. Previous work has studied the vortex wakes of specific vortex generators. Here, we study a wide range of vortex wakes including regular and reverse von Kármán streets with various strengths, geometries, and Reynolds numbers (Re) by applying a smoothed von Kármán street as an inflow condition. We find that the spatial structure of the inflow vortex street is maintained for the reverse von Kármán street and altered for the regular street. For regular streets, we identify a transition to asymmetric dynamics which happens when Re increases, or vortices are stronger, or vortex streets are compressed horizontally or extended vertically. We also determine the effects of these parameters on vortex street inversion.

  15. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai. PMID:27194233

  16. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: Viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LFG emissions are measured at an abandoned landfill with highly organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mean headspace and vent emissions are 0.240 and 0.074 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At sites with high food waste content, LFG generation drops rapidly after site closure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The viability of LFG recovery for CDMs in developing countries is doubtful. - Abstract: This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH{sub 4} flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.188 {+-} 0.014, 0.224 {+-} 0.012 and 0.237 {+-} 0.008 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m{sup 2} hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m{sup 2} hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m{sup 2} hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L{sub 0}) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m{sup 3}/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste.

  17. CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED BY CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH & ASSOCIATES AND BUILT IN 1972 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Hassayampa Landfill, AZ. (First remedial action), August 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-06

    The Hassayampa Landfill site is a 10-acre area of a 47-acre municipal landfill that was previously used for hazardous waste disposal. Land use in the area is predominantly desert and is sparsely cultivated. The Hassayampa Landfill lies within the Hassayampa River drainage area, but outside of the 100-year floodplain. The estimated 1,100 people who reside within a 3-mile radius of the site use the aquifer underlying the site for their drinking water. From 1961 to the present, the Maricopa County Landfill Department owned and operated the site. Waste disposed of at the landfill consisted chiefly of municipal garbage, tree trimmings, and other plant refuse. In 1979, the state requested that Hassayampa Landfill accept hazardous waste as an alternate waste disposal site during a prohibition at City of Phoenix landfills. In the 18 months that the landfill accepted hazardous waste, up to 3.28 million tons of liquid waste and approximately 4,150 tons of solid waste were deposited.

  20. Street wise. Wall Street: where health care is suddenly hot.

    PubMed

    Cerne, F

    1995-03-20

    With market-driven reform sweeping the health care field, Wall Street is betting on those hospital systems that are revamping themselves for cost-effectiveness and demonstrated value to payers. Analysts are encouraged by such markers as overcapacity shrinkage, full-asset mergers and hospital swaps. And they're positively bullish on Columbia/HCA. PMID:7889094

  1. Demonstration of landfill gas enhancement techniques in landfill simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Vogt, W. G.

    1982-02-01

    Various techniques to enhance gas production in sanitary landfills were applied to landfill simulators. These techniques include (1) accelerated moisture addition, (2) leachate recycling, (3) buffer addition, (4) nutrient addition, and (5) combinations of the above. Results are compiled through on-going operation and monitoring of sixteen landfill simulators. These test cells contain about 380 kg of municipal solid waste. Quantities of buffer and nutrient materials were placed in selected cells at the time of loading. Water is added to all test cells on a monthly basis; leachate is withdrawn from all cells (and recycled on selected cells) also on a monthly basis. Daily monitoring of gas volumes and refuse temperatures is performed. Gas and leachate samples are collected and analyzed on a monthly basis. Leachate and gas quality and quantity reslts are presented for the first 18 months of operation.

  2. Reduced sulfur compounds in gas from construction and demolition debris landfills.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue; Xu, Qiyong; Booth, Matthew; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The biological conversion of sulfate from disposed gypsum drywall to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the anaerobic environment of a landfill results in odor problems and possible health concerns at many disposal facilities. To examine the extent and magnitude of such emissions, landfill gas samples from wells, soil vapor samples from the interface of the waste and cover soil, and ambient air samples, were collected from 10 construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills in Florida and analyzed for H(2)S and other reduced sulfur compounds (RSC). H(2)S was detected in the well gas and soil vapor at all 10 sites. The concentrations in the ambient air above the surface of the landfill were much lower than those observed in the soil vapor, and no direct correlation was observed between the two sampling locations. Methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide were the most frequently observed other RSC, though they occurred at smaller concentrations than H(2)S. This research confirmed the presence of H(2)S at C&D debris landfills. High concentrations of H(2)S may be a concern for employees working on the landfill site. These results indicate that workers should use proper personal protection at C&D debris landfills when involved in excavation, landfill gas collection, or confined spaces. The results indicate that H(2)S is sufficiently diluted in the atmosphere to not commonly pose acute health impacts for these landfill workers in normal working conditions. H(2)S concentrations were extremely variable with measurements occurring over a very large range (from less than 3 ppbv to 12,000 ppmv in the soil vapor and from less than 3 ppbv to 50 ppmv in ambient air). Possible reasons for the large intra- and inter-site variability observed include waste and soil heterogeneities, impact of weather conditions, and different site management practices. PMID:16403620

