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1

Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study.  

PubMed Central

This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is the conclusion of the authors that the adverse effects seen were more likely the result of chemical exposure than of perception of risk. PMID:3691438

Hertzman, C; Hayes, M; Singer, J; Highland, J

1987-01-01

2

Case study of landfill reclamation at a Florida landfill site.  

PubMed

A landfill reclamation project was considered to recover landfill airspace and soil, reduce future groundwater impacts by removing the waste buried in the unlined area, and optimize airspace use at the site. A phased approach was utilized to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of the reclamation project; based on the results of these evaluations, approximately 6.8 ha of the unlined cells were reclaimed. Approximately 371,000 in-place cubic meters of waste was mined from 6.8 ha in this project. Approximately 230,600 cubic meters of net airspace was recovered due to beneficial use of the recovered final cover soil and reclaimed soil as intermediate and daily cover soil, respectively, for the current landfill operations. This paper presents the researchers' landfill reclamation project experience, including a summary of activities pertaining to reclamation operations, an estimation of reclamation rates achieved during the project, project costs and benefits, and estimated composition of the reclaimed materials. PMID:23089299

Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Johnson, Patrick

2013-01-01

3

US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

Not Available

1993-06-01

4

PREDICTING THE BIRDSTRIKE HAZARD FROM GULLS AT LANDFILL SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the factors that affect hazardous bird populations associated with landfill sites is crucial to the development of useful and accurate bird avoidance models. Three common species of gulls in the UK that are hazardous to aircraft; Herring gulls (Larus argentatus), Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), and Lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) were monitored at six UK landfill sites over a

Andy Baxter; Helen Laycock

5

Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

1972-01-01

6

Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (?g) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 ?g in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 ?g, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study area. All samplers in the survey had detections of TPH, but only eight of the samplers had detections of TPH greater than 0.9 mg. Four samplers had TPH detections greater than 9 mg; the only other fuel-related compounds detected in these four samplers included toluene in three of the samplers and undecane in the fourth sampler. Three samplers deployed along the western margin of the northern landfill had detections of both diesel-and gasoline-related compounds; however, the diesel-related compounds were detected at or below method detection levels. Seven samplers in the northern study area had detections of chlorinated compounds, including three perchloroethene detections, three chloroform detections, and one 1,4-dichloro-benzene detection. One sampler on the western margin of the landfill had detections of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-tr-methylbenene below method detection levels.

Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2012-01-01

7

Methane generation from UK landfill sites and its use as an energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of methane from UK landfill sites are estimated to be about 46% of the country's total releases of methane to atmosphere. Combusting landfill gas offers an effective way of reducing emissions from this source. Using landfill gas as an energy resource also reduces dependence on fossil fuel sources of energy. There are currently over 60 landfill sites in the

Elisabeth Aitchison

1996-01-01

8

Landfill siting in New York: Case studies confirming the importance of site-specific hydrogeologic investigations  

SciTech Connect

Landfill siting is one of the most problematic environmental issues facing society today for a variety of both technical and political reasons. New York State has approached many of these issues by requiring both generalized siting studies and detailed hydrogeologic evaluation of any proposed landfill site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as an appropriate tool for accumulating information for preliminary decision making. Recently, Goodman and others have suggested the use of a terrain suitability map (land use map) as a mechanism for simplifying landfill siting. They propose the use of existing geologic and morphologic information to eliminate large areas of New York from consideration as potential landfill locations. The study concludes that the Appalachian Plateau region (the Southern Tier), and the Erie-Ontario Plain are the most suitable areas for landfill development in the state. An evaluation of the geology at existing landfills and the impacts that relate to the facilities has shown that suitable sites do indeed exist in areas deemed unacceptable by Goodman and others. Conversely, a number of landfills located in suitable terranes have proven to be developed on less than suitable sites. While evaluation of existing information plays an obvious role in preliminary siting studies, it is not a substitute for detailed hydrogeologic investigation. It is local hydrogeological conditions that are most important in determining the suitability of a site for landfill development rather than the regional geologic context of the site.

Cloyd, K.C.; Concannon, P.W. (New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Avon, NY (United States))

1993-03-01

9

Environmental problems associated with the development and operation of a lined and unlined landfill site: a case study demonstrating two landfill sites in Patra, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work demonstrates the environmental problems associated with the development and operation of a lined and unlined landfill site, both used for municipal solid waste landfilling, that are situated next to the city of Patra, Greece. Findings from a detailed site investigation as well calculations on hydrologic evaluation of landfill’s performance and measurements on leachate composition proved that the lined landfill site is more secure and environmental friendly compared with the unlined landfill site. Even though, until today, there is no evidence from near boreholes for severe contamination problems generated by any of the two landfills, in the forthcoming future several environmental problems are expected to occur from the unlined site. In addition the prevailing hydrogeotechnical conditions indicated that the unlined site is a potential source of contamination; hence extra remedial measures should be received by the local authorities to prevent severe contamination in soil and groundwater.

Depountis, Nikos; Koukis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikos

2009-02-01

10

The economic and social aspects of sanitary landfill site selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors involved in the selection of suitable sites for sanitary land fills are discussed. The economic considerations and problems of social acceptance are considered the most important. The subjects discussed are: (1) accessibility of land, (2) availability of cover material, (3) expected capacity of site, (4) cover material and compaction, (5) fire protection, (6) site location with respect to residential and industrial areas, and (7) land usage after landfill completion.

Graff, W. J.; Rogers, J. R.

1972-01-01

11

Mercury emissions as landfill gas from a large-scale abandoned landfill site in Seoul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of landfill gas (LFG) was analyzed for vapor-phase mercury (Hg) (primarily in its elemental form, Hg 0) and relevant environmental parameters from 42 out of 106 ventpipes placed across two different sectors of the Nan-Ji-Do (NJD) landfill site in Seoul, Korea during September/October 2000. Results of our studies showed that large quantities of Hg emanated through these ventpipes which were infiltrated deep into the waste layer. The mean concentration of Hg, computed using the data sets collected from 42 ventpipes, was 420 ng m -3 with a range of 3.45-2952 ng m -3. Because large differences were apparent in its concentration levels not only between the two sectors of 1 and 2 but also between the plain and slope areas, evaluation of the data was made by dividing them into four different categories, namely plain areas of sectors 1 and 2 and slope areas of sectors 1 and 2. By categorizing the data in such a manner, the emission fluxes of ventilated Hg were estimated for each data group at the NJD site. The flux values of Hg for each data group were distinguished so that the enhanced fluxes were observed in plain compared to slope areas. The computed LFG fluxes of Hg from the whole NJD site were on the order of 23 g on an annual basis. The overall results of our study suggest that the vent emission of Hg from the study site is comparable in magnitude to those reported previously (e.g., the Florida landfill sites in US), while the LFG emissions of Hg may not necessarily be the most dominant source in the NJD site.

Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young

12

Migrating landfill gas proves challenging  

SciTech Connect

Located in the San Fernando Valley at the foothills of the San Gabriel mountains, the 41-acre Sheldon-Arleta Landfill originated as one of many gravel pits in the area and was operated by CalMat as a gravel quarry pit from the mid 1950s until 1962. In 1967, methane gas was detected in the residential dwellings located across from the landfill along Sharp Street. Three landfill gas wells were installed at the north corner of the landfill to control off-site migration of landfill gas. Landfill gas, through diffusion, saturates soil pores below and around the landfill. Groundwater serves as an effective barrier to landfill gas migration. Thus a rising water table mobilizes landfill gas from soil pores. Where that gas cannot be effectively collected, off-site migration will occur. The solution to ensuring public safety is to collect landfill gas on-site before it escapes the influence of gas collection wells. This may require complete reevaluation of an existing landfill gas collection system and potential renovation to collect greater quantities of land-fill gas. Cost-effective implementation of this strategy calls for two gas collection systems: one for collection of methane-rich landfill gas for electrical generation and resource recovery, and the other to control off-site migration of landfill gas through on-site combustion. Installation/upgrades of the foregoing solutions are long-term options. For the short-term immediate mitigation of high landfill gas migration, installation of a passive vent system was necessary with the option of active extraction. However, one must recognize that the public is ultimately better served by controlling landfill gas on-site before it approaches dangerous off-site levels.

Dobrowolski, J.G.; Dellinger, A.S. [City of Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation, CA (United States)

1994-12-01

13

Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

Not Available

1992-12-01

14

Selection of MSW landfill site for Konya, Turkey using GIS and multi-criteria evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill is a common solution for the final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. Landfill siting is an extremely\\u000a difficult task to accomplish because the site selection process depends on different factors and regulations. To ensure that\\u000a an appropriate site is chosen, a systematic process should be developed and followed. Unsuccessful landfill siting is typically\\u000a the result of

Bilgehan Nas; Tayfun Cay; Fatih Iscan; Ali Berktay

2010-01-01

15

Choosing a municipal landfill site by analytic network process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, analytic network process (ANP), one of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tools has been used to choose one of the four alternative landfill sites for the city of Eskisehir, Turkey. For this purpose, Super Decision Software has been used and benefit opportunity cost and risk (BOCR) analysis has been done to apply ANP. In BOCR analysis, each alternative site has been evaluated in terms of its benefits, costs and risks; the opportunity cluster has been examined under the benefit cluster. In this context, technical, economical and social assessments have been done for the site selection of sanitary landfill. Also, results have been compared with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) which is another MCDM technique used in the study conducted before. Finally, the current site has been determined as the most appropriate site in both methods. These methods have not been commonly used in the discipline of environmental engineering but it is believed to be an important contribution for decision makers.

Banar, Mufide; Kose, Barbaros Murat; Ozkan, Aysun; Poyraz Acar, Ilgin

2007-04-01

16

Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, ?2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

2013-01-01

17

Conducting Remedial Investigations/Feasibility studies for CERCLA municipal landfill sites  

SciTech Connect

The study aids in the development of methodologies and tools to assist in streamlining the Remedial Investigations/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) and selection of remedy process for landfills. The study: (1) develops tools to assist in scoping the RI/FS for municipal landfill sites, (2) defines strategies for characterizing municipal landfill sites that are on the NPL, and (3) identifying practicable remedial action alternatives for addressing these types of sites.

Not Available

1991-02-01

18

Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

2010-11-15

19

Factors influencing the establishment of floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural revegetation on landfill sites often results in a species poor sward dominated by Elymus repens (Shaw, 1983; Davis, 1988; Wong, 1988). The aim of this study was primarily to investigate the mechanism by which E.repens achieved such apparent domination and secondly to investigate various methods to establish floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site. Low rates of germination

1991-01-01

20

Comparative study on leachate in closed landfill sites: focusing on seasonal variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to provide background information on leachate management in closed landfill sites based on a comparison\\u000a of two landfill sites and the identification of leachate characteristics depending on the final cover and the season. Site\\u000a S is older and has no final cover, while site J is younger and has final capping. The results of leachate analysis

Young Deuk Kim; Dong-Geon Lee

2009-01-01

21

Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect the creek. However, most TPH detections were located in and immediately adjacent to a debris field located within the former landfill and in areas where debris was not visible, including the northwestern and southeastern parts of the study area. Two of the four soil-gas samplers installed within a former military training area adjacent to the landfill also had TPH detections above the method detection level. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (as combined BTEX mass) were detected at 0.02 microgram or greater in three soil-gas samplers installed at the northwestern boundary and in five samplers installed in the southeastern part of the study area. There was no BTEX mass detected above the method detection level in samplers installed in the debris field. Toluene was the most frequently detected BTEX compound. Compounds indicative of diesel-range organics were detected above 0.04 microgram in 12 soil-gas samplers and had a distribution similar to that of TPH, including being detected in the debris field. Undecane was the most frequently detected diesel compound. Chloroform and naphthalene were detected in eight and two soil-gas samplers, respectively. Five soil-gas samplers deployed during September 2010 were analyzed for organic compounds classified as chemical agents and explosives, but none exceeded the method detection levels. Five composite soil samples collected from within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill were analyzed for 35 inorganic constituents, but none of the constituents detected exceeded regional screening levels for industrial soils. The sample collected in the debris field exceeded background levels for aluminum, barium, calcium, chromium, lead, nickel, potassium, sodium, and zinc. Three surface-water samples were collected in September 2010 from a stormwater outfall culvert that drains to the creek and from the open channel of the creek at upstream and downstream locations relative to the outfall. Toluene was detected at 0.661 mi

Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

2011-01-01

22

Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.  

PubMed

Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

2006-07-01

23

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

Not Available

1985-09-30

24

Innovative in situ treatment approach selected for the Department of Energy Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill is an approximate 70-acre site. In 1974, it was a 32-acre site receiving solid waste from a variety of sources. In 1987, the original area reached its capacity and a 16-acre northern expansion and a 22-acre southern expansion were added. The southern expansion is nearing capacity, and the northern expansion opened in 1993. During its operation, the Sanitary Landfill received rags and wipes used with F-listed solvents. In 1988, the Sanitary Landfill became the subject of a RCRA facility investigation and was designated a RCRA solid waste management unit because of recurring evidence of RCRA hazardous constituents in the groundwater. DOE and SCDHEC reached a settlement agreement, outlining the steps DOE would take to comply with RCRA regulations. Principally, DOE would close the portions of the, landfill containing the solvent rags. This paper describes the technology selection process conducted for the SRS Sanitary Landfill site and the innovative in situ treatment alternative selected for the groundwater and the vadose zone associated with the landfill.

Suer, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Knapp, J. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1994-02-01

25

24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

2012-04-01

26

24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

2010-04-01

27

24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

2011-04-01

28

24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. The...

2013-04-01

29

LANDFILL RESEARCH AT THE BOONE COUNTY FIELD SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Sanitary landfills presently play a significant role in the disposal of solid wastes, and they will probably continue to do so in many areas because of their economic advantages over other methods. However, justifiable concern exists about the environmental effects of sanitary la...

30

Engineering geological aspects of replacing a solid waste disposal site with a sanitary landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current solid waste disposal site in the Mamak district of Ankara is being engulfed by the growing city. All varieties of solid wastes, including medical wastes, are stored at the present site in an irregular manner. Topographical and geological conditions at Mamak waste site are favorable for constructing a sanitary landfill. Located at the edge of a topographical depression,

Kamil Kayabali

1996-01-01

31

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 3): Army Creek Landfill Site, New Castle County, Delaware, September 1986. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Army Creek Landfill (ACL), formerly known as the Llangollen Landfill, is located approximately two miles southwest of New Castle, Delaware, and is adjacent to the Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfill Superfund site. The County operated this 44-acre landfill, which accepted municipal wastes, from 1960 until its closure in 1968 when it was filled to capacity. In late 1971, water in a residential well downgradient of the site developed quality problems. Results from a subsequent investigation showed that leachate, most likely originating from the Army Creek and Delaware Sand and Gravel Landfills, was contaminating local aquifers. This lead to the installation of a ground water recovery system designed to maintain a ground water divide between the landfills and the Artesian Water Company Wellfield located downgradient of the landfills. The primary contaminants of concern include: VOCs, inorganics, heavy metals, benzene, and chromium.

Not Available

1986-09-01

32

76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...42 U.S.C. 9604, 9606(a), 9607, and 9622, between the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Cricket Mascarenas (Settling Party) regarding the 10,000 Havana Street Site (Site), located at 10,000 Havana Street,...

2011-02-23

33

Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1993-02-19

34

Active Lifestyles Class Timetable O2 Max, Goldsmith Street, City site  

E-print Network

, energising workouts that tone your entire body as you dance your way to a fitter, healthier lifestyle. CombatActive Lifestyles Class Timetable O2 Max, Goldsmith Street, City site Lee Westwood Sports Centre

Evans, Paul

35

Factors influencing the establishment of floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site  

SciTech Connect

Natural revegetation on landfill sites often results in a species poor sward dominated by Elymus repens (Shaw, 1983; Davis, 1988; Wong, 1988). The aim of this study was primarily to investigate the mechanism by which E.repens achieved such apparent domination and secondly to investigate various methods to establish floristically rich grasslands on a restored landfill site. Low rates of germination and survival were recorded from seeds of Plantago lanceolata, Centaureau nigrand Leucanthemum vulgare sown into a sward of E.repens on a restored landfill site in Essex, even during periods with adequate soil water. Plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L. vulgare were grown in pots and transplanted into the sward of E.repens. Over the following two years a significant decrease in crown cover of these species was recorded. In areas where E.repens had been treated with herbicide or mown, seedlings and introduced plants of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare increased in cover over two years. Stomatal conductance of P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare was reduced when these species were growing with E.repens even during periods with adequate soil water. P.lanceolata, C.nigra and L.vulgare growing with E.repens on restored landfill has been shown experimentally to result in reduced cover. It is suggested that this is due to competition in combination potentially, with allelochemical effects of E.repens. Successful establishment of a floristically rich grass mix was achieved by the reduction in cover of E.repens by herbicide or mowing. On newly restored landfill a careful balance between soil treatments, fertilizer levels and subsequent management in the form of mowing must be attained in order to establish floristically rich grasslands. The results from this study show that by utilizing various management techniques a floristically rich grass mix could be established on a restored landfill site.

Ireland, E.M.

1991-01-01

36

Migration of contaminants through till: Implications for the selection of the landfill sites  

SciTech Connect

In glaciated regions of North America, till is often regarded as the geologic medium of choice when selecting appropriate sites for landfill operations. This is especially true in southern Ontario, where intensive studies are presently being conducted to site municipal landfills to serve the Greater Toronto Area. Throughout this region many potential sites are situated on the Halton Till, a widespread surficial unit of Late Wisconsinan age. This study focuses on the hydraulic characteristics of the Halton Till utilizing two data sets from interim landfill site searches completed in 1990. Small scale methods of estimating hydraulic conductivity within the till such as rising/falling head tests and laboratory triaxial testing typically yield values on the order of 10[sup [minus]7] and 10[sup [minus]9] cm/s, respectively. In contrast, hydrochemical evidence, including the presence of elevated levels of Na, SO[sub 4], Cl and [sup 3]H within the till pore waters to depths of up to 40 meters suggests that vertical groundwater velocities may be in the order of 1.0 to 1.5 m/year. These data imply that contaminants such as farm fertilizers and road salt are migrating through the till at higher velocities than expected and that the bulk hydraulic conductivity may be 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than values estimated from field and laboratory methods. Such findings can have serious implications for impact assessment studies required for landfill siting investigations.

Gerber, R.E.; Howard, K.W.F. (Univ. of Toronto, Scarborough, Ontario (Canada). Groundwater Research Group)

1992-01-01

37

An Evaluation of Techniques to Control Problem Bird Species on Landfill Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health,\\u000a and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research\\u000a into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to

Aonghais Cook; Steven Rushton; John Allan; Andrew Baxter

2008-01-01

38

N 2O emissions at municipal solid waste landfill sites: Effects of CH 4 emissions and cover soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal solid waste landfills are the significant anthropogenic sources of N 2O due to the cooxidation of ammonia by methane-oxidizing bacteria in cover soils. Such bacteria could be developed through CH 4 fumigation, as evidenced by both laboratory incubation and field measurement. During a 10-day incubation with leachate addition, the average N 2O fluxes in the soil samples, collected from the three selected landfill covers, were multiplied by 1.75 ( p < 0.01), 3.56 ( p < 0.01), and 2.12 ( p < 0.01) from the soil samples preincubated with 5% CH 4 for three months when compared with the control, respectively. Among the three selected landfill sites, N 2O fluxes in two landfill sites were significantly correlated with the variations of the CH 4 emissions without landfill gas recovery ( p < 0.001). N 2O fluxes were also elevated by the increase of the CH 4 emissions with landfill gas recovery in another landfill site ( p > 0.05). The annual average N 2O flux was 176 ± 566 ?g N 2O-N m -2 h -1 ( p < 0.01) from sandy soil-covered landfill site, which was 72% ( p < 0.05) and 173% ( p < 0.01) lower than the other two clay soil covered landfill sites, respectively. The magnitude order of N 2O emissions in three landfill sites was also coincident by the results of laboratory incubation, suggesting the sandy soil cover could mitigate landfill N 2O emissions.

Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

39

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Bush Valley Landfill Superfund Site, Harford County, Abingdon, MD, (final remedial action), September 26, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This Record of Decision (`ROD`) presents the final remedial action selected for the Bush Valley Landfill Superfund Site (`Site`), located near the town of Abingdon in Hardford County, Maryland. The remedial action selected for this Site is a final remedy which will address the wastes buried in the landfill, contaminated soils, leachate, landfill gas, the adjacent wetlands and streams, and contaminated ground water.

NONE

1995-10-01

40

16S rRNA based T-RFLP analysis of methane oxidising bacteria—Assessment, critical evaluation of methodology performance and application for landfill site cover soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanotrophic bacteria have a ubiquitous distribution in the environment and play an important role in global climate warming by lowering methane emission into the atmosphere. Globally, landfill sites produce about 10% of the methane entering the atmosphere, and soils above landfill sites have been shown to contain methanotrophic populations with the highest methane oxidation capacity measured.Landfill site simulating lysimeters were

Nancy Stralis-Pavese; Levente Bodrossy; Thomas G. Reichenauer; Alexandra Weilharter; Angela Sessitsch

2006-01-01

41

Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

2013-04-01

42

Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to detect any true dose–response effect. PMID:12409536

Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

2002-01-01

43

Walnut Street Sansom Street  

E-print Network

Spruce Wood Apts Berkshire Apts Evans Building Levy Oral Health Shops at 40th Street 4126-38 Walnut 4100Street Walnut Street Sansom Street Chestnut Street Locust Street 41stStreet 42ndStreet Spruce Street Pine Street's Hospital of Philadelphia Perelman Center For Advanced Medicine Children's Seashore House Wood Pediatric

Sharp, Kim

44

Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: a synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.  

PubMed

The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700 m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ?4.0 €/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region. PMID:23792820

Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

2013-10-15

45

Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site.  

PubMed

Long term methane emissions from landfill sites are often predicted by first-order decay (FOD) models, in which the default coefficients of the methane generation potential and the methane generation rate given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are usually used. However, previous studies have demonstrated the large uncertainty in these coefficients because they are derived from a calibration procedure under ideal steady-state conditions, not actual landfill site conditions. In this study, the coefficients in the FOD model were estimated by a new approach to predict more precise long term methane generation by considering region-specific conditions. In the new approach, age-defined waste samples, which had been under the actual landfill site conditions, were collected in Hokkaido, Japan (in cold region), and the time series data on the age-defined waste sample's methane generation potential was used to estimate the coefficients in the FOD model. The degradation coefficients were 0.0501/y and 0.0621/y for paper and food waste, and the methane generation potentials were 214.4 mL/g-wet waste and 126.7 mL/g-wet waste for paper and food waste, respectively. These coefficients were compared with the default coefficients given by the IPCC. Although the degradation coefficient for food waste was smaller than the default value, the other coefficients were within the range of the default coefficients. With these new coefficients to calculate methane generation, the long term methane emissions from the landfill site was estimated at 1.35×10(4)m(3)-CH(4), which corresponds to approximately 2.53% of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the city (5.34×10(5)t-CO(2)/y). PMID:23786989

Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

2013-09-01

46

Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

Al Yaqout, Anwar F

2003-07-01

47

Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300  

SciTech Connect

Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

NONE

1997-10-30

48

Electrical Resistivity Inversion Constrained by Resistivity Cone Penetrometry (RCPT): Application to Landfill Site Characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areas of clay-rich tills in the UK are attractive sites for landfills. The relatively impermeable clays act as a barrier between landfill contents and surrounding permeable materials, but tills often contain sand and gravel deposits, which may be water-bearing and/or hydraulically connected to aquifers or surface water bodies. The sands and gravels may be missed by borehole and trial-pit led site investigations but cause flooding of landfill excavations or act as leachate flow routes. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is potentially an appropriate subsurface imaging tool for landfill site characterisation, due to its ability to distinguish permeable sand and gravel from clays.. However, engineers want more accurate identification of interface depth than standard ERT inversions supply. Here, the use of reference geoelectrical models based on Resistivity Cone Penetrometry (RCPT) data is investigated. The use of RCPT data can potentially guide the inversion algorithm towards improved solutions. A series of synthetic electrical resistivity and RCPT data from model profiles with various shaped sand bodies within a clay background were generated, and inverted with and without RCPT constraints. The ability of the guided inversion to reconstruct the original geoelectrical model was assessed quantitatively. Preliminary results indicate that using RCPT data as a constraint can significantly improve interfacial depth accuracy in the inverted data. The use of depth information to constrain 1-D layer models in resistivity sounding is already well established. Hence, an alternative approach to the incorporation of depth information is construction of a pseudo-2D resistivity profile from 1-D soundings extracted from ERT data, inverted using depth-constrained layer models. The accuracy and limitations of this approach will be compared with the reference model approach described above. Future work will include the acquisition and processing of field RCPT and ERT data.

Catt, L. M.; West, L. J.; Clark, R.; Murray, T.

2005-05-01

49

Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S. [Golder Associates, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

50

Walnut Street Sansom Street  

E-print Network

The Consortium 4200 Pine Surrey Hall 301 Parent Infant Center Spruce Hall Spruce Wood Apts Berkshire Apts EvansStreet Walnut Street Sansom Street Chestnut Street Locust Street 41stStreet 42ndStreet Spruce Street Pine Street Center For Advanced Medicine Children's Seashore House Wood Pediatric Ambulatory Care Center Curie Garage

Sharp, Kim

51

Walnut Street Sansom Street  

E-print Network

The Consortium 4200 Pine Surrey Hall 301 Parent Infant Center Spruce Hall Spruce Wood Apts Berkshire Apts EvansStreet Walnut Street Sansom Street Chestnut Street Locust Street 41stStreet 42ndStreet Spruce Street Pine Street For Advanced Medicine Children's Seashore House Wood Pediatric Ambulatory Care Center Curie Garage

Sharp, Kim

52

Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario).

Jones, L.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

1992-01-01

53

An evaluation of techniques to control problem bird species on landfill sites.  

PubMed

Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques--pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites --at deterring three commonly recorded species--the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)--from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used. PMID:18256779

Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

2008-06-01

54

An Evaluation of Techniques to Control Problem Bird Species on Landfill Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds feeding on landfill sites cause problems in terms of nuisance to neighbors, flight safety, a threat to public health, and affecting the day to day site operation. A number of control measures exist to deter problem species; however, research into their effectiveness across sites and for multiple species has been limited. We use a modeling approach in order to assess the effectiveness of nine techniques — pyrotechnics, hand-held distress calls, static distress calls, blank ammunition, a combination of blank and lethal use of ammunition, the use of falcons, the use of hawks, wailers and helium-filled bird-scaring kites — at deterring three commonly recorded species — the Black-headed Gull ( Larus ridibundus), the Herring Gull ( Larus argentatus) and the Lesser Black-backed Gull ( Larus fuscus) — from six landfill sites across the United Kingdom. The use of distress calls, falconry, and combinations of lethal and nonlethal use of ammunition were the most effective techniques for initially deterring birds from these sites. However, when habituation is considered, there is a clear difference between techniques such as falconry, which have a lethal aspect and may act to reinforce the deterrence, and the use of techniques such as distress calls, which do not. However there are problems related to legislation and public perception when lethal techniques are used.

Cook, Aonghais; Rushton, Steven; Allan, John; Baxter, Andrew

2008-06-01

55

"Street Life" as a Site of Resiliency: How Street Life-Oriented Black Men Frame Opportunity in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study organized a participatory action research team of four street life-oriented Black men to examine attitudes toward opportunity in a community sample of street life-oriented Black men ranging between the ages of 16 and 65. Data were collected in the form of 371 surveys and two group interviews. Most of the data collection took place…

Arafat Payne, Yasser

2008-01-01

56

Basic hydrogeologic and remote sensing data for selection of sanitary landfill sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid waste disposal were studied in Volusia County to protect the water supply in the area. Highlands in this County are of limited areal extent and, most significantly, the sand hills and ridges are in areas where recharge of the Floridan aquifer occurs. This study proves that well drained soils meeting the current State requirements are of limited areal extent. These areas should not be utilized as sanitary landfill sites! Rather, it is recommended that the Tomoka Farm Road site into the adjacent wetlands be extended. The County site on Rima Ridge recommended by Greenleaf-Telesca as the primary waste burial site in the County should be re-evaluated because of potential danger to the Daytona Beach water supply.

Brooks, H. K.; Ruth, B. E.; Degner, J. D.