  3. Emission assessment at the Burj Hammoud inactive municipal landfill: viability of landfill gas recovery under the clean development mechanism.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; Abi-Esber, Layale; Salhab, Samer

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines landfill gas (LFG) emissions at a large inactive waste disposal site to evaluate the viability of investment in LFG recovery through the clean development mechanism (CDM) initiative. For this purpose, field measurements of LFG emissions were conducted and the data were processed by geospatial interpolation to estimate an equivalent site emission rate which was used to calibrate and apply two LFG prediction models to forecast LFG emissions at the site. The mean CH(4) flux values calculated through tessellation, inverse distance weighing and kriging were 0.1880.014, 0.2240.012 and 0.2370.008 l CH(4)/m(2) hr, respectively, compared to an arithmetic mean of 0.24 l/m(2) hr. The flux values are within the reported range for closed landfills (0.06-0.89 l/m(2) hr), and lower than the reported range for active landfills (0.42-2.46 l/m(2) hr). Simulation results matched field measurements for low methane generation potential (L(0)) values in the range of 19.8-102.6 m(3)/ton of waste. LFG generation dropped rapidly to half its peak level only 4 yrs after landfill closure limiting the sustainability of LFG recovery systems in similar contexts and raising into doubt promoted CDM initiatives for similar waste. PMID:22265005

  4. The impact of Mpererwe landfill in Kampala Uganda, on the surrounding environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwiganga, M.; Kansiime, F.

    Mpererwe landfill site receives solid wastes from the city of Kampala, Uganda. This study was carried out to assess and evaluate the appropriateness of the location and operation of this landfill, to determine the composition of the solid waste dumped at the landfill and the extent of contamination of landfill leachate to the neighbouring environment (water, soil and plants). Field observations and laboratory measurements were carried out to determine the concentration of nutrients, metals and numbers of bacteriological indicators in the landfill leachate. The landfill is not well located as it is close to a residential area (<200 m) and cattle farms. It is also located upstream of a wetland. The landfill generates nuisances like bad odour; there is scattering of waste by scavenger birds, flies and vermin. Industrial and hospital wastes are disposed of at the landfill without pre-treatment. The concentration of variables (nutrients, bacteriological indicators, BOD and heavy metals) in the leachate were higher than those recommended in the National Environment Standards for Discharge of Effluent into Water and on Land. A composite sample that was taken 1500 m down stream indicated that the wetland considerably reduced the concentration of the parameters that were measured except for sulfides. Despite the fact that there was accumulation of metals in the sediments, the concentration has not reached toxic levels to humans. Soil and plant analyses indicated deficiencies of zinc and copper. The concentration of these elements was lowest in the leachate canal.

  5. Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

    2011-05-01

    Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions. PMID:21354776

  6. Beneficial application of landfill mining Millersville Landfill, Anne Arundel County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Vanetti, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Several studies and investigations have been completed for the Millersville Sanitary Landfill in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The studies and reports range from detailed hydrogeologic investigations through review of closure alternatives for the individual refuse disposal cells located at the landfill. As a result of the evaluations and studies, one recommendation that was put before Anne Arundel County is the excavation and relocation of refuse from Cell 3 to: (1) create an infiltration basin; and (2) reduce the overall refuse footprint at the site, resulting in reduce long term environmental impacts and closure costs. Subsequent to this recommendation, several preliminary reviews have been held between Anne Arundel County, regulatory agencies and their consultants, Stearns & Wheler. These discussions indicated that it would be feasible, and the concept acceptable, to relocate the refuse in Cell 3 to ultimately create an infiltration basin. Subsequent to the preliminary meetings, a project plan and construction Contract Documents and Drawings were developed by Stearns & Wheler. The Project Plan was submitted to the State regulatory agencies (Maryland and Department of Environment (MDE) and Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR)), Millersville Landfill Citizen`s Advisory Committee, and Anne Arundel County (Department of public Works (DPW), Permit Acquisition and Code Enforcement (PACE) and Soil Conservation District (SCD)) for review and comment prior to undertaking the relocation of refuse in Cell 3.