1977-01-01

57

Geoelectrical investigation of old/abandoned, covered landfill sites in urban areas: model development with a genetic diagnosis approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoelectrical methods have an important, albeit difficult role to play in landfill investigations. In the present economic conditions, with the environmentally sensitive regime, adequate desk-study and model development are essential ingredients for a successful site investigation of landfills. This paper attempts to develop a genetic investigative model for old/abandoned landfill sites where the records of operations are not available. The main elements of the model are the site boundaries, age and nature of anthropogenic deposits, depth and dip of the layers of refuse and sealing materials, the integrity and shape of the capping zones or separating walls and basal floor slopes, the position of concealed access roads in the site, the water table (or perched water bodies within the refuse) and the presence of leachate. The attendant geotechnical, hydrogeological, and bio-geochemical constraints at such sites are also incorporated in the model for consistency of practical solutions to landfill problems. The nature of anthropogenic deposits and the spatial-temporal characteristics of leachates are reviewed in a geoelectrical context. The analogy between waste degradation and leaching, and the well-known weathering processes of supergene mineral enrichment and saprolite formation in crystalline rocks is explored, and used to develop a conceptual resistivity-vs.-depth model for landfill sites. The main tenet of the model is that vertical conductivity profiles will attain maximum values in the zone of mineral enrichment near the water table and tail-off away from it. This conceptual resistivity model is shown to be consistent with non-invasive observations in landfill sites in different geographical environments. Power-law relationships are found to exist between some geoelectrically important hydrochemical parameters (fluid conductivity, chloride content and total dissolved solids) in leachates and leachate-contaminated groundwater from some landfill sites. Since some chemical parameters of fill are known to vary consistently with time, a plausible hydrochemical and age-deductive scheme for saturated fill is proposed for geoelectrical models of landfills without significant amounts of metal. Practical suggestions are made for a consistent approach in geoelectrical investigation and diagnosis of old landfill sites. A few field examples are used to illustrate the diagnosis approach.

Meju, Maxwell A.

2000-05-01

58

An estimation of the social costs of landfill siting using a choice experiment.  

PubMed

The paper by Sasao on using a choice experiment (CE) to incorporate social costs in siting a landfill is a good step forward in siting landfills and other waste handling facilities in a more socially responsible manner. However, Sasao's method, which is well-established in the economics literature, has a number of underlying assumptions that practitioners must be careful to consider in applying the approach. The focus of this discussion is on three issues: (1) the form of utility function used, (2) the perceptions of the survey questions by the respondents versus the intended perception, and (3) the application of the results to situations beyond the assessed situations. This discussion article urges practitioners to carefully check their implementation of a choice experiment method to make sure the elicited values correctly represent those of the community. This discussion should not be construed as suggesting that the approach or results of Sasao (2004) are incorrect. Instead this discussion is meant to elaborate on the ideas and approach presented by Sasao with the hope that the approach will be applied more widely. PMID:15823749

Guikema, Seth D

2005-01-01

59

Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.  

PubMed

A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals. PMID:23528999

Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

2013-06-01

60

Behavior of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in leachate from MSW landfill sites in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in landfill leachates and the effluent from leachate treatment facilities have been analyzed by many researchers. However, seasonal and yearly variations and the influence of landfill age are still not clear. In this study, leachate was sampled on four occasions each, at different seasons, from two MSW landfills which receive different waste material. Then, the quantities of

Hiroshi Asakura; Toshihiko Matsuto; Nobutoshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

61

Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach  

SciTech Connect

There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

Poskas, P.; Kilda, R. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania); Poskas, G. [Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2008-07-01

62

A GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR SELECTION OF LANDFILL SITES: a case study from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill sites receive 92% of total annual solid waste produced by municipalities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill location for the Abu Dhabi municipal area are determined by integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) analysis. To identify appropriate landfill sites, eight input map layers including proximity to urban areas, proximity to wells and water table depth, geology and topography, proximity to touristic and archeological sites, distance from roads network, distance from drainage networks, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identified potential areas showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. Results revealed that 30% of the study area was identified as highly suitable, 25% as suitable, and 45% as unsuitable. The selection of the final landfill site, however, requires further field research.

Issa, S. M.; Shehhi, B. Al

2012-07-01

63

Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. PMID:25002369

Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

2014-11-01

64

Formerly Utilized MED/AEC Sites Remedial Action Program. Radiological Survey of the Pennsylvania Railroad Landfill Site, Burrell Township, Pennsylvnia. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A radiological survey was conducted at the Pennsylvania Railroad Landfill Site in Burrell Township, Pennsylvania. In 1956 and 1957, approximately 11,600 tons of radioactive material was dumped at this site and was apparently scattered over an area of less...

1979-01-01

65

Evaluation of mutagenic activities of leachates in landfill sites by micronucleus test and comet assay using goldfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a simple system for monitoring the presence of mutagens\\/carcinogens in the leachates from landfill sites, we used a micronucleus test and a single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay originally developed for mice and rats on goldfish (Carassius auratus). The goldfish were exposed for 9 days to the leachate with chemical and biological treatment (treated leachate) or without treatment

Yuya Deguchi; Tomoyasu Toyoizumi; Shuichi Masuda; Akio Yasuhara; Shino Mohri; Masato Yamada; Yuzo Inoue; Naohide Kinae

2007-01-01

66

Radiological survey results for the Peek Street site properties, Schenectady, New York  

SciTech Connect

The Peek Street Industrial Facility, located at 425 Peek Street, Schenectady, New York, was operated by the General Electric Company for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1947 and 1955. A variety of operations using radioactive materials were conducted at the site, but the main activities were to design an intermediate breeder reactor and to develop a chemical process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent reactor fuel. Nonradioactive beryllium metal was machined on the site for breeder reactor application. The 4.5-acre site was decommissioned and released in October 1955. A radiological survey was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 1989. The survey included scan and grid point measurements of direct radiation levels outdoors on the five properties and inside the factory building, and radionuclide analysis of samples collected from each property. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in outdoor surface and subsurface soil samples from each property and in dust, debris, and structural materials from inside the factory building. Auger holes were logged to assess location and extent of possible subsurface residual soil radioactivity. Radionuclide concentrations were deter-mined in both indoor and outdoor water samples and in selected samples of vegetation. The presence of fixed and transferable surface residual radioactivity was investigated inside the factory building and on discarded materials outdoors on the property. High-volume air samples as well as additional selected indoor and outdoor soil samples were analyzed to determine levels of elemental beryllium.

Foley, R.D.; Cottrell, W.D.; Carrier, R.F.

1992-08-01

67

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL  

SciTech Connect

During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

2003-02-27

68

SSutter Street Bush Street  

E-print Network

Post Pain Management 1675 Scott Helen Diller Family Cancer Research 2340 Sutter Street Harold Brunn Outpatient Dialysis 1675 Scott Street Osher Building 1545 Divisadero Street Pain Management Center 2255 Post

Soloveichik, David

69

MILL STREET PINE STREET  

E-print Network

BENNO CH RD FOREST AVE MILL STREET PINE STREET MIDDLE STREET MILL STREET OAK STREET SUMMERST Labels: 1 2 3 4 65 7 98 1 2 3 4 65 7 98 A B C D E F G H I J K M L A B C D E F G H I J K M L Map Design Street, Orono Open Daily 10 AM - 4 PM Harvestmoondeli.com Voted best sandwiches in the Bangor area three

Thomas, Andrew

70

Two-dimensional resistivity investigation of the North Cavalcade Street site, Houston, Texas, August 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The North Cavalcade Street site was first developed for wood treating in 1946. By 1955, pentachlorophenol wood preservation services and other support facilities, such as creosote ponds, pentachlorophenol and creosote storage structures, various tanks, lumber sheds, a treatment facility, and other buildings had been added. In 1961, the property was closed. To protect public health and welfare and the environment from release or threatened releases of hazardous substances, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency added the North Cavalcade Street site to the National Priorities List on October 5, 1984. Between September 1985 and November 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a remedial investigation which, through exploratory drilling, determined the locations of two contaminated source areas and a normal fault. During August 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity investigation at the North Cavalcade Street site to provide additional characterization of the dense non-aqueous phase liquids and the lithologies that can influence contaminant migration. The 2D resistivity investigation used a capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity method as a reconnaissance tool to locate geophysical anomalies that could be associated with possible areas of creosote contamination. The inversion results of the CC resistivity survey identified resistive anomalies in the subsurface near the eastern and western contaminated source areas. A direct-current (DC) resistivity survey conducted near the CC resistivity survey confirmed the occurrence of subsurface resistive anomalies. The inversion results of the DC resistivity survey were used to define the subsurface distribution of resistivity at each line. Forward modeling was used as an interpretative tool to relate the subsurface distribution of resistivity from four DC resistivity lines to known, assumed, and hypothetical information on subsurface lithologies. The final forward models were used as an estimate of the true resistivity structure for the field data. The forward models and the inversion results of the forward models show the depth, thickness, and extent of strata as well as the resistive anomalies occurring along the four lines and the displacement of strata resulting from the Pecore Fault along two of the four DC resistivity lines. Ten additional DC resistivity lines show similarly distributed shallow subsurface lithologies of silty sand and clay strata. Eight priority areas of resistive anomalies were identified for evaluation in future studies. The interpreted DC resistivity data allowed subsurface stratigraphy to be extrapolated between existing boreholes resulting in an improved understanding of lithologies that can influence contaminant migration.

Kress, Wade H.; Teeple, Andrew P.

2005-01-01

71

Sutter Street Bush Street  

E-print Network

Dialysis 1675 Scott Street Osher Building 1535 Divisadero Street Pain Management Center 2255 Post Street Sutter 2320 Sutter 2300 Sutter Outpatient Dialysis 1640 Scott Ronald McDonald House Harold Brunn Post Pain Management 1675 Scott Helen Diller Family Cancer Research 2340 Sutter Street Harold Brunn

Lim, Wendell

72

Quorum Sensing Activity of Serratia fonticola Strain RB-25 Isolated from an Ex-landfill Site  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a unique bacterial communication system which permits bacteria to synchronize their behaviour in accordance with the population density. The operation of this communication network involves the use of diffusible autoinducer molecules, termed N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Serratia spp. are well known for their use of quorum sensing to regulate the expression of various genes. In this study, we aimed to characterized the AHL production of a bacterium designated as strain RB-25 isolated from a former domestic waste landfill site. It was identified as Serratia fonticola using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and this was confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of S. fonticola strain RB-25 spent culture supernatant indicated the existence of three AHLs namely: N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine-lactone (3-oxo-C6 HSL). This is the first report of the production of these AHLs in S. fonticola. PMID:24625739

Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

73

Movement of unlined landfill under preloading surcharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

As organic solid waste is decomposed in a landfill and mass is lost due to gas and leachate formation, the landfill settles. Settlement of a landfill interferes with the rehabilitation and subsequent use of the landfill site after closure. This study examined the soil\\/solid waste movement at the Al-Qurain landfill in Kuwait after 15 years of closure as plans are

Anwar F. Al-Yaqout; Mohamed F. Hamoda

2007-01-01

74

Planning Application : 13/01075/LBD Former Ruskin College site. Walton Street I am writing on behalf of the St John Street Area Residents' Association to express our concerns about the  

E-print Network

Planning Application : 13/01075/LBD Former Ruskin College site. Walton Street I am writing on behalf of the St John Street Area Residents' Association to express our concerns about the proposals for the design, increased height and materials of the roof in this application. The current roof of the former

Flynn, E. Victor

75

TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

Hasbrouck, J.C.

1993-09-01

76

Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?  

SciTech Connect

Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery.

Spokas, K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States)]. E-mail: spokas@morris.ars.usda.gov; Bogner, J. [Landfills Inc., Wheaton, Illinois and University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Chanton, J.P. [Florida State University, Department of Oceanography, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Morcet, M. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Aran, C. [Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement l'Energie et le Dechet (CReeD), Veolia Environnement, Limay (France); Graff, C. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, St. Paul, MN (United States); Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le [COLLEX Pty Ltd., CReeD, Veolia Environnement, Pyrmont NSW (Australia); Hebe, I. [Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management, Angers (France)

2006-07-01

77

School StreetMonroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

School Street-Monroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & Monroe Streets, on south by Jefferson Street, on west by Hope Avenue, & on east by Parker Avenue & site of Canal Street, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

78

Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

2008-03-01

79

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

80

Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application.  

PubMed

Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts>biosolids>biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2-2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) Mg(-1) biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C. PMID:23380138

Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Naidu, R

2013-11-01

81

A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps.  

PubMed

Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills) and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps) were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs) and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs) computed for each CS (1995-2002) were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North- Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18), bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11), and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13). In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings. PMID:25292275

Fazzo, Lucia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Pirastu, Roberta; Bellino, Mirella; Falleni, Fabrizio; Comba, Pietro; Bianchi, Fabrizio

2014-01-01

82

The effect of atmospheric pressure on CH4 and CO2 emission from a closed landfill site in Manchester, UK.  

PubMed

A time series study was conducted to ascertain the effect of barometric pressure on the variability of CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a closed landfill site. An in situ data of methane/carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental parameters were collected by means of an in-borehole gas monitor, the GasClam (Ion Science, UK). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the strength of the correlation between ground-gas concentrations and barometric pressure. The result shows CH4 and CO2 concentrations to be variable with weak negative correlations of 0.2691 and 0.2773, respectively, with barometric pressure over the entire monitoring period. Although the R(2) was slightly improved by considering their concentration over single periods of rising and falling pressure, single periods of rising pressure and single periods of falling pressure, their correlations remained insignificant at 95% confidence level. The result revealed that atmospheric pressure--the acclaimed major control on the variability of ground-gas concentration--is not always so. A case was made for the determination of other possible controls such as changes in temperature, soil permeability, landfill water depth, season, and geology of the borehole and also how much of control each factor would have on the variability/migration of CH4 and CO2 concentrations from the studied landfill. PMID:23160719

Nwachukwu, A N; Anonye, D

2013-07-01

83

Conducting Remedial Investigations/Feasibility Studies for CERCLA Municipal Landfill Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study aids in the development of methodologies and tools to assist in streamlining the Remedial Investigations/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) and selection of remedy process for landfills. The study: (1) develops tools to assist in scoping the RI/FS for ...

1991-01-01

84

Field Performance Of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final Cover At A Humid Site  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA, to evalaute how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a final landfill cover changed over a 4-year service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed ...

85

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Mather Air Force Base, Landfill Operable Unit, Sacramento County, CA, August 3, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial actions for the Landfill OU Sites, at the inactive Mather AFB, Sacramento County, California. The Installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites which comprise the Landfill OU at the inactive Mather AFB include: Site 1 - Runway Overrun Landfill; Site 2 - `8150` Area Landfill; Site 3 - Northeast Perimeter Landfill No. 1; Site 4 - Northeast Perimeter Landfill No. 2; Site 5 - Northeast Perimeter Landfill No. 3; and Site 6 - Firing Range Landfill Sites.

NONE

1995-09-01

86

Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The

Bruce R. Kinzey; Michael Myer

2009-01-01

87

School site and the potential to walk to school: the impact of street connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods.  

PubMed

The impact of neighborhood walkability (based on street connectivity and traffic exposure) within 2 km of public primary schools on children regularly walking to school was examined. The most (n=13) and least walkable (n=12) schools were selected using a school-specific 'walkability' index and a cross sectional study undertaken of Year 5, 6 and 7 children (n=1480) and consenting parents (n=1332). After adjustment, regularly walking to school was higher in children attending schools in high walkable neighborhoods (i.e, high street connectivity and low traffic volume) (Odds ratio (OR) 3.63; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.01-6.56), and less likely in neighborhoods with high connectivity but high traffic volume (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.22-0.47). Connected street networks provide direct routes to school but when designed for heavy traffic, the potential for children to walk to school is reduced. This highlights the importance of carefully considering school siting and, particularly, street design in school neighborhoods. PMID:21237697

Giles-Corti, Billie; Wood, Gina; Pikora, Terri; Learnihan, Vincent; Bulsara, Max; Van Niel, Kimberly; Timperio, Anna; McCormack, Gavin; Villanueva, Karen

2011-03-01

88

Ox Mountain sanitary landfill: Apanolio Canyon expansion site, San Mateo County, California. Volume 2. Appendix. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Further studies include: plants Observed in Apanolio Canyon; Animals Expected or Observed in Apanolio Canyon; Marbled Murrelet Survey; Review of Available Scientific Information on Six Candidate Insects; Update on Status of Candidate Insects; Apanolio Canyon Sensitive Plant Investigation; Fisheries Resources of Upper Apanolio, Benthic Invertebrate Survey of Apanolio, Corinda Los Trancos, and Pilarcitos Creeks, San Mateo County, California; Streamflows and Velocity of Flows at the Bongard diversion Dam in Apanolio Canyon; A Spring Survey to Determine the Presence or Absence of the San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenis) in Two Tributaries of Pilarcitos Creek, Half Moon Bay, CA; Wildlife and Fisheries Mitigation Plan, Ox Mountain Sanitary Landfill, Apanolio Canyon Expansion Site; Correspondence Site Selection Criteria Information; Draft Contingency Remedial Action Plan; Leachate Collection and Removal System (LCRS) and Leachate/Contaminated Groundwater Treatment Systems; Apanolio Creek Streamflow Augmentation Plan; Apanolio Canyon Lower Aquifer Recharge Plan; Application for Exemptions - Technical Informations; Geotechnical Study and Specifications, Subgrade Barrier and Clay Liner System; Apanolio Canyon Boring Logs; Potentiometric Surface Maps, Apanolio Canyon; Geologic Cross Sections - Apanolio Canyon; Interim Report on Leachate Exposure Test Program, Apanolio Canyon Landfill Expansion.

Not Available

1989-04-01

89

Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

1996-02-01

90

Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York  

SciTech Connect

Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10{sup {minus} 4} carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 {mu}g/ft{sup 2} for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated.

Hartmann, H.M.; Avci, H.I.; Ditmars, J.D.

1992-02-01

91

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

92

Wintertime Correlation Between Black Carbon and Particle Size in a Street and Rural Site in Santiago de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the correlation between black carbon and particle size in three sites in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in the winter of 2009 and performed a detailed comparison. Two of the sites are located near busy streets in Santiago de Chile. The other site was located in a rural area about 30 km upwind from downtown with little influence from vehicles, but large influence from wood burning. The particle size distribution was measured with a DMPS (Whalin, 2001) in the range from 10 to 700 nm. Simultaneously, black carbon was measured with an optical monitor developed at the University of Santiago (Gramsch, 2004). It is well known that the smaller particles (~ 10 - 40 nm ) are emitted directly by the engines of vehicles, which later condensate or coagulate in the atmosphere to form larger particles. In our measurements, the street site is mostly influenced by diesel vehicles which emit large amounts of black carbon. We have divided the particle size measurements in four groups (10 - 40 nm, 41- 69 nm, 79 - 157 nm and 190 - 700 nm) in order to compare with the carbon monitor. The highest correlation (0.98) in the site near the street between black carbon and the particles was obtained with the 190 - 700 nm. The correlation with the 79 - 157 nm group was slightly less (0.93). A comparison between the hourly average curves for black carbon and the 190 - 700 nm group show a similar shape during the whole day. In the rural site, the number of particles in the 10 - 40 nm group was 10 times lower than in the street, but the number of particles in the 190 - 700 nm group was only two times smaller. This fact is an indication that wood burning does not generate particles smaller than ~ 80 - 100 nm. The best correlation in the rural site between the black carbon and the particles was also with the 190 - 700 nm group. However, the correlation was lower (0.86) than in the street site. The hourly average curves for black carbon and the 190 - 700 nm group show a similar shape during the night (10 PM - 6 AM), but differ during the day. These measurements indicate that black carbon measurements may be more sensitive to emission from diesel vehicles than wood burning. This work was supported by the University of Santiago (Dicyt), the National Commission for the Environment (CONAMA) and the Regional Government of the Metropolitan Region (GORE).. Gramsch, E., Cereceda-Balic, F., Ormeño, I., Palma, G., Oyola, P., 2004. Use of the light absorption coefficient to monitor elemental carbon and PM2.5. Example of Santiago de Chile. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 54, 799-808 Wahlin, P., Palmgren, F., Van Dingenen, R., 2001. Experimental studies of ultrafine particles in streets and the relationship to traffic. Atmospheric Environment 35 (Suppl. 1), 63-69..

Gramsch, E. V.; Reyes, F.; Oyola, P.

2013-05-01

93

Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

2011-02-02

94

Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in Thessaloniki, sending thick black  

E-print Network

Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site by firefighters, officials said. Since Thursday, the fire service had been battling to bring the blaze at the Tagarades dump under control. Efforts had been hampered by the extreme heat as the fire burned plastic items

Columbia University

95

Necessity for Establishment of Inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Landfills and Contaminated Sites for an Evaluation of Mobilisation Risk by Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landfilling of persistent hazardous compounds with a tendency to migrate, such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a major pollution challenge. Historic dumping and landfilling in badly engineered and unsuitably located sites has resulted in widespread contamination from the landfilling of HCH, HCB and PCB wastes around former production sites. In the case of PCBs this has been exacerbated by subsequent landfilling of contaminated products (oils, capacitors, sealants and other building residues). In most cases locations and amounts are not or vaguely known but impacts are increasingly discovered by monitoring in the most advanced countries with sophisticated monitoring schemes in place. These reveal that entire river systems are being contaminated by these old dumps and contaminated sites and that expensive remediation work is required for to reduce further contamination. In addition more recently other (halogenated) chemicals exhibiting the characteristics of POPs have emerged including e.g. brominated aromatic compounds (e.g. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other brominated flame retardants) widely used as flame retardants for electronics; textiles, furniture; upholstery; insulation foam etc.) and fluorinated organic pollutants (e.g. PFOS or PFOA used in carpets, textiles, furniture, paper coating etc.). As products containing these chemicals reach the end of their life these hazardous compounds increasingly ended and end up in the waste stream. In most countries a large proportion of these wastes are disposed to landfills. In developing countries and those with economies in transition almost all this waste is landfilled. Consequently the quantities of POPs in municipal waste landfills have increased the last two decades. Therefore in addition to chemical landfills also municipal landfills increasingly become POPs deposits and sources. Because of their persistence and relative mobility, these compounds will persist in landfills for many decades and probably centuries. Over these extended time frames landfill engineering systems, including basal and capping liners, gas and leachate collection systems will inevitably degrade and loose their abilities to contain contamination. Furthermore consideration must now be given to the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. This is likely to result in higher temperatures with increased volatalisation of semi-volatile compounds; longer dry periods with drying of surface caps; together with higher intensity rainfall events and increased flooding risks. These effects will impact on the integrity of the containment systems. It is therefore inevitable that more of the deposited POPs will leach into rivers, lakes and the larger environment via escaping leachate, ground or surface water as well as escaping to atmosphere by volatilisation. At the same time our reliance on water resources is likely to increase. In order to evaluate the associated risks for human exposure and biodiversity, inventories of deposited POPs and other PBTs need to be established, their locations comprehensively mapped and linked to future flooding scenarios for prediction of contamination of the precious water resources. This interdisciplinary task will require the cooperation between POPs experts, geotechnical engineers, contaminated site/landfill experts, water management specialists and geoscientists working on climate change and flooding.

Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan; Forter, Martin

2010-05-01

96

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 3): Keystone Sanitation Landfill site, Adams County, Union Township, PA. (First remedial action), September 1990  

SciTech Connect

The 40-acre Keystone Sanitation Landfill site, an inactive, privately owned landfill, is in Union Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania. Surrounding land use is primarily agricultural with scattered residences. From 1966 to 1990, the unlined landfill accepted household and municipal wastes as well as industrial and construction debris, including phosphorus-contaminated sand, potato sludge, resin sludge, incineration ash, and dried latex paint. In 1982, State investigations revealed onsite ground water contamination and a contaminated onsite residential well. In 1984, EPA found low-level contamination in nearby residential wells. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses Operable Unit 1, the containment of onsite source area and remediation of onsite contaminated ground water. A subsequent ROD will address offsite ground water contamination in monitoring and residential wells. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, vinyl chloride; other organics including acids, and phenols; and metals including chromium and lead.

Not Available

1990-09-30

97

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Onalaska Municipal Landfill site, Lacrosse County, Wisconsin (first remedial action), Final report, August 14, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The 11-acre Onalaska Municipal Landfill site includes a 7-acre landfill owned by the Township of Onalaska, which is located in central-western Wisconsin. The Black River and its associated wetlands are 400 feet west of the site and lie within a wildlife and fish refuge. Approximately 320,000 gallons of liquid solvent waste and approximately 1,000 drums of solvent waste were either burned with other trash onsite or poured directly into holes for burial in the southwestern portion of the landfill. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, xylenes, and TCE; other organics including PAHs; and metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for the site includes in-situ bioremediation of the solvent-contaminated soil and, if feasible, a portion of the landfill debris; pumping and treatment of the ground water plume using aeration, clarification, and filtration, followed by discharge of the treated ground water into the Black River and onsite disposal of the sludge.

Not Available

1990-08-14

98

Environmental monitoring report, 1980, 1981, 1982 for the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and Middlesex Municipal Landfill Sites  

SciTech Connect

During periods of remedial action activities conducted in 1980 and 1981 at designated sites in the Borough of Middlesex, New Jersey, air, water, and sediments were sampled and analyzed to verify the adequacy of contamination control and compliance with applicable standards. Analytical results show that remedial action activities at the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) and vicinity properties were conducted, with few exceptions, within applicable standards. During 1982, a surveillance monitoring program was initiated at the MSP and at the former Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) site. Radioactivity was measured in air and water to allow calculation of radiation doses to the public. The resulting dose from external gamma radiation at the MSP site boundary in 1982 was approximately twice natural background and less than 40% (background included) of the Department of Energy (DOE) standard. The highest continuous occupancy dose to the bronchial epithelium (lungs) from radon exposure at the MML boundary was approximately twice the background value or about 60% (background included) of the DOE standard. 12 references, 15 figures, 28 tables.

Not Available

1984-10-01

99

Energy potential of modern landfills  

SciTech Connect

Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Bogner, J.E.

1990-01-01

100

Hydrogeologic framework, arsenic distribution, and groundwater geochemistry of the glacial-sediment aquifer at the Auburn Road landfill superfund site, Londonderry, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Leachate continues to be generated from landfills at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund Site in Londonderry, New Hampshire. Impermeable caps on the three landfills at the site inhibit direct infiltration of precipitation; however, high water-table conditions allow groundwater to interact with landfill materials from below, creating leachate and ultimately reducing conditions in downgradient groundwater. Reducing conditions can facilitate arsenic transport by allowing it to stay in solution or by liberating arsenic adsorbed to surfaces and from geologic sources, such as glacial sediments and bedrock. The site occupies a 180-acre parcel of land containing streams, ponds, wetlands, and former gravel pits located in glacial sediment. Four areas, totaling 14 acres, including three landfills and one septage lagoon, were used for waste disposal. The site was closed in 1980 after volatile organic compounds associated with industrial waste dumping were detected. The site was added to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Priority List in 1982, and the landfills were capped in 1996. Although volatile organic compound concentrations in groundwater have declined substantially, some measurable concentrations remain. Temporally variable and persistent elevated arsenic concentrations have been measured in groundwater affected by the landfill leachate. Microbial consumption of carbon found in leachate is a driver of reducing conditions that liberate arsenic at the site. In addition to sources of carbon in landfill leachate, wetland areas throughout the site also could contribute carbon to groundwater, but it is currently unknown if any of the wetland areas have downward or reversing gradients that could allow the infiltration of surface water to groundwater. Red-stained sediments and water indicate iron-rich groundwater discharge to surface water and are also associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic in sediment and groundwater. Ironrich groundwater seeps have been observed in the wetland, streams, and pond downgradient of the landfills. Piezometers were installed in some of these locations to confirm groundwater discharge, measure vertical-flow gradients, and to provide a way to sample the discharging groundwater. Understanding the movement of leachate in groundwater is complicated by the presence of preferential flow paths through aquifer materials with differing hydraulic properties; these preferential flow paths can affect rates of recharge, geochemical conditions, and contaminant fluxes. In areas adjacent to the three capped landfills, infiltration of precipitation containing oxygenated water through permeable deltaic sediments in the former gravel pit area causes increases in dissolved oxygen concentrations and decreases in arsenic concentrations. Layered deltaic sediments produce anisotropic hydraulic characteristics and zones of high hydraulic conductivity. The glacial-sediment aquifer also includes glaciolacustrine sediments that have low permeability and limit infiltration at the surface Discharge of leachate-affected groundwater may be limited in areas of organic muck on the bottom of Whispering Pines Pond because the muck may act as a semiconfining layer. Geophysical survey results were used to identify several areas with continuous beds of muck and an underlying highresistivity layer on top of a layer of low resistivity that may represent leachate-affected groundwater. The high-resistivity layer is likely groundwater associated with oxygenated recharge, which would cause arsenic to adsorb onto aquifer sediments and reduce concentrations of dissolved arsenic in groundwater. Surface and borehole geophysical data collected in 2011 were used to identify potentially high-permeability or contaminated zones in the aquifer (preferential flowpaths) as well as low-permeability zones that may promote contamination through back diffusion. Some groundwater in parts of the glacial-sediment aquifer where the leachate plumes were present had low electrical resistivity, low dissolved oxygen, and high concentrations of a

Degnan, James R.; Harte, Philip T.

2013-01-01

101

Walnut Street Sansom Street  

E-print Network

Walnut Street, 3809 104, 203 Grid Building Room Number University of Pennsylvania Facilities and Real Estate Services Office of the University Architect 300 450 600150Feet 50 100 150 200Meters North Revised Labs Psychology Vance Hall The Quadrangle Goddard Labs Richards Building Kaskey Park Ann

Sharp, Kim

102

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE OLD QUESNEL LANDFILL  

E-print Network

#12;IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE OLD QUESNEL LANDFILL FINAL REPORT DOE FRAP 1995-05 Prepared for .................................................................................................................ll Leachate Seeps List of Figures Site Location/Legal Boundary Old Quesnel Landfill

103

A steady state redox zone approach for modeling the transport and degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds from a landfill site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A redox zonation approach is used as a framework for obtaining biodegradation rate constants of xenobiotic compounds in a landfill plume (Grindsted, Denmark). The aquifer is physically heterogeneous in terms of a complex zonation of different geological units close to the landfill and biogeochemically heterogeneous in terms of a specified redox zonation. First-order degradation rates of six organic compounds (benzene,

Michael J. Lønborg; Peter Engesgaard; Poul L. Bjerg; Dan Rosbjerg

2006-01-01

104

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering a suitable methodology was developed. The feasibility of site selection in the study area based on different criteria was used to obtain the layered data by integrating Remote Sensing and GIS. This methodology is suitable for all practical applications in other cities, also.

Basavarajappa, T. H.

2012-07-01

105

Installation restoration program: Closure investigation report. Site 1: Former base landfill; Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Closure Investigation (Cl) of Site 1, the former Base Landfill at Stewart Air National Guard Base (the Base) located at the Stewart International Airport (lAP), was performed by Aneptek Corporation (ANEPTEK). Site 1 is located southeast of the airport complex. Site 1 and Site 2 (the former pesticide pit disposal area) have been the subject of several previous investigations by both the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the National Guard Bureau. Scope of Investigation. The CI field program included air monitoring and the sampling of subsurface soils, surface water and groundwater to provide data for an evaluation of site geology, hydrogeology, and potential environmental impacts from the Site 1 landfill. Ml groundwater and surface water samples submitted for off-site laboratory analysis were analyzed for the full list of Baseline Parameters provide in Chapter 6 of the New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations (6 NYCRR) Part 360-2.11. Physical characteristics of the fill and cover material were defined through the installation and monitoring of slope stability monuments and settlement pads. Test pits were excavated to determine the lateral extent of waste. Soil samples collected from the existing interim cover were submitted to an off-site laboratory for grain size analyses. Slug tests were performed on monitoring wells to provide estimates of formation hydraulic conductivity. In accordance with the requirements of 6 NYCRR Part 360-2.15, an explosive gas investigation was conducted using a slam-bar and monitoring gasses with a flame ionization detector (FID) and a meter capable of detecting percent oxygen, percent lower explosive limit (LEL), carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide. A complete site walkover of the landfill was made to locate any areas of leachate outbreak; and a vector survey was conducted by a field biologist.

NONE

1997-04-01

106

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Syosset Landfill Site, operable unit 2, Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY, March 28, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedy for the second operable unit (OU2) for the Syosset Landfill site (the Site), located in the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York. This operable unit addresses the fate and transport of the contaminants in the groundwater emanating from the Site. EPA is consultation with the State of New York has determined that contamination is limited and does not pose a significant threat to human health or the environment; therefore, remediation is not appropriate. This determination is based on the OU2 Remedial Investigation and the expected successful implementation of the OU1 remedy.

NONE

1996-11-01

107

24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.  

...AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.50 Funds and finances: off-site utilities...

2014-04-01

108

Evaluation of on-site biological treatment for landfill leachates and its impact: A size distribution study.  

PubMed

A cost effective and widely applied approach for landfill leachate disposal is to discharge it to a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The recalcitrant nature of leachate organics and the impact on the downstream WWTPs were comprehensively investigated in this study. Size fractionation by ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) was employed in conjunction with various analyses (TOC, COD, nitrogen species and UV(254) absorbance) on raw and biologically treated landfill leachates to provide insight into biological treatability. Overall, landfill leachate organics showed bio-refractory properties. Less than half of the organic matter, measured as total organic carbon (TOC), could be removed in the biological processes examined. Size distribution data showed that the <1 thousand Daltons (kDa) fraction is dominant in most untreated and treated landfill leachates, indicating difficulties for membrane treatment. Also, most removal occurred for the <1 kDa fraction in the biological processes, while the intermediate size fractions increased slightly. This may be caused by bio-flocculation and/or partial degradation of larger molecular weight fractions. Organic nitrogen was investigated in this study as one of the first explorations for landfill leachates. Organic nitrogen in landfill leachates was more bio-refractory than other organic matter. UV quenching by landfill leachates was also investigated since it interferes with the UV disinfection at WWTPs. The combination of activated carbon and activated sludge (PACT) showed some effectiveness for reducing UV quenching, indicating that carbon adsorption is a potential method for removal of UV quenching substances. Fourier transform Infrared (FT/IR) data showed that aromatic groups are responsible for the UV quenching phenomenon. PMID:22591821

Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Goldsmith, C Douglas

2012-08-01

109

Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?  

PubMed

Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

2011-01-01

110

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

111

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1)  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action (CAU) 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 5 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs). The corrective action investigation (CAI) of CAU 5 was conducted from October 7, 2002 through January 30, 2003, with geophysical surveys completed from March 6 through May 8, 2002, and topographic surveys conducted from March 11 through April 29, 2003. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified only at CAS 12-15-01. Those COCs included total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following single alternative was developed for consideration. Close in Place with Administrative Controls is the recommended alternative for all of the CASs in CAU 5. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate inadvertent intrusion into landfills at CAU 5.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

2003-10-24

112

Health assessment for Jones Sanitation Landfill (Jones Septic Site), Hyde Park, Dutchess County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980534556. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Jones Sanitation Landfill, also known as the Jones Septic Site, is listed on the National Priorities List. From the early 1960s through 1979 the site accepted industrial liquid wastes and sludges. The site now accepts only septic waste collected by commercial firms. Results of environmental sampling indicate that the contaminants of concern at the site include inorganics (e.g., chromium, copper, lead, cadmium, mercury), oil and grease wastes, and several volatile organic chemicals including: 1,1-dichloroethylene; trichloroethylene; trichloroethene, acetone; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene; chloroform; methylene chloride; and perhaps pentachlorophenol. Based on the available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via the above-named human exposure pathways.

Not Available

1988-07-07

113

In situ monitoring with the Tradescantia bioassays on the genotoxicity of gaseous emissions from a closed landfill site and an incinerator.  

PubMed

A dual monitoring system composed of the Tradescantia-Micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-Stamen-Hair-Mutation (Trad-SHM) bioassays was utilized to monitor directly the genotoxicity of the gaseous emission at a closed landfill site and around an incinerator. Four of the commonly emitted gaseous agents from the landfill flare pipes, i.e. toluene, ethylbenzene, trichloroethylene and ethyltoluene were also evaluated for their genotoxicity in the laboratory. The in situ monitoring trips (360 km one way) were carried out by transporting the plant cuttings in a clean air box or in an air-tight plastic bag to the site and exposing these test cuttings for 5-7 h. The exposed plant samples were examined for micronuclei frequencies or the pink mutation rate after the appropriate recovery periods (24 h for MCN, 7-11 days for SHM). A total of 20 monitoring trips were made to the landfill, and 8 to the nearby surroundings (100-500 m from the chimney) of the incinerator site in a two year period. The major findings of the Trad-MCN test on the clastogenicity of the gaseous emission from the flare pipe of the landfill site showed positive responses or toxic effects in 6 out of 20 trips, and that from the incinerator showed positive responses in 5 out of the 8 trips. These positive responses were closely associated with the weather, i.e. low wind velocity, high temperature and relative humidity, and especially the distance from the chimney of the incinerator. The MCN frequencies and mutation rates of the Elementary School site (E. Sch) which is about 200 m from the fence of the landfill site were mostly negative, except the test results of three trips. Trad-SHM tests on the mutagenicity of gaseous emissions from the flare pipe of the landfill showed 12 positive responses out of 20 trials and 2 positives out of 4 trials from the incinerator gaseous emissions. The average mutation rate from 20 Trad-SHM monitoring trips is positive when the ANOVA and Dunnett's t-statistic were applied to the consolidated data. There is a significant (0.01) difference between the lab control and the gas exposed groups, and between the field control and gas exposed groups. Results of the Trad-SHM test at the E. Sch. site were mostly negative except for one trip. In general, micronuclei frequencies and mutation rates of the field control groups were relatively higher than those of the lab controls. The Trad-MCN test on pure gases showed positive responses in all 3 repeated tests on toluene (50-892 ppm). The test results of ethylbenzene yielded positive responses at 172 ppm/min and 1549 ppm/min dosages and exhibited toxicity at higher concentrations. Trad-MCN tests on trichloroethylene and ethyltoluene yielded positive responses at around 100-200 ppm/min level. Three repeated Trad-SHM tests on toluene yielded no positive response at low concentrations (4.3-12.9 ppm). PMID:8569801

Ma, T H; Xu, C; Liao, S; McConnell, H; Jeong, B S; Won, C D

1996-01-16

114

Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ? 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

2004-12-01

115

Health assessment for Burrows Sanitation Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Hartford, Van Buren County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980410617. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Burrows Sanitation Landfill is a National Priorities List site located in a rural area approximately one mile northeast of the City of Hartford, Van Buren County, Michigan. The contaminants found at the site consist of chromium, lead, and nickel in the ground water, surface soils, surface waters, and sediments. There are three residences within 300 feet of the site boundary. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time. Human exposure to nickel and chromium may be occurring via ingestion of and direct contact with surface soils. However, proposed remediation measures should adequately prevent future exposure to these contaminants.

Not Available

1988-07-29

116

Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial  

SciTech Connect

In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

Dever, S.A. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia) and GHD Pty. Ltd., 10 Bond Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia)]. E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

2007-07-01

117

Seismic evaluation of municipal solid waste landfill  

SciTech Connect

With the promulgation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery (RCRA) Subtitle D, landfills situated within seismic impact zones must be evaluated for seismic hazards to demonstrate that the containment structures of the landfill can resist the maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth materials (bedrock) for the site. If a landfill is sited on saturated soils, it must also be evaluated for liquefaction and lateral spreading. In 1994, EMCON evaluated the seismic hazard for a landfill located along the Columbia River in southwestern Washington. The landfill was founded on dredge fill over natural alluvial deposits. Laboratory testing and state-of-the-art engineering analyses indicated that the sand unit below the landfill had a high potential for liquefaction. The seismic hazard evaluation for the site included a site-specific seismic response analysis, a liquefaction potential analysis, and seismic stability and deformation analysis. The seismic response analysis was conducted for nonliquefied, partially liquefied, and fully liquefied foundation soil conditions. Results are described.

Hovind, C.; Slyh, R. [EMCON, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

118

[Street children].  

PubMed

According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non-governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop-in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street. PMID:24502109

Roncevi?, Nevenka; Stojadinovi?, Aleksandra; Batrnek-Antoni?, Daliborka

2013-01-01

119

Wall Street Journal Interactivo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dow Jones & Company created the Spanish-language business news resource Wall Street Journal Interactivo "to serve the needs of Latin American businesspeople." This comprehensive site draws on content from the Spanish news agency EFE, Reuters NewMedia Inc., and The Wall Street Journal Americas, among other sources, to provide continuous online financial news as well as Diarios de la Region -- links to current headlines from top Latin American dailies by country.

120

40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...this section. (B) If the landfill is permanently closed, a closure...site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design, alternative...horizontal trenches only, leachate collection components, and...the gas generated within the landfill as required by...

2012-07-01

121

40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this section. (B) If the landfill is permanently closed, a closure...site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design, alternative...horizontal trenches only, leachate collection components, and...the gas generated within the landfill as required by...

2011-07-01

122

40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this section. (B) If the landfill is permanently closed, a closure...site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design, alternative...horizontal trenches only, leachate collection components, and...the gas generated within the landfill as required by...

2013-07-01

123

A steady state redox zone approach for modeling the transport and degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds from a landfill site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A redox zonation approach is used as a framework for obtaining biodegradation rate constants of xenobiotic compounds in a landfill plume (Grindsted, Denmark). The aquifer is physically heterogeneous in terms of a complex zonation of different geological units close to the landfill and biogeochemically heterogeneous in terms of a specified redox zonation. First-order degradation rates of six organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m/ p-xylene, and naphthalene) were calculated in the methanogenic/sulfate- and Fe-reducing zones. The numerical simulations show that all compounds are anaerobically biodegraded, but at very different rates. High rates of biodegradation of most of the compounds (except benzene) were found in the Fe-reducing zone. These rates generally agree with previously published rates. Only o-xylene and toluene were significantly biodegraded in the methanogenic/sulfate-reducing environment. All rates in this redox zone are generally much lower than previously published rates.

Lønborg, Michael J.; Engesgaard, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L.; Rosbjerg, Dan

2006-10-01

124

Health assessment for Landfill and Resource Recovery (L and RR) National Priorities List (NPL) Site, North Smithfield, Providence County, Rhode Island, Region 1. CERCLIS No. RID093212439. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Landfill and Resource Recovery (L RR) National Priorities List (NPL) site is a closed 28-acre landfill in North Smithfield, Providence County, Rhode Island. The L RR site is of public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from probable exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects. The contaminants of concern associated with this site are several volatile organic compounds (VOC's) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and benzene, and metals, including lead and arsenic, present in groundwater, soil, surface water, and air.

Not Available

1989-04-14

125

Landfill Gas Effects on Evapotranspirative Landfill Covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an evapotranspirative landfill cover can be adversely affected by transport of landfill gases to the plant root zone. Healthy plant communities are critical to the success and effectiveness of these vegetated landfill covers. Poor vegetative cover can result in reduced transpiration, increased percolation, and increased erosion regardless of the thickness of the cover. Visual inspections of landfill

M. A. Plummer; E. Mattson; M. Ankeny; J. Kelsey

2005-01-01

126

Assessment of DNA Damage by RAPD in Paracentrotus lividus Embryos Exposed to Amniotic Fluid from Residents Living Close to Waste Landfill Sites  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental chemicals on residents living near landfills. The study was based on samples of amniotic fluid from women living in the intensely polluted areas around the Campania region of Italy compared to a nonexposed control group. We evaluated the genetic effects that this amniotic fluids collected in contaminated sites had on Paracentrotus lividus embryos. DNA damage was detected through changes in RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA) profiles. The absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicated deletions in Paracentrotus lividus DNA exposed to the contaminated amniotic fluids when compared to equal exposure to uncontaminated fluids. These results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate DNA sequences representing genetic alterations induced in P. lividus embryos. Using this method, we identified two candidate target regions for DNA alterations in the genome of P. lividus. Our research indicates that RAPD-PCR in P. lividus embryo DNA can provide a molecular approach for studying DNA damage from pollutants that can impact human health. To our knowledge, this is the first time that assessment of DNA damage in P. lividus embryos has been tested using the RAPD strategy after exposure to amniotic fluid from residents near waste landfill sites. PMID:20706694

Guida, Maurizio; Guida, Marco; De Felice, Bruna; Santafede, Daniela; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Scognamiglio, Marianna; Ferrara, Cinzia; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Nappi, Carmine

2010-01-01

127

Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

NONE

1994-02-01

128

10 Downing Street  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Prime Minister's Office has recently opened a web site, 10 Downing Street. Although it does contain selected Prime Minister's speeches, transcripts, and interviews, Prime Minister's biographies (back to Harold Macmillan at present), and a tour of #10, its greatest utility is as an entry point to British executive department government sites. The Cabinet Ministers' Biography section contains information on 23 ministers and links to cabinet web sites. There is also a page of government department pointers.

1996-01-01

129

45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. BUILDING AT CORNER OF EYE AND 11th STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

130

Title: Open Street Map shapefile downloads Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Open Street Map shapefile downloads Data Creator / Copyright Owner: OpenStreetMap Publisher site: http://downloads.cloudmade.com/ Citation: OpenStreetMap. "OpenStreetMap shapefile downloads: OpenStreetMap Edition: N/A Versions: N/A Publication Date: N/A Coverage Date(s): N/A Updates: N

131

Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)  

SciTech Connect

The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

2010-01-07

132

LETTER REPORT. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS OF SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARGYLE STREET SEWER LINE AT THE UNITED NUCLEAR CORPORATION NAVAL PRODUCTS SITE, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated.

Adams, Wade C.

2012-01-24

133

WallStreetReporter.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each day, WallStreetReporter.com interviews the CEOs of successful public companies. Started in 1996 by the editors of Wall Street Reporter Magazine, this site includes weekly news for professional investors, as well as a searchable archive of over 3,000 past interviews soon to be available for public use.

134

School site and the potential to walk to school: The impact of street connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of neighborhood walkability (based on street connectivity and traffic exposure) within 2km of public primary schools on children regularly walking to school was examined. The most (n=13) and least walkable (n=12) schools were selected using a school-specific ‘walkability’ index and a cross sectional study undertaken of Year 5, 6 and 7 children (n=1480) and consenting parents (n=1332). After

Billie Giles-Corti; Gina Wood; Terri Pikora; Vincent Learnihan; Max K Bulsara; Kimberly Van Niel; Anna Timperio; Gavin McCormack; Karen Villanueva

2011-01-01

135

Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices.

Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.

2014-01-01

136

Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that

A. A. Al-Thani; R. P. Beaven; J. K. White

2004-01-01

137

Landfill Leachate Disposal with Irrigated Vetiver Grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stotts Creek Landfill is a major waste depot of the Tweed Shire receiving wastes from both Tweed Heads and Murwillumbah townships and neighboring local government areas. Disposal of leachate is a major concern of the Shire as the landfill site is close to agricultural areas. An effective and low cost leachate disposal system is needed, particularly during summer high rainfall

Ian Percy; Paul Truong

138

Purification of landfill leachate with reverse osmosis and nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

On many landfill sites the most environmentally friendly and economical way to treat landfill leachate is to reduce its volume by 75 to 80% using reverse osmosis and then return the concentrate to the landfill by controlled reinjection. If this procedure is not yet authorized by local authorities then the treatment process must achieve very high rates of recovery by

Thomas A. Peters

1998-01-01

139

Evaluation of alternatives for extending the life of landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the difficulty, as well as the high cost, of siting and constructing municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills it is incumbent on landfill managers to evaluate all practical measures to extend the useful life of existing landfills. This necessitates not only identifying potential methods to extend their life, but also the means to assess at what time horizons in the

Philip J. Preen; Jerry R. Murphy

2001-01-01

140

Assessment of methane emission and oxidation at Air Hitam Landfill site cover soil in wet tropical climate.  

PubMed

Methane (CH?) emissions and oxidation were measured at the Air Hitam sanitary landfill in Malaysia and were modeled using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change waste model to estimate the CH? generation rate constant, k. The emissions were measured at several locations using a fabricated static flux chamber. A combination of gas concentrations in soil profiles and surface CH? and carbon dioxide (CO?) emissions at four monitoring locations were used to estimate the CH? oxidation capacity. The temporal variations in CH? and CO? emissions were also investigated in this study. Geospatial means using point kriging and inverse distance weight (IDW), as well as arithmetic and geometric means, were used to estimate total CH? emissions. The point kriging, IDW, and arithmetic means were almost identical and were two times higher than the geometric mean. The CH? emission geospatial means estimated using the kriging and IDW methods were 30.81 and 30.49 gm(?2) day(?1), respectively. The total CH? emissions from the studied area were 53.8 kg day(?1). The mean of the CH? oxidation capacity was 27.5 %. The estimated value of k is 0.138 year(?1). Special consideration must be given to the CH? oxidation in the wet tropical climate for enhancing CH? emission reduction. PMID:23797636

Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah

2013-12-01

141

Public health assessment for Grand Street Mercury Site, Hoboken, Hudson County, New Jersey, Region 2: CERCLIS Number NJ0001327733. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Health Assessment serves to evaluate the public health issues associated with the Grand Street Mercury Site (GSMS), which has recently been proposed for addition to the National Priority List (NPL). The human exposure pathways associated with known contaminated environmental media within or associated with the GSMS have been evaluated and actions have been taken and/or planned that are consistent with the protection of the public health. At the GSMS, the known contaminated media include: soil, indoor air; and building. Access to all buildings on the GSMS has been secured by USEPA and remediation is on-going. The ATSDR and the NJDHSS consider the GSMS to have represented a public health hazard in the past. Based upon the site data, adults and children were likely exposed to mercury in the building at levels of public health concern.

NONE

1998-11-27

142

Results of the supplementary radiological survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CVP001)  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted radiological surveys at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania. The surveys were performed on October 11-13 and November 14-17, 1993, in order to provide a complete characterization prior to site remediation. The surveys included a gamma scan and a scan for surface contamination from alpha and beta-gamma emitters; measurement of direct and removable alpha and beta-gamma levels; systematic FIDLER measurements at the surface of the concrete; and the collection of samples from boreholes for radionuclide analysis. Results of the surveys revealed radionuclide concentrations and surface contamination levels in excess of applicable DOE guidelines for {sup 238}U. Radionuclide distributions were higher than typical background levels for {sup 238}U in the Springdale, Pennsylvania area.

Coleman, R.L.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

1995-04-01

143

Methane emissions from MBT landfills.  

PubMed

Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency ("Umweltbundesamt"), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18-24 m(3)CH(4)/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH(4)/(m(2)h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000-135,000 t CO(2-eq.)/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government. PMID:23756351

Heyer, K-U; Hupe, K; Stegmann, R

2013-09-01

144

Provenance of white marbles from the nabatean sites of Qase Al Bint and colonnaded street baths at Petra, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intercultural relations and trade are important components of understanding of historical interrelationships between regions and cultures. One of the most interesting objects of trade is stone, because of the expense and difficulty of its transport. Thus, the source of marble used in the Nabatean city of Petra was investigated using established petrological, geochemical and isotopic analyses. Specifically, marble from Qasr al Bint and the Colonnaded Street baths were sampled and investigated. The results of these analyses show that the marbles came from sources in Asia Minora and Greece. The most likely sources of the marble are the quarries of Thasos, Penteli, Prokennesos and Dokimeion. The choice of marble followed the desired utilitarian and aesthetic function of the stone. These results show that active trade in stone was part of the cultural interaction of the period.

Abu-Jaber, Nizar; al-Saad, Ziad; Shiyyab, Adnan; Degryse, Patrick

145

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

2013-05-01

146

Geosynthetics conquer the landfill law  

SciTech Connect

Los Angeles' last operating landfill is undergoing a 4 million m[sup 3] expansion using innovative materials in the liner system to overcome difficult site conditions. The design represents the first approved alternative in California -- and perhaps in the nation -- to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act's Subtitle D regulations for liner systems. This article examines the regulatory journey that led to approval and the liner's design and construction. Steep slopes at Los Angeles' only operating municipal solid-waste landfill (MSW) forced designers to use an innovative geosynthetic liner and leachate collection system. Its use sets a precedent for alternatives to the prescriptive regulations for liner systems present in Subtitle D of the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). To provide uninterrupted service at the landfill, design and construction proceeded concurrently with regulatory approval.

Derian, L.; Gharios, K.M. (Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation, CA (United States). Solid Waste Management Div.); Kavazanjian, E. Jr.; Snow, M.S. (GeoSyntec Consultants, Huntington Beach, CA (United States))

1993-12-01

147

Venice Park landfill: Working with the community  

SciTech Connect

Venice Park landfill was one of the first sites to be permitted under Michigan's proposed Public Act 641. PA 641 essentially changed the rules and regulations for landfills from the simple design of digging a hole and filling it. It also upgraded standards to those that are more sophisticated, including liners, leachate collection systems, and gas extraction systems. In 1992, methane gas from the landfill was collected into wells drilled into the trash varying in depth from 30-50 feet in depth. A vacuum pulls the gas from the trash into the wells, then through a piping system. The landfill uses about 80-100 kilowatts in-house. The remainder of the gas is sold to Consumers Power Co. which uses landfill gas to supply power to homes.

McAdams, C.L.

1993-09-01

148

N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

149

Health assessment for Cedartown Municipal Landfill NPL Site, Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD980495402. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

In compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has prepared Health Assessment reports for sites currently on, or proposed for, the National Priorities List. In the report, the presence and nature of health hazards at this site are assessed, and the public health implications specific to this site are evaluated. The Health Assessment is based on such factors as the nature, concentration, toxicity, and extent of contamination at the site; the existence of potential pathways for the human exposure; the size and nature of the community likely to be exposed; and any other information available.

Not Available

1990-08-08

150

Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant

W. J. Waugh; M. K. Kastens; L. R. L. Sheader; C. H. Benson; W. H. Albright; P. S. Mushovic

2008-01-01

151

Flooding of municipal solid waste landfills--an environmental hazard?  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills pose a long-lasting risk for humans and the environment. While landfill emissions under regular operating conditions are well investigated, landfill behaviour and associated emissions in case of flooding are widely unknown, although damages have been documented. This paper aims at developing a methodology for determining the proportion of MSW landfills endangered by flooding, and at evaluating the impact flooded landfills might have on the environment during a flood event. The risk of flooding of MSW landfills is assessed by using information about flood risk zones. Out of 1064 landfills investigated in Austria, 312 sites or about 30% are located in or next to areas flooded on average once in 200 years. Around 5% of these landfills are equipped with flood protection facilities. Material inventories of 147 landfill sites endangered by flooding are established, and potential emissions during a flood event are estimated by assuming the worst case of complete landfill leaching and erosion. The environmental relevance of emissions during flooding is discussed on the basis of a case study in the western part of Austria. Although environmental hazards need to be assessed on a site- and event-specific basis, the results indicate that flooded MSW landfills represent in general small environmental risks for the period of flooding. The longer term consequences of flooding are discussed in a next paper. PMID:19345983

Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

2009-06-01

152

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

2013-03-01

153

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

2013-01-01

154

Experimental and Modelling Approaches for the Assessment of Chemical Impacts of Leachate Migration from Landfills: A Case Study of a Site on the Triassic Sandstone Aquifer in the UK East Midlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current risk-based methods for assessing the effects of landfill leachate migration on groundwater resources are conservative and generalised. Cost-effective and practical strategies are required which can robustly determine the potential for contaminant attenuation on a site-specific basis. In this paper laboratory column experiments and reactive transport modelling are evaluated as a combined approach for assessing the chem’ical impact of leachate

Steven F. Thornton; John H. Tellam; David N. Lerner

2005-01-01

155

2-Liter Landfill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners gain a better understanding of how household/school waste breaks down in a landfill. Learners collect trash and then create miniature landfills in 2-liter bottles. Learners record observations about their landfills at least once a week for a month. This activity is part of a larger curriculum related to amphibians and conservation.

Aquarium, Omaha'S H.