  7. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. PMID:26445364

  8. Landfill mining for resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reith, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    Landfills are repositories of subeconomic resources. Landfill mining is an important enterprise that will someday return these resources to productive use, closing the loop on finite resources and stimulating economic development in communities near landfills. Secondary development of interred resources (landfill waste) will become economically viable as the environmental externalities of primary resource development -- e.g., the destruction of pristine habitat -- are more fully accounted for in programs of ecological design and design for environment. It is important to take an integrated and holistic approach to this new endeavor, which will be a complex assemblage of disciplines. Component disciplines include: resource economics, characterization, and excavation; contaminant control, and protection of environmental safety and health; material sorting, blending, and pretreatment; resource conversion, recovery, storage, and distribution; and reclamation for long-term land use. These technical elements must be addressed in close combination with compelling social issues such as environmental justice that may be especially critical in economically depressed communities surrounding today`s landfills.

  9. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  10. Long-Range Radar Station and Landfill

    This oblique aerial photograph from 2006 shows the Barter Island long-range radar station landfill threatened by coastal erosion. The landfill was subsequently relocated further inland, however, the coastal bluffs continue to retreat. ...

  11. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-07-28

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  12. Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, T.G.; Miller, W.L.; Lee, H.J.; Earle, J.F.K.

    1996-04-01

    A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in wetted and dry areas of the landfill. Leachate quality was not dramatically impacted by leachate recycle. Moisture content was significantly greater in the area of the landfill subjected to leachate recycle. Waste temperature and pH measurements indicated that conditions suitable for anaerobic decomposition were present in both the treated and untreated areas. Measurements of solid waste biochemical methane potential and subsidence showed that a greater degree of landfill stabilization had occurred in the leachate recycle area relative to the untreated area.

  13. Comparison study of landfill gas emissions from subtropical landfill with various phases: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Chen, Zhulei; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Yanyan; Xie, Ying

    2015-08-01

    The compositions and annual variations of landfill gas (LFG) were studied at two large-scale sites of Chen-Jia-Chong Landfill. Seventy-six wells were built and used for the collection and measurement of LFG. The investigation revealed the similarities and differences of LFG components and variations at two sites with different phases. It was found that ambient temperature and rainfall exhibited strong correlations with LFG components at both sites. Methane (CH₄) contents showed excellent correlations with CO₂at both sites. Notable correlations between hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) and major components (CH₄and carbon dioxide [CO₂]) were only observed in unstable methane phase. Especially, the CH₄/CO₂volumetric ratio could act as an excellent indicator for anaerobic reaction stage by judging its phasic variations. The study is beneficial for the efficient operation of LFG collection system and could shed light on gas purification and utilization. PMID:26030713

  14. 5. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST ELEVATION, 1123 SPRING STREET Pendleton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHWEST, EAST ELEVATION, 1123 SPRING STREET - Pendleton Subdivision (Residential-Commercial Buildings), Bounded by Liberty Street, Reading Road & Sycamore Street, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH

  15. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  16. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol, is a 711-acre LEED Neighborhood Development mixed-use, urban infill redevelopment on the site of Austin’s former airport, currently under development through a public-private project between the City of Austin, and Catellus Austin LLC. Currently, Mueller is less than 50% complete and more than 3,500 people live or work at Mueller. At full build-out, the project will include more than 3 million square feet of commercial and institutional space, more than 13,000 residents from approximately 5,700 single-family and multi-family dwelling units. Figure 1 shows a Google Map image of the Mueller community, zoomed in on the residential streets participating in the project.

  17. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2014-03-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  18. A Ride Down Mango Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

  19. Street Rhymes around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolen, Jane, Ed.

    Based on the idea that although children of every nation speak different languages the language of play is international, this collection of 32 street rhymes from 17 nations and republics offers each rhyme in its native language (Portuguese, Tamil, Hebrew, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, Spanish, Greek, German, Bantu (Mambwe), Danish, Cheyenne,

  20. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might

  1. Street Rhymes around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolen, Jane, Ed.

    Based on the idea that although children of every nation speak different languages the language of play is international, this collection of 32 street rhymes from 17 nations and republics offers each rhyme in its native language (Portuguese, Tamil, Hebrew, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, Spanish, Greek, German, Bantu (Mambwe), Danish, Cheyenne,…

  2. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  3. The Great Learning Street Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Prakash

    2005-01-01

    Nair discusses the "Learning Street," a now-frequent concept of modern school planning and design in terms of the multiple modalities of learning that today's schools must nurture. The author lists 18, including: (1) Independent study; (2) Peer tutoring; (3) Team collaborative work in small and mid-sized groups; (4) One-on-one learning with the…

  4. Needs of Rio street children.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, A

    1993-01-01

    Millions of children and adolescents live on the streets of urban Brazil and are being bypassed by existing social services. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, for example, there are only 2 shelters for street children. Many of these children are from single-parent households that could not produce enough income to support them; others are the victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse or violence. Early initiation into sexual activity is nearly universal among these street children, and provides gratification in an atmosphere of deprivation and a source of emotional connectedness. Many are forced into prostitution as a means of survival. The absence of familial support leads these marginalized adolescents vulnerable to pregnancy and illegal abortion; their illiteracy and non-school attendance isolates them from sources of information about sexuality and birth control. Government agencies must assume responsibility for providing these citizens with shelter, food, access to the public school system with a culturally sensitive curriculum, and health services that address the special needs of this population. Nongovernmental organizations, on the other hand, are urged to develop innovative programs for street children, including outreach programs, educational strategies and materials, legal advocacy, hot-lines, and itinerant van units. PMID:12345365

  5. Main Street in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on the main streets in Iowa's past. Residential and business patterns are discussed with an analysis of successes and failures. Efforts of young Iowans involved in preservation of a historic town square in their community are described. Activities, fiction selections, and nonfictional accounts of present…

  6. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  7. Mining landfills for space and fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Flosdorf, H.W.; Alexieff, S.

    1993-03-01

    Lancaster County, Pennsylvania`s experiments with landfill reclamation are helping the county remain self-sufficient in managing its solid waste stream. Landfill mining is proving to be a worthwhile approach to extending landfill life and obtaining fuel for the county`s waste-to-energy plant.

  8. RECLAMATION EFFORTS AT THE LOCKWOOD LANDFILL STATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reclamation of disturbed arid rangelands is a monumental task under the best of conditions. The Lockwood Landfill located 17 km east of Reno, Nevada is a Regional Landfill of some 8800 ha in area. This landfill services all of northern Nevada as well as much of northern California. Returning la...

  9. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  10. APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

  11. LANDFILL AIR EMISSIONS ESTIMATION MODEL USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's guide for the computer program, "Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model." It provides step-by-step guidance for using the program to estimate landfill air emissions. The purpose of this program is to aid local and state agencies in estimating landfill ai...

  12. THE USEPA'S LANDFILL RESEARCH AND REGULATORY STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The priorities and initiatives of Environmental Protection Agency's landfill research and regulatory program over the next five years will be described. This will include municipal solid waste landfills as well as abandoned hazardous waste landfills.

    Regarding municipals s...

  13. A process-based inventory model for landfill CH4 emissions inclusive of seasonal soil microclimate and CH4 oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed and field-validated an annual inventory model for California landfill CH4 emissions that incorporates both site-specific soil properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5o scale global climatic models. Based on 1-D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventor...

  14. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  15. Impact of Changes in Barometric Pressure on Landfill Methane Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermitt, Dayle; Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla

    2013-04-01

    Landfill methane emissions were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska USA. Methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission. Emission rates were systematically higher in December than during the summer period. Higher methane emission rates were associated with changes in barometric pressure that were larger in magnitude and longer in duration in winter than in summer, and with lower mean temperatures, which appeared to reduce methane oxidation rates. Sharp changes in barometric pressure caused up to 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that continuous measurements over a period of at least 10 days were needed in order to capture 90% of total variance in the methane emission time series at our site. Our results suggest that point-in-time methane emission rate measurements taken at monthly or even longer time intervals using techniques such as the tracer plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method may be subject to large variations because of the strong dependence of methane emissions on changes in barometric pressure. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions from landfills based on such measurements will inevitably yield large uncertainties. Our results demonstrate the value of continuous measurements for quantifying total annual methane emission from a landfill.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): DuPage County Landfill/Blackwell Forest Preserve, Warrenville, IL, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This decision document presents the rationale for selecting the final site-wide remedy for the DuPage County Landfill/Blackwell Forest Preserve Site (DuPage County Landfill or the Site) located in DuPage County, Illinois. The selected remedial action addresses the major threat posed by this Site by off-site treatment and disposal of leachate and addresses the low level sources of contamination by containment of the landfill and contaminated soils, management of landfill gas and Monitored Natural Attenuation for ground water. The final remedy builds upon previously implemented response actions which include: cap improvements, installation and operation of a leachate collection system, off-site leachate treatment, and installation of a landfill gas management system. The final remedy selected for the Site incorporates both long-term operation and maintenance of these components and other response actions.

  17. LEDs for Street Lighting—Here Today

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-29

    Fact sheet that provides a brief overview of the viability of LED street lighting in municipalities and highlights case studies of two cities—Los Angeles and Seattle—that have invested in LED street lighting.