2009-01-01

156

Interactive Street Modeling  

E-print Network

field T street graph G 9 #12;Tensor Field DesignTensor Field Design - = ab ba yx1 #12;Interactive Procedural Street Modeling Interactive Procedural Street Modeling Guoning Chen1 University 3 Procedural Inc. / ETH Zürich #12;Street ModelingStreet Modeling Images by Eric Hanson and Ben

Chen, Guoning

157

Evaluating pollution potential of leachate from landfill site, from the Pune metropolitan city and its impact on shallow basaltic aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate produced by municipal solid waste dumping site near the metropolitan city of Pune, India was examined for its pollution\\u000a potential and impact on surrounding shallow basaltic aquifers. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters during post- and pre-monsoon\\u000a seasons (Nov 2006 and May 2007) were determined to assess the seasonal variation in the leachate pollution index (LPI) as\\u000a well as in the groundwater

Sanjay S. Kale; Ajay K. Kadam; Suyash Kumar; N. J. Pawar

2010-01-01

158

Gill Street TRINITY SQUARE  

E-print Network

Hampden Residence Gill Street Residence G O LD SM ITH STREET W AV ERLEY STREET BURTON ST TRINITY SQUARE Theatre Royal Royal Concert Hall Hilton Hotel Police Station Fire Station YMCA House of Fraser Victoria

Evans, Paul

159

Landfill gas energy recovery: Turning a liability into an asset  

SciTech Connect

Until the past decade, landfill gas (LFG) was viewed as a nuisance at best and a hazard at worst. Today, municipalities and private-sector solid waste management companies are findings ways to put landfill gas to productive use. Landfill gas energy recovery eliminates detrimental air emissions; prevents landfill methane from contributing to global climate change; stops methane from migrating off-site and becoming a safety hazard or odor problem; and provides local utilities, industry, and consumers with a competitive, local source of power. In other words, LFG-to-energy facilities provide a unique form of recycling--solid waste is hauled to the landfill as refuse and returned to the consumer in the form of energy. US EPA`s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) and new EPA regulations for control of landfill gas emissions work together to encourage greater use of LFT at many facilities across the US.

Nichols, M. [EPA, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-08-01

160

59th STREET 58th STREET  

E-print Network

VALET PARKING ONLY MITCHELL HOSPITAL ENTRANCE OPEN 24 HOURS 59th STREET 58th STREET 57th STREET NCorridor E Corridor H Corridor ICorridor O CorridorB Corridor East P West PEast RCorridor N WCorridor QCorridor CAFETERIA Level B MRI Level 3 Level 1 A West AEast LCorridor POST OFFICE BOOKSTORE Student Care

Mateo, Jill M.

161

Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity to airports, roads, and transmission lines. The result of study showed that there is a range of 29 to 81 locations that are potentially feasible for the placement of large and medium-scale wind turbines in city of Chicago. Twenty nine of these sites were found to be most suitable. The study has limitations in that some of the data used were incomplete and some additional variables that needed to be considered, such as, the effects of passing trains on wind turbines and acceptance of urban dwellers of wind turbines in their city. Despite these limitations, the framework of this research can be applied to improve the study for the city of Chicago by considering additional variables and to extend it to other areas of study, and raise awareness of renewable energy, and the possibilities and flexibility of wind energy.

Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

162

Assessment of subsurface chlorinated solvent contamination using tree cores at the front street site and a former dry cleaning facility at the Riverfront Superfund site, New Haven, Missouri, 1999-2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tree-core sampling has been a reliable and inexpensive tool to quickly assess the presence of shallow (less than about 30 feet deep) tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in soils and ground water at the Riverfront Superfund Site. This report presents the results of tree-core sampling that was successfully used to determine the presence and extent of chlorinated solvent contamination at two sites, the Front Street site (operable unit OU1) and the former dry cleaning facility, that are part of the overall Riverfront Superfund Site. Traditional soil and ground-water sampling at these two sites later confirmed the results from the tree-core sampling. Results obtained from the tree-core sampling were used to design and focus subsequent soil and ground-water investigations, resulting in substantial savings in time and site assessment costs. The Front Street site is a small (less than 1-acre) site located on the Missouri River alluvium in downtown New Haven, Missouri, about 500 feet from the south bank of the Missouri River. Tree-core sampling detected the presence of subsurface PCE contamination at the Front Street site and beneath residential property downgradient from the site. Core samples from trees at the site contained PCE concentrations as large as 3,850 mg-h/kg (micrograms in headspace per kilogram of wet core) and TCE concentrations as large as 249 mg-h/kg. Soils at the Front Street site contained PCE concentrations as large as 6,200,000 mg/kg (micrograms per kilogram) and ground-water samples contained PCE concentrations as large as 11,000 mg/L (micrograms per liter). The former dry cleaning facility is located at the base of the upland that forms the south bank of the Missouri River alluvial valley. Tree-core sampling did not indicate the presence of PCE or TCE contamination at the former dry cleaning facility, a finding that was later confirmed by the analyses of soil samples collected from the site. The lateral extent of PCE contamination in trees was in close agreement with the extent of subsurface PCE contamination determined using traditional soil and ground-water sampling methods. Trees growing in soils containing PCE concentrations of 60 to 5,700 mg/kg or larger or overlying ground water containing PCE concentrations from 5 to 11,000 mg/L generally contained detectable concentrations of PCE. The depth to contaminated ground water was about 20 to 25 feet below the land surface. Significant quantitative relations [probability (p) values of less than 0.05 and correlation coefficient (r2) values of 0.88 to 0.90] were found between PCE concentrations in trees and subsurface soils between 4 and 16 feet deep. The relation between PCE concentrations in trees and underlying ground water was less apparent (r2 value of 0.17) and the poor relation is thought to be the result of equilibrium with PCE concentrations in soil and vapor in the unsaturated zone. Based on PCE concentrations detected in trees at the Front Street site and trees growing along contaminated tributaries in other operable units, and from field hydroponic experiments using hybrid poplar cuttings, analysis of tree-core samples appears to be able to detect subsurface PCE contamination in soils at levels of several hundred micrograms per liter or less and PCE concentrations in the range of 8 to 30 mg/L in ground water in direct contact with the roots. Loss of PCE from tree trunks by diffusion resulted in an exponential decrease in PCE concentrations with increasing height above the land surface in most trees. The rate of loss also appeared to be a function of the size and growth characteristics of the tree as some trees exhibited a linear loss with increasing height. Diffusional loss of PCE in small (0.5-inch diameter) trees was observed to occur at a rate more than 10 times larger than in trees 6.5 inches in diameter. Concentrations of PCE also exhibited directional variability around the tree trunks and concentration differe

Schumacher, John G.; Struckhoff, Garrett C.; Burken, Joel G.

2004-01-01

163

Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction  

SciTech Connect

The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

1999-07-01

164

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John C (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

2002-01-01

165

Aerobic landfill bioreactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

Hudgins, Mark P (Aiken, SC); Bessette, Bernard J (Aiken, SC); March, John (Winterville, GA); McComb, Scott T. (Andersonville, SC)

2000-01-01

166

14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. BUILDING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 11th AND EYE STREETS - Convention Center Site, I Street, 900 & 1000 Block, Tenth Street, 800 & 900 Block, New York Avenue, 900 & 1000 Block, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

167

East Traffic Circle Landfill closure report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the investigation and cleanup of the East Traffic Circle Landfill (ETCL), an inactive landfill located in the east-central portion of the main site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The old landfill site was uncovered by construction workers during utility-line trenching on July 19, 1984. The uncovered debris was surveyed with radiation detection instruments, showed no radioactivity, and was found to consist primarily of metal shavings and broken bottles. An initial soil sample was taken and analyzed for metals and volatile organic compounds. Only copper, lead, and zinc were detected in some samples at levels exceeding the state hazardous waste designations. Shallow soils generally showed little (less than 0.1 ppM) volatile halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic chemical contamination; however, a sample collected beneath 20 partially crushed metal drums showed 11 ppM of trichloroethylene (TCE) and 50 ppM of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Soils from 21 to 51 feet beneath the drums showed TCE and PCE concentrations approaching 1 ppM each. The East Traffic Circle Landfill area was generally excavated to a depth of 5 to 7 feet below grade and to 10 or more feet in the vicinity of 160-plus capacitors. The 13,971 cubic yards of excavated soil and debris were hauled from the LLNL site by registered haulers and disposed of at state-permitted hazardous waste disposal sites. Construction activities resumed in the area after the landfill was backfilled.

McConachie, W.A.; Como, J.P.; Carpenter, D.W.; Ragaini, R.C.

1986-01-31

168

Horizontal collectors for landfill gas collection and migration control  

SciTech Connect

Landfill owners and operators are forever challenged with properly managing landfill gas (LFG). Collecting this LFG has evolved into an art, as well as a science. Technical expertise and sheer creativity complementary skills required to successfully manage both LFG collection and migration. The vertical LFG collection well has been an essential component for landfill owners and operators for over three decades. They have proved troublesome, however, for active landfill owners who attempt to collect LFG from the midst of an active site-the vertical wells prove more a {open_quotes}target{close_quotes} for refuse collection vehicles disposing their load, than for effective, long term LFG collection. Active and inactive/closed landfill owners must also contend with LFG migration at or near the refuse boundary. Multiple vertical LFG wells must be used to control LFG migration and surface emissions. Vertical LFG wells do work, but at significant expense of the landfill owner. In the past 10 years, the use of horizontal LFG wells or collectors has gained momentum, both for effectiveness and cost. The City of Los Angeles, Bureau of Sanitation operates one active Class III landfill and manages five closed Class III landfills. At Lopez Canyon Landfill (active), horizontal LFG collection wells were installed as early as 1987, for LFG collection. At Toyon Canyon Landfill (closed), horizontal collection wells were installed in 1992 and 1994 for LFG migration and surface emissions control.

Dobrowski, J.G. [Constantin Pano, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

169

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

2013-01-01

170

Wall Street Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal from the publishers of The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) offers a wide selection of business news and resources. Users can read highlights from the WSJ, breaking business news, or view targeted news, research and resources for any of the 29 industries listed. The site also features delayed composite prices on US stocks, with links to background information and press releases, and a targeted search of business and news sites (fee required for full text of articles in the publications library). Additional resources include a markets wrap, news and links related to the US economy, and several aids for managing personal finance. Users may personalize the portal to suit their own interests after free registration.

171

A statistical model for landfill surface emissions.  

PubMed

Landfill operators require a rapid, simple, low-cost, and accurate method for estimation of landfill methane surface emissions over time. Several methods have been developed to obtain instantaneous field measurements of landfill methane surface emissions. This paper provides a methodology for interpolating instantaneous measurements over time, taking variations in meteorological conditions into account. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of three factors on landfill methane surface emissions: air temperature, pressure gradient between waste and atmosphere, and soil moisture content of the cover material. On the basis of a statistical three-factor and two-level full factorial design, field measurements of methane emissions were conducted at the City of Montreal landfill site during the summer of 2004. Three areas were measured: test area 1 (4800 m2), test area 2 (1400 m2), and test area 3 (1000 m2). Analyses of variance were performed on the data. They showed a significant statistical effect of the three factors and the interaction between temperature and soil moisture content on methane emissions. Analysis also led to the development of a multifactor correlation, which can be explained by the underlying processes of diffusive and advective flow and biological oxidation. This correlation was used to estimate total emissions of the three test areas for July and August 2004. The approach was validated using a second dataset for another area adjacent to the landfill. PMID:20222535

Héroux, Martin; Guy, Christophe; Millette, Denis

2010-02-01

172

Colour removal from landfill leachate by coagulation and flocculation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation processes for removing colour from a semi-aerobic landfill leachate from one of the landfill sites in Malaysia. Four types of coagulant namely aluminium (III) sulphate (alum), ferric (III) chloride, ferrous (II) sulphate and ferric (III) sulphate were studied using standard jar test apparatus. Results indicated that ferric chloride

Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Salina Alias; Mohd. Nordin Adlan; Faridah; A. H. Asaari; Mohd. Shahrir Zahari

2007-01-01

173

OPTIONAL COST MODELS FOR LANDFILL DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents findings from an analysis of 45 landfills and associated transfer stations, balers, shredders, and transportation networks. The analysis of the sites attempted to determine how much it costs to build and operate a landfill and which factors have the greatest ...

174

Street Design and Street Use: Comparing Traffic Calmed and Home Zone Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research compares the street activity in two very comparable streets over exactly the same period using time lapse cameras. The aim of the research has been to assess which approaches to street design might encourage the street life and activity most envisioned in the UK's national residential street guidance Manual for Streets. The two streets are directly comparable apart

Mike Biddulph

2012-01-01

175

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

2013-06-01

176

CTA STATION TAYLOR STREET  

E-print Network

Molecular Biology Research Building Medical Center Administration Building College of Medicine West TowerCTA STATION DISTRICT MEDICAL ILLINOIS TAYLOR STREET . GRENSHAW STREET HAMILTONAVENUE HOYNESTREET Sciences Medical Sciences Building College of Medicine Research Building Marshfield Avenue Building

Illinois at Chicago, University of

177

Emissions of Nonmethane Organic Compounds at an Illinois (USA) Landfill: Preliminary Field Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Current US regulatory models for estimating emissions of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills require field validation to determine if the models are realistic. A project was initiated to begin to develop a field method for direct measurement of landfill NMOC emissions and, concurrently, develop improved sampling and analysis methods for individual NMOCs in landfill gas matrices. Two contrasting field sites at the Greene Valley Landfill, DuPage County, Illinois, USA, were established.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Niemann, M.; Niemann, L. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Oak Brook, IL (United States); Baker, J. [WMX Technology Center, Geneva, IL (United States)

1997-08-01

178

A new technique to monitor ground-water quality at municipal solid waste landfills  

E-print Network

an alternative water supply, but also clean up the contaminated aquifer (USEPA, 1977). The degradation of ground water by landfill-generated leachate is due to a combination of factors, including poor landfill siting, inadequate facility design, poor waste..., Cartwright 32 and NcComas (1968) employed resistivity profiling methods to map the presence of leachate in ground water near four sanitary landfills in northeastern Illinois. Isoresistivity maps were generated for each landfill. A general decrease...

Hart, Steven Charles

2012-06-07

179

DESIGNING ALTERNATIVES TO AVOID STREET TREE CONFLICTS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of representative crossectional illustra- tions of various street types presents a useful and effective method of examining the relationship between overhead elec- tric lines and street trees. This design system can serve as the basis for proper species and site selection. Through the development of a series of street type criteria, ranging from larger major arterial roads to

David V. Bloniarz; H. Dennis; P. Ryan

180

A decision support system for assessing landfill performance.  

PubMed

Designing environmentally sound landfills is a challenging engineering task due to complex interactions of numerous design variables; such as landfill size, waste characteristics, and site hydrogeology. Decision support systems (DSS) can be utilized to handle these complex interactions and to aid in a performance-based landfill design by coupling system simulation models (SSM). The aim of this paper is to present a decision support system developed for a performance-based landfill design. The developed DSS is called Landfill Design Decision Support System - LFDSS. A two-step DSS framework, composed of preliminary design and detailed design phases, is set to effectively couple and run the SSMs and calculation modules. In preliminary design phase, preliminary design alternatives are proposed using general site data. In detailed design phase, proposed design alternatives are further simulated under site-specific data using SSMs for performance evaluation. LFDSS calculates the required landfill volume, performs landfill base contour design, proposes preliminary design alternatives based on general site conditions, evaluates the performance of the proposed designs, calculates the factor of safety values for slope stability analyses, and performs major cost calculations. The DSS evaluates the results of all landfill design alternatives, and determines whether the design satisfies the predefined performance criteria. The DSS ultimately enables comparisons among different landfill designs based on their performances (i.e. leachate head stability, and groundwater contamination), constructional stability and costs. The developed DSS was applied to a real site, and the results demonstrated the strengths of the developed system on designing environmentally sound and feasible landfills. PMID:19836225

Celik, Ba?ak; Girgin, Sertan; Yazici, Adnan; Unlü, Kahraman

2010-01-01

181

The biological impact of landfill leachate on nearby surface water  

SciTech Connect

Five landfill sites were evaluated for their potential to adversely impact the biotic community of surface waters. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity tests were used to determine the toxicity of water samples collected from landfill monitoring wells and the nearest surface water. Four of the five landfill sites exhibited acute or chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, or Pimephales promelas. Toxicity identification procedures performed on water samples revealed toxic responses to metals and one toxic response to organic compounds. Surface water toxicity at an industrial landfill is most likely due to zinc from a tire production facility. Iron and a surfactant were determined to be the probable causes for toxicity at two municipal solid waste landfills.

Geis, S.W. [State Lab. of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States). Biomonitoring Lab.

1994-12-31

182

Landfill in a Bottle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how landfills affect the natural environment. By observing a 2-liter bottle filled with household garbage over a month, learners can estimate how long it takes for average household garbage takes to break down.

Aquariums, Association O.

2009-01-01

183

Forty Sixth Street Pilot Street Lighting Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Street lighting improvements provide an opportunity for governments to save money and to reduce their environmental footprint. New energy-efficient technologies are being perfected that are more efficient than standard high-pressure sodium streetlights. L...

D. Hirsch, R. Luckow

2013-01-01

184

Leachate quality from landfilled MBT waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project recently completed on behalf of the UK Environment Agency, has collected data and sampled leachates from EU landfills that have received imports of MSOR and MBT wastes. Results are presented for sanitary analyses, heavy metals, and an extensive range of trace organic substances, from sites containing MBT wastes that have received different degrees of composting pre-treatment. Leachates

H. D. Robinson; K. Knox; B. D. Bone; A. Picken

2005-01-01

185

Leachate from municipal landfills: Production and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and management of leachate from municipal landfills are evaluated in this book, for the purpose of identifying information and techniques useful to design engineers and site operators. Also assessed are: advantages, limitations, and comparative costs of various approaches, for the estimation and mitigation of environmental and public health impacts, management options, and additional research needs on the generation, control,

J. C. S. Lu; B. Eichenberger; R. J. Stearns

1985-01-01

186

FIELD VERIFICATION OF LINERS FROM SANITARY LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Liner specimens from three existing landfill sites were collected and examined to determine the changes in their physical properties over time and to validate data being developed through laboratory research. Samples examined included a 15-mil PVC liner from a sludge lagoon in Ne...

187

Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials.  

PubMed

Landfill gas, originating from the anaerobic biodegradation of the organic content of waste, consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, with traces of volatile organic compounds. Pressure, concentration and temperature gradients that develop within the landfill result in gas emissions to the atmosphere and in lateral migration through the surrounding soils. Environmental and safety issues associated with the landfill gas require control of off-site gas migration. The numerical model TOUGH2-LGM (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat-Landfill Gas Migration) has been developed to simulate landfill gas production and migration processes within and beyond landfill boundaries. The model is derived from the general non-isothermal multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2, to which a new equation of state module is added. It simulates the migration of five components in partially saturated media: four fluid components (water, atmospheric air, methane and carbon dioxide) and one energy component (heat). The four fluid components are present in both the gas and liquid phases. The model incorporates gas-liquid partitioning of all fluid components by means of dissolution and volatilization. In addition to advection in the gas and liquid phase, multi-component diffusion is simulated in the gas phase. The landfill gas production rate is proportional to the organic substrate and is modeled as an exponentially decreasing function of time. The model is applied to the Montreal's CESM landfill site, which is located in a former limestone rock quarry. Existing data were used to characterize hydraulic properties of the waste and the limestone. Gas recovery data at the site were used to define the gas production model. Simulations in one and two dimensions are presented to investigate gas production and migration in the landfill, and in the surrounding limestone. The effects of a gas recovery well and landfill cover on gas migration are also discussed. PMID:11695741

Nastev, M; Therrien, R; Lefebvre, R; Gélinas, P

2001-11-01

188

Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill  

SciTech Connect

A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons; the C{sub 5}-C{sub 10} normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

1992-07-01

189

Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill  

SciTech Connect

A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C[sub 1]C[sub 4] hydrocarbons; the C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

1992-07-01

190

Residential Street Pattern Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of street patterns appears to be divided between concern for the efficiencies of infrastructure and traffic and a consideration of aesthetics. There are distinct advantages to the two predominant suburban street pattern alternatives-- loop and cul-de-sac, and grid. Streets with loops and cul-de-sacs provide safety, sociability and efficiency. Grid patterns provide connectivity and easy orientation. A new, combined

Fanis Grammenos; Sevag Pogharian; Julie Tasker-Brown

191

Nightmare on Oxford Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veteran reporter Davis recalls how a minor case of shoplifting in London’s Oxford Street, when a woman left a store without paying for five gaily-coloured hats, turned into a major story that tested Fleet Street’s finest. The accused was identified as Nina Ponomareva, aged 27, a teacher and mother of a two-year-old boy named Sasha – a white beret listed

Victor Davis

2007-01-01

192

Nitrogen and sulfate attenuation in simulated landfill bioreactors.  

PubMed

The characteristics of leachate from landfills vary according to site-specific conditions. Leachates from old landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen, posing potential adverse environmental impacts in the case of uncontrolled discharge. At landfills where leachate recirculation is practiced, leachate ammonia concentrations may accumulate to higher levels than during the single pass leaching. Using leachate recirculation with system modifications, separate aerobic and anoxic zones for nitrification and both autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification can be provided. Results from simulated landfill bioreactors indicated that both nitrogenous and sulfur compounds can be attenuated through autotrophic denitrification, and leachate nitrate concentrations of 750 mg/L reduced to less than 1 mg/L by denitrification to nitrogen gas promoting this very common process in a landfill environment results in the reduction of both leachate ammonia and sulfate concentrations. PMID:11548007

Onay, T T; Pohland, F G

2001-01-01

193

Assessment of biological remains from excavations at 14-16 and 48-50 Newmarket Street, Dublin, Republic of Ireland (site code: 02E1692)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Twenty-one bulk sediment samples from deposits of medieval and post-medieval date, encountered during excavations at 14-16 and 48-50 Newmarket Street, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, were submitted to for an assessment of their bioarchaeological potential. Plant remains were usually present and in some cases preservation was excellent, though overall proportions of organic material were generally quite low. Wood fragments of

Allan Hall; Deborah Jaques; Harry Kenward; John Carrott; Kathryn Johnson

2004-01-01

194

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

Venner, Laura

2008-05-01

195

Astronomy on a Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

Venner, Laura

2008-09-01

196

Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

Munsell, Devon R.

197

Street children: a comparative perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper examines the findings from recent studies of street children in Ethiopia.Methods: Following a discussion of the term “street children,” comparisons are drawn between Latin American and Ethiopian street children in terms of gender, age, reasons for going to the streets, family relations and structure, delinquency, drug use, groups and the outcomes of street life. In particular, the

KEVIN J. LALOR

1999-01-01

198

FROM INTERSECTION OF GREGORY STREET AND LAWRENCE STREET NEAR EASTERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FROM INTERSECTION OF GREGORY STREET AND LAWRENCE STREET NEAR EASTERN EDGE OF CENTRAL CITY ON GREGORY GULCH, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST, FOREGROUND IS RETAINING WALL FOR GREGORY STREET - Central City, Central City, Gilpin County, CO

199

Widening Sesame Street.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the developmental history of Sesame Street from the initial efforts to obtain funding and set goals to present day importation of programs to other countries. It is recommended that Sesame Street producers incorporate Piagetian theories on cognitive development in order to realize learning gains. (Author)

Beck, T. Kay

1979-01-01

200

Leaving the Streets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently thousands of children and adolescents live in the streets of Managua, and this phenomenon is moving rapidly into the smaller cities of Nicaragua. In other countries around the world, civil war is a leading cause of street children, but in Nicaragua, physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, often committed by the father or stepfather, combined with poverty is usually why

Jane Slater

2004-01-01

201

Providence Downtown Washington Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings along Washington Street and the corner of Mathewson Street in Providence are captured here in 1978. The Shepard building is visible on the left of the photo, home to the Shepard Department store, which at its height occupied surrounding buildings, expanding to cover two blocks. In the early 1960s, parts of the downtown shopping district restricted vehicle traffic in

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

202

All About Sesame Street.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behind-the-scenes story of "Sesame Street" is told from its origin as a "good idea," through the development of the Children's Television Workshop, to the casting of the now familiar characters, Susan, Bob, Gordon, Mr. Hooper, and the Muppets. Details of producing the show are described with anecdotes. The effect of "Sesame Street" on its…

Feinstein, Phylis

203

Tel Aviv: Dizengoff Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

This photograph shows the cafe culture and wide sidewalks that once lead people to compare Dizengoff Street to Champs-Elysees. Since the 1970s commercial activity on the street has declined, perhaps due to the construction of the Dizengoff Center, an indoor shopping mall.

Chet Smolski

1980-01-01

204

Tel Aviv: Allenby Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allenby Street is a commercial street in Tel Aviv that is also a hub of nightlife known for clubs, pubs and restaurants. It has a reputation for hosting some of the cities undesirable areas, such as tourist attractions and adult clubs.

Chet Smolski

1980-01-01

205

Mathematical Modelling to Trace the Leachate Plume of the Municipal Landfill in Groundwater Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

At outside, the landfill A in Japan contamination has been found. It has been believed that the leachate must leak out from\\u000a the municipal landfill site. Therefore, simulation of the movement of leachate was carried out to understand the behavior\\u000a of the plume at the landfill site. The plume movement was simulated by the three-dimensional solute transport coupled with\\u000a groundwater

Thuong Huyen Dang; Kenji Jinno; E. D. P. Perera

2009-01-01

206

Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis  

E-print Network

hazardous waste, and legally disposed small quantity generator hazardous waste. In recent reviews [USEPA, (1984a); USEPA, (1984b)] it was determined that approximately 16% of 786 current and proposed sites on the Superfund national priorities list...-disposal of 23 hazardous waste in municipal waste landfills. The H & L Landfill is currently classified as a U. S. EPA Superfund site. Approximately 98 L of leachate were collected from area f104 of the H & L Landfill gl. The orange-brown liquid...

Schrab, Gregory Ernst

2012-06-07

207

Street & Smith's Preservation Access Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For thousands of Americans throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, dime novels and pulp magazines were their first experiences with the emerging world of mass-produced material culture. One such purveyor was the Street & Smith publishing house, which began in 1855 and published a wide variety of popular literature (such as homemaking magazines, comics, and dime novels) for over 100 years. These products didn't often have a great deal of originality, as the company viewed fiction as a commodity, and editors dictated plots and characters to writers, a list that included Horatio Alger, Upton Sinclair, and Jack London. This Web site, an online exhibit presented by the Syracuse University Library, pays homage to this publishing house with a number of scanned digitized images of the Street & Smith dime novels, a cover art gallery, and a collection of images immortalizing that most famous comic strip character, the Yellow Kid.

208

Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

1971-01-01

209

Radioactivity and elemental analysis in the Ruseifa municipal landfill, Jordan.  

PubMed

In this study, a low background gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples from various locations within the Ruseifa municipal landfill in Jordan. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. The maximum and minimum annual outdoor effective doses were found to be 103 and 36microSva(-1) in the old landfill and Abu-Sayaah village, respectively. The annual outdoor effective dose at the recent landfill site was found to be 91microSva(-1). The annual effective dose equivalents from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation at the old landfill and the recent landfill were higher than the typical worldwide value of 70microSva(-1). Thus, some remediation of the soils on both old and recent landfills should be considered before any development for public activities. This could be achieved by mixing with clean soil from areas which are known to have lower radiation background. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cr, and Ba in the three sites included in this study were found to be higher than the background levels in the soil samples of the control area (Abu-Sayaah village). The enrichment factors for the above three elements were calculated and found to be: complex building site: Zn=2.52 and Ba=1.33; old landfill site: Cr=1.88, Zn=3.64, and Ba=1.26; and recent landfill site: Cr=1.57, Zn=2.19, and Ba=1.28. There was a strong negative correlation between the concentrations of the metallic elements (Mg, Al, Mn, Fe and Rb) and the concentrations of Zn, Ba, and Cr. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between Zn, Ba, and Cr. Thus these elements were enriched in the solid waste. PMID:18215446

Al-Jundi, J; Al-Tarazi, E

2008-01-01

210

Suitability of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental Protection Agency for the simulation of the water balance of landfill cover systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover systems are widely used to safeguard landfills and contaminated sites. The evaluation of the water balance is crucial\\u000a for the design of landfill covers. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model of the US Environmental\\u000a Protection Agency was developed for this purpose. This paper discusses some limitations of version 2 of this model and some\\u000a operational difficulties for

K. Berger; S. Melchior; G. Miehlich

1996-01-01

211

Leachate treatment in landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the origins of sanitary landfill leachates, their potential for contamination of surrounding soil and groundwater, and characterization and techniques for treating this extremely high-strength municipal wastewater to required standards by biological processes. Topics include leachate characterization, effluent standards and treatment by two stage activated sludge process.

Zolten

1991-01-01

212

HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface ...

213

Attenuation of landfill leachate at two uncontrolled landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation characteristics of landfill leachate were examined for two uncontrolled landfills in Korea. The two landfills containing municipal wastes without appropriate bottom liner and leachate treatment system have different landfill age, waste volume, and most importantly different hydrogeologic settings. One landfill (Cheonan landfill) is situated in an open flat area while the other (Wonju landfill) is located in a valley. Variations of various parameters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO{3/-}), sulfate (SO{4/2-}), and chloride (Cl-) were examined along groundwater flow path. All these parameters were analyzed every month for a year. In the interior of the landfills, typical anaerobic conditions revealed by low DO and NO3 concentrations, negative ORP values, high NH3, alkalinity, and Cl- concentrations were observed. Generally, higher levels of contaminants (DOC, NH3, and Cl-) were detected in the dry season while they were greatly lowered in the wet season. Significantly, large decrease of Cl- concentration in the wet season indicates that the dilution or mixing is one of dominant attenuation mechanisms of leachate. But detailed variation behaviors in the two landfills are different and they were largely dependent on permeability of surface and subsurface layers. The intermediately permeable surface of the landfills receives part of direct rainfall infiltration but most rainwater is lost to fast runoff. The practically impermeable surface of clayey silt (paddy field) at immediately adjacent to the Cheonan landfill boundary prevented direct rainwater infiltration and hence redox condition of the ground waters were largely affected by that of the upper landfill and the less permeable materials beneath the paddy fields prohibited dispersion of the landfill leachate into down gradient area. In the Wonju landfill, there are three different permeability divisions, the landfill region, the sandy open field and the paddy field. Roles of the landfill and paddy regions are very similar to those at the Cheonan. The very permeable sandy field receiving a large amount of rainwater infiltration plays a key role in controlling redox condition of the down gradient area and contaminant migration. This paper reports details of the attenuation and redox conditions of the landfill leachates at the two uncontrolled landfills.

Lee, Jin-Yong; Cheon, Jeong-Yong; Kwon, Hyung-Pyo; Yoon, Hee-Sung; Lee, Seong-Sun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Joung-Ku; Kim, Chang-Gyun

2006-12-01

214

Bulletin of Entomological Research (1999) 89, 493498 493 Fly populations associated with landfill  

E-print Network

directly to a disposal site or to a transfer station where it is deposited in piles for up to 24 h. Most fly populations were also evident at the landfill site. The suitability of household waste of one-week-old waste. Since many hundreds of tonnes of waste are delivered to the landfill daily

215

CTA STATION TAYLOR STREET  

E-print Network

Building Molecular Biology Research Building Medical Center Administration Building College of MedicineCTA STATION DISTRICT MEDICAL ILLINOIS TAYLOR STREET HAMILTONAVENUE HOYNESTREET WASHBURNE ROOSEVELT of the Health Sciences Medical Sciences Building College of Medicine Research Building Marshfield Avenue

Illinois at Chicago, University of

216

Leachate migration analysis of landfill in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination of water resources by landfill leachate is a growing problem. The threat of migrating leachate originating from landfill sites is an important issue for water quality and waste management. Because of this, waste management companies often struggle with the challenge of containing and controlling leachate migration. This study of leachate migration is carried out for a landfill site in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. During the study, field investigations like geophysical methods supplemented with laboratory works are executed. From the investigations the soil layers, their thickness and properties and the level of groundwater are identified and determined. The SEEP/w, hydrogeologic model, and CTRAN/w, contaminant transport model, are simultaneously used to construct a finite element, two-dimensional simulation of the problem of the landfill site. From the analysis, leachates from the landfills are migrating downstream and the contaminating potential for groundwater is high. This contamination is found to have a relative value of 20 to 30% of the initial concentration of the contaminant in the landfill. Moreover, the time span required to attain these concentration value are determined from the analysis.

Berhe, T.; Wu, W.; Doanh, T.

2009-04-01

217

18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING NORTH, For the purpose of clarity and simplicity, directions relate to the nearly north-south orientation of the Naval Supply Center, and not to true north. The alignment of streets and buildings in the NSC are roughly related to magnetic north, and are thus about 10 degrees clockwise from true north. WITH BUILDINGS 222 AND 221 ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

218

7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. The tall, narrow building in the middle of the photo is 10 North Warren Street. Signs saying 'Saddlery,' 'Carriage,' and 'Hardware' on the building indicate that the photo was taken during the tenancy of Claffery & Slack (1888-1914). - 10 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), 10 North Warren Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

219

SUMMARY TECHNICAL REPORT RICHMOND LANDFILL 1996 POLLUTION  

E-print Network

.5 Fisheries and Wildlife 3-3 4.0 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW 4-1 4.1 Introduction 4-1 4.2 Landfill Operations 4-3 4.1 Site Material and Water Balances 5-1 5.2 Environmental Monitoring Programs and Systems 5-2 5 AND MONITORING 10-1 10.1 Introduction 10-1 10.2 Monitoring Program 10-1 REFERENCES LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2

220

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

Bechtel Nevada

1998-09-30

221

Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former C.H. Schnoor and Company Site, 644 Garfield Street, Springdale, Pennsylvania (CPV001)  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company Site in Springdale, Pennsylvania. The survey was performed from August to October of 1994. The purpose of the survey was to verify that the site was remediated to levels below DOE guidelines from FUSRAP sites. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former C. H. Schnoor and Company Site confirm that the residual uranium contamination at the site is below DOE FUSRAP guidelines for unrestricted use.

Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.; Foley, R.D. [and others

1995-09-01

222

Update on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate Treatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Studyreatment Study continued on p  

E-print Network

Update on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate TUpdate on Hilo Landfill Leachate Treatment Studyreatment in the Hilo area it is anticipated that a substantial volume of leachate will be generated by any new landfill

223

The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers  

SciTech Connect

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

2002-02-26

224

Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during

S. Kheradmand; A. Karimi-Jashni; M. Sartaj

2010-01-01

225

An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates.

Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

1994-07-01

226

Development of computer simulations for landfill methane recovery  

SciTech Connect

Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs simulating methane recovery systems in landfills have been developed. These computer programs model multicomponent combined pressure and diffusional flow in porous media. Each program and the processes it models are described in this report. Examples of the capabilities of each program are also presented. The two-dimensional program was used to simulate methane recovery systems in a cylindrically shaped landfill. The effects of various pump locations, geometries, and extraction rates were determined. The three-dimensional program was used to model the Puente Hills landfill, a field test site in southern California. The biochemical and microbiological details of methane generation in landfills are also given. Effects of environmental factors, such as moisture, oxygen, temperature, and nutrients on methane generation are discussed and an analytical representation of the gas generation rate is developed.

Massmann, J.W.; Moore, C.A.; Sykes, R.M.

1981-12-01

227

The future through the past: The use of analog sites for design criteria and long-term performance assessment of evapotranspiration landfill covers.  

SciTech Connect

There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. For the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers is the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two are relatively recently disturbed sites (within the last 50 years) and have been selected for the evaluation of processes and changes on ET covers for the early period of post-institutional controls when cover maintenance would be discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end (1,000 years or more) of the compliance period. The late to mid-Holocene surfaces are both abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits, dated by thermoluminescence analysis. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites is being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified and the mode of disturbance, to help set baseline conditions. Similar to the other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water-balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time. Results of analog site work and resultant modifications to design, monitoring and maintenance of ET covers on the NTS will be compared with results of a similar study being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), where ET cover closures are planned as well. The comparison will help to distinguish potential regional differences needed in ET cover design. Although both sites are at similar latitudes, the NTS is located in a transition zone between the Mojave and southern Great Basin deserts, while SNL is located in the northern Chihuahuan desert. Differences in vegetation and seasonality of precipitation between the sites are significant.

David Shafer; Julianne Miller; Susan Edwards; Stuart Rawlinson

2001-10-18

228

THE USEPA'S LANDFILL RESEARCH AND REGULATORY STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The priorities and initiatives of Environmental Protection Agency's landfill research and regulatory program over the next five years will be described. This will include municipal solid waste landfills as well as abandoned hazardous waste landfills. Regarding municipals s...

229

Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

Koehler, J. [Woodward-Clyde International -- Americas, Oakland, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

230

Perpetual landfilling through aeration of the waste mass; lessons from test cells in Georgia (USA).  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices. PMID:11530917

Read, A D; Hudgins, M; Phillips, P

2001-01-01

231

3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW EAST OF MILL STREET BUILDINGS; 20 AT EXTREME LEFT CENTER; 21 AT MID-LEFT CENTER; 4 AT LEFT CENTER; RUNDBOGENSTIL TOWER AT CENTER; BUILDING 3 RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 2 AT EXTREME RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 3 IS THE OLDEST BUILDING ON SITE AND WAS BUILT CIRCA 1850 - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

232

52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View looking northeast from Monroe Street and Acquackanonk Water Company site, along covered Dundee Canal prism, toward Dayton Avenue and Botany Worsted Mills - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

233

Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethenes Under Oxidation-Reduction Conditions and Potentiometric Surfaces in Two Trichloroethene-Contaminated Zones at the Double Eagle and Fourth Street Superfund Sites in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Double Eagle Refining Superfund site and the Fourth Street Abandoned Refinery Superfund site are in northeast Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, adjacent to one another. The Double Eagle facility became a Superfund site on the basis of contamination from lead and volatile organic compounds; the Fourth Street facility on the basis of volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and acid-base neutral compounds. The study documented in this report was done to investigate whether reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes under oxidation-reduction conditions is occurring in two zones of the Garber-Wellington aquifer (shallow zone 30?60 to 75 feet below land surface, deep zone 75 to 160 feet below land surface) at the sites; and to construct potentiometric surfaces of the two water-yielding zones to determine the directions of ground-water flow at the sites. The presence in some wells of intermediate products of reductive dechlorination, dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, is an indication that reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene is occurring. Dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.5 milligram per liter) indicate that consumption of dissolved oxygen likely had occurred in the oxygen-reducing microbial process associated with reductive dechlorination. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (generally less than 2.0 and 0.06 milligrams per liter, respectively) indicate that nitrate reduction probably is not a key process in either aquifer zone. Concentrations of ferrous iron greater than 1.00 milligram per liter in the majority of wells sampled indicate that iron reduction is probable. Concentrations of sulfide less than 0.05 milligram per liter in all wells indicate that sulfate reduction probably is not a key process in either zone. The presence of methane in ground water is an indication of strongly reducing conditions that facilitate reductive dechlorination. Methane was detected in all but one well. In the shallow zone in the eastern part of the study area, ground water flowing from the northwest and south coalesces in a potentiometric trough, then moves westward and ultimately northwestward. In the western part of the study area, ground water in the shallow zone flows northwest. In the deep zone in the eastern part of the study area, ground water generally flows northwestward; and in the western part of the study area, ground water in the deep zone generally flows northward.

Braun, Christopher L.

2004-01-01

234

W. 16TH STREET E. 16TH STREET W. 15TH STREET E. 15TH STREET  

E-print Network

L L A G E N O H O S O H O N O L I T A L O W E R E A S T S I D E E A S T V I L L A G E UNION SQUARE Carlyle Court (B-1) 25 Union Square West 9 Casa Italiana Zerilli-Marimò (A-1) 24 West 12th Street 80 Coles Place College of Dentistry (not on map) 345 East 24th Street 41 College of Nursing (B-2) 726 Broadway 50

Mohri, Mehryar

235

Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México.  

PubMed

In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:18595685

Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches

2008-01-01

236

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

237

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Coker's Sanitation Service landfills, Kent County, DE. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Coker's Sanitation Service Landfills site is comprised of two inactive landfills in Kent County, Delaware. Each landfill contains approximately 45,000 cubic yards of latex sludge waste in addition to the contaminated soil/waste. From 1969 to 1977, latex rubber waste sludge was disposed of at Landfill No. 1 into unlined trenches, which were topped off with local soil when nearly filled with sludge. From 1976 to 1980, latex sludge was also disposed of in lined trenches at Landfill No. 2. Excess levels of styrene and ethylbenzene were found in the waste trenches of both landfills and in the leachate collection system of landfill No. 2. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses contamination in both landfills and in the leachate collection system at Landfill No. 2. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and sludge are VOCs including benzene and metals.

Not Available

1990-09-28

238

Leachate evaporation using landfill gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a century-old technology with a new twist of using landfill gas as a fuel in an evaporation system. The system is designed to help landfills reduce the cost of leachate disposal while also destroying VOC emissions in an enclosed flare.

T. M. White; V. M. Grace; W. Freivald

1996-01-01

239

MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

240

Washington Street's "Soul Survivors"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes as an example of what a non-school agency is doing to ease desegregation the Greater Dallas Human Relations Commission's sponsorship of the Washington Street "Soul Survivors," a group of 12 blacks and 12 whites performing race relations-oriented entertainment. (JM)

Simms, Richard

1973-01-01

241

Saving Mango Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

Van Winkle, Katie

2012-01-01

242

Hillsborough Street Pullen Road  

E-print Network

: P The City. Roundabouts are less expensive to operate and maintain than traffic signals. P Drivers. Roundabouts reduce waiting time and fuel consumption. P The community. Because collisions in roundabouts of Raleigh Public Works Department 222 West Hargett Street Raleigh, NC 27601 Phone: 919-996-4093 www

243

COLDSPRINGCREEK MAIN STREET WEST  

E-print Network

.................................... 43 David Braley Athletic Centre.... 54 Divinity College............................ 17 Dramatic Arts MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT COOTESDRIVE WESTAWAY ROAD SCHOLAR'S ROAD STEARN DRIVE Entrance Pay Stations Short Term Parking - Pay and Display Campus Shuttle Bus Service Go Bus Stop A-Q CAMPUS

Thompson, Michael

244

COLDSPRINGCREEK MAIN STREET WEST  

E-print Network

....................................43 David Braley Athletic Centre ....54 Divinity College............................17 Dramatic Arts 37 MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT COOTESDRIVE WESTAWAY ROAD SCHOLAR'S ROAD STEARN DRIVE EntranceCampus LEGEND McMaster University Entrance Security and Parking Services Parking Lot Location Pay Stations Short

Haykin, Simon

245

Dispatches from the Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the personal worlds of homeless campers in Tucson, Arizona in the late 1990s to discover how the homeless contend with new sociospatial strategies of control. Tucson is typical of the dozens of U.S. cities that are attempting to evict street people from urban cores that have been rediscovered as frontiers for development and capital investment. The article

Deborah N. Kaplan

2008-01-01

246

Chu Han street, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dalian Wanda Group's biggest urban projects in Wuhan, Chu Han street, is a turning point in the history of WuHan urban design. And this paper talks about the space characteristics and existing problems of the project from the view of the relationship between the architectural space form and the cultural connotation. Then from the vital relationship, the paper discussed the

Li Kuncheng

2012-01-01

247

Street Drugs and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... opioids and heroin in a way that’s safe for you and your baby. How can you get help to quit using street drugs? Talk to your health care provider. He can help you get treatment to quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse ...

248

Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.  

PubMed

In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia. PMID:22455994

Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

2012-07-01

249

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulation (40CFR Part 258) went into effect. hese regulations are applicable to landfills reclining solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operations, and closure of MSW landfills. hese regulat...

250

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

251

Health Assessment for Hranica Landfill, Sarver, Butler County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980508618.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hranica Landfill 15-acre site is the location of a landfill, drum disposal, and waste incineration facility which operated from 1966 to 1974. In 1984, a private party removal action took place which resulted in the removal of approximately 19,000 drum...

1988-01-01

252

AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB AFTER REMEDIAL CLEANUP OF TWO LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of two landfills at which interim remedial cleanup measures have been performed. The landfill sites are in the Bloomington, Indiana area. The sampling locations and methods used were ...

253

VERIFICATION OF THE HYDROLOGIC EVALUATION OF LANDFILL PERFORMANCE (HELP) MODEL USING FIELD DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study conducted to verify the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer model using existing field data from a total of 20 landfill cells at 7 sites in the United States. Simulations using the HELP model were run to compare the predicted...

254

Street Trees and Intersection Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study and report is about street trees and intersection safety in urban contexts. The study derives from a rather simple, straightforward observation: that on the best tree-lined streets the trees come close to the corners. They do not stop at some distance back from the intersecting street right-of-way. Indeed, in Paris, a city noted for its street trees,

Elizabeth Macdonald; Alethea Harper; Jason A. Hayter

2006-01-01

255

LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND  

E-print Network

LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY MODELING RESULTS O.BOUR*, E,UniversitéLaval, Sainte-Foy, Canada SUMMARY: Lateral landfill gas migration occurs in the surroundings of a MSW landfill complementary physical measures were used to build a conceptual model of lateral landfill gas migration

Boyer, Edmond

256

Capture and Utilisation of Landfill Gas  

E-print Network

about 955 landfills that recovered biogas. The largest number of such landfills were in the USA landfills in Denmark that in total captured 5,800Nm3 of biogas per hour, equivalent to 276.4MW of contained #12;Biomass US DATA ON GENERATION OF BIOGAS AT LANDFILLS Eileen Berenyi, a Research Associate of EEC

Columbia University

257

Street Youth: Coping and Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review of research into interventions among street youth is presented along with the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 80 street youth on the topic of coping. Themes arising from the qualitative analysis include street youths' negative and positive experiences with social support; and attitudes and beliefs such as self-worth, decreased reactivity to other's opinions, hope

Sean A. Kidd

2003-01-01

258

Contextualizing Black Boys' Use of a Street Identity in High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This participatory action research project worked with four street-life-oriented black men to document how a community sample of street-life-oriented black adolescents between the ages of sixteen and nineteen frame street life as a site of resiliency inside schools based on 156 surveys, 10 individual interviews, and 1 group interview. Data…

Payne, Yasser Arafat; Starks, Brian Chad; Gibson, LaMar Rashad

2009-01-01

259

View of South TwentyEighth Street seen from north boundary of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of South Twenty-Eighth Street seen from north boundary of Easter Hill project site. Buildings No. 44, 445, 47, 46, 41, and 42 from left to right. Looking south - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

260

Landfill gas-fired power plant pays cost of operating landfill  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on recovery of energy from refuse that has become increasingly attractive in the past decade. The continuing urbanization of our society has created major challenges in the disposal of our waste products. Because of public concern over the potential presence of toxins, and for other environmental reasons, management and regulation of active and inactive landfills have become much more stringent and costly. Palos Verdes landfill, owned jointly by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts and Los Angeles County, is located about three miles from the Pacific Ocean in the city of Rolling Hills Estates, Calif. The landfill was closed in 1980. The garbage was covered with six to eight feet of soil, and the area was landscaped. Part of this area has already been developed as the South Coast Botanical Gardens and Ernie Howlett Park. The remainder is scheduled to become a golf course. As refuse decays within a landfill, the natural anaerobic biological reaction generates a low-Btu methane gas along with carbon dioxide, known as landfill gas (LFG). The gas also contains other less desirable trace components generated by the decomposing garbage. Uncontrolled, these gases migrate to the surface and escape into the atmosphere where they generate environmental problems, including objectionable odors. The Sanitation Districts have installed a matrix of gas wells and a gas collection system to enable incineration of the gas in flares. This approach reduced aesthetic, environmental and safety concerns. However, emissions from the flares were still a problem. The Sanitation Districts then looked at alternatives to flaring the gas, one of which was electrical generation. Since the Sanitation Districts have no on-site use for thermal energy, power generation for use in the utility grid was deemed the most feasible alternative.

Wallace, I.P.

1991-01-01

261

Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.  

PubMed Central

Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses. PMID:28677

Sobsey, M D

1978-01-01

262

Wall Street Research Net (WSRN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wall Street Research Net (WSRN) Web page is now available with over 2,700 links to help professional and private investors locate economic data and perform fundamental research on actively traded companies. The Company Information section of WSRN has entries for 5,414 companies. Currently, there are 2,720 links to such items as SEC documents, company home pages, annual reports, press releases and other investor information, and stock price information from MIT. The Economic Research section contains links to economic databases around the globe such as the U.S. Department of Commerce and the better university sites. The Research section contains links to independent providers of research to the investment community. See it now while it's in beta test. In the Fall it will be available for a "nominal fee."

1997-01-01

263

Public health assessment for Jackson Township Landfill, Jackson Township, Ocean County, New Jersey, Region 2. Cerclis No. NJD980505283. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Jackson Township Landfill is a former municipal waste landfill located in Ocean County, New Jersey. Site-related contamination currently poses an indeterminate public health hazard since insufficient data exist for some environmental media to which humans may be exposed. Environmental data indicate that the former landfill continues to impact underlying ground water quality. Surface water, sediments, and air have been minimally impacted by former landfill activities. The landfill also poses a public health hazard because site information indicates that past human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water has occurred at levels that may result in adverse health effects.

Not Available

1993-12-13

264

LANDFILL CONTAINMENT AND COVER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its research and field experiences has developed control strategies for hazardous and municipal solid waste landfills and surface impoundments. hese control strategies include liner and cover systems. he liner systems include doubl...

265

Nitrogen management in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

One scenario for long-term nitrogen management in landfills is ex situ nitrification followed by denitrification in the landfill. The objective of this research was to measure the denitrification potential of actively decomposing and well decomposed refuse. A series of 10-l reactors that were actively producing methane were fed 400 mg NO3-N \\/l every 48 h for periods of 19–59 days.

G. Alexander Price; Morton A. Barlaz; Gary R. Hater

2003-01-01

266

Recirculation of municipal landfill leachate  

E-print Network

aerobic decomposition of the leachate on the surface in addition to the anaer obic decomposition of the leachate within the landfill and the increased efficiency due to recirculation. HETHODS Each of the experimental landfi 1 1 cel is, as constructed... aerobic decomposition of the leachate on the surface in addition to the anaer obic decomposition of the leachate within the landfill and the increased efficiency due to recirculation. HETHODS Each of the experimental landfi 1 1 cel is, as constructed...

Pinkowski, Brian Jude

2012-06-07

267

I want you to know that the David Suzuki Foundation supports the call for local municipal, provincial and federal governments to use alternative means of dealing with waste other than land-filling it wherever possible. This is especially important where valuable freshwater and ecosystem services would be degraded by landfill creation and maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

I get repeated requests from people all across the country for help in dealing with landfill siting issues. All too often landfills come forward as the preferred solution for dealing with waste because the costs of land-filling appear low when compared to other methods of waste management and disposal. However, this is usually the result of not factoring the value

David Suzuki

268

Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

1991-05-01

269

Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described, resulting in a separate flowsheet for every contractor. The resulting fractions and materials were described in detail to obtain an inventory of the bulk material. Based on the characteristics from the obtained fractions, all possible valorisation pathways are listed, suggesting a Waste to Material (WtM) or a Waste to Energy (WtE) valorisation pathway. Fractions that needed further treatment were also discussed. The results of the separation tests proved to be very promising and delivered well sorted waste streams. The composition of the waste material, on the other hand, proved to be less beneficial to be economically feasible. Due to the high amount of sand and clay (up to 90wt%) in the Zuienkerke landfill the share of instant recoverable materials proved to be very limited. Due to the limited number of tests concerning the separation and valorisation of landfilled waste, the feasibility of ELFM in the short term is not fully described yet. Based on the first experiences, the main drivers to introduce the ELFM concept on these type of landfills are the necessity of urgent remediation actions and the reclamation of land. The added value of land reuse for the future might close the financial gap in a significant way, making the implementation of ELFM feasible on former landfills. 1 Jones et al.,2010: "the safe conditioning, excavation and integrated valorisation of landfilled waste streams as both materials and energy, using innovative transformation technologies and respecting the most stringent social and ecological criteria".

Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

2014-05-01

270

Delineation of landfill migration boundaries using chemical surrogates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A purge\\/trap procedures for the determination of monochlorobenzene and monochlorotoluene at the 10 ng\\/g level in soil is described. The advantages of a heated and stirred vessel for sample preparation are demonstrated. This method was applied to samples from the Hyde Park landfill site in Niagara Falls, NY, and the results were used to define chemical migration is illustrated with

Daniel R. Thielen; Patricia S. Foreman; Abram Davis; Robert Wyeth

1987-01-01

271

The landfill methane balance: Model and practical applications  

SciTech Connect

A rational mass-balance framework is described for improved quantification of landfill methane processes at a given site. The methane balance model examines the partitioning of methane generated into methane recovered (via extraction systems), methane emitted, methane oxidized, methane migrated, and methane storage. This model encourages use of field-based data to better quantify rates of methane recovery and emissions.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1995-10-01

272

TACOMA LANDFILL ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING DATA: JULY 1983 TO JANUARY 1996  

EPA Science Inventory

The data set contains both ground water and surface water data from environmental sampling at the Tacoma Landfill, a National Priority List (NPL) Superfund site in Washington State. It contains a complete set of analytical chemistry and other sampling parameters associated with t...

273

UPDATE OF EPA'S EMISSION FACTORS FOR LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes an effort to collect updated data and determine if changes are needed to AP-42, a document that provides emission factors characterizing landfill gas (LFG) emissions from sites with and without LFG controls. The work underway includes the types of measurement ...

274

Economic aspects of the rehabilitation of the Hiriya landfill  

SciTech Connect

The Hiriya landfill, Israel's largest, operated from 1952 to 1998. The landfill, located in the heart of the Dan Region, developed over the years into a major landscape nuisance and environmental hazard. In 1998, the Israeli government decided to close the landfill, and in 2001 rehabilitation activities began at the site, including site investigations, engineering and scientific evaluations, and end-use planning. The purpose of the present research is to perform a cost-benefit analysis of engineering and architectural-landscape rehabilitation projects considered for the site. An engineering rehabilitation project is required for the reduction of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, slope instability and leachate formation. An architectural-landscape rehabilitation project would consider improvements to the site to make it suitable for future end uses such as a public park. The findings reveal that reclamation is worthwhile only in the case of architectural-landscape rehabilitation of the landfill, converting it into a public park. Engineering rehabilitation alone was found to be unjustified, but is essential to enable the development of a public park.

Ayalon, O. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management and NRERC, Haifa University, 32000 Haifa (Israel)]. E-mail: agofira@tx.technion.ac.il; Becker, N. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management and NRERC, Haifa University, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Department of Economics and Management, Tel Hai College and NRERC, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel); Shani, E. [Dan Region Association of Towns, Sanitation and Waste Disposal (Israel)

2006-07-01

275

TACOMA LANDFILL ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING DATA: FIRST QUARTER, 1996  

EPA Science Inventory

The data set contains ground water and surface monitoring results for the first quarter of 1996 from the the Tacoma Landfill, a National Priority List (NPL) Superfund site. The data are presented in the exact format they were received from the City of Seattle and have not be exam...

276

Kern Valley Sanitary Landfill Erosion Evaluation and Drop Structure Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kern Valley Waste Management Facility (KVWMF), which consists of the Kern Valley Sanitary Landfill (KVSL) and Recycling\\/Transfer Station, is located southeast of Kernville on Cyrus Canyon in Kern County, California. The site is upstream of the Lake Isabella reservoir, in a mountainous region with high intensity storms. Unmitigated flood flows have the potential to cause extensive damage to the

Bryan A. Stirrat; Michael A. Cullinane

2002-01-01

277

Field Performance Of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m ), instrumen...

278

Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

Not Available

1994-08-01

279

Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

Not Available

1993-11-01

280

Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as much as 96 percent of total solids resided within 9 feet of the curb. Median accumulation rates of street solids and median washoff of street solids after rainstorms on multifamily and commercial land-use streets were also similar at about 33 and 22 pounds per curb-mile per day, and 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Results indicate that solids on the streets tested in Cambridge, Mass., can recover to pre-rainstorm yields within 1 to 3 days after washoff. The finer grain-size fractions tended to be more readily washed from the roadway surfaces during rainstorms. Street solids in the coarsest grain-size fraction on multifamily streets indicated an average net increase following rainstorms and are likely attributed to debris run-on from trees, lawns, and other plantings commonly found in residential areas. In seven experiments between May and December 2010, the median removal efficiency of solids from street surfaces following a single pass by a regenerative-air street cleaner was about 82 percent on study sites in the multifamily land-use streets and about 78 percent on the commercial land-use streets. Median street-solid removal efficiency increased with increasing grain size. This type of regenerative-air street cleaner left a median residual street-solid load on the street surface of about 100 pounds per curb-mile. Median concentrations of organic carbon and total phosphorus (P) on multifamily streets were about 35 and 29 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. The median total mass of organic carbon and total P in street solids on multifamily streets was 68 and 75 percent greater, respectively, than those found on commercial streets. More than 87 percent of the mass of total P was determined to be in solids greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter for both land-use types. The median total accumulation rate for total P on multifamily streets was about 5 times greater than on commercial streets. Total P accumulation in the medium grain-size fraction was nearly the same for streets within both land-use types at 0.004 p

Sorenson, Jason R.

2013-01-01

281

Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills.  

PubMed

The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use "generic" published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects. PMID:17897819

Gharabaghi, B; Singh, M K; Inkratas, C; Fleming, I R; McBean, E

2008-01-01

282

Wall Street Journal Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wall Street Journal includes the content of the print version, as well as weather and sports sections. The content can be accessed by section or by a general index that can be found under Table of Contents on the home page. Stories that mention companies contain hypertext links that allow the reader to obtain more information about a company, including latest news stories, a 20 minute delayed company stock report, and a "briefing book" on the company which includes background information, a financial overview, stock performance measures, previous Wall St. Journal articles about that company, and company press releases. Walter Mossberg's popular Personal Technology column is also available.

1996-01-01

283

PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF LEACHATE FROM MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS: SUMMARY AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An assessment was made to evaluate production and management of leachate from municipal landfills for purposes of identifying practical information and techniques which may be useful to design engineers and site operators. Also assessed were: advantages, limitations, and comparat...

284

Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling  

SciTech Connect

Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section.

Ustohalova, Veronika [Institute of Waste Management, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: veronika.ustohalova@uni-essen.de; Ricken, Tim [Institute of Mechanics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Widmann, Renatus [Institute of Waste Management, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany)

2006-07-01

285

PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

286

Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-01-01

287

Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-12-31

288

Uncontrolled methane emissions from a MSW landfill surface: influence of landfill features and side slopes.  

PubMed

Sanitary landfills for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal have been identified as one of the most important anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4) emissions; in order to minimize its negative effects on the environment, landfill gas (LFG) recovery is a suitable tool to control CH4 emissions from a landfill site; further, the measurement of CH4 emissions can represent a good way to evaluate the effectiveness of LFG recovering systems. In general, LFG will escape through any faults in the landfill capping or in the LFG collection system. Indeed, some areas of the capping can be more permeable than others (e.g. portions of a side slope), especially when considering a temporarily capped zone (covered area that is not expected to receive any further waste for a period of at least 3 months, but for engineering reasons does not have a permanent cap yet). These areas, which are characterized by abnormal emissions, are usually defined as "features": in particular, a feature is a small, discrete area or an installation where CH4 emissions significantly differ from the surrounding zones. In the present study, the influence that specific features have on CH4 emissions has been investigated, based on direct measurements carried out in different seasons by means of a flux chamber to the case study of Palermo (IT) landfill (Bellolampo). The results showed that the flux chamber method is reliable and easy to perform, and the contoured flux maps, obtained by processing the measured data were found to be a suitable tool for identifying areas with abnormal (high) emissions. Further, it was found that a relationship between methane emission rates and landfill side slope can be established. Concerning the influence of the temporary HDPE cover system on CH4 recovery efficiency, it contributed to a significant decrease of the free surface area available for uncontrolled emissions; this aspect, coupled to the increase of the CH4 volumes collected by the LFG recovery system, led to a significant increase of the recovery efficiency. PMID:23465313

Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Viviani, Gaspare

2013-10-01

289

Effects of fulvic substances on the distribution and migration of Hg in landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) distribution and migration in different landfill stabilization processes were evaluated in this study. Wide ranges of Hg concentrations were observed because of the heterogeneity and variability of landfill refuse. In addition, temporally variable conditions, including pH, organic matter, and vegetation cover, which influence Hg migration in landfills, may also affect the temporal distribution of Hg in landfill refuse. The main fraction of Hg, elemental Hg, decreased with time, while the stable fractions of Hg increased. The fulvic acid (FA) extracted from the landfill leachate had much lower overall Hg-complexation stability constants, which suggests that organic S groups might have been rapidly saturated by small amounts of Hg while leaving oxygen functional groups, such as carboxylic functional or phenolic groups, acting as the primary binding sites for Hg. PMID:21468428

Xiaoli, Chai; Guixiang, Liu; Jun, Wu; Huanhuan, Tong; Rong, Ji; Youcai, Zhao

2011-05-01

290

Demonstration of landfill gas enhancement techniques in landfill simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various techniques to enhance gas production in sanitary landfills were applied to landfill simulators. These techniques include (1) accelerated moisture addition, (2) leachate recycling, (3) buffer addition, (4) nutrient addition, and (5) combinations of the above. Results are compiled through on-going operation and monitoring of sixteen landfill simulators. These test cells contain about 380 kg of municipal solid waste. Quantities of buffer and nutrient materials were placed in selected cells at the time of loading. Water is added to all test cells on a monthly basis; leachate is withdrawn from all cells (and recycled on selected cells) also on a monthly basis. Daily monitoring of gas volumes and refuse temperatures is performed. Gas and leachate samples are collected and analyzed on a monthly basis. Leachate and gas quality and quantity reslts are presented for the first 18 months of operation.

Walsh, J. J.; Vogt, W. G.

1982-02-01

291

Institute of Criminal Justice Research Street Capital and Street  

E-print Network

of the violent street gang in the London Riots 2011 Speaker: Dr Simon Harding, Lecturer in Criminology, Policing and Community Safety, School of Law, Middlesex University The riots in London 2011 lifted the veil on our urban street gangs who in the course of the rioting in London, acted as crucibles of activity. Pre

Anderson, Jim

292

WEST 7TH STREET WEST 4TH STREET  

E-print Network

Hall Lake Byron Downtown Hattiesburg Rose Garden Main EntranceCentennial Gateway Museum of Art 15 EST 4TH STREET WEST 4TH STREET 35 Pete Taylor Park Baseball Offices 99 St. Thomas Catholic Church 31ST SUPPORT 25 NFSMI 31 Johnson Natatorium 32 Thad Cochran Center 33 Softball Complex 34 Payne Center 35 Pete

Schaefer, Jake

293

Location Name Street Number Street Name 9, 11 Brainerd Avenue  

E-print Network

Street Exley Science Center 265 Church Street Parking Lot D Rear of Science Center Clark Hall 268 Church Foss 1 - Westco 18 Foss Hill Drive Foss 2 - Westco 18 Foss Hill Drive Foss 4 - Westco 18 Foss Hill Drive Foss 3 - Westco 18 Foss Hill Drive Fauver Apartments 19 Foss Hill Drive Bennet Hall 35 Foss Hill

Royer, Dana

294

Evaluation of Landfill Gas Decay Constant for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated as Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important for the optimization of energy recovery and for estimating greenhouse gas emissions. To improve the predictability of gas production, landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rates were monitored for 4 yr from one conventional and two bioreactor landfill cells at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY. The

Thabet M. Tolaymat; Roger B. Green; Gary R. Hater; Morton A. Barlaz; Paul Black; Doug Bronson; Jon Powell; Darko Koracin; L.-W. Chen; David Dubois; Ramesh Vellore; John Watson; Naresh Kumar; Eladio Knipping; Neil Wheeler; Kenneth Craig; Stephen Reid; Douglas Lowenthal; Ta-Yuan Chang; Shen-Ju Lin; Ruei-Hao Shie; Shih-Wei Tsai; Hui-Tsung Hsu; Ching-Tsan Tsai; Hsien-Wen Kuo; Chow-Feng Chiang; Jim-Shoung Lai; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Lei Liu; Xiaohan Chen; Natalia Schmid; Lijuan Wang; Nigel Clark; Pablo Ruiz; Claudia Toro; Jorge Caceres; Gianni pez; Pedro Oyola; Petros Koutrakis

2010-01-01

295

Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors  

EPA Science Inventory

Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

296

Findings from long-term monitoring studies at MSW landfill facilities with leachate recirculation.  

PubMed

This paper presents findings from long-term monitoring studies performed at full-scale municipal solid waste landfill facilities with leachate recirculation. Data from two facilities at a landfill site in Delaware, USA were evaluated as part of this study: (1) Area A/B landfill cells; and (2) two test cells (one with leachate recirculation and one control cell). Data from Area A/B were compared with proposed waste stability criteria for leachate quality, landfill gas production, and landfill settlement. Data from the test cells were directly compared with each other. Overall, the trends at Area A/B pointed to the positive effects (i.e., more rapid waste degradation) that may be realized through increasing moisture availability in a landfill relative to the reported behavior of more traditionally operated (i.e., drier) landfills. Some significant behavioral differences between the two test cells were evident, including dissimilarities in total landfill gas production quantity and the extent of waste degradation observed in recovered time capsules. Differences in leachate quality were not as dramatic as anticipated, probably because the efficiency of the leachate recirculation system at distributing leachate throughout the waste body in the recirculation cell was low. PMID:12957160

Morris, J W F; Vasuki, N C; Baker, J A; Pendleton, C H

2003-01-01

297

The impact of Mpererwe landfill in Kampala Uganda, on the surrounding environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mpererwe landfill site receives solid wastes from the city of Kampala, Uganda. This study was carried out to assess and evaluate the appropriateness of the location and operation of this landfill, to determine the composition of the solid waste dumped at the landfill and the extent of contamination of landfill leachate to the neighbouring environment (water, soil and plants). Field observations and laboratory measurements were carried out to determine the concentration of nutrients, metals and numbers of bacteriological indicators in the landfill leachate. The landfill is not well located as it is close to a residential area (<200 m) and cattle farms. It is also located upstream of a wetland. The landfill generates nuisances like bad odour; there is scattering of waste by scavenger birds, flies and vermin. Industrial and hospital wastes are disposed of at the landfill without pre-treatment. The concentration of variables (nutrients, bacteriological indicators, BOD and heavy metals) in the leachate were higher than those recommended in the National Environment Standards for Discharge of Effluent into Water and on Land. A composite sample that was taken 1500 m down stream indicated that the wetland considerably reduced the concentration of the parameters that were measured except for sulfides. Despite the fact that there was accumulation of metals in the sediments, the concentration has not reached toxic levels to humans. Soil and plant analyses indicated deficiencies of zinc and copper. The concentration of these elements was lowest in the leachate canal.

Mwiganga, M.; Kansiime, F.

298

View of South TwentyEighth Street from south boundary of Easter ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of South Twenty-Eighth Street from south boundary of Easter Hill project site. Buildings No. 15, 16, 41, 46, 45, and 48 from left to right. Church Building at right foreground is not an element of Easter Hill object site. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

299

Street Racing: A Neglected Research Area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review: (1) the extent and frequency of street racing and its consequences; (2) the characteristics of street racers; (3) explanatory theories for street racing; (4) the legal issues; and (5) the best methods of preventing street racing.Methods: Review of academic and other literature.Results: Very limited official statistics are available on street racing offenses and related collisions, in part

Evelyn Vingilis; Reginald G. Smart

2009-01-01

300

Compliant Sanitary Landfill Model and Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from ATEEC requires students to build a three dimensional and compliant landfill model. The purpose of the activity is to "allow students to learn about proper landfill construction and compliance using simple, easily obtainable items." The landfill model must incorporate solid waste federal regulations. This document includes a list of the materials needed and a diagram of a landfill.

2014-07-18

301

Climate change & street trees project  

E-print Network

to obtain appropriate knowledge contributes strongly to this loss. 4. Street trees can posses a range to this and is significantly divided. 6. The governance promoting the removal of street trees is very strong, resting upon knowledge, and thus make `informed' decisions, relating to trees and their m

302

Complete Streets Spark Economic Revitalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating infrastructure for non-motorized transportation and lowering automobile speeds by changing road conditions can improve economic conditions for both business owners and residents. When Valencia Street in San Francisco's Mission District slimmed its traffic lanes to slow down cars and accommodate other users, merchants reported the street changes enhanced the area. Nearly 40 percent of merchants reported increased sales, and

America Walks; Dan Burden

2006-01-01

303

Personal Safety Street Smart Quiz  

E-print Network

STREET SMARTS Personal Safety Street Smart Quiz: 1. What do you do if a stranger grabs you? (A.T. Clarke Center room 102 McMaster University Security & Parking Services #12;Your personal safety is McMaster University Security & Parking Services' number one priority. We have numerous personal safety devices

Thompson, Michael

304

LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

305

MEASUREMENT OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN LANDFILL  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENT OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN LANDFILL LEACHATES I. ZDANEVITCH*, O. BOUR*, S, 22 rue Pasteur, F-22680 Etables sur mer, France SUMMARY: leachates from two landfills which receive. INTRODUCTION Leachates from two French landfills which receive biologically stabilized municipal solid waste

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

307

METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

308

Evolution on qualities of leachate and landfill gas in the semi-aerobic landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the characteristics of stabilization in semi-aerobic landfill, large-scale simulated landfill was constructed based on the semiaerobic landfill theory. Consequently, the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite nitrogen, and the pH value in leachate, as well as the component contents of landfill gas composition (methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen) in landfill were regularly monitored for

Qifei HUANG; Yufei YANG; Xiangrui PANG; Qi WANG

2008-01-01

309

CONNECTICUT MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of municipal solid waste sites in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes ash landfills, bulky waste landfills, waste volume reduction facilities, transfer stations, leaf compost facilities, and sludge compost facilities. Each site i...

310

Perspective view of the Rex Theater, 240 A Street West, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of the Rex Theater, 240 A Street West, view looking north - Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

311

Landfill course: managing gas and leachate production on landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling gas and leachate production is a primary objective of sound landfill management. Gases, composed mainly of carbon dioxide and methane, are formed during the decomposition of solid wastes. Leachate forms as water passes through the refuse, dissolving out chemicals. Three basic methods for controlling gas and leachate production are presented: managing production; directing gas or leachate movement; and treating

Reinfl

1977-01-01

312

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Ripon City Landfill, Fond du Lac County, Ripon, WI, March 27, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Ripon FF/LN landfill Superfund site is located at the intersection of Highways FF and NN in the Town of Ripon, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. The selected source control remedy is Alternative O, Composite Landfill Cap and Passive Gas Venting in conjunction with a groundwater monitoring plan.

NONE

1996-06-01

313

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE AND CLINOPTILOLITE ZEOLITE FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE: LABORATORY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

There are tens of thousands of closed landfills in the United States, many of whicih are unlined and sited on alluvial deposits. Landfills are of concern because leachate contains a variety of pollutants that can contaminate ground and surface water. Data from chemical analysis...

314

Assessing the Ecological Risk of a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill to Surrounding Wildlife: a Case Study in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the ecological risk of siting a new municipal solid waste landfill near a National Wildlife Refuge in Florida, we carried out a retrospective assessment at a large waterbird colony located near an existing active landfill. Monitoring data collected over twenty years, including flight-line counts both at dawn and midday, shows the mixed-species, communal roost was active continuously from

Darren G. Rumbold; Marybeth Morrison; Marc C. Bruner

2009-01-01

315

Seasonal biogeochemical profiling of an unlined landfill in rural Victoria (Australia): implications for stream and groundwater contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlined landfills and waste transfer stations lack collection systems to prevent groundwater pollution. Unmonitored leakage into shallow groundwater can lead to eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems. Such sites are fairly common in rural Australia, and seven years of groundwater and leachate biogeochemical data taken near a rural landfill in Beaufort (Victoria) Australia, showed that interacting biogeochemical cycles (i.e. C, N, S,

A. Minard; J. W. Moreau

2010-01-01

316

Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit.

Not Available

1993-09-01

317

Successful streets : performance measures, community engagement, and urban street design  

E-print Network

Over the past decade, local transportation agencies have increasingly re-designed urban arterials, their cities' major surface streets, to better accommodate a wide range of users. At the same time, a growing number of ...

Steinemann, Jeremy R

2012-01-01

318

Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

NONE

1997-04-01

319

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT LADWP MAIN STREET SERVICE CENTER  

SciTech Connect

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from September 2003 to August 2004. The data for the month of September 2004 was not available at the time this report was prepared. An addendum to this report will be prepared and transmitted to the Department of Energy once this data becomes available. This fuel cell power plant was originally intended to be installed at an American Airlines facility located at Los Angeles International Airport, however, due to difficulties in obtaining a site, the plant was ultimately installed at the LADWP's Distributed Generation Test Facility at it's Main Street Service Center.

William W. Glauz

2004-09-10

320

[Difference of contaminant composition between landfill leachates and groundwater and its reasons].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the groundwater pollution by landfill leachates, the distribution characteristics of inorganic salt, organic compounds and heavy metals in leachastes from a simple landfill and groundwater and its reason were study using conventional analysis, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the landfill was heterogeneous, and the extracts from the landfill wastes showed a high concentration of NH4(+) -N, but low contents of Cl-, SO4(2-), dissolved organic matter (DOM) and heavy metals. The nitrification process was blocked due to a strong reducing atmosphere in landfill, which caused a low concentration of NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N in leachates. Cu was mainly associated with DOM in leachates, while the distribution of the metals Ba, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and As was primarily related to hydrophobic organic compounds. The contaminate compositions in different groundwater were similar except for the groundwater under the landfill site. In contrast to landfill leachates, the groundwater showed a low concentration of NH4(+) -N, but high concentrations of Cl-, SO4(2-), DOM, NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N except for the groundwater under the landfill site. The organic compounds in the groundwater were mainly originated from microbial activity, and the distribution of the metals Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni was mainly related to fluorescecent organic matter in DOM. The results showed that the leak point of landfill leachates can be identified through the cluster analysis method on the basis of the contaminant composition in groundwater. PMID:24946594

He, Xiao-Song; Yu, Hong; Xi, Bei-Dou; Cui, Dong-Yu; Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Dan

2014-04-01

321

Influence of Fenton reagent oxidation on mineralization and decolorization of municipal landfill leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of Fenton's technique for the treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate collected from Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS), Penang, Malaysia. The Fe or Fe as catalyst and H2O2 as oxidizing agent are commonly used for the classical Fenton's reaction. In present study, the effect of operating conditions such as pH, reaction time, molar ratio, agitation rate,

Soraya Mohajeri; Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Mohamed Hasnain Isa; Mohammed J. K. Bashir; Leila Mohajeri; Mohd Nordin Adlan

2010-01-01

322

Assessment of leachates from sanitary landfills: Impact of age, rainfall, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to search for effects of landfill age and rainfall on landfill leachate in Taiwan, as well as to carry out a site-treatment study of a typical leachate treatment plant (Tatun). According to the results of analysis, the critical time, so-called leachate-mature-time, is much shorter than the record, 10 to 20 y, in the literature.

Paris Honglay Chen

1996-01-01

323

The World According to Sesame Street  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over thirty years of experience in the United States, Sesame Street has become a much loved fixture on public television, and one that enjoys a broad base of support. For many young people from age 6 to 36, itâÂÂs hard to imagine a childhood without such familiar faces as Bert, Ernie, Big Bird, and of course, that lovely curmudgeon, Oscar the Grouch. As some visitors may already know, Sesame Street is on the air in over 120 countries, and in its many different versions, the program is modified to accommodate the different cultural traditions of those places, while always incorporating its primary themes of tolerance and mutual respect. This site, created by Independent Lens, explores that process, and is meant as a companion to their recent documentary on this subject. As with previous Independent Lens companion websites, visitors can learn about the filmmakers, along with offering their own inquiries. Finally, visitors will also get a chance to explore the different versions of Sesame Street around the globe, including programs in Kosovo, Bangladesh, and South Africa.

2006-01-01

324

Response of tomato plants to simulated landfill gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The roots of tomato plants were fumigated with simulated refuse-generated gas mixtures at levels of methane (CH/sub 4/), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), and oxygen (O/sub 2/) previously measured in the atmospheres of landfill cover soils associated with poor growth or death of plants. A concentration of 18% CO/sub 2/ or greater, exceeded in almost 30% of thirty-two landfills examined throughout the US, caused reduced growth and visible symptoms on tomato after 1 wk, regardless of O/sub 2/ level. Doubling the CO/sub 2/ level to that encountered in a typical local site (Edgeboro Landfill) resulted in more severe symptom development and the subsequent death of plants. Methane, in concentrations of 20% and above, found in more than 25% of the landfills visited, while not observed to be toxic per se; was associated with drastic O/sub 2/ depletion in the soil atmosphere, which activity was believed to be the cause of the plant decline.

Arthur, J.J.; Leone, I.A.; Flower, F.B.

1985-01-01

325

No pain-no gain, the evolution of a landfill gas project  

SciTech Connect

After the City`s utility department closed down an on-site landfill gas (LFG) fired electrical generating facility for permitting problems, and shortly thereafter suffered a traumatic experience with a leaking and inefficient gas collection system, the development of another landfill gas project in the City of Glendale was not a safe thought to harbor. Yet, in 1990, Glendale was approached by several persistent developers who convinced the City to explore another, but larger gas project. Scholl Canyon Landfill, owned principally by the City of Glendale, is a moderately sized facility with 22 million tons of refuse in place and a 12 million ton remaining capacity. The site is comprised of two separate adjoining canyons totalling 410 acres. The smaller canyon is no longer active and today supports a privately operated golf course and driving range. While the active site is within Glendale, the landfill has split ownership with Glendale retaining an 83 percent share, Los Angeles County 10 percent and Southern California Edison 7 percent. Landfill operations are managed by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) in accordance with a joint powers agreement that originated in the early 1960`s. Generating approximately 9 million cubic feet of landfill gas per day with a heating value about one-third that of natural gas, private developers could envision a lucrative project, particularly considering the availability of Federal tax credits for producing fuel from a non-conventional source. The evolution of the Glendale project is described in this paper.

Morford, K.L. [Public Works, Glendale, CA (United States)

1995-08-01

326

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Johnson County Landfill  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, Kansas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Citizens of Shawnee, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Kansas that are particularly well suited for grid-tied solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. This report assesses the Johnson County Landfill for possible grid-tied PV installations and estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. The report findings are applicable to other landfills in the surrounding area.

Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

2012-01-01

327

Using observed data to improve estimated methane collection from select U.S. landfills.  

PubMed

The anaerobic decomposition of solid waste in a landfill produces methane, a potent greenhouse gas, and if recovered, a valuable energy commodity. Methane generation from U.S. landfills is usually estimated using the U.S. EPA's Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM). Default values for the two key parameters within LandGEM, the first-order decay rate (k) and the methane production potential (L0) are based on data collected in the 1990s. In this study, observed methane collection data from 11 U.S. landfills and estimates of gas collection efficiencies developed from site-specific gas well installation data were included in a reformulated LandGEM equation. Formal search techniques were employed to optimize k for each landfill to find the minimum sum of squared errors (SSE) between the LandGEM prediction and the observed collection data. Across nearly all landfills, the optimal k was found to be higher than the default AP-42 of 0.04 yr(-1) and the weighted average decay for the 11 landfills was 0.09 - 0.12 yr(-1). The results suggest that the default k value assumed in LandGEM is likely too low, which implies that more methane is produced in the early years following waste burial when gas collection efficiencies tend to be lower. PMID:23469937

Wang, Xiaoming; Nagpure, Ajay S; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

2013-04-01

328

A performance-based system for the long-term management of municipal waste landfills.  

PubMed

Landfills have been the dominant alternative for disposal of solid waste and there are tens of thousands of closed landfills throughout the world that require a long-term management strategy. In contrast to approaches based on time or target values, this paper describes a performance-based methodology for evaluation of post-closure care (PCC). Using the methodology, critical components of PCC at a landfill, including leachate and gas management, groundwater monitoring and cover integrity, are considered to determine whether a landfill meets defined conditions for functional stability and can transition from regulated PCC to a post-regulatory custodial care program representing de minimus care activities only. The methodology is predicated on understanding the biological, chemical, and physical behavior of a landfill and the presence of sufficient data to verify expected trends in landfill behavior. If an evaluation suggests that a change can be made to PCC, the landfill owner must perform confirmation monitoring and then surveillance monitoring at a decreasing frequency to verify that the change is protective of human health and the environment. A hypothetical case study showed that using the methodology to evaluate site-specific PCC requirements could result in increased environmental protection at comparable cost by spending available funds where they are most needed. PMID:21186115

Morris, Jeremy W F; Barlaz, Morton A

2011-04-01

329

Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.  

PubMed

The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy. PMID:22615201

Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

2012-08-01

330

Perspective view of Wilcox Building (7 North E Street), with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Wilcox Building (7 North E Street), with Eli Cafe (7 North E Street), the Palace Saloon (11 North E Street), and Fetsche's (15 North E Street) to left of frame, view looking north on E Street - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

331

Mixed waste landfill annual groundwater monitoring report April 2005.  

SciTech Connect

Annual groundwater sampling was conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories' Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL) in April 2005. Seven monitoring wells were sampled using a Bennett{trademark} pump in accordance with the April 2005 Mini-Sampling and Analysis Plan for the MWL (SNL/NM 2005). The samples were analyzed off site at General Engineering Laboratories, Inc. for a broad suite of radiochemical and chemical parameters, and the results are presented in this report. Sample splits were also collected from several of the wells by the New Mexico Environment Department U.S. Department of Energy Oversight Bureau; however, the split sample results are not included in this report. The results of the April 2005 annual groundwater monitoring conducted at the MWL showed constituent concentrations within the historical ranges for the site and indicated no evidence of groundwater contamination from the landfill.

Lyon, Mark L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2006-01-01

332

Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a 'safety net' in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills. PMID:24999096

Scharff, Heijo

2014-11-01

333

Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 12431257 Methane generation in landfills  

E-print Network

. Some of the modern regulated landfills attempt to capture and utilize landfill biogas, a renewable collecting landfill biogas worldwide. The landfills that capture biogas in the US collect about 2.6 million. All rights reserved. Keywords: Landfill gas; Renewable energy; Municipal solid waste; Biogas; Methane

Columbia University

334

Broad Street Books The Wesleyan University Bookstore  

E-print Network

Broad Street Books The Wesleyan University Bookstore 45 Broad Street Middletown, CT 06457 April 1 and class rings. All these items can be purchased through Broad Street Books, your local university store your regalia at the bookstore, we will be glad to have it shipped to you. Contact Broad Street Books

Royer, Dana

335

Tel Aviv: Bus Stop on Allenby Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allenby Street is a main commercial street in Tel Aviv. It is also a main route on the city bus system. At night, Allenby Street is a destination for nightlife, while during the day it is a busy area for retail shopping. Alleby Street is known for it’s inexpensive shops and adult oriented clubs.

Chet Smolski

1980-01-01

336

Tel Aviv: Allenby St. street signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Named after the British General Sir Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, Allenby Street is one of the major streets in Tel Aviv. The street originates in Hamoshavot Square and runs until Haknesset Square. Known for its commercial centered theme, the street is largely populated with visitors and tourists. The Casino of Tel Aviv also used to be located on the edge

Chet Smolski

1980-01-01

337

Wastewater treatment plant and landfills as sources of polyfluoroalkyl compounds to the atmosphere.  

PubMed

Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in air around a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and two landfill sites using sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers in summer 2009. The samples were analyzed for five PFC classes (i.e., fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs)) to investigate their concentration in air, composition and emissions to the atmosphere. ?PFC concentrations in air were 3-15 times higher within the WWTP (2280-24?040 pg/m(3)) and 5-30 times higher at the landfill sites (2780-26?430 pg/m(3)) compared to the reference sites (597-1600 pg/m3). Variations in the PFC pattern were observed between the WWTP and landfill sites and even within the WWTP site. For example, FTOHs were the predominant PFC class in air for all WWTP and landfill sites, with 6:2 FTOH as the dominant compound at the WWTP (895-12?290 pg/m(3)) and 8:2 FTOH dominating at the landfill sites (1290-17?380 pg/m(3)). Furthermore, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was dominant within the WWTP (43-171 pg/m(3)), followed by perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (55-116 pg/m(3)), while PFBA was dominant at the landfill sites (101-102 pg/m(3)). It is also noteworthy that the PFCA concentrations decreased with increasing chain length and that the emissions for the even chain length PFCAs outweighed emissions for the odd chain length compounds. Furthermore, highly elevated PFC concentrations were found near the aeration tanks compared to the other tanks (i.e., primary and secondary clarifier) and likely associated with increased volatilization during aeration that may be further enhanced through aqueous aerosol-mediated transport. ?PFC yearly emissions estimated using a simplified dispersion model were 2560 g/year for the WWTP, 99 g/year for landfill site 1, and 1000 g/year for landfill site 2. These results highlight the important role of WWTPs and landfills as emission sources of PFCs to the atmosphere. PMID:21466185

Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Lee, Sum Chi; Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J

2011-10-01

338

16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

339

The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

340

Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner of F and 2nd Streets North, view looking southeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

341

Perspective view of the IOOF Building, 5 North F Street, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of the IOOF Building, 5 North F Street, corner of F and Center Streets - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

342

Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Heryford Brothers Building, 10 North F Street, corner of Center and F Streets, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

343

Plants scrub landfill leachate clean  

SciTech Connect

Leachate from the sanitary landfill in Barre, Mass., is collected in a series of holding lagoons. There, aquatic plants such as duckweed biodegrade and purify the wastewater. The plants saturate the leachate with oxygen, which speeds up aerobic oxidation by bacteria. The leachate is moved progressively through the series of lagoons, and the contents of the final lagoon are emptied into a trout pond. (3 photos)

Not Available

1980-09-01

344

Big City Auto Parts Broadway / West 131st Street Checkers Broadway / West 125th Street  

E-print Network

Hudson Café 12th Ave / West 132nd Street McDonald's Restaurant West 125th Street / Broadway Mobile Gas Amsterdam Avenue / West 111th Street Columbia Deli Tiemann Place / Claremont Avenue Community Food & Juice / West 106th Street Freda's Carribean & Soul Food Columbus Avenue / West 109th Street Haagen

Biasutti, Michela

345

Modeling of H2S migration through landfill cover materials.  

PubMed

The emission of H2S from landfills in the United States is an emergent problem because measured concentrations within the waste mass and in ambient air have been observed at potentially unsafe levels for on-site workers and at levels that can cause a nuisance and potentially deleterious health impacts to surrounding communities. Though recent research has provided data on H2S concentrations that may be observed at landfills, facility operators and landfill engineers have limited predictive tools to anticipate and plan for potentially harmful H2S emissions. A one-dimensional gas migration model was developed to assist engineers and practitioners better evaluate and predict potential emission levels of H2S based on four factors: concentration of H2S below the landfill surface (C0), advection velocity (v), H2S effective diffusion coefficient (D), and H2S adsorption coefficient of landfill cover soil (?). Model simulations indicated that H2S migration into the atmosphere can be mitigated by reducing H2S diffusion and advection or using alternative cover soils with a high H2S adsorption coefficient. Laboratory column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the four parameters on H2S migration in cover soils and to calculate the adsorption coefficient of different cover materials. The model was validated by comparing results with laboratory column experiments. Based on the results, the laboratory column provides an effective way to estimate the H2S adsorption coefficient, which can then be incorporated into the developed model to predict the depth of cover soil required to reduce emitted H2S concentrations below a desired level. PMID:24316799

Xu, Qiyong; Powell, Jon; Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy

2014-01-15

346

Health assessment for Colesville Municipal Landfill Colesville, Broome County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980768691  

SciTech Connect

The Colesville Landfill is an inactive municipal landfill which received about 68,500 gallons of drummed industrial wastes between 1973 and 1975. The 113-acre site is located in a rural region of Broome County, New York, approximately one mile north of the Hamlet of Doraville, within the Town of Colesville. In 1983, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were found in drinking water supplies of homes near the landfill property. Subsequent site investigations led to the closure of the landfill in December 1984. The Colesville Landfill was accepted to the National Priorities List in June 1986. A Remedial Investigation of the landfill area was completed in 1988 and identified ground water as the primary mechanism for off-site migration of contaminants. Existing and potential human exposure routes include: ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption of VOCs in potable water; direct contact with soil, surface water and stream sediments; direct contact and inhalation of contaminants in surficial leachate seeps and ingestion of wild animals (e.g., deer and turkey) which may have been exposed to site contaminants. Based on the information reviewed, the Colesville Landfill is a public health hazard because of the risk to human health from past exposures and possible future exposures to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health impacts.

Not Available

1993-03-19

347

Time-dependent life-cycle assessment of slag landfills with the help of scenario analysis: the example of Cd and Cu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies show that landfills have a large impact on the environment if long-term time horizons are considered. In this paper, the authors use new site-dependent models for slag landfills and transport in soils to estimate the emissions of heavy metals to the groundwater. The results suggest that landfills remain a risk to the environment for very long

Stefanie Hellweg; Thomas B. Hofstetter; Konrad Hungerbühler

2005-01-01

348

Wall Street Executive Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A one-stop resource, this portal includes news, reference tools, and a search engine directory. Websites are organized by country, mainly focusing on resources from Canada and the United States. Other countries are also included, however. The reference section contains informative links to general reference sites, law, and business sources.

349

One-dimensional Seismic Analysis of a Solid-Waste Landfill  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the seismic performance of solid waste landfill follows generally the same procedures for the design of embankment dams, even if the methods and safety requirements should be different. The characterization of waste properties for seismic design is difficult due the heterogeneity of the material, requiring the procurement of large samples. The dynamic characteristics of solid waste materials play an important role on the seismic response of landfill, and it also is important to assess the dynamic shear strengths of liner materials due the effect of inertial forces in the refuse mass. In the paper the numerical results of a dynamic analysis are reported and analysed to determine the reliability of the common practice of using 1D analysis to evaluate the seismic response of a municipal solid-waste landfill. Numerical results indicate that the seismic response of a landfill can vary significantly due to reasonable variations of waste properties, fill heights, site conditions, and design rock motions.

Castelli, Francesco; Lentini, Valentina; Maugeri, Michele [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria no. 6, 95125, Catania (Italy)

2008-07-08

350

Investigations of natural attenuation in groundwater near a landfill and implications for landfill post-closure  

E-print Network

. While isotopic data suggest a signature of the landfill leachate in the groundwater in the vicinity of the biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes, Christensen et al. (2001) note that "Heavy metals do not seem1 Investigations of natural attenuation in groundwater near a landfill and implications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and  

E-print Network

and chromium were significantly higher in the experimental simulated landfill leachate compared to the control simulated landfill leachate (R ) 0.05, p Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris: Arsenic

Florida, University of

352

Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills  

E-print Network

problematic for landfill operations by generating undesirable heat, liquid leachate, and gases reactions. Another source of water in a MSW landfill is leachate recirculation, which is not recommended: Solid wastes; Aluminum; Chemicals; Waste disposal; Landfills. Author keywords: Solid waste; Leachate

353

Livingston Parish Landfill Methane Recovery Project (Feasibility Study)  

SciTech Connect

The Woodside Landfill is owned by Livingston Parish, Louisiana and is operated under contract by Waste Management of Louisiana LLC. This public owner/private operator partnership is commonplace in the solid waste industry today. The landfill has been in operation since approximately 1988 and has a permitted capacity of approximately 41 million cubic yards. Based on an assumed in-place waste density of 0.94 ton per cubic yard, the landfill could have an expected design capacity of 39.3 million tons. The landfill does have an active landfill gas collection and control system (LFGCCS) in place because it meets the minimum thresholds for the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The initial LFGCS was installed prior to 2006 and subsequent phases were installed in 2007 and 2010. The Parish received a grant from the United States Department of Energy in 2009 to evaluate the potential for landfill gas recovery and utilization at the Woodside Landfill. This includes a technical and economic feasibility study of a project to install a landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) plant and to compare alternative technologies. The LFGTE plant can take the form of on-site electrical generation, a direct use/medium Btu option, or a high-Btu upgrade technology. The technical evaluation in Section 2 of this report concludes that landfill gas from the Woodside landfill is suitable for recovery and utilization. The financial evaluations in sections 3, 4, and 5 of this report provide financial estimates of the returns for various utilization technologies. The report concludes that the most economically viable project is the Electricity Generation option, subject to the Parish’s ability and willingness to allocate adequate cash for initial capital and/or to obtain debt financing. However, even this option does not present a solid return: by our estimates, there is a 19 year simple payback on the electricity generation option. All of the energy recovery options discussed in this report economically stressed. The primary reason for this is the recent fundamental shift in the US energy landscape. Abundant supplies of natural gas have put downward pressure on any project that displaces natural gas or natural gas substitutes. Moreover, this shift appears long-term as domestic supplies for natural gas may have been increased for several hundred years. While electricity prices are less affected by natural gas prices than other thermal projects, they are still significantly affected since much of the power in the Entergy cost structure is driven by natural gas-fired generation. Consequently, rates reimbursed by the power company based on their avoided cost structure also face downward pressure over the near and intermediate term. In addition, there has been decreasing emphasis on environmental concerns regarding the production of thermal energy, and as a result both the voluntary and mandatory markets that drive green attribute prices have softened significantly over the past couple of years. Please note that energy markets are constantly changing due to fundamental supply and demand forces, as well as from external forces such as regulations and environmental concerns. At any point in the future, the outlook for energy prices may change and could deem either the electricity generation or pipeline injection project more feasible. This report is intended to serve as the primary background document for subsequent decisions made at Parish staff and governing board levels.

White, Steven

2012-11-15

354

Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill leachate emanating from old "dilute and disperse" sites represents a potential (and in many cases actual) threat to the integrity of groundwater. Indeed, this concern has been included in EU legislation (80/86/EEC), where key contaminants (e.g. ammonia, various toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) are explicitly highlighted in terms of their impact on groundwater. In the UK, whilst there are a substantial number of unlined landfills sited on major aquifers, many of these are in locations where there is a substantial unsaturated zone. Thus, there exists the opportunity for the modification and attenuation of contaminants prior to it encountering the water table. An understanding of likely changes in leachate content and concentrations at such sites will enable a more comprehensive assessment of the potential risks and liabilities posed by such sites to be evaluated. The Burntstump landfill, situated 8 km north of Nottingham (UK), is sited on an outcrop of Sherwood sandstone. The fine friable sand has been quarried since the 1960s and the excavated volume used to store municipal waste. Filling at the site commenced in the mid 1970s and originally was unlined. In 1978 the first of what was to become a series of boreholes was installed within an area of roughly 5 m radius over one of the original waste cells. Cores of the waste and underlying sandstone were extracted and analysed for a range of physical and chemical parameters. The most recent set of analyses were obtained in 2000. The series of investigations therefore provide an important record of leachate migration and modification through the unsaturated zone for over twenty years. The progression of the leachate front is clearly delineated by the chloride concentration profile with an average velocity of around 1.6 m.yr-1. Combining this value with an average (and reasonably uniform) measured moisture content of about 7% gives a mean inter-granular specific discharge of 110 mm.yr-1. An interesting feature of the sequences of porewater concentration profiles is the sharp leading front of the Cl plume. Thus indicating that very little solute dispersion appears to be occurring. This is probably to be due to the relatively uniform particle size of the sand matrix combined with the low moisture content, which has greatly constrained the available pore sizes in which flow occurs. A marked reduction in the mass of the chloride plume has been observed over the last 13 years. Analyses of core sample taken in 2000 show that the Cl profile has continued to lose mass and has now also separated into two peaks. The leading peak was located at a depth of 36 m below ground level (28 m below the base of the landfill) and in line with model predictions. The trailing peak was at a depth of 27 m bgl and was associated with a 0.3 m layer of marl and clay bands. Thus there is an indication that the changes in chloride mass are possibly due to the effects of heterogeneity, although other processes which could account for chloride removal from solution are also under consideration. The location of the TOC front up to 1992 was commensurate with that of Cl, indicating no effective retardation. This is consistent with the very low levels of organic carbon present in the sandstone. However, marked reductions in contaminant mass (substantially greater than those of Cl) have been observed. Analyses of volatile fatty acids has indicated a progressive breakdown of VFA components leading to simpler products so that by 1991 the dominant component was ethanoic acid (56% by mass). By 2000 the entire leading front of the TOC was absent. TOC was only found to be present at relatively low concentrations ( 100 mg.l-1) above the marl/clay band. Analyses of gas concentrations at the site have indicated that there has been a change in the redox potential in the volume of contaminated unsaturated sandstone below the waste cells during the last 10 years. With predominantly anaerobic conditions giving way to aerobic. This change appears to be related to the introduction of a landfill gas ex

Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

355

Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI  

SciTech Connect

A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

2006-08-29

356

Public health assessment for Clarke Road Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia, Region 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Burke County Clarke Road Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL) opened in 1975 and is still in operation. This landfill has two areas which accept waste, one cell for municipal and the other for construction and demolition waste. The Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD) and the consultant for Burke County, Tribble and Richardson, Inc. (T and R) collected drinking-water well samples on May 12, 1997, at seven residences in the vicinity of the landfill. EPD asked the Georgia Division of Public Health (GDPH) to conduct a public health investigation at the Clarke Road MSWL in Waynesboro, Georgia. EPD is concerned about possible adverse health effects caused by past, present, and future exposure to environmental contamination from the landfill. GDPH classifies this site as no apparent public health hazard. Discussions of exposure pathways, specific contaminants, and conclusions about the risk posed to residents near the landfill are included in this document.

NONE

1999-09-21

357

Economic study on the effectiveness of photovoltaic street lighting in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility study of installing the photovoltaic street lighting at 15 sites in the Univeristi Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru campus. A comparative economic analysis on the actual electricity bill for UTM with and without photovoltaic (PV) street lighting was performed. The finding shows that there is approximately 1% reduction in the electricity bill with the pay

H. A. Rahman; M. Y. Hassan; M. S. Majid; K. M. Nor; N. A. Atan

2008-01-01

358

UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal at the University of Washington is coordinated by the EH&S Environmental Programs Office  

E-print Network

the Montlake Landfill Cedar Hills Landfill Landfill Maple Valley, WA Eastmont Transfer Station Landfill SeattleUW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal Washington State or UW contract vendors. For other waste streams that also cannot be disposed of as municipal

Wilcock, William

359

Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration  

PubMed Central

The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

2011-01-01

360

VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED BY CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH & ASSOCIATES AND BUILT IN 1972 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

361

CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

362

REMEDIATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Norman Landfill is the field site for this project. It was reported that ground water toxicity at this site was due to ammonia, and napthalene was the only ASOC present at high concentrations. Thus, batch and column studies will be used to evaluate reactive materials with the...

363

Public health assessment for Munisport landfill, North Miami, Dade County, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD084535442. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Munisport Landfill site is an inactive landfill in, and owned by, the City of North Miami, Florida. The site is an urban area adjacent to the Oleta River Recreational Area, a state mangrove preserve, and Biscayne Bay. Soil, sediments, surface water, and ground water are contaminated. The authors selected ammonia, benzene, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, carbon disulfide, chloromethane, coliform bacteria, dieldrin, lead, methylene chloride, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), styrene, vanadium, and zinc as contaminants of concern. Accidentally ingesting contaminated soil and surface water, and breathing contaminated smoke are completed human exposure pathways. Children who swam in the landfill lakes risked bacterial and viral infections. Based on the available data, the authors categorize the Munisport Landfill site as an indeterminate public health hazard.

Not Available

1993-01-28

364

Monitoring of landfill leachate dispersion using reflectance spectroscopy and ground-penetrating radar.  

PubMed

The utility of ground-penetrating radar and reflectance spectroscopy in the monitoring of landfill sites has been investigated. Strong correlations between red edge inflection position and chlorophyll and heavy metal concentrations have been demonstrated from grassland species affected by leachate contamination of the soil adjacent to the landfill test site. This study demonstrated that reflectance spectroscopy can identify vegetation affected by leachate-contaminated soil at a range of spatial resolutions. To identify the vegetation affected by leachate contamination, the spectroradiometer must have contiguous bands at sufficient spectral resolution over the critical wave range that measures chlorophyll absorption and the red edge (between 650 and 750 nm). The utility of ground-penetrating radar data to identify leachate escaping from breakout points in the contaminant wall has also been demonstrated. An integrated approach using these techniques, combined with field and borehole sampling and contaminant migration modeling, offers a possible cost-effective monitoring approach for landfill sites. PMID:14524467

Splajt, T; Ferrier, G; Frostick, L E

2003-09-15

365

LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

366

Biological control of leachate from municipal landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfilling is still a popular way for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment. Leachate generated from landfills is becoming a great threat to the surroundings as it contains high concentrations of toxic substances. How to control leachate migration and to protect environmental pollution is now a concern for many environmentalists. In this work, eight effective microorganisms (EMs) were isolated from wastewater,

Aizhong Ding; Zonghu Zhang; Jiamo Fu; Lirong Cheng

2001-01-01

367

MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

368

Identification of dynamic properties of OII landfill  

SciTech Connect

The performance of landfills during strong earthquake shaking is a matter of considerable concern and deserves to be studied more extensively. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of the OII landfill materials using strong motion recordings, available field measurements, and simplified physical models. Although the earthquakes recorded at the OII landfill generated shear strains as large as 0.08%, the landfill materials behaved as essentially a linear viscoelastic material, showing a negligible reduction in shear modulus with shear strain amplitude. The damping responsible for energy dissipation was found to depend on frequencies between 0.1 and 10 Hz. The physical origins of this frequency-dependent damping are not yet clearly understood. The results of this study are useful in analyzing the dynamic response of landfills and cap systems during small to moderate-size earthquakes. The present analysis is simplified because there were only two recording instruments at the OII landfill. It is recommended that researchers deploy more field instruments at this and other landfills to document their dynamic response during future earthquakes, and develop large-scale laboratory tests to determine landfill material properties under large static and dynamic strains.

Morochnik, V.; Bardet, J.P.; Hushmand, B. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-03-01

369

Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers  

EPA Science Inventory

Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

370

Health assessment for petitioned preliminary public health assessment, Global Landfill, Old Bridge, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD063160667. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Located in the Old Bridge Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, the Global Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) site is situated along a tidal marsh. The 57.5-acre NPL site has about 2,400,000 cubic yards of municipal solid, bulky, vegetative, and industrial wastes. Global Landfill generates significant amounts of leachate and landfill gas. On-site environmental monitoring of leachate, surface and ground water, and soil gas indicates there is significant contamination of the environment at the Global Landfill NPL site. Based on available information, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concludes that the Global Landfill NPL site is an indeterminate public health hazard because most of the on- and off-site data are not appropriate for determining possible health impacts for the site. Because airborne contaminants may be migrating into nearby residential areas, air monitoring is needed at the landfill and in residential areas to determine whether significant human exposure is occurring. As described in the public health assessment, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) is planning a number of remedial activities. When those corrective actions are complete, the potential for human exposure to Global Landfill NPL site-related contaminants should be reduced, provided operable unit 1 is appropriately designed and maintained.

Not Available

1993-04-26

371

Liberty Street Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of New York has created this rather fine blog to feature insight and analysis from economists working at the intersection of research and Fed policymaking. People working in the fields of public policy, economics, monetary policy, and financial services will find much to enjoy here. Visitors can comment on different posts or follow embedded links that lead to working papers from other Fed system banks and policy groups. On the right hand side of the page, visitors can Pick a Topic to get started with their exploration. Of course, there's the more conventional way to read around the site, which is to just scroll through the entries. Recent posts have included meditations on the seasonality of U.S. monetary policy, the Jackson Hole Economic Policy Symposium, and the rising costs of college tuition.

2012-10-15

372

South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

W est N ew Mason Farm R oad di M anning Drive Drive Deck Cardinal Hospital NC Neuro- Infirmary NC 2 East Wing Patient Support Wing Parking Dogwood Deck UNC HOSPITALS Children's NC Memorial NC Women's cal South Columbia Street wood Dri Pit D rive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Tarrson Brauer Dental

Whitton, Mary C.

373

South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

W est N ew Mason Farm R oad di M anning Drive Drive Deck Cardinal Hospital NC Neuro- Infirmary NC 2 Wing Patient Support Wing Parking Dogwood Deck UNC HOSPITALS Children's NC Memorial NC Women's cal South Columbia Street wood Dri Pit D rive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Brauer Tarrson Koury Oral

Doyle, Martin

374

South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

W est New Mason Farm Road M anning Drive Drive Deck Cardinal Hospital NC Neuro- Infirmary NC 2nd Wing Patient Support Wing Parking Dogwood Deck UNC HOSPITALS Children's NC Memorial NC Women's cal South Columbia Street wood Dri P Drive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Tarrson Brauer Dental Research

Whitton, Mary C.

375

MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT  

E-print Network

.................................... 43 David Braley Athletic Centre.... 54 Divinity College............................ 17 Dramatic Arts 11 MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT COOTESDRIVE WESTAWAY ROAD SCHOLAR'S ROAD STEARN DRIVE EntranceCampus LEGEND McMaster University Entrance Security and Parking Services Parking Lot Location Pay Stations Short

Thompson, Michael

376

Genetics of Sesame Street Characters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaches genetics and inheritance using the characters from Sesame Street. Asks students to create a gene map of their favorite character and determine those genes passing to the next generation. Includes a genetics activity sheet and genetic information on the characters. (YDS)

Raye, Susan

2001-01-01

377

Occupational Hazards of Street Prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 200 women street prostitutes documents extremely high levels of on-the-job victimization. Subjects reported being physically abused and beaten by both customers and pimps. Other forms of victimization included customer rape, forced perversion, non-payment, robbery, violence, clients going beyond the prostitution contract, and unfair split of money with pimps.

Mimi H. Silbert; Ayala M. Pines

1981-01-01

378

BONDING PROCEDURES MUNICIPAL STREETS SEMINAR  

E-print Network

, sidewalks, waterworks, cemeteries; Equipment for the police, fire, street and civil defense departments of governmental bonds, but she also advises clients with respect to issues involving economic development, permissible expenditures, utility issues, and public contracting. Minniette has experience with a variety

379

Genetics of Sesame Street TM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By enlisting the of Elmo, Zoe, Grover, and friends, the author brought a genetics unit to life. In this week-long unit, the students (1) create a gene map for a particular Sesame Street character, (2) move the resulting chromosomes through the steps of me

Raye, Susan

2001-02-01

380

Who Is on Our Streets?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By conducting a pedestrian survey, secondary or college level students answer the question "What is the best location for a new business requiring maximum pedestrian traffic?" They collect data on the number and types of people on streets in a commercial area of a city. (RM)

Johnson, Brian A.

1983-01-01

381

Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

Jacobson, Linda

2008-01-01

382

Street justice: a theoretical paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three theoretical perspectives examine the role of justice as a means of informal social control and as a reactionary process to dynamics of social strain and subcultural demands. This theoretical analysis is then applied to concepts of justice, including retributive, distributive, restorative, and procedural. The derived street justice paradigm incorporates these various forms of justice as they are linked with

Steven Downing

2011-01-01

383

Survival, reproduction, and recruitment of woody plants after 14 years on a reforested landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of modern sanitary landfill closure techniques, the opportunity exists for transforming municipal landfills into urban woodlands. While costs of fullscale reforestation are generally prohibitive, a modest planting of clusters of trees and shrubs could initiate or accelerate population expansions and natural plant succession from open field to diverse forest. However, among woody species that have been screened for use on landfills, these ecological potentials have not yet been investigated. We examined a 14-yr-old landfill plantation in New Jersey, USA, established to test tolerance of 19 species of trees and shrubs to landfill environments. We measured survivorship, reproduction, and recruitment within and around the experimental installation. Half of the original 190 plants were present, although survival and growth rates varied widely among species. An additional 752 trees and shrubs had colonized the plantation and its perimeter, as well as 2955 stems of vines. However, the great majority (>95%) of woody plants that had colonized were not progeny of the planted cohort, but instead belonged to 18 invading species, mostly native, bird-dispersed, and associated with intermediate stages of secondary plant succession. Based on this evidence, we recommend that several ecological criteria be applied to choices of woody species for the restoration of municipal landfills and similar degraded sites, in order to maximize rapid and economical establishment of diverse, productive woodlands.

Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.; Schmalhofer, Victoria R.

1992-03-01

384

Landfill leachate management -- A survey of cost-effective collection and minimization techniques  

SciTech Connect

Waste disposal and containment systems are intended to protect the quality of human health and the environment by preventing containment migration across all major pathways, including ground water, surface water, and air. Uncontrolled release of leachate from waste disposal facilities or landfills may have an adverse impact on ground water and surface waters. Since leachate quality and strength differs for each landfill, the associated risks of exposure vary accordingly. However, studies by the Texas Water Resources Institute of four municipal landfill leachates found all samples failed for acute toxicity tests. Regardless of site-specific quality and health risk of leachate generated at a landfill, in drafting the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Congress viewed waste disposal practices as a matter national in scope and directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to promulgate performance standards for landfills. As these standards apply towards leachate management, the USEPA has regulated in favor of leachate management strategies that are oriented towards proper leachate collection and minimization of leachate generation. This paper provides a brief background section on leachate characteristics and then addresses a number of time-tested, cost-effective leachate collections systems (LCS), leachate removal systems, and minimization techniques that meet the EPA`s dual goals for lined and unlined landfills.

Beech, J.F. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States); Seery, T.J. [Unisys Corp., Paoli, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

385

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Old Bethpage Landfill, Old Bethpage, New York (first remedial action), March 1988. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Old Bethpage landfill, covering approximately 65 acres, is located in Old Bethpage, Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau Country, New York. Two public drinking-water wells, a residential community, an industrial park, and a state park, exist within the site's general vicinity. Beginning in 1958, the Town of Oyster Bay operated the landfill as a municipal landfill. In addition to accepting municipal wastes and garbage, local industrial wastes were disposed of on the landfill during the late 1960s and early 1970s. A system designed to collect, store, treat, and dispose of leachate has been operating at the site since 1983. There are three remedial actions currently underway at the site. They include: leachate collection, methane gas collection, and landfill capping. The primary contaminants of concern affecting ground water include: VOCs, TCE, benzene, toluene, inorganics, chromium, and lead. Air is contaminated with methane gas and VOCs.

Not Available

1988-03-17

386

Methane emissions from MSW landfill with sandy soil covers under leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CH 4 emissions and leachate disposal are recognized as the two major concerns in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Recently, leachate recirculation was attempted to accelerate land-filled waste biodegradation and thus enhanced landfill gas generation. Leachate irrigation was also conducted for volume reduction effectively. Nevertheless, the impacts of leachate recirculation and irrigation on landfill CH 4 emissions have not been previously reported. A field investigation of landfill CH 4 emissions was conducted on selected sandy soil cover with leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation based on whole year around measurement. The average CH 4 fluxes were 311±903, 207±516, and 565±1460 CH 4 m -2 h -1 from site A without leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation, lift B2 with leachate subsurface irrigation, and lift B1 with both leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation, respectively. Both gas recovery and cover soil oxidation minimized CH 4 emissions efficiently, while the later might be more pronounced when the location was more than 5 m away from gas recovery well. After covered by additional clay soil layer, CH 4 fluxes dropped by approximately 35 times in the following three seasons compared to the previous three seasons in lift B2. The diurnal peaks of CH 4 fluxes occurred mostly followed with air or soil temperature in the daytimes. The measured CH 4 fluxes were much lower than those of documented data from the landfills, indicating that the influences of leachate recirculation and subsurface irrigation on landfill CH 4 emissions might be minimized with the help of a well-designed sandy soil cover. Landfill cover composed of two soil layers (clay soil underneath and sandy soil above) is suggested as a low-cost and effective alternative to minimize CH 4 emissions.

Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

387

The Application Of Biofilter System For Reduction Of Methane Emissions From Modern Sanitary Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by anthropogenic activities has been related to global climate change. Methane, the second most important GHG after CO2, is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Therefore, methane emission control is of utmost importance for global warming reduction. To minimize leachate production and protect groundwater resources, modern sanitary landfills are equipped with composite covers and gas collection systems. Methane from modern sanitary landfills is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills where it is recovered as energy and burned at the site. However, the efficiency of energy recovery systems in larger landfills is reduced as the amount of CH4 generated from landfill begins to decrease. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system was investigated to treat CH4 gas emitted from modern sanitary landfills by conducting batch and column experiments using landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast as the filter bed medium. From the batch experiments to measure the influence of moisture content and temperature of the filter medium on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system, the optimum moisture content and temperature were found to be 10-15% by weight and 25-35°C, respectively. The column experiment was conducted to measure the influence of inlet CH4 concentration and CH4 loading rate on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system. As the inlet CH4 concentration decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. Up to a CH4 loading rate of 2785 g CH4 m3 h- 1 (EBRT = 7.7 min), the CH4 removal efficiency of the biofilter was able to reach 100%. Based on the results of the study, the installation of a properly managed biofilter system should be capable of achieving a reduction in atmospheric CH4 emissions from modern sanitary landfills at low CH4 generation stage.

Sung, K.; Park, S.

2007-12-01

388

Research and Debate -- Reimagining Center Street  

E-print Network

do not always factor into street design. But suggest a realstreet and nearby roofs in con- trast to an adjacent set of mechanized fountain pools. Community Design,design process. In the case of our work on Center Street, we

Hood, Walter J.

2008-01-01

389

Incorporating video into Google Mobile Street View  

E-print Network

Mobile Street View is a compelling application but suffers from significant latency problems, especially in limited bandwidth circumstances. Currently, the application uses static images to display street level information. ...

Wright, Christina (Christina E.)

2010-01-01

390

Organic matter determination for street dust in Delhi.  

PubMed

The organic matter of street dust is considered as one of the causes for high human mortality rate. To understand the association, the street dust samples were collected from four different localities (industrial, residential, residential-commercial, and commercial) situated in the greater Delhi area of India. The loss-on-ignition method was used to determine the organic matter (OM) content in street dust. The OM content, potassium, calcium, sulfate, and nitrate concentrations of street dust in Delhi, India is measured to understand the spatial variation. Correlation analysis, analysis of variance, and factor analysis were performed to define the sources. The dust OM level ranges from 2.63 to 10.22 %. It is found through correlation and factor analysis that OM is primarily contributed from secondary aerosol and vehicular exhaust. The OM levels suggest that the use of a residential-commercial site for commercial purposes is polluting the street dust and creating the environmental and human health problems. PMID:23099860

Shandilya, Kaushik K; Khare, Mukesh; Gupta, A B

2013-06-01

391

Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

2007-10-01

392

Health assessment for Coker's Sanitation Service Landfills, Cheswold, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980704860. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Coker's Sanitation Service Landfills site is the location of two former landfills used to dispose of latex rubber waste sludges from what is now the Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. plant. On-site contamination consists of ethylbenzene, iron, toluene, acrolein, and bis-2-chloroethylether in groundwater, waste sludges, sediments, and leachate. Off-site sampling of monitoring wells indicates acrolein and ethylbenzene in groundwater. There are no reports of physical hazards at the site. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater.

Not Available

1988-11-14

393

Moving Beyond Prevailing Street Design Standards  

E-print Network

Moving Beyond Prevailing Street Design Standards: Assessing Legal and Liability Barriers to More Efficient Street Design and Function John Urgo M.C.P. Candidate University of California, Berkeley, 2011 Communities Contents Moving Beyond Prevailing Street Design Standards Assessing Legal and Liability Barriers

Kammen, Daniel M.

394

Overview of the NACTO Urban Street  

E-print Network

Overview of the NACTO Urban Street Design Guide Peter Koonce, P.E. April$modal) street design #12;City Staff talking to City StaffCity Staff talking to City Staff #12;HowStreets designed for peak intervals of traffic may fail to provide a safe

Bertini, Robert L.

395

Research Summary Health Benefits of Street Trees  

E-print Network

Research Summary Health Benefits of Street Trees Street trees can have an important role the review found a growing body of research that generally confirms the existence of these benefits, economic This research aimed to: o Assess recent economic evidence of the health benefits provided by street trees

396

Substance abuse among street children in Mumbai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent street boys are a highly mobile population and difficult to reach. They are recognized to be vulnerable to substance, physical and sexual abuse. Our objective was to conduct a study among adolescent street boys of Mumbai City to assess substance, physical and sexual abuse and the factors associated with them. Most of the studies on adolescent street boys were

Abhay M. Gaidhane; Quazi Syed Zahiruddin; Lalit Waghmare; Sunita Shanbhag; Sanjay Zodpey; Sudhakar R. Joharapurkar

2008-01-01

397

The influence of street lighting improvements on crime, fear and pedestrian street use, after dark  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses upon the results of a co-ordinated programme of research designed to evaluate the impact of street lighting improvements on crime and fear of crime. The street lighting was upgraded in three urban streets and a pedestrian footpath considered by a multi-agency team to be crime and fear prone. The impact of the street lighting programme was assessed

Kate Painter

1996-01-01

398

Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

2014-08-01

399

Delineating landfill leachate discharge to an arsenic contaminated waterway.  

PubMed

Discharge of contaminated ground water may serve as a primary and on-going source of contamination to surface water. A field investigation was conducted at a Superfund site in Massachusetts, USA to define the locus of contaminant flux and support source identification for arsenic contamination in a pond abutting a closed landfill. Subsurface hydrology and ground-water chemistry were evaluated in the aquifer between the landfill and the pond during the period 2005-2009 employing a network of wells to delineate the spatial and temporal variability in subsurface conditions. These observations were compared with concurrent measures of ground-water seepage and surface water chemistry within a shallow cove that had a historical visual record of hydrous ferric oxide precipitation along with elevated arsenic concentrations in shallow sediments. Barium, presumably derived from materials disposed in the landfill, served as an indicator of leachate-impacted ground water discharging into the cove. Evaluation of the spatial distributions of seepage flux and the concentrations of barium, calcium, and ammonium-nitrogen indicated that the identified plume primarily discharged into the central portion of the cove. Comparison of the spatial distribution of chemical signatures at depth within the water column demonstrated that direct discharge of leachate-impacted ground water was the source of highest arsenic concentrations observed within the cove. These observations demonstrate that restoration of the impacted surface water body will necessitate control of leachate-impacted ground water that continues to discharge into the cove. PMID:22018591

Ford, Robert G; Acree, Steven D; Lien, Bob K; Scheckel, Kirk G; Luxton, Todd P; Ross, Randall R; Williams, Aaron G; Clark, Patrick

2011-11-01

400

Methane Balance of a Bioreactor Landfill in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a methane (CH4) gas emission characterization survey conducted at the Loma Los Colorados landfill located 60 km from Santiago, Chile. The landfill receives approximately 1 million metric tons (t) of waste annually, and is equipped with leachate control systems and landfill gas collection systems. The collected leachate is recirculated to enable operation of the landfill

Jenny Sanderson; Patrick Hettiaratchi; Carlos Hunte; Omar Hurtado; Alejandro Keller; Chart Chiemchaisri; Wilai Chiemchaisri; Sayan Tudsri; Sunil Kumar; Josias Zietsman; Muhammad Bari; Aaron Rand; Bhushan Gokhale; Dominique Lord; Chettiyappan Visvanathan; Melissa Weitz; Jeffrey Coburn; Edgar Salinas; Ahmed Soliman; Robert Jacko; Nancy Burton; Atin Adhikari; Yulia Iossifova; Sergey Grinshpun; Tiina Reponen; James Wilson; Maureen Mullen; Andrew Bollman; Kirstin Thesing; Manish Salhotra; Frank Divita; James Neumann; Jason Price; James DeMocker; Mae Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George Fernandez; Ryan LeBouf; Liesel Yesse; Alan Rossner; Deborah Luecken; Alan Cimorelli; Wei-Hsin Chen; Shan-Wen Du; Hsi-Hsien Yang; Jheng-Syun Wu; Diane Ivy; James Mulholland; Armistead Russell

2008-01-01

401

Policy Analysis Landfill-Gas-to-Energy Projects  

E-print Network

organic compounds) have to collect and combust the landfill gas. Traditionally these landfills have flared the gas to comply with the standards. A flare is a device that burns the landfill gas to reduce odors, safety concerns, and methane emissions. An alternative to flaring is using the landfill gas to generate

Jaramillo, Paulina

402

FRASER BASIN LANDFILL INVENTORY DOE FRAP 1997-19  

E-print Network

; 2. Develop a quantitative estimate of landfill leachate discharges for each landfill; 3. Assess landfill compliance with regulatory requirements; 4. Assess leachate discharge impacts on the receiving proposed scope of work. Estimates of annual municipal landfill leachate volumes were based on waste

403

Combining systems for leachate recirculation and landfill gas collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To move landfill bioreactor treatment systems from the experimental level to viable landfill operations across the country, alternative methods must be designed, operated and proven at full-scale landfills. The system installed at the Alachua County Southwest Landfill in Florida was originally designed for leachate injection alone, but was successfully converted to a combined system for gas and leachate management after

T. G. Townsend; W. L. Miller; R. A. Bishop; J. H. Carter

2009-01-01

404

Design for diversity : a mixed-use design project for Ruggles Street Station  

E-print Network

The subject of this thesis is the design of a mixed-use project for Parcel 18 in the Roxbury district of Boston. The site is adjacent to the proposed Ruggles Street Station, an intermodal transportation facility, which ...

Washington, John Emerson

1984-01-01

405

5. VIEW LOOKING WEST ON WALKER STREET SHOWING CHURCH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW LOOKING WEST ON WALKER STREET SHOWING CHURCH AND HOUSE FRONTING WALKER STREET AND CHURCH AND HOUSE FRONTING ON WEST BOUNDARY STREET - Frogtown District, Bounded by Jones, I-66 Ramp, & West Boundary Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

406

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

407

7. General view to the north, up High Street, from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. General view to the north, up High Street, from Shenendoah Street at the 'bottom' of High Street. - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, General Views, Shenandoah Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

408

Perspective view of Wilcox Building (7 North E Street), view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Wilcox Building (7 North E Street), view looking northwest - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

409

Perspective view of County Courthouse (513 Center Street), view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of County Courthouse (513 Center Street), view looking south - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

410

Perspective view of Bank Building (120 North E Street), view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Bank Building (120 North E Street), view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

411

Perspective view of the Alger Theatre, 24 North F Street, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of the Alger Theatre, 24 North F Street, view looking northwest - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

412

Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

413

Detail view of sidewalk on Center Street, showing basement vault ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of sidewalk on Center Street, showing basement vault light - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

414

Perspective view of Ahlstrom Brothers Store (126 North E Street), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Ahlstrom Brothers Store (126 North E Street), view looking northeast. Building is at far left of frame - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

415

Perspective view of Ahlstrom Brothers Store (126 North E Street), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Ahlstrom Brothers Store (126 North E Street), view looking south. Ahlstrom Building is at far left of frame - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

416

Perspective view of Bank of Lakeview (1 South E Street), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of Bank of Lakeview (1 South E Street), view looking southeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

417

1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

418

Detail view of southeast side of First Street Bridge overcrossing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail view of southeast side of First Street Bridge overcrossing at Mission Street. Looking east-northeast - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

419

Contextual view from First Street Bridge, showing Los Angeles River ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view from First Street Bridge, showing Los Angeles River and context of Fourth Street Bridge, facing south - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

420

South side of First Street Bridge overcrossing of Los Angeles ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

South side of First Street Bridge overcrossing of Los Angeles River. Looking north-northwest, seen from Fourth Street Viaduct - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

421

Demonstration of fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas: Conceptual study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussed here are the results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environmental feasibility is projected. A conceptual design of the project demonstration was established from the commercial system conceptual design. Key demonstration issues facing commercialization of the concept are addressed. Candidate demonstration sites were evaluated, which led to selection and EPA approval of the demonstration site. A plan is discussed for the construction and testing of a landfill gas pretreatment system which will render landfill gas suitable for use in the fuel cell. The final phase of the study will be a demonstration of the energy recovery concept.

Sandelli, G. J.

1992-01-01

422

Reverse osmosis module successfully treats landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

By law, modern landfills are to be constructed with double liners to prevent contaminants from leaching into surface and ground water. Despite this design feature, however, both hazardous and non-hazardous compounds do leach from the waste disposed in landfills. The resulting contaminated water, or leachate, must be collected and treated. Rochem Environmental, Inc. (Houston, Texas) has developed a new membrane process, known as the Disc Tube{trademark} system, to remove a variety of contaminants from landfill leachate. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

NONE

1995-03-01

423

Fuel cell energy recovery from landfill gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase 1 results are discussed of an EPA sponsored program to show energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. EPA is interested in fuel cells for the application because it is the cleanest energy conversion technology available. Phase 1 is a conceptual design, cist, and evaluation study. The conceptual design of the fuel energy recovery concept is described and its economic and environmental feasibility is projected. Phase 2 covers the construction and testing of a landfill gas pretreatment system which will render landfill gas suitable for use in the fuel cell. Phase 3 is the demonstration of the energy recovery concept.

Sandelli, G. J.; Spiegel, R. J.

424

Evaluation of Y-12 landfill  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to provide team members with practical experience in application of Civil Engineering 555, Solid Waste Management principles. Team members chose to evaluate the functional elements of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's (Y-12's) solid waste management system. The following factors contributed to selection of Y-12'system for evaluation: team members' familiarity with the Y-12 system; knowledge that the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was nearing capacity; and presence of the unique issues posed by special national security and potential radioactive contamination considerations. This report was limited to evaluation of the solid waste management system for conventional solid waste; hazardous radioactive, and radioactive mixed waste were not addressed. The report: (1) describes each functional element including waste generation, storage, collection, transport, processing, recovery, and disposal; (2) identifies and evaluates alternatives for each element and (3) identifies system strengths and recommends opportunities for improvement. 34 figs.

Crawford, G.A. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Daugherty, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hutzler, C.W.; Smith, C.M. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA)); Wylie, A.N. (Adams, Craft, Herz, Walker, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-12-12

425

Landfills as critical infrastructures: synergy between non-invasive monitoring technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with a methodology for estimating the behaviour of a landfill system by means of the integration between two different non-invasive technologies. In fact, there is a widespread agreement on the fact that these infrastructures produce about 23% of the total anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. Despite that, there's still no internationally accepted protocol to quantify the leakage of biogas from a landfill with a common standard approach. This work proposes an assessment of the performance of a landfill system in terms of biogas release to the atmosphere. Such evaluation is performed by means of a direct measurement of gas flux with the accumulation chamber method, combined with the detection of thermal anomalies by infrared radiometry. In order to derive flux maps from a set of punctual measurements and calculate an overall quantity of emitted gas, a geostatistical technique is necessarily applied and briefly illustrated. A case study regarding an infrastructure located in Tuscany (Italy) is shown, where a discussion about the evolution of the landfill site through successive campaigns is also suggested. The role played by infrared thermography and its synergy with direct flux measurements is clearly perceivable in this context. The main benefit of the presented approach is a significant increase of the energy recovered from the landfill sites by optimising the collection of biogas, which implies a reduction of the total anthropogenic methane originated from the disposal of wastes released to the atmosphere.

Scozzari, Andrea; Raco, Brunella; Battaglini, Raffaele

2014-05-01

426

Geohydrologic evaluation of a landfill in a coastal area, St Petersburg, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 250-acre Toytown landfill site is in a poorly-drained area in coastal Pinellas County, Florida. Average altitude of land surface at the landfill is less than 10 feet. About 1000 tons of solid waste and about 200,000 gallons of digested sewage sludge are disposed of daily at the landfill. The velocity of ground-water flow through the 23-foot thick surficial aquifer northeast from the landfill toward Old Tampa Bay probably ranges from 1 to 10 feet per year, and downward velocity through the confining bed is about 0.00074 foot per day. The horizontal and vertical flow velocities indicate that leachate moves slowly downgradient, and that leachate has not yet seeped through the confining bed after 12 years of landfill operation. Untreated surface run-off from the site averages about 15 inches per year, and ground-water outflow averages about 3.3 inches per year. The Floridan aquifer is used as a limited source of water for domestic supply in this area. (Woodard-USGS)

Hutchinson, C.B.; Stewart, Joseph W.

1978-01-01

427

BBC: The Secret History of Our Streets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the BBC, The Secret History of Our Streets is a touching chronicle of Great Britain, as told through the lens of the changing landscapes of its cities and towns. Over the course of nine episodes and two seasons, the filmmakers draw out themes of class and gender, changing values, two world wars, and the rise and fall of an empire. On the site, viewers may peruse short clips from each episode, examine period photographs, and gather a sense of how life was in BritainâÂÂs past, and how these developing cultural mores have shaped the present. Non-UK residents may access full episodes via YouTube and Vimeo.

2014-01-01

428

Technology transfer, a two-way street  

SciTech Connect

Technology transfer through the Pollution Prevention & Control Conferences, which have been cosponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and by the professional societies of industry, greatly improved the environmental projects of the Department of Energy at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the mid-1980`s. Those technologies, used in the liquid effluent treatment of the metal finishing liquid effluents from aluminum cleaning and nickel plating of fuel and targets for the nuclear production reactors, have been enhanced by the research and development of SRS engineers and scientists. The technology transfer has now become a two-way street to the benefit of our Nation`s environment as these enhancements are being adopted in the metal finishing industry. These success stories are examples of the achievements anticipated in the 1990`s as technology development in the federal facilities is shared with commercial industry.

Martin, H.L.

1994-01-01

429

The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street  

PubMed Central

We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period. PMID:23734215

Conover, Michael D.; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

2013-01-01

430

Municipal Landfilling Practice And Its Impact On Groundwater Resources In And Around Urban Toronto, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hazardous contents of municipal landfills are rarely documented and problems are usually not recognised until landfill leachate pollutes a well or surface-water body. By this time, the groundwater is often extensively contaminated with little opportunity for redress. Recent studies in southern Ontario have adopted a pro-active stance to this issue. The location, size, design and geologic setting of almost 1,200 active and inactive landfills have been documented; in addition, a contaminant-source audit has been performed for a representative region of urban Toronto, where 82 landfills sites are contained in an area of 700 km2. Groundwater flow modeling reveals that at half the sites groundwater travel time to major urban streams and Lake Ontario is less than 10 years, suggesting that chemically conservative chemicals released at these sites would have a rapid impact on surface-water quality. The sites are as large as 99 ha, and waste thickness normally ranges from 3-30 m. In the audited area, the sites contain an estimated 4.6×107 tons of material, consisting primarily of domestic waste, incinerator ashes, and construction and commercial debris; some sites are believed, however, to have received liquid waste from industrial sources. The chemical audit indicates that more than 1.3 million tons, or approximately 2.9 percent of the landfill waste, will enter the landfill leachate. About 99 percent of the leachable mass is composed of calcium, magnesium, sodium, nitrogen (as ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), chloride, sulphate, and bicarbonate. However, the real potential damage must be measured by the degree of environmental degradation that would ensue if the leachate is released to the subsurface. Ignoring the possible effects of chemical biodegradation and volatilization within the aquifer, calculations indicate that 17 of the 39 leachate components investigated are individually capable of contaminating at least 2×1012 liters of water in excess of Provincial water-quality standards, a volume that approximately represents the quantity of groundwater that passes through the study area during a 20-year period. Given that only two of the 82 landfills operate a leachate collection system, 60-70 percent of the potential impacts are likely to be realized. Particularly threatened is the lower Don Valley, where about 20 landfills are concentrated in an area of just 60 km2.

Howard, K. W. F.; Eyles, N.; Livingstone, S.

1996-01-01

431

Combination of Coagulation-Flocculation and Ozonation Processes for Treatment of Partially Stabilized Landfill Leachate of Tehran  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, samples of partially stabilized landfill leachate were taken from the artificial pond connected to the Tehran landfill site. The average characteristics were: COD=130000 mgl? , BOD =47000 mgl? , 1 1 5 color=40000 mgl? (Pt-Co), NH -N=2700 mgl? and pH= 7.7. An integrated technique consisted of 1 1 3 coagulation\\/flocculation and ozonation processes was examined, to enhance

Hamzeh Ali Jamali; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Ramin Nabizadeh; Foorogh Vaezi; Ghasem Ali

2009-01-01

432

Entropy and order in urban street networks  

PubMed Central

Many complex networks erase parts of their geometry as they develop, so that their evolution is difficult to quantify and trace. Here we introduce entropy measures for quantifying the complexity of street orientations and length variations within planar networks and apply them to the street networks of 41 British cities, whose geometric evolution over centuries can be explored. The results show that the street networks of the old central parts of the cities have lower orientation/length entropies - the streets are more tightly ordered and form denser networks - than the outer and more recent parts. Entropy and street length increase, because of spreading, with distance from the network centre. Tracing the 400-year evolution of one network indicates growth through densification (streets are added within the existing network) and expansion (streets are added at the margin of the network) and a gradual increase in entropy over time. PMID:24281305

Gudmundsson, Agust; Mohajeri, Nahid

2013-01-01

433

Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail store (11 North F Street), and general merchandise (15 North F Street), all historic-contributing features of the district - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

434

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.  

PubMed

As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation. PMID:20924666

Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

2011-07-01

435

Health assessment for Stoughton City Landfill, Stoughton, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980901219. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Stoughton City Landfill is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located on the northeast edge of Stoughton, Wisconsin, where the city owned and operated a solid-waste landfill from the mid 1950s until it closed operation in 1978. From 1953 to 1963, the site accepted unknown amounts of wastes such as vinyl scrap from a tire manufacturer. In November of 1983, The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources sampled six on-site monitoring wells. The results showed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in three wells. Subsequent sampling in March of 1984 confirmed VOC contamination in the same wells. Potential environmental pathways include ground water, surface water, and soil. Air is not considered a potential pathway at this time since the landfill was capped and seeded in 1978. No VOCs were detected in the air samples which were taken in 1985. No problems were observed with the landfill cap during the site visit. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated ground water, surface water and soil.

Not Available

1988-12-02

436

Public health assessment for J and L landfill, Avon Township, Oakland County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980609440. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) placed the J L Landfill site on the National Priorities List (NPL) on March 31, 1989. Beginning in 1951, steel-making firms, including Jones Laughlin, used the site as a landfill for slag, dust from air cleaners at their plants, and general rubbish. By 1980, the landfill had been filled to capacity, and Jones Laughlin closed and coverd the site. The cover on the landfill is inadequate by current standards. Surface soils contain concentrations of metals that are of health concern. The groundwater contains metals and organic chemicals at concentrations of health concern, some of which may be attributable to other sites in the area. The site poses no apparent public health hazard under present conditions, however, several potential exposure pathways may pose hazards should they be completed in the future.

Not Available

1993-10-19

437

DETECTING LANDFILL LEACHATE CONTAMINATION USING REMOTE SENSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology for using remote sensing to detect landfill leachate contamination of ground and surface water is described. Among the topics covered are leachate indicators, spatial and temporal aspects of leachate detection, sensor selection, flight design and data interpretation...

438

Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution from surfaces capped with a soil layer. This study reveals divergent GEM emission patterns among landfill cells of different ages, and provides essential emission estimates for formulating Hg emission reduction strategies for a large landfill.

Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

2013-11-01

439

Gas generation, transport, and extraction in landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model describing the generation, transport, and extraction of gas in a landfill has been developed. In the model the landfill gas is assumed to be an equimolar mixture of CH[sub 4] and CO[sub 2]. The waste is thought to comprise three classes of materials differing in their degree of biodegradability but all following first-order biodegradation kinetics. The model describes

Sumadhu G. Arigala; Theodore T. Tsotsis; Y. C. Yortsos; J. J. Kattapuram; I. A. Webster

1995-01-01

440

Toxicity Testing of Leachate from Waste Landfills Using Medaka ( Oryzias Latipes ) for Monitoring Environmental Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the environmental safety of waste disposal landfill sites and of land reclaimed from such sites, we evaluated\\u000a the toxicity of leachate from these sites by a combination of bioassays in the Japanese killifish medaka Oryzias latipes. We tested for lethal toxicity in adult and larval medaka and for hatching inhibition of embryos from eggs. As biochemical\\u000a evidence of

Kae Osaki; Shosaku Kashiwada; Norihisa Tatarazako; Yoshiro Ono

2006-01-01

441

The application of a statistical trend analysis model to ground water monitoring data from solid waste landfills  

SciTech Connect

A statistical trend methodology is used to compare ground water quality between eight landfill sites in western Michigan as a case study. Monitoring data were collected over a 15-year period on 36 parameters at a upgradient and downgradient well selected at each of the eight sites. This yielded a total of 576 monitoring data sets available for analysis. New trend and contamination indices are introduced that are used to compare ground water contamination between these eight sites. These indices are used to assess each landfill`s relative potential for environmental harm. Many questions remain unanswered, but what is demonstrated here is that this type of methodology has the potential to be used to assess trends of ground water chemistry concentrations at landfill sites in a region. A specific purpose of such an assessment could be to provide a quantified basis for the prioritization of funds allocated for cleanup of contaminated landfill sites. Having a technical capability to reduce large amounts of ground water monitoring data to appropriate summaries, which then can be used to assess environmental contamination between several sites, could also have important economic and health implications in other settings. Hopefully this paper will encourage further development of such technologies for these purposes.

Lachance, A.D.; Stoline, M.R.

1995-12-31

442

Flow Investigation for Landfill Leachate (FILL)  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional un-steady-state moisture flow model has been developed in order to describe the leachate flow process in a landfill. The unsteady variation of leachate mound head has also been considered in the saturated zone of the landfill to compute the time-varying leachate flow rates in both the lateral and vertical directions. The contribution of precipitation to the landfill leachate has been investigated by computing evapotranspiration and surface runoff due to side slope. The model was used to simulate the leachate flow rates in section 6/7 of Fresh Kills landfill, situated in Staten Island, New York. A comparison of the results was made with the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model, which is based on a quasi-two-dimensional approach. Comparisons were also made with the results obtained from previous studies using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water-balance model and investigating the real field condition. An underestimate of the surface runoff was observed in the case of the results obtained by the HELP model. The simulated leachate flow rates by the new model were found to be less than those obtained by other methods. The effects of the variation of the boundary condition, which depends on surface runoff and evapotranspiration, were examined to arrive at the better representation of the two-dimensional unsteady mechanism of leachate flow process in a landfill.

Khanbilvardi, R.M.; Ahmed, S. (City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Gleason, P.J. (New City Dept. of Sanitation, New York, NY (United States))

1995-01-01

443

Investigation and risk assessment for landfill on US Army installation in Germany  

SciTech Connect

Several environmental investigations at a landfill on a US Army installation in Germany focused on determining risk potential and the need for remediation. Risk potential was not related to the determination of the potential for adverse health effects. The determination of risk potential was based on comparison of maximum soil contaminant levels to unenforceable German guidelines based on ground water management principles rather than human exposure. Upon finding that incinerator ash/slag in the landfill was exposed by an eroding landfill cover, a concern for human health risk arose for troops training in the immediate area. During the site visit, the health risk assessment team discovered that slag had also been used as fill material at several places in the training area. The team sampled surface soil in the immediate vicinity of the eroded landfill cap as well as in training areas where slag was used as fill. Surface soil samples were analyzed for dioxins/furans, metals, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Analytical results indicated that dioxin/furan contamination was widespread, but that it was probably migrating from the slag fill areas via dust emissions, rather than from the landfill erosion. The risk assessment results for exposed troops, cancer risk of 1E-5 and hazard index of 0.6, would not support remediation of soils based on common Superfund practices. Lessons learned: (1) a site visit by the risk assessment team is crucial (without information on the slag fill, sampling would have concentrated on migration from the landfill); (2) where actual (as opposed to hypothetical) receptors exist, human health risk should be assessed at hazardous waste sites, whether the host country requires it or not; and (3) although Bavarian and US EPA dioxin/furan toxic equivalency factors are somewhat different, they did not produce different risk estimates for dioxins/furans.

Strickland, J.A.; Delaney, K. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Luster, T.; Hargrave, R. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine-Europe (United States)

1997-12-31

444

Integrated characterisation of aquifer heterogeneity and landfill leachate plume migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of groundwater flow and contaminant migration is based on our ability to characterize aquifers and represent these processes with numerical simulators. This understanding is required to efficiently remediate contaminated sites since the failure of remediation actions are often related to an insufficient understanding of aquifer heterogeneity. During the last decades, continuous development of numerical simulators allowed models to better represent complex flow systems. However, conventional hydrogeological characterization methods do not provide the data required to define aquifer heterogeneity. An original hydrogeological characterization approach was used to define aquifer heterogeneity and delineate landfill leachate plumes through the use and integration of varied techniques. The objective of the study is to develop a methodology to integrate hydrogeological, geophysical and geochemical data using geostatistical tools. The characterization program aims to better characterize the aquifer, delineate leachate plumes emitted by a former landfill, and guide a study of the natural attenuation of the plumes. The initial phase of the integrated multidisciplinary aquifer characterization program was carried out in a 12 km2 area of the sub-watershed surrounding the landfill of St-Lambert-de-Lauzon, Québec. In the study area, a 10-m thick sandy unconfined aquifer overlie