  18. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste. PMID:25453319

  19. Landfill restoration and biodiversity: a case of study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Camerini, Giuseppe; Groppali, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Landfilling is a worldwide common waste treatment method. Final recovery usually consists of capping the area with top soil on which vegetation can grow. Depending on the suitability of the recovery pattern, landfill sites can work as potential reserve of semi-natural habitats. A recovery pattern applied to land reclamation of two hazardous waste landfills sited in Northern Italy (Po floodplain) was studied to assess the results in terms of biodiversity. These landfills lie within a landscape dominated by intensive agriculture. After final sealing, both landfills were covered by soil on which a meadow was sown and a hedgerow was planted around the borders. One of the compared areas was not provided with a pond and the hedgerow was incomplete. Butterflies and birds were used as indicators, and their seasonal abundance was related to habitat structure and ecological factors. Meadows grown on both areas supported a rich butterfly population (30 species), including some species that are by now uncommon in the Po floodplain. In both areas butterfly abundance was affected by summer drought. The birds' community included 57 species; 16 Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) were observed. Each bird community was different in the compared study areas because of their different size and habitat structure. For example, landfill A, provided with a pond and a more complex structure of the hedgerow, supported a richer birds community (52 species versus 39). Both restored landfills worked well as a stepping stone for migratory birds, but they were a reproductive habitat of poor quality. PMID:25161277

  20. Vertical expansion of a Class I Landfill in West Nassau County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Chouery-Curtis, V.; Decker, R.

    1995-12-31

    The West Nassau County Landfill is an existing municipal solid waste facility located just north of Jacksonville, Florida. The facility has operated since 1974 under various permit conditions. In 1992, the owner began to consider expansion to meet the increasing disposal needs of northern Florida. Unfortunately, due to the existence of wetlands on the adjacent property, development of a new landfill cell at the site was not economically nor environmentally feasible. One solution to this was to pursue the piggybacking technique of placing a new landfill over a closed cell. This design is described.

  1. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-14

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

  2. Depression and Stress in Street Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayerst, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores stress and depression levels in Canadian street youth and ways in which they cope. Results show that street youth (n=27) reported more stress and depression than non-runaways (n=27). Street youth were more likely to engage in acts of self-harm and to use drugs and alcohol, while non-runaways used more productive problem solving and…

  3. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  4. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit.

  5. FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND WEST BACKSIDES OF JOHN BREUNER AND COMPANY BUILDING IN CENTER (BACKGROUND), SURROUNDING STRUCTURES ON CLAY, JEFFERSON AND 15TH STREETS AT LEFT, RIGHT, AND FOREGROUND - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 19th Annual landfill gas symposium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the 19th Annual Landfill Gas Symposium sponsored by the Solid Waste Association of America (SWANA), held on March 19-21, 1996 in Research Triangle Park near Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.The technical papers presented by the speakers cover a broad range of topics of interest to professionals in the municipal solid waste field. Technical sessions on the following subjects were presented: U.S. Landfill Gas Regulations, Control Technologies, Emission and Migration Control, Landfill Gas Generation Models, Field Practices, Case Studies of Landfill Gas Utilization, Global Methane Control, International Perspectives, and Emerging Technologies and Issues in the field of Landfill Gas Utilization.

  7. John Street (South) Elevation (Fourth through Sixth Floors, Terra Cotta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Street (South) Elevation (Fourth through Sixth Floors, Terra Cotta detailed window surrounds at the corner of John Street and Broadway) - View from rooftop of 10 John Street - Corbin Building, 11 John Street, New York, New York County, NY

  8. John Street (South) Elevation (Second through Fourth Floors, Terra Cotta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Street (South) Elevation (Second through Fourth Floors, Terra Cotta detailed window surrounds at the corner of John Street and Broadway) - View from rooftop of 10 John Street - Corbin Building, 11 John Street, New York, New York County, NY

  9. Perspective view of the Alger Theatre, 24 North F Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Alger Theatre, 24 North F Street, view looking northwest - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  10. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  16. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing front (east) facade and north side, 213 Division Street is visible at left and 217 Division Street appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  18. 32. September, 1968 DOORWAY OF 16 UNION STREET, A TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. September, 1968 DOORWAY OF 16 UNION STREET, A TYPICAL NANTUCKET CARPENTER CLASSIC DOORWAY - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 27. August, 1970 SOUTH SIDE OF UNION STREET (NOS. 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. August, 1970 SOUTH SIDE OF UNION STREET (NOS. 14, 16, 18) LOOKING EAST - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. Interior view; Street Car Waiting House North Philadelphia Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view; Street Car Waiting House - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA