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1

Strenuous physical exercise adversely affects monocyte chemotaxis.  

PubMed

Physical exercise is important for proper cardiovascular function and disease prevention, but it may influence the immune system. We evaluated the effect of strenuous exercise on monocyte chemotaxis. Monocytes were isolated from blood of 13 young, healthy, sedentary individuals participating in a three-week training program which consisted of repeated exercise bouts. Monocyte chemotaxis and serological biomarkers were investigated at baseline, after three weeks training and after four weeks recovery. Chemotaxis towards vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) was completely inhibited immediately after training (p<0.01), and remained so after four weeks recovery. Likewise, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-induced migration declined after training (p<0.01) and improved only partially during the recovery period. MCP-1 serum levels were significantly reduced after four weeks recovery compared to baseline (p<0.01). Total blood antioxidant capacity was enhanced at this time point (p<0.01). Monocyte chemokinesis, TGF-?1 and nitric oxide serum levels remained unchanged during the study. Strenuous three-week training consisting of repeated exercise bouts in healthy, sedentary individuals reduces monocyte chemotaxis. It remains to be established, whether this is a sound adaptation to increased stimuli or an untoward reaction to overtraining. Nevertheless, the effect remains for several weeks with no exercise. PMID:20978713

Czepluch, Frauke S; Barrès, Romain; Caidahl, Kenneth; Olieslagers, Servé; Krook, Anna; Rickenlund, Anette; Zierath, Juleen R; Waltenberger, Johannes

2011-01-01

2

The apoptotic response to strenuous exercise of the gastrocnemius and solues muscle fibers in rats.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on apoptosis of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle fibers and clarify the role of oxidative metabolism in the strenuous exercise-induced apoptosis. The experiment was designed with 49 (n = 49) male, 24-week-old, L. Wistar albino rats. Strenuous exercise model was applied to 42 (n = 42) rats and seven (n = 7) rats served as rested controls. All rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups (n = 7): rested control (C), immediately after exercise (0 h) and 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after exercise. Apoptotic nuclei were shown by single stranded DNA (ssDNA) determination. Oxidative damage in mitochondrial fractions of the muscle tissues was evaluated by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratios. Caspase-9, -8 and -3 activities and the level of cytochrome c (Cyt c) were measured in the cytosolic fractions of muscle tissues to follow mitochondrial-dependent (intrinsic) or ligand-mediated death receptor (extrinsic) pathways of apoptosis. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were also determined. Based on our results, apoptosis is significantly triggered in muscle fibers by strenuous exercise (P < 0.05). Apoptosis in the soleus muscle tissues mostly depends on the intrinsic pathway and may be triggered by increased oxidative stress. In contrast, extrinsic pathway of apoptosis was predominant in the gastrocnemius muscle and increases of TNF-alpha and IL-6 may play a significant role. PMID:18030491

Koçtürk, S; Kayatekin, B M; Resmi, H; Açikgöz, O; Kaynak, C; Ozer, E

2008-03-01

3

Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance  

PubMed Central

Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

2013-01-01

4

Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise. J Appl Physiol 106: 395-402, 2009. First published November 13, 2008; doi:10.1152\\/japplphysiol.91193.2008.— The purpose of this study was to investigate left-ventricular function during strenuous exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). With the use of two-dimensional echocardiography, images of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired during sustained exercise (3

Michael D. Nelson; Mark J. Haykowsky; Jonathan R. Mayne; Richard L. Jones; Stewart R. Petersen

2008-01-01

5

Sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs depresses three blood copper enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show mixed conclusions about acute responses of copper status to strenuous exercise. Because copper function involves\\u000a metalloenzyme activities, which might take days to change, the present study examined the response of three copper metalloenzyme\\u000a activities to sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs. A race lasting 12–15 d depressed activities for both plasma ceruloplasmin\\u000a and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in dogs

R. A. DiSilvestro; K. W. Hinchcliff; A. Blostein-Fujii

2005-01-01

6

Enhanced chemotaxis of macrophages by strenuous exercise in trained mice: Thyroid hormones as possible mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise modulates the macrophage activity via ‘stress hormones’. Three experiments were performed. (1) The effect of strenuous exercise performed by trained mice on macrophage chemotactic capacity was evaluated; (2) peritoneal macrophages from control mice were incubated with plasma from exercised mice or control mice and the differences in chemotaxis were measured; (3) changes in plasma T3 and T4 levels after

Eduardo Ortego; Maria Angeles Forner; Juan José Garcia; Ana B. Rodriguez; Carmen Barriga

1999-01-01

7

Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?  

PubMed

Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48?h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72?h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30°?·?s?¹) and fast (180°?·?s?¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72?h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30°?·?s?¹) at 24?h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30°?·?s?¹ and 180°?·?s?¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24?h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. PMID:23606340

Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

2013-11-01

8

Oxygen Consumption in the First Stages of Strenuous Work as a Function of Prior Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which 10 minutes of prior exercise (PE) at a workload adjusted to maintain a heart rate (HR) of 140 beats per minute could facilitate the mobilization of the oxygen transport system in a strenuous criterion task (CT). The control treatment involved completion of the CT following 10 minutes of rest on the…

Gutin, Bernard; And Others

9

Effects of Strenuous Exercise on Stallion Sperm Quality  

E-print Network

to decreased sperm quality and libido. There is concern in the horse industry about what level of exercise, if any, affects the reproductive capability of a stallion. Thermal stress associated with training and exercise may impact sperm quality and the future...

Rosenberg, Jennifer L.

2012-10-19

10

Intermittent lower-limb occlusion enhances recovery after strenuous exercise.  

PubMed

Repeated cycles of vascular occlusion followed by reperfusion initiate a protective mechanism that acts to mitigate future cell injury. Such ischemic episodes are known to improve vasodilation, oxygen utilization, muscle function, and have been demonstrated to enhance exercise performance. Thus, the use of occlusion cuffs represents a novel intervention that may improve subsequent exercise performance. Fourteen participants performed an exercise protocol that involved lower-body strength and power tests followed by repeated sprints. Occlusion cuffs were then applied unilaterally (2 × 3-min per leg) with a pressure of either 220 (intervention) or 15 mm Hg (control). Participants immediately repeated the exercise protocol, and then again 24 h later. The intervention elicited delayed beneficial effects (24 h post-intervention) in the countermovement jump test with concentric (effect size (ES) = 0.36) and eccentric (ES = 0.26) velocity recovering more rapidly compared with the control. There were also small beneficial effects on 10- and 40-m sprint times. In the squat jump test there were delayed beneficial effects of occlusion on eccentric power (ES = 1.38), acceleration (ES = 1.24), and an immediate positive effect on jump height (ES = 0.61). Thus, specific beneficial effects on recovery of power production and sprint performance were observed both immediately and 24 h after intermittent unilateral occlusion was applied to each leg. PMID:22970789

Beaven, Christopher Martyn; Cook, Christian John; Kilduff, Liam; Drawer, Scott; Gill, Nicholas

2012-12-01

11

Dietary nucleotide improves markers of immune response to strenuous exercise under a cold environment  

PubMed Central

Background Strenuous exercise has been classically associated to immune-suppression and consequently to an increased risk of infections, especially at the upper respiratory tract. The administration of dietary nucleotides has been demonstrated useful to maintain the immune function in situations of stress and thus could be an appropriate strategy to counteract the decline of the immune function associated to strenuous exercise. The aim of the present study was to asses the impact of a specific nucleotide formulation (Inmunactive®) on the markers of immune function of athletes after a heavy exercise bout under cold conditions. Methods Twenty elite male taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into two groups of 10 subjects that were supplemented with placebo (P) or Inmunactive (I) at 480 mg/day during 30 days. At baseline (day 0) and after 4 wk of supplementation (day 30) each subject undertook an exhaustion exercise test using a cycloergometer. Skin temperature, core temperature, heart rate, lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the test. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after each exercise test for determination of blood cell concentrations, PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-LP) and salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Results Exercise tests induced neutrophilia and reduction in lymphocyte blood counts on day 0 and on day 30 in both groups. However, the I group exhibited a faster recovery from the lymphopenic response than the P group, so that lymphocyte levels were higher after 150 min (P?exercise-evoked decrease at baseline. Conclusions These findings suggest that supplementation with a nucleotide-based product for 4 weeks could counteract the impairment of immune function after heavy exercise. PMID:23566489

2013-01-01

12

Social control and strenuous exercise among late adolescent college students: parents versus peers as influence agents.  

PubMed

In the context of a model of health-related social control, we compared the associations among social control strategies, affective and behavioral reactions, and exercise for parental and peer influence agents. Late adolescent college students (n = 227) completed questionnaires that focused on social control from a parent or a peer who attempted to increase their exercising. Results from this cross-sectional study revealed that most relationships in the model were similar for parent and peer influence agents, however, (a) negative social control was a stronger predictor of reactance among parents than peers; (b) positive affect was a stronger predictor of attempts to change among peers than parents; and (c) positive affect predicted frequency of strenuous exercise only among parents. Decreasing parents' use of negative social control strategies and increasing adolescents' positive affective reactions to parental social control agents may be keys to promoting positive lifestyle changes in late adolescence. PMID:24931557

Pugliese, John A; Okun, Morris A

2014-07-01

13

Effects of strenuous exercise on autonomic nervous system activity in sickle cell trait carriers.  

PubMed

This study compared the nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in seven sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers and six subjects with normal hemoglobin in response to exercise Sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of nocturnal ANS were measured in the two groups before and 24 and 48 h after a strenuous exercise consisting of the repetition of three maximal exercise bouts. Global ANS activity decreased 24 h after exercise in both groups and was lower before as well as after exercise in SCT carriers. Indices of parasympathetic activity were lower in SCT carriers at all times, indicating a persistent sympatho-vagal imbalance. Exercise did not cause a rebound in parasympathetic activity in either group, but a rebound was noted for sympathetic index values two days after exercise in SCT group only. The ANS activity was generally lower, and the sympatho-vagal imbalance greater, in SCT carriers compared with control subjects irrespective of exercise and could increase the risk for medical complications in this population. PMID:18755637

Hédreville, Mona; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Tripette, Julien; Roche, Frederic; Hardy-Dessources, Marie Dominique; Pichot, Vincent; Hue, Olivier; Connes, Philippe

2008-12-01

14

Strenuous exercise-induced change in redox state of human serum albumin during intensive kendo training.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of human serum albumin (HSA) using an ion-exchange (DEAE-form) column shows three components: The principal component corresponds to human mercaptalbumin (HMA); the secondary to nonmercaptalbumin (HNA), having mixed disulfide with cystine (HNA[Cys]), or oxidized glutathione (HNA[Glut]); and the tertiary to HNA, oxidized more highly than mixed disulfide. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the effects of strenuous exercise load on HMA--><--HNA conversion (i.e., dynamic change in redox state) of HSA from elite kendo athletes (n=30; 20.0+/-1.1 years old). They participated in an intensive kendo training camp for 5 d. The mean value for the HMA fraction (f[HMA]) of kendo athletes after camp (62.8+/-2.4%) was significantly lower than before camp (71.9+/-3.7%) (p<0.0005). In contrast, the mean value for f(HNA-1) (i.e., f[HNA(Cys) and HNA(Glut)]) after camp (34.2+/-2.1%) was significantly higher than before camp (25.7+/-3.7%) (p<0.0005). These results suggested that strenuous physical exercise markedly increased the oxidized albumin level in extracellular fluids during the intensive training camp. PMID:12139771

Imai, Hajime; Hayashi, Tomoya; Negawa, Tsuneo; Nakamura, Koji; Tomida, Mihoko; Koda, Kunihide; Tajima, Tomio; Koda, Yasuko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Era, Seiichi

2002-04-01

15

Pulmonary vascular pressures of strenuously exercising Thoroughbreds after administration of varying doses of frusemide.  

PubMed

The frusemide dose-response for attenuation of exercise-induced pulmonary capillary hypertension was studied in 7 healthy, exercise-conditioned Thoroughbred horses using previously described haemodynamic procedures. Four different doses of frusemide were tested: 250 mg regardless of bodyweight (amounting to 0.56 +/- 0.03 mg/kg bwt), 1.0 mg/kg bwt, 1.5 mg/kg bwt and 2.0 mg/kg bwt. Frusemide was administered i.v., 4 h before exercise. Haemodynamic data were obtained at rest and during treadmill exercise performed at 14.2 m/s on a 3.5% uphill grade; this workload elicited maximal heart rate of horses. Airway endoscopy was performed post exercise to detect exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). In standing horses, frusemide administration resulted in a significant (P<0.05) decrease in mean pulmonary arterial, pulmonary capillary and pulmonary artery wedge pressures, but significant differences among the various frusemide doses were not observed. In the control experiments, exercise caused significant increments in the right atrial as well as pulmonary arterial, wedge, and capillary pressures, and all horses experienced EIPH. Following frusemide administration, the exercise-induced rise in right atrial and pulmonary vascular pressures was significantly attenuated, but significant differences between the frusemide doses of 250 mg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 1.5 mg/kg were not discerned and all horses remained positive for EIPH. Although a further significant (P<0.05) attenuation of the exercise-induced rise in pulmonary capillary blood pressure occurred when frusemide dose increased from 250 mg to 2.0 mg/kg bwt, all horses still experienced EIPH. It is concluded that a linear response to increasing frusemide dosage in terms of attenuation of the pulmonary capillary hypertension does not exist in strenuously exercising Thoroughbred horses. PMID:15338911

Manohar, M; Goetz, T E; Sullivan, E; Griffin, R

1997-07-01

16

Rectus sheath hematoma caused by non-contact strenuous exercise mimicking acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

A healthy 26-year-old man visited the Emergency Department due to right lower quadrant pain of 2 days' duration that developed after wakeboarding. There was no history of direct trauma to the abdomen. Physical examination revealed tenderness and rebound tenderness on the right lower quadrant area. There was no palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was undertaken to discern the causes of acute abdomen, including acute appendicitis. CT revealed a small-size rectus sheath hematoma beneath the lower end of the right rectus muscle. The patient was admitted for supportive care including pain control and was discharged with improvement after 5 days. Rectus sheath hematoma can be caused by not only a direct blow but also non-contact strenuous exercise, for example, wakeboarding in this case. Although the majority of rectus sheath hematomas are self-limiting, some can cause peritoneal irritation signs, mimicking acute abdomen, and eventually lead to unnecessary laparotomy without clinical suspicion and ancillary tests including CT scan and ultrasonography. PMID:18722739

Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Tae Han; Cha, Sung Jae; Kim, Seung Ho

2010-09-01

17

Effects of strenuous exercise on Th1/Th2 gene expression from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of marathon participants.  

PubMed

Physical stressors, such as strenuous exercise, can have numerous effects on the human body including the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression profile of Th1/Th2 cytokines and related transcription factor genes in order to investigate possible immune imbalances before and after a marathon. Blood samples were collected from 16 normal volunteers 24-48 h before and one week after completing a marathon race. Gene expression of Th1 and Th2 related cytokines from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed using Human Th1-Th2-Th3 RT(2) Profiler PCR Array and qRT-PCR that measured the transcript levels of 84 genes related to T cell activation. We found that PBMC express a characteristic Th2-like gene profile one week post-marathon compared to pre-marathon. The majority of genes up-regulated one week post-marathon such as IL-4, GATA3, and CCR4 were Th2 associated. For Th1-related genes, CXCR3 and IRF1 were up-regulated one week post-marathon. There was a trend of down-regulation of two Th1 related genes, T-bet and STAT1. Th3-related gene expression patterns did not change in the study. The ratios of both IFN-?/IL-4 and T-bet/GATA3 gene expressions were significantly lower one week after marathon. These findings suggest that a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance persisted at least 1 week after completion of a marathon which offers a mechanistic rationale for the increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections often reported after strenuous exercise. PMID:24853398

Xiang, Lianbin; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

2014-08-01

18

Intravenous pentoxifylline does not enhance the pulmonary haemodynamic efficacy of frusemide in strenuously exercising thoroughbred horses.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to examine whether pentoxifylline administration to horses premedicated with frusemide would attenuate the exercise-induced pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous hypertension to a greater extent than frusemide alone, thereby affecting the occurrence of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Using established techniques, we determined right heart and pulmonary vascular pressures in 6 healthy, sound Thoroughbred horses at rest and during exercise performed at maximal heart rate at a workload of 14 m/s on 3.5% uphill grade in the control (no medications), frusemide (250 mg i.v., 4 h pre-exercise)-control, and the frusemide (250 mg i.v., 4 h pre-exercise) + pentoxifylline (8.5 mg/kg bwt i.v., 15 min preexercise) treatments. Sequence of the 3 treatments was randomised for every horse and 7 days were allowed between them. In the control study, galloping at 14 m/s on 3.5% uphill grade elicited significant right atrial as well as pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous hypertension and all horses experienced EIPH as detected by the presence of fresh blood in the trachea on endoscopic examination. Frusemide administration was not attended by changes in heart rate at rest or during exercise. Although in the frusemide-control experiments, a significant reduction in mean pulmonary arterial, capillary and wedge pressures was observed both at rest and during galloping at 14 m/s on 3.5% uphill grade, all horses still experienced EIPH. Pentoxifylline administration to standing horses premedicated with frusemide caused nervousness, muscular fasciculations, sweating and tachycardia. Although these symptoms had largely abated within 15 min, there were no significant changes in the right atrial or pulmonary vascular pressures. Exercise in the frusemide + pentoxifylline experiments also caused significant right atrial as well as pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous hypertension, but these data were not found to be significantly different from the frusemide-control experiments. All horses in the frusemide + pentoxifylline experiments also experienced EIPH. In conclusion, our data indicate that pentoxifylline (8.5 mg/kg bwt i.v., 15 min pre-exercise) is ineffective in modifying the pulmonary haemodynamic effects of frusemide in exercising horses. It should be noted, however, that we did not examine whether erythrocyte plasticity was altered by the administration of pentoxifylline. Since the intravascular force exerted onto the blood-gas barrier of exercising horses premedicated with frusemide remained unaffected by pentoxifylline administration, it is concluded that concomitant pentoxifylline administration is unlikely to offer additional benefit to horses experiencing EIPH. PMID:11469767

Manohar, M; Goetz, T E; Rothenbaum, P; Humphrey, S

2001-07-01

19

Differential responses of serum and salivary interleukin-6 to acute strenuous exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical exercise is associated with elevation of serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) because of its production in the muscles. The use of IL-6 measurements in saliva has been proposed in the field of immunopathology, mainly involving salivary gland disease. We evaluated the responses of serum and salivary IL-6 in two different groups of athletes submitted to different types of controlled

M. Minetto; A. Rainoldi; M. Gazzoni; M. Terzolo; P. Borrione; A. Termine; L. Saba; A. Dovio; A. Angeli; P. Paccotti

2005-01-01

20

Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of acute moderate alcohol intake on muscular performance during recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Eleven healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed a beverage containing 1g\\/kg bodyweight ethanol (as vodka and orange juice) (ALC). On another occasion they performed an

Matthew. J. Barnes; Toby Mündel; Stephen. R. Stannard

2010-01-01

21

Clenbuterol administration does not attenuate the exercise-induced pulmonary arterial, capillary or venous hypertension in strenuously exercising Thoroughbred horses.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to ascertain whether beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation with clenbuterol would attenuate the pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous hypertension in horses performing high-intensity exercise and, in turn, modify the occurrence of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Experiments were carried out on 6 healthy, sound, exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses. All horses were studied in the control (no medications) and the clenbuterol (0.8 pg/kg bwt, i.v.) treatments. The sequence of these treatments was randomised for every horse, and 7 days were allowed between them. Using catheter-tip-transducers whose in-vivo signals were referenced at the point of the left shoulder, right heart/pulmonary vascular pressures were determined at rest, sub-maximal exercise and during galloping at 14.2 m/s on a 3.5% uphill grade--a workload that elicited maximal heart rate and induced EIPH in all horses. In the control experiments, incremental exercise resulted in progressive significant increments in right atrial as well as pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous (wedge) pressures and all horses experienced EIPH. Clenbuterol administration to standing horses caused tachycardia, but significant changes in mean right atrial or pulmonary vascular pressures were not observed. During exercise performed after clenbuterol administration, heart rate as well as right atrial and pulmonary arterial, capillary and wedge pressures also increased progressively with increasing work intensity. However, these values were not found to be statistically significantly different from corresponding data in the control study and the incidence of EIPH remained unaffected. Since clenbuterol administration also does not affect the transpulmonary pressure during exercise, it is unlikely that the transmural force exerted onto the blood-gas barrier of exercising horses is altered following i.v. clenbuterol administration at the recommended dosage. PMID:11093630

Manohar, M; Goetz, T E; Rothenbaum, P; Humphrey, S

2000-11-01

22

Strenuous exercise and immunological changes: a multiple-time-point analysis of leukocyte subsets, CD4/CD8 ratio, immunoglobulin production and NK cell response.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the impact of exhaustive endurance exercise on a number of immune parameters of physically fit male subjects (VO2max 66.5 +/- 5.3 ml/min/kg) who performed treadmill exercise at 65% of their VO2max for 120 min. Serial blood samples were taken before, during and after exercise and changes in leukocyte and lymphocyte subset concentrations; immunoglobulin production in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell response were measured. The exercise regimen was found to induce the well-known phenomenon of leukocytosis which consisted primarily of a granulocytosis and lymphocytosis. Among the lymphocyte subsets, peripheral pan T cells (CD3+) as well as helper (CD4+) and suppressor (CD8+) T cells were found to be elevated. A relatively smaller increase in CD4+ than CD8+ cells resulted in depressed CD4/CD8 ratios throughout the exercise period. After exercise, T cells declined progressively and, 2 h post-exercise, were less than 60% of their pre-exercise level. In contrast, the CD4/CD8 ratio demonstrated a progressive increase, thus representing a reversal in the pattern observed during exercise and a trend towards an elevated ratio during recovery. B cells (CD19+) were relatively unaffected by exercise, although IgM production by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes obtained from blood samples after 120 min of exercise was significantly depressed. NK cells were affected dramatically by exercise. Both CD16+ cell numbers and NK cytotoxicity were increased during exercise, followed by a persistent depression in the post-exercise period. The strenuous exercise induced profound effect on NK cells as evidenced by a 40% depression of the NK cell count for as long as 7 days after the cessation of exercise. Our results provide direct kinetic evidence demonstrating that exhaustive exertion alters both lymphocyte distribution pattern and effector function, suggestive of possible exercise-induced immune compromise, particularly in the post-exercise recovery period. PMID:8550256

Shek, P N; Sabiston, B H; Buguet, A; Radomski, M W

1995-10-01

23

Effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee beverages on oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in rats.  

PubMed

Many authors attribute the antioxidant activity of brewed coffee to its caffeine content. In addition, caffeine intake has been associated with increased performance during physical exercise. This study analyzed the in vivo effects of drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee (8%, w/v) on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats subjected to intense exercise. It was observed that exercise induced lipid peroxidation (estimated using malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (evaluated by determining the formation of carbonyl groups) in the muscle (P?exercise (P?exercise. PMID:22173821

Viana, André Luiz Machado; Fonseca, Miriam das Dores Mendes; Meireles, Elisson Lamin Jerônimo; Duarte, Stella Maris da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Paula, Fernanda Borges de Araujo

2012-03-01

24

Comparison of responses to strenuous eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors between resistance-trained and untrained men.  

PubMed

This study compared resistance-trained and untrained men for changes in commonly used indirect markers of muscle damage after maximal voluntary eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Fifteen trained men (28.2 +/- 1.9 years, 175.0 +/- 1.6 cm, and 77.6 +/- 1.9 kg) who had resistance trained for at least 3 sessions per week incorporating exercises involving the elbow flexor musculature for an average of 7.7 +/- 1.4 years, and 15 untrained men (30.0 +/- 1.5 years, 169.8 +/- 7.4 cm, and 79.9 +/- 4.4 kg) who had not performed any resistance training for at least 1 year, were recruited for this study. All subjects performed 10 sets of 6 maximal voluntary eccentric actions of the elbow flexors of one arm against the lever arm of an isokinetic dynamometer moving at a constant velocity of 90 degrees .s. Changes in maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic torque, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness before, immediately after, and for 5 days after exercise were compared between groups. The trained group showed significantly (P < 0.05) smaller changes in all of the measures except for muscle soreness and faster recovery of muscle function compared with the untrained group. For example, muscle strength of the trained group recovered to the baseline by 3 days after exercise, where the untrained group showed approximately 40% lower strength than baseline. These results suggest that resistance-trained men are less susceptible to muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise than untrained subjects. PMID:18550979

Newton, Michael J; Morgan, Greg T; Sacco, Paul; Chapman, Dale W; Nosaka, Kazunori

2008-03-01

25

Does deep water running reduce exercise-induced breast discomfort?  

PubMed Central

Aim To establish whether exercise?induced vertical breast displacement and discomfort in women with large breasts were reduced during deep water running compared to treadmill running. Methods Sixteen women (mean age ?=?32 years, range 19–43 years; mean mass ?=?74.1?kg, range 61–114?kg; mean height ?=?1.7?m, range 1.61–1.74?m), who were professionally sized to wear a C+ bra cup, were recruited as representative of women with large breasts. After extensive familiarisation, vertical breast motion of the participants was quantified as they ran at a self?selected stride rate on a treadmill and in 2.4?m deep water. Immediately after running, the subjects rated their breast discomfort and breast pain (visual analogue scale) and their perceived exertion (Borg scale). Breast discomfort, breast pain, perceived exertion, vertical breast displacement and vertical breast velocity were compared between the two experimental conditions. Results Exercise?induced breast discomfort was significantly less and perceived exertion was significantly greater during deep water running relative to treadmill running. Although there was no significant between?condition difference in vertical breast displacement, mean peak vertical breast velocity was significantly (p<0.05) less during deep water (upward mean (SD): 29.7 (14.0)?cm.s?1; downward: 31.1 (17.0)?cm.s?1) compared to treadmill running (upward mean (SD): 81.4 (21.7)?cm.s?1; downward: 100.0 (25.0)?cm.s?1). Conclusion Deep water running was perceived as a more strenuous but comfortable exercise mode for women with large breasts. Increased comfort was attributed to reduced vertical breast velocity rather than reduced vertical breast displacement. PMID:17535854

McGhee, Deirdre E; Steele, Julie R; Power, Bruce M

2007-01-01

26

Reduced vasodilator function following acute resistance exercise in obese women  

PubMed Central

Obesity contributes to stress induced impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV), a precursor to atherosclerosis. Since obesity is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we sought to determine if a single bout of strenuous weight lifting (SWL) reduces EDV among sedentary obese adults. Participants included 9 obese (OB) (BMI 30.0–40.0 kg/m2) and 8 lean (LN) (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) sedentary young women. All participants underwent a single bout of SWL using a progressive leg-press protocol. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (an index of EDV) was determined using ultrasonography before and after SWL. Sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) was used to determine brachial artery endothelium-independent vasodilation following SWL. Brachial artery FMD was significantly reduced in OB and LN women (LN: 6.4 ± 1.6%, p = 0.22) after SWL. There was no difference in the magnitude of change pre- and post-SWL between groups (OB: ?2.4 ± 0.6% and LN: ?2.2 ± 1.6%, p = 0.84). Dilation to NTG was lower in OB (21.6 ± 1.3%) compared to LN women (27.6 ± 2.1%, p = 0.02) and associated with body weight (r = ?0.70, p = 0.01). These data suggest that EDV is reduced in woman after acute resistance exercise. Dilations to NTG were lower in obese compared to lean woman and associated with body weight suggesting that changes in sensitivity of blood vessels to NO occurs during obesity. These findings may be important for understanding vascular risk following acute exercise in obesity. PMID:25071598

Franklin, Nina C.; Ali, Mohamed; Goslawski, Melissa; Wang, Edward; Phillips, Shane A.

2014-01-01

27

Twenty-four hour, ambulatory blood pressure responses following acute exercise: impact of exercise intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Mild to moderate acute, endurance exercise has generally been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive (HT) individuals. Whether a slightly more strenuous bout of exercise can elicit a greater and more prolonged BP reduction is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two, 30-min exercise bouts, conducted at 50% and 75%

TJ Quinn; Timothy J Quinn

2000-01-01

28

Does Exercising with Another Enhance the Stress-Reducing Benefits of Exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 This study sought to determine if the stress-reducing benefits of exercise are improved by exercising with others rather than alone. One hundred and thirty- six participants completed a series of questionnaires measuring levels of ten- sion, calmness, energy, and tiredness before exercise, immediately following exercise, and later that day before bedtime. Participants exercised on a labora- tory stationary bicycle

Thomas G. Plante; Laura Coscarelli; Maire Ford

2001-01-01

29

Role of Resistance Exercise in Reducing Risk for Cardiometabolic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance exercise training, also known as weight training or strength training, involves the use of muscular strength to\\u000a work against a resistance or force. A large cohort study showed that resistance exercise was associated with reduced risk\\u000a of cardiovascular disease. Resistance exercise increases lean body mass, improves muscular strength, and produces small reductions\\u000a in body fat and blood pressure in

Angela S. Alberga; Ronald J. Sigal; Glen P. Kenny

2010-01-01

30

Exercise reduces cellular stress related to skeletal muscle insulin resistance.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single session of exercise on the expression of Hsp70, of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and insulin receptor substrate 1 serine 612 (IRS(ser612)) phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of obese and obese insulin-resistant patients. Twenty-seven volunteers were divided into three experimental groups (eutrophic insulin-sensitive, obese insulin-sensitive, and obese insulin-resistant) according to their body mass index and the presence of insulin resistance. The volunteers performed 60 min of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60 % of peak oxygen consumption. M. vastus lateralis samples were obtained before and after exercise. The protein expressions were evaluated by Western blot. Our findings show that compared with paired eutrophic controls, obese subjects have higher basal levels of p-JNK (100?±?23 % vs. 227?±?67 %, p?=?0.03) and p-IRS-1(ser612) (100?±?23 % vs. 340?±?67 %, p?reduced HSP70 (100?±?16 % vs. 63?±?12 %, p??0.05). Exercise reduced p-JNK in obese insulin-resistant subjects (328?±?33 %, p?=?0.001), but not in controls or obese subjects. Furthermore, exercise reduced p-IRS-1(ser612) for both obese (122?±?44 %) and obese insulin-resistant (185?±?36 %) subjects. A main effect of exercise was observed in HSP70 (p?=?0.007). We demonstrated that a single session of exercise promotes changes that characterize a reduction in cellular stress that may contribute to exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity. PMID:23975543

de Matos, Mariana Aguiar; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Duarte, Tamiris Campos; Sampaio, Pâmela Fiche da Matta; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Fonseca, Cheyenne Alves; Neves, Miguel Pontes Correa; Schneider, Suzanne Maria; Moseley, Pope; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro

2014-03-01

31

Getting Fit for Life: Can Exercise Reduce Stress?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the validity of the widely-held notion that exercising for physical fitness also reduces stress. The ways in which researchers define "stress" and "fitness" are described. Several researchers comment on the subject and various research projects are discussed. (JL)

DeBenedette, Valerie

1988-01-01

32

Aerobic exercise and chocolate as means for reducing learned helplessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the effects of 10 min of aerobic exercise, a chocolate snack, or guided imagery as a means of reducing the learned helplessness effects due to the experience of an unsolvable task. It was hypothesized that exposure to unsolvable tasks would lead to a higher level of anxiety, engagement in more task-irrelevant cognitions, and a poorer performance on

Matisyohu Weisenberg; Yael Gerby; Mario Mikulincer

1993-01-01

33

Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the exercise group when compared to the non-exercise group. In conclusion, Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women. Key points Pilates-based exercises improve dynamic balance, reaction time and muscle strength in the elderly. Pilates exercise may reduce the number of falls in elderly women by increasing these fitness parameters. PMID:24149302

Irez, Gonul Babayigit; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Evin, Ruya; Irez, Salih Gokhan; Korkusuz, Feza

2011-01-01

34

Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

Higgins, P. A.

2004-12-01

35

Reducing cardiovascular arousal to psychological stress with brief physical exercise  

E-print Network

exercise in leisure-time: protection against coronary heart disease.exercise also has favorable effects on many of the psychological risk factors for heart disease (exercise is known to have favorable effects on many of the traditional risk factors for heart disease,

Chafin, Sky

2007-01-01

36

Exercise Training Reduces Depression and Increases the Performance of Pleasant Activities in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of a structured exercise training program to the therapeutic benefits of a ‘support’ group on the depressed mood and reduced performance of pleasant activities by hemodialysis patients. After 6 months of an aerobic exercise training program, the 10 exercisers showed a significant increase in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and a significant decrease in dysphoric mood

Robert M. Carney; Bonnie Templeton; Barry A. Hong; Herschel R. Harter; James M. Hagberg; Kenneth B. Schechtman; Andrew P. Goldberg

1987-01-01

37

Plasma antioxidant status and cell injury after severe physical exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strenuous exercise leads to an increase in metabolic rate, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and compromised antioxidant defense systems. To study the effects of oxidative stress during strenuous exercise, a homogeneous group of 31 male subjects participated in a 6-month, 5 days\\/week training schedule involving two extreme marches of 50 km and 80 km at sea level, separated by

Shlomit Chevion; Danny S. Moran; Yuval Heled; Yoav Shani; Gilad Regev; Benny Abbou; Eduard Berenshtein; Earl R. Stadtman; Yoram Epstein

2003-01-01

38

The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each bout was separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which one of four conditions were administered: ice vest (VEST), hand/forearm immersion (W), ice vest combined with hand/forearm immersion (VEST + W) and control (CON). Core temperature was significantly lower at the end of the recovery period in the VEST + W (37.97 ± 0.23°C) and W (37.96 ± 0.19°C) compared with the VEST (38.21 ± 0.12°C) and CON (38.29 ± 0.25°C) conditions and remained consistently lower throughout the second bout of exercise. Heart rate responses during the recovery period and bout 2 were similar between the VEST + W and W conditions which were significantly lower compared with the VEST and CON which did not differ from each other. Mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the start of bout 2 in the cooling conditions compared with CON; these differences reduced as exercise progressed. These findings demonstrate that hand/forearm immersion (~19°C) is more effective than ice vests in reducing the physiological strain when firefighters re-enter structural fires after short rest periods. Combining ice vests with hand/forearm immersion provides no additional benefit. PMID:21079990

Barr, David; Reilly, Thomas; Gregson, Warren

2011-06-01

39

Selected hormonal and immunological responses to strenuous live-fire firefighting drills.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of strenuous live-fire firefighting drills and a 90 min recovery period on selected hormonal, immunological and psychological variables. Apparently healthy, male, professional firefighters (n = 11) performed three trials of standardized firefighting tasks in a live-fire training structure. There was significant leukocytosis immediately post firefighting activity that persisted following recovery, although there was a variable response among the leukocyte subsets. Most notable was the decrease in number and percentage of lymphocytes following 90 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol were significantly elevated post firefighting activity and cortisol remained elevated following 90 min of recovery. Elevated cortisol immediately following activity was related to reduced feelings of energy. These data demonstrate the magnitude of the physiological and psychological disruption following strenuous firefighting activity and suggest that immune function may be altered following such activity. This is a finding that may have practical consequences for this group of first responders. PMID:15764306

Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J; Chludzinski, M A; Reed, J J; Woods, J A

2005-01-01

40

The Efficacy of Exercise in Reducing Depressive Symptoms among Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of exercise to reduce depressive symptoms among cancer survivors. In addition, we examined the extent to which exercise dose and clinical characteristics of cancer survivors influence the relationship between exercise and reductions in depressive symptoms.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search identifying randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions among adult cancer survivors,

Justin C. Brown; Tania B. Huedo-Medina; Linda S. Pescatello; Stacey M. Ryan; Shannon M. Pescatello; Emily Moker; Jessica M. LaCroix; Rebecca A. Ferrer; Blair T. Johnson

2012-01-01

41

Quercetin reduces susceptibility to influenza infection following stressful exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercise stress is associated with increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection. We have shown that exercise stress can increase susceptibility to infection. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, has been reported to inhibit infectivity and replication of a broad spectrum of viruses and may offset the increase in susceptibility to infection associated with stressful exercise. This study examined the effects of quercetin feedings on susceptibility to the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) following stressful exercise. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: exercise-placebo, exercise-quercetin, control-placebo, or control-quercetin. Exercise consisted of a run to fatigue (140 min) on a treadmill for 3 consecutive days. Quercetin (12.5 mg/kg) was administered via gavage for 7 days before viral challenge. At 30 min after the last bout of exercise or rest, mice (n = 23ÃÂ30) were intranasally inoculated with a standardized dose of influenza virus (0.04 hemagglutinating units). Mice were monitored daily for morbidity (time to sickness), symptom severity, and mortality (time to death) for 21 days. Exercise stress was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5ÃÂ7 (P < 0.05)]; quercetin offset the increase in susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5ÃÂ7 (P < 0.05)] that was associated with stressful exercise. These data suggest that short-term quercetin feedings may prove to be an effective strategy to lessen the impact of stressful exercise on susceptibility to respiratory infection.

PhD J Mark Davis (University of South Carolina Exercise Science); E A Murphy (University of South Carolina Exercise Science); J L McClellan (University of South Carolina Exercise Science); M D Carmichael (University of South Carolina Exercise Science); J D Gangemi (Clemson University Microbiology and Molecular Medicine)

2008-06-14

42

Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

2006-01-01

43

Exhausting handgrip exercise reduces the blood flow in the active calf muscle exercising at low intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calf and forearm blood flows (Q\\u000acalf and Q\\u000aforearm respectively), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen uptake of six men and women were studied during combined leg and handgrip exercise to determine whether a reduction of exercise-induced hyperaemia would occur in the active leg when exhausting rhythmic handgrip exercise at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was superimposed upon

Atsuko Kagaya; Mitsuru Saito; Futoshi Ogita; Minoru Shinohara

1994-01-01

44

Exercise and diabetes.  

PubMed

Diet and exercise form the foundation of a healthy lifestyle. These are especially important for people living with diabetes mellitus, as they are the most practical non-pharmacological means by which patients may significantly improve their blood glucose levels. Exercise increases insulin sensitivity (both short and long term), lowers blood sugar levels, reduces body fat and improves cardiovascular (CV) function. Because of this, exercise offers enormous benefit to patients with diabetes. Blood glucose levels can significantly drop during and after physical activities, due to the increased utilisation of glucose as a fuel during exercise and the up-regulation of glucose transport into working muscles. Therefore, patients (especially those with type 1 diabetes) must account for the effects of exercise and adjust their medications and nutrition accordingly. Improvements in real-time continuous glucose monitoring and optimisation of basal insulin dosing may offer significant benefit to preventing hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes who regularly exercise. Diverse exercise programmes and devices can also assist patients in monitoring their activities as well as motivating them to achieve their exercise goals. For patients with type 1 diabetes, questions such as how much, how long, how strenuous and what kind of exercise must be addressed in order for healthcare professionals to offer maximum benefit to their patients. Additionally, since patients with type 2 diabetes often have other significant co-morbidities such as obesity and CV disease, care providers must evaluate each patient's risk factors before designing an exercise programme. Several publications in the last year have addressed these issues and may serve as a valuable resource to provide safe and effective recommendations to patients and their healthcare providers. To be included in the Exercise and Diabetes chapter for the 2010 YEARBOOK, we reviewed leading peer-reviewed manuscripts that were published in the period July 2009 to June 2010. PubMed was used in the initial screening of articles. PMID:21323815

Zisser, H; Gong, P; Kelley, C M; Seidman, J S; Riddell, M C

2011-02-01

45

30(+) years of exercise in pregnancy.  

PubMed

In 1980 I came to Loma Linda to study maternal exercise, with Dr. Longo as my mentor. For millennia strenuous exercise was considered harmful for the fetus. Early studies reinforced that idea, by showing that exercise reduced uterine blood flow and fetal PO2 by up to 40 and 29 %, respectively. But utero-placental reserve is ~50 %. So why was fetal PO2 so much reduced during exercise?Methods proved to be important. It took chronically instrumented animals accustomed to the laboratory environment, experiments standardized to fitness of the individual (%VO2max), measurement of total uterine blood flow, and blood gas values corrected for body temperature. The results were simple and hold till this day. Uterine blood flow decreases linearly with maternal heart rate increase, which depends on exercise intensity and duration. Maximal reduction in uterine blood flow is ~20 % and uterine O2-uptake remains unaltered because blood flow reduction is compensated by increases in hematocrit and uterine O2-extraction. Fetal body temperature increases with that of the mother by ~2 °C at maximal exercise and fetal blood gas values are little affected by exhaustive maternal exercise, if properly corrected for temperature. So I left Loma Linda knowing that pregnant sheep can exercise to exhaustion without harm to the fetus, thanks to effective compensatory mechanisms.After returning to Erasmus University Rotterdam further studies in humans showed that physical fitness is unaffected by pregnancy, weight-gain affects performance, and strenuous exercise in healthy pregnant women does not harm the fetus. Thus, the millennia-old perspective has changed. PMID:25015805

Lotgering, Frederik K

2014-01-01

46

Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Media Resources Selected Profiles & Interviews Multimedia Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational ... With Their Doctors, Reduce Risk of Diabetes During Pregnancy A series of studies by an NICHD researcher ...

47

Postural analysis of paramedics simulating frequently performed strenuous work tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paramedics who perform emergency rescue functions are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries. Through an interview and survey process firefighters, many of whom are cross-trained paramedics in a consortium of 14 suburban fire departments, identified and rated tasks that were perceived to be both strenuous and frequently performed. The objective of the current study was to describe the working postures and

Steven A Lavender; Karen M Conrad; Paul A Reichelt; Fred T. Meyer; Paul W Johnson

2000-01-01

48

Exercise, oxidative stress and hormesis.  

PubMed

Physical inactivity leads to increased incidence of a variety of diseases and it can be regarded as one of the end points of the exercise-associated hormesis curve. On the other hand, regular exercise, with moderate intensity and duration, has a wide range of beneficial effects on the body including the fact that it improves cardio-vascular function, partly by a nitric oxide-mediated adaptation, and may reduce the incidence of Alzheimer's disease by enhanced concentration of neurotrophins and by the modulation of redox homeostasis. Mechanical damage-mediated adaptation results in increased muscle mass and increased resistance to stressors. Physical inactivity or strenuous exercise bouts increase the risk of infection, while moderate exercise up-regulates the immune system. Single bouts of exercise increases, and regular exercise decreases the oxidative challenge to the body, whereas excessive exercise and overtraining lead to damaging oxidative stress and thus are an indication of the other end point of the hormetic response. Based upon the genetic setup, regular moderate physical exercise/activity provides systemic beneficial effects, including improved physiological function, decreased incidence of disease and a higher quality of life. PMID:17869589

Radak, Zsolt; Chung, Hae Y; Koltai, Erika; Taylor, Albert W; Goto, Sataro

2008-01-01

49

Endurance exercise immediately before sea diving reduces bubble formation in scuba divers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have observed that a single bout of exercise can reduce the formation of circulating bubbles on decompression\\u000a but, according to different authors, several hours delay were considered necessary between the end of exercise and the beginning\\u000a of the dive. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of exercise taken immediately before

Olivier Castagna; Jeanick Brisswalter; Nicolas Vallee; Jean-Eric Blatteau

2011-01-01

50

Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, i.e., one control group and three LBP treated groups. The animals received an oral administration of physiological saline or LBP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. On the day of the exercise test, rats were required to run to exhaustion on the treadmill. Body weight, endurance time, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) level of rats were measured. The results showed that the body weight of rats in LBP treated groups were not significantly different from that in the normal control group before and after the experiment (P > 0.05). After exhaustive exercise, the mean endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly prolonged compared with that in the normal control group. MDA levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly decreased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). SOD and GPX levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). Together, these results indicate that LBP was effective in preventing oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. PMID:21541044

Shan, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Junlai; Ma, Tao; Chai, Qiongxia

2011-01-01

51

Strenuous Work, Nutrition and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Brief Review 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief review explores the available epidemiologic data to investigate the question of whether strenuous work by women during pregnancy in developing countries influences micronutrient status and thereby increase risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Some data exist on the potential relationship between strenuous work or physical activity and nutrient compromise, strenuous work or physical activity and adverse reproductive outcomes and

Gary M. Shaw

52

There are at least 40 Benefits of Exercise Reduce the risk of premature death  

E-print Network

/or dying from heart disease Reduce high blood pressure or the risk of developing high blood pressure Alleviates menstrual cramps. Boost the immune system Exercise strengthens your heart and lungs. Exercise pressure. Obesity doubles the risk of all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2

Paxton, Anthony T.

53

Exercise training combined with angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces oxidative stress after myocardial infarction in rats  

PubMed Central

Increased oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant enzymes have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, treadmill exercise training and losartan treatment began 1 week post-MI and lasted 8 weeks. We evaluated the changes in the mRNA and protein expressions for the enzymatic antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase after exercise and losartan treatment in post-MI rats. Our results demonstrated that GPx and catalase mRNA levels were comparable among all the groups, while the mRNA level for manganese SOD (MnSOD) was significantly increased in exercise training with/without losartan treatment as compared to the sedentary MI group. Moreover, the mRNA level for gp91phox was dramatically decreased by a combination of exercise and losartan treatment. The protein levels for MnSOD were significantly elevated by exercise training in combination with losartan treatment. The protein levels for catalase were significantly increased in response to exercise, and it was further augmented by exercise together with losartan treatment. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in plasma were significantly increased in the MI rats, but were decreased by exercise or losartan treatment, indicating that both exercise and losartan may reduce lipid oxidative damage. In addition, catalase and SOD enzymatic activities were significantly enhanced by exercise combined with losartan treatment. Our results suggest that exercise training improves catalase and MnSOD expression and attenuates oxidative stress. These effects are potentiated when combining exercise with angiotensin II receptor blockade. PMID:20660022

Xu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Weiyan; Wan, Wenhan; Ji, Lisa L.; Powers, Anthony S.; Erikson, John M.; Zhang, John Q.

2010-01-01

54

Does Regular Exercise without Weight Loss Reduce Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents?  

PubMed

Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise without calorie restriction or weight loss is associated with reduced insulin resistance as well as improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. However, despite the well-known benefits associated with regular exercise alone, the independent role of exercise training without calorie restriction on insulin resistance is still uncertain in youth. Some studies observed that both the aerobic and resistance type of exercise training without calorie restriction resulted in meaningful changes in insulin sensitivity, suggesting that exercise alone is an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing insulin resistance in overweight and obese youth. However, only few studies are available on the optimal dose of exercise training without calorie restriction or preferred exercise modality for reducing insulin resistance, which warrants further investigations in the pediatric population. PMID:24454364

Kim, Yoonmyung; Park, Hanui

2013-01-01

55

The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand\\/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between\\u000a two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed\\u000a two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each\\u000a bout was separated by a 15-min recovery

David Barr; Thomas Reilly; Warren Gregson

2011-01-01

56

Preischemic induction of TNF-? by physical exercise reduces blood–brain barrier dysfunction in stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the neuroprotective action of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) induced during physical exercise, which, consequently, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and ameliorates blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in association with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1\\/2) phosphorylation. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to exercise on a treadmill for 3 weeks. A 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion and

Miao Guo; Victoria Lin; William Davis; Tao Huang; Aaron Carranza; Shane Sprague; Raul Reyes; David Jimenez; Yuchuan Ding

2008-01-01

57

Swainson’s thrushes in migratory disposition exhibit reduced immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that the immune system, which protects an organism from parasitic and pathogenic infections, is frequently\\u000a suppressed when animals are engaged in activities involving strenuous exercise. We tested the hypothesis that birds reduce\\u000a immune function during the migratory period in preparation for the anticipated heightened energetic demands of long flights.\\u000a Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus), captured in fall, were held

Jennifer C. Owen; Frank R. Moore

2008-01-01

58

Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability  

PubMed Central

Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, at rest and during treadmill exercise. The increases in systemic vascular conductance produced by ATP (relative to nitroprusside) and exercise were blunted in FH compared with Control swine. The vasoconstrictor response to eNOS inhibition, with nitro-l-arginine (NLA), was attenuated in FH compared with Control swine, both at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, whereas the vasodilator response to nitroprusside was enhanced slightly, the vasodilator response to PDE5 inhibition, with EMD360527, was reduced in FH compared with Control swine. Finally, in the pulmonary circulation, FH resulted in attenuated vasodilator responses to ATP, while maintaining the responses to both NLA and EMD360527. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia reduces exercise-induced vasodilation in the systemic but not the pulmonary circulation. This reduction appears to be the principal result of a decrease in NO bioavailability, which is mitigated by a lower PDE5 activity. PMID:24157527

de Beer, Vincent J.; Merkus, Daphne; Bender, Shawn B.; Tharp, Darla L.; Bowles, Douglas K.; Duncker, Dirk J.

2013-01-01

59

Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability.  

PubMed

Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, at rest and during treadmill exercise. The increases in systemic vascular conductance produced by ATP (relative to nitroprusside) and exercise were blunted in FH compared with Control swine. The vasoconstrictor response to eNOS inhibition, with nitro-l-arginine (NLA), was attenuated in FH compared with Control swine, both at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, whereas the vasodilator response to nitroprusside was enhanced slightly, the vasodilator response to PDE5 inhibition, with EMD360527, was reduced in FH compared with Control swine. Finally, in the pulmonary circulation, FH resulted in attenuated vasodilator responses to ATP, while maintaining the responses to both NLA and EMD360527. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia reduces exercise-induced vasodilation in the systemic but not the pulmonary circulation. This reduction appears to be the principal result of a decrease in NO bioavailability, which is mitigated by a lower PDE5 activity. PMID:24157527

de Beer, Vincent J; Merkus, Daphne; Bender, Shawn B; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold

2013-12-01

60

Exercise induced skeletal muscle metabolic stress is reduced after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD.  

PubMed

In COPD, skeletal muscle ATP resynthesis may be insufficient to meet demand during exercise due to excessive anaerobic and reduced oxidative (mitochondrial) energy production, leading to metabolic stress. We investigated the effect of outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on the metabolic response (measured by exercise-induced accumulation of plasma ammonia) and determined whether this response predicted functional improvement following PR. 25 subjects with stable COPD [mean (SD) age 67 (8)years and FEV(1) 47 (18)% predicted] performed maximal cycling ergometry before and after PR. Plasma ammonia was measured at rest, during exercise and 2 min post-exercise. Following PR, there were significant increases in peak cycle WR and ISWT performance (Mean (SEM) changes 13.1 (2.0) W and 93 (15) m respectively, p < 0.001). Mean (SEM) rise in plasma ammonia was reduced at peak (Pre vs Post-PR: 29.0 (4.5) vs 20.2 (2.5) ?mol/l, p < 0.05) and isotime (Pre vs Post-PR: 29.0 (4.5) vs 10.6 (1.7) ?mol/l, p < 0.001) exercise. Improvements in exercise performance after PR were similar among subgroups who did versus those who did not show a rise in ammonia at baseline. The results suggest that muscle cellular energy production was better matched to the demands of exercise following PR. We conclude that a pragmatic outpatient PR programme involving high intensity walking exercise results in significant adaptation of the skeletal muscle metabolic response with a reduction in exercise-related metabolic stress. However, the outcome of PR could not be predicted from baseline metabolic response. PMID:21036584

Calvert, Lori D; Singh, Sally J; Morgan, Michael D; Steiner, Michael C

2011-03-01

61

Maternal exercise during pregnancy reduces risk of mammary tumorigenesis in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Emerging research indicates that modifying lifestyle factors during pregnancy may convey long-term health benefits to offspring. This study was designed to determine whether maternal exercise during pregnancy leads to reduced mammary tumorigenesis in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to exercised and sedentary groups, with the exercised group having free access to a running wheel and the sedentary group housed with a locked wheel during pregnancy. Female pups from exercised or sedentary dams were weaned at 21 days of age and fed a high fat diet without access to a running wheel. At 6 weeks, all pups were injected with the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Mammary tumor development in all pups was monitored for 15 weeks. Pups from exercised dams had a substantially lower tumor incidence (42.9%) compared with pups from sedentary dams (100%). Neither tumor latency nor histological grade differed between the two groups. These data are the first to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy potentiates reduced tumorigenesis in offspring. This study provides an important foundation towards developing more effective modes of behavior modification for cancer prevention. PMID:24950432

Camarillo, Ignacio G; Clah, Leon; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xuanzhu; Larrick, Brienna; Blaize, Nicole; Breslin, Emily; Patel, Neal; Johnson, Diamond; Teegarden, Dorothy; Donkin, Shawn S; Gavin, Timothy P; Newcomer, Sean

2014-11-01

62

Reduced plasma free fatty acid availability during exercise: effect on gene expression.  

PubMed

Endurance exercise transiently increases the mRNA of key regulatory proteins involved in skeletal muscle metabolism. During prolonged exercise and subsequent recovery, circulating plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations are elevated. The present study therefore aimed to determine the sensitivity of key metabolic genes to FA exposure, assessed in vitro using L6 myocytes and secondly, to measure the expression of these same set of genes in vivo, following a single exercise bout when the post-exercise rise in plasma FA is abolished by acipimox. Initial studies using L6 myotubes demonstrated dose responsive sensitivity for both PDK4 and PGC-1alpha mRNA to acute FA exposure in vitro. Nine active males performed two trials consisting of 2 h exercise, followed by 2 h of recovery. In one trial, plasma FA availability was reduced by the administration of acipimox (LFA), a pharmacological inhibitor of adipose tissue lipolysis, and in the second trial a placebo was provided (CON). During the exercise bout and during recovery, the rise in plasma FA and glycerol was abolished by acipimox treatment. Following exercise the mRNA abundance of PDK4 and PGC-1alpha were elevated and unaffected by either acipimox or placebo. Further analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression demonstrated that the CPT I gene was suppressed in both trials, whilst UCP-3 gene was only modestly regulated by exercise alone. Acipimox ingestion did not alter the response for both CPT I and UCP-3. Thus, this study demonstrates that the normal increase in circulating concentrations of FA during the later stages of exercise and subsequent recovery is not required to induce skeletal muscle mRNA expression of several proteins involved in regulating substrate metabolism. PMID:17186295

Tunstall, Rebecca J; McAinch, Andrew J; Hargreaves, Mark; van Loon, Luc J C; Cameron-Smith, David

2007-03-01

63

The physical strenuousness of work is slightly associated with an upward trend in the BMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between the physical strenuousness of work and the BMI in Finland, using individual microdata at 5-year intervals over the period 1972–2002. Data came from the National FINRISK Study which contains self-reported information on the physical strenuousness of a respondent's occupation. Our estimates show that the changes in the physical strenuousness of work explain around 7%

Petri Böckerman; Edvard Johansson; Pekka Jousilahti; Antti Uutela

2008-01-01

64

Can Exercise Increase Fitness and Reduce Weight in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15–20?years compared with the general population. Most years of lost life are due to the excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength, and weight. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. Results: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n?=?94) and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n?=?892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11–30% and strength by 33–37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression, exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting, little is known about the effect on weight reduction and cardiovascular fitness. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum, and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally, participants should be assessed beyond the intervention to identify long lasting effects. PMID:25120495

Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; N?rgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Moltke, Ane; Nordentoft, Merete

2014-01-01

65

Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.  

PubMed

To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A H; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter

2014-11-15

66

Reduced Exercise Tolerance and Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment with Remote Secondhand Smoke Exposure  

PubMed Central

Rationale Flight attendants who worked on commercial aircraft before the smoking ban in flights (pre-ban FAs) were exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS). We previously showed never-smoking pre-ban FAs to have reduced diffusing capacity (Dco) at rest. Methods To determine whether pre-ban FAs increase their Dco and pulmonary blood flow () during exercise, we administered a symptom-limited supine-posture progressively increasing cycle exercise test to determine the maximum work (watts) and oxygen uptake () achieved by FAs. After 30 min rest, we then measured Dco and at 20, 40, 60, and 80 percent of maximum observed work. Results The FAs with abnormal resting Dco achieved a lower level of maximum predicted work and compared to those with normal resting Dco (mean±SEM; 88.7±2.9 vs. 102.5±3.1%predicted ; p?=?0.001). Exercise limitation was associated with the FAs' FEV1 (r?=?0.33; p?=?0.003). The Dco increased less with exercise in those with abnormal resting Dco (mean±SEM: 1.36±0.16 vs. 1.90±0.16 ml/min/mmHg per 20% increase in predicted watts; p?=?0.020), and amongst all FAs, the increase with exercise seemed to be incrementally lower in those with lower resting Dco. Exercise-induced increase in was not different in the two groups. However, the FAs with abnormal resting Dco had less augmentation of their Dco with increase in during exercise (mean±SEM: 0.93±0.06 vs. 1.47±0.09 ml/min/mmHg per L/min; p<0.0001). The Dco during exercise was inversely associated with years of exposure to SHS in those FAs with ?10 years of pre-ban experience (r?=??0.32; p?=?0.032). Conclusions This cohort of never-smoking FAs with SHS exposure showed exercise limitation based on their resting Dco. Those with lower resting Dco had reduced pulmonary capillary recruitment. Exposure to SHS in the aircraft cabin seemed to be a predictor for lower Dco during exercise. PMID:22493689

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Sadeghi, Nasrat; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M.

2012-01-01

67

Enhanced external counterpulsation improves exercise tolerance, reduces exercise-induced myocardial ischemia and improves left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe examined whether enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves myocardial ischemia, exercise tolerance and cardiac function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).BACKGROUNDEnhanced external counterpulsation reduces angina and improves exercise tolerance in patients with CAD. Some objective improvements of ischemia by EECP have been reported, but they should be confirmed further. Detailed hemodynamic effects of EECP have been less well documented.METHODSEnhanced

Hisashi Urano; Hisao Ikeda; Takafumi Ueno; Takahiro Matsumoto; Toyoaki Murohara; Tsutomu Imaizumi

2001-01-01

68

Physical exercise as an epigenetic modulator: Eustress, the "positive stress" as an effector of gene expression.  

PubMed

Physical exercise positively influences epigenetic mechanisms and improves health. Several issues remain unclear concerning the links between physical exercise and epigenetics. There is growing concern about the negative influence of excessive and persistent physical exercise on health. How an individual physically adapts to the prevailing environmental conditions might influence epigenetic mechanisms and modulate gene expression. In this article, we put forward the idea that physical exercise, especially long-term repetitive strenuous exercise, positively affects health, reduces the aging process, and decreases the incidence of cancer through induced stress and epigenetic mechanisms. We propose herein that stress may stimulate genetic adaptations through epigenetics that, in turn, modulate the link between the environment, human lifestyle factors, and genes. PMID:22561977

Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Garcia-Gimenez, Jose Luis; Perez-Quilis, Carme; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Pallardo, Federico V; Lippi, Giuseppe

2012-12-01

69

Whole body heat loss is reduced in older males during short bouts of intermittent exercise.  

PubMed

Studies in young adults show that a greater proportion of heat is gained shortly following the start of exercise and that temporal changes in whole body heat loss during intermittent exercise have a pronounced effect on body heat storage. The consequences of short-duration intermittent exercise on heat storage with aging are unclear. We compared evaporative heat loss (HE) and changes in body heat content (?Hb) between young (20-30 yr), middle-aged (40-45 yr), and older males (60-70 yr) of similar body mass and surface area, during successive exercise (4 × 15 min) and recovery periods (4 × 15 min) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) and under fixed environmental conditions (35 °C/20% relative humidity). HE was lower in older males vs. young males during each exercise (Ex1: 283 ± 10 vs. 332 ± 11 kJ, Ex2: 334 ± 10 vs. 379 ± 5 kJ, Ex3: 347 ± 11 vs. 392 ± 5 kJ, and Ex4: 347 ± 10 vs. 387 ± 5 kJ, all P < 0.02), whereas HE in middle-aged males was intermediate to that measured in young and older adults (Ex1: 314 ± 13, Ex2: 355 ± 13, Ex3: 371 ± 13, and Ex4: 365 ± 8 kJ). HE was not significantly different between groups during the recovery periods. The net effect over 2 h was a greater ?Hb in older (267 ± 33 kJ; P = 0.016) and middle-aged adults (245 ± 16 kJ; P = 0.073) relative to younger counterparts (164 ± 20 kJ). As a result of a reduced capacity to dissipate heat during exercise, which was not compensated by a sufficiently greater rate of heat loss during recovery, both older and middle-aged males had a progressively greater rate of heat storage compared with young males over 2 h of intermittent exercise. PMID:23883671

Larose, Joanie; Wright, Heather E; Stapleton, Jill; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Hardcastle, Stephen; Kenny, Glen P

2013-09-15

70

Aerobic exercise reduced oxidative stress in saliva of persons with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on uric acid (UA), total antioxidant activity (TAA), oxidative stress (OS) and nitrite a stable nitric oxide (NO) metabolite in saliva from persons with Down syndrome (DS). Stimulated saliva was sampled from 12 participants 1 hour before and immediately after a 1,600-meter walking test. Uric acid (UA) was assayed by enzymatic method, TAA by ABTS method, lipid hydroperoxides (OS marker) by the ferrous iron/xylenol orange (FOX) method and nitrite concentration by the Griess reaction. Aerobic exercise (AE) caused a decrease in salivary lipid hydroperoxides in persons with DS (p = 0.001). Aerobic exercise (AE), however, did not affect salivary UA, TAA, and nitrite. This result suggested that AE can be considered as a way to reduce the OS in persons with DS, particularly in the mouth cavity. PMID:19731179

Zambrano, Jean C; Marquina, Ramón; Sulbarán, Nancy; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Reyes, Rafael A

2009-01-01

71

Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise.  

PubMed

The anion nitrate-abundant in our diet-has recently emerged as a major pool of nitric oxide (NO) synthase-independent NO production. Nitrate is reduced stepwise in vivo to nitrite and then NO and possibly other bioactive nitrogen oxides. This reductive pathway is enhanced during low oxygen tension and acidosis. A recent study shows a reduction in oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise attributable to dietary nitrate. We went on to study the effects of dietary nitrate on various physiological and biochemical parameters during maximal exercise. Nine healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (age 30+/-2.3 years, VO(2max) 3.72+/-0.33 L/min) participated in this study, which had a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Subjects received dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (0.1 mmol/kg/day) or placebo (NaCl) for 2 days before the test. This dose corresponds to the amount found in 100-300 g of a nitrate-rich vegetable such as spinach or beetroot. The maximal exercise tests consisted of an incremental exercise to exhaustion with combined arm and leg cranking on two separate ergometers. Dietary nitrate reduced VO(2max) from 3.72+/-0.33 to 3.62+/-0.31 L/min, P<0.05. Despite the reduction in VO(2max) the time to exhaustion trended to an increase after nitrate supplementation (524+/-31 vs 563+/-30 s, P=0.13). There was a correlation between the change in time to exhaustion and the change in VO(2max) (R(2)=0.47, P=0.04). A moderate dietary dose of nitrate significantly reduces VO(2max) during maximal exercise using a large active muscle mass. This reduction occurred with a trend toward increased time to exhaustion implying that two separate mechanisms are involved: one that reduces VO(2max) and another that improves the energetic function of the working muscles. PMID:19913611

Larsen, Filip J; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Ekblom, Björn

2010-01-15

72

Exercise Reduces Infarct Volume and Facilitates Neurobehavioral Recovery: Results From a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Exercise in Experimental Models of Focal Ischemia.  

PubMed

Background. Regular exercise reduces the risk of a first-ever stroke and is associated with smaller infarcts. Although evidence has suggested that therapeutic exercise following stroke is beneficial, we do not yet know whether exercise reduces stroke severity and improves functional recovery. The mechanisms underlying any benefit remain unclear. Objective. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies testing exercise in animal models of ischemic stroke where outcomes were measured as infarct volume, neurobehavioral score, neurogenesis, or a combination of these. We also sought evidence of publication bias. Methods. We searched 3 online databases for publications reporting the use of exercise in focal cerebral ischemia. We used DerSimonian and Laird normalized random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine the impact of study quality and design on the efficacy of exercise. Results. Overall, exercise reduced infarct volume by 25.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.0%-31.3%; 65 experiments and 986 animals) and improved neurobehavioral score by 38.2% (95% CI = 29.1%-47.3%; 42 experiments; n = 771). For both outcomes, larger effects were seen when exercise preceded ischemia rather than came after it. For neurobehavioral scores, we found evidence of publication bias. Reported study quality was moderate (median score 5/10). Both model-specific (eg, type of ischemia) and exercise-specific characteristics influenced reported outcome. Conclusion. Exercise, either before or after ischemia, reduced infarct volume and improved neurobehavioral score. However, overall estimates of efficacy were higher in studies at risk of bias, and for neurobehavioral outcomes, there was evidence of a substantial publication bias. PMID:24553105

Egan, Kieren J; Janssen, Heidi; Sena, Emily S; Longley, Lesa; Speare, Sally; Howells, David W; Spratt, Neil J; Macleod, Malcolm R; Mead, Gillian E; Bernhardt, Julie

2014-10-01

73

NO inhalation reduces pulmonary arterial pressure but not hemorrhage in maximally exercising horses.  

PubMed

In horses, the exercise-induced elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) is thought to play a deterministic role in exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), and thus treatment designed to lower Ppa might reasonably be expected to reduce EIPH. Five Thoroughbred horses were run on a treadmill to volitional fatigue (incremental step test) under nitric oxide (NO; inhaled 80 ppm) and control (N(2), same flow rate as per NO run) conditions (2 wk between trials; order randomized) to test the hypothesis that NO inhalation would reduce maximal Ppa but that this reduction may not necessarily reduce EIPH. Before each investigation, a microtipped pressure transducer was placed in the pulmonary artery 8 cm past the pulmonic valve to monitor Ppa. EIPH severity was assessed via bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 30 min postrun. Exercise time did not differ between the two trials (P > 0.05). NO administration resulted in a small but consistent and significant reduction in peak Ppa (N(2), 102.3 +/- 4.4; NO, 98.6 +/- 4.3 mmHg, P < 0.05). In the face of lowered Ppa, EIPH severity was significantly higher in the NO trial (N(2), 22.4 +/- 6.8; NO, 42.6 +/- 15.4 x 10(6) red blood cells/ml BAL fluid, P < 0.05). These findings support the notion that extremely high Ppa may reflect, in part, an arteriolar vasoconstriction that serves to protect the capillary bed from the extraordinarily high Ppa evoked during maximal exercise in the Thoroughbred horse. Furthermore, these data suggest that exogenous NO treatment during exercise in horses may not only be poor prophylaxis but may actually exacerbate the severity of EIPH. PMID:11717233

Kindig, C A; McDonough, P; Finley, M R; Behnke, B J; Richardson, T E; Marlin, D J; Erickson, H H; Poole, D C

2001-12-01

74

Plasma triglyceride concentrations are rapidly reduced following individual bouts of endurance exercise in women  

E-print Network

abstain from structured physical exercise sessions, but toPrior exercise Á Post-exercise Á Physical activity Á Energyphysical activity is not yet known and, furthermore, the effects of the intensity of exercise

Henderson, Gregory C.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Fattor, Jill A.; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Luke-Zeitoun, Mona; Brooks, George A.

2010-01-01

75

Exercise-induced Bronchospasm In Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will encompass definition, history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of exercise –induced\\u000a bronchospasm in the pediatric individual with and without known asthma. Exercise induced asthma is the conventional term for\\u000a transient airway narrowing in a known asthma in association with strenuous exercise usually lasting 5-10 minutes with a decline\\u000a in pulmonary function by at least 10%. Exercise induced

Chris Randolph

2008-01-01

76

Physical exercise protects myenteric neurons and reduces parasitemia in Trypanosoma cruzi infection.  

PubMed

To evaluate the parasitemia, nitrergic neurons, and cytokines in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice subjected to moderate physical exercise, forty male Swiss mice, 30days of age, were divided: Trained Control (TC), Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Control (SC), and Sedentary Infected (SI). The moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill lasted 8weeks. Three days after completing the moderate physical exercise program, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, and parasitemia was evaluated from day 4 to day 22 after inoculation. After 75days of infection, cytokines were measured and colonic neurons were quantified using immunofluorescence to identify neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The results were analyzed using analysis of variance - Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, to 5% significance. Moderate physical exercise reduced the parasite peak on day 8 of infection and total parasitemia (p<0.05), contributed to survival of number of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons (p<0.01) and promoted neuronal hypertrophy of the neurons (p<0.05), increased the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-? (p<0.01) and transforming growth factor-? (p>0.05), providing beneficial effects to the host by acting on the immune system to preserve nitrergic neurons. PMID:24667137

Moreira, Neide Martins; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; de Oliveira Dalálio, Márcia Machado; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Braga, Caroline Felício; de Araújo, Silvana Marques

2014-06-01

77

Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Part I: Exercising Nonpharmacologic Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essential hypertension is diagnosed with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. Studies indicate exercise can be a clinically useful treatment, though strenuous exercise may be contraindicated for some. The article discusses the physician's role in diagnosis, nonpharmacologic interventions, exercise safety and effectiveness, and…

Daniels, Stephen Ra.; Loggie, Jennifer M. H.

1992-01-01

78

The independent and combined effects of exercise training and reducing sedentary behavior on cardiometabolic risk factors  

PubMed Central

Purpose This pilot study examined if the combination of exercise training and reducing sedentary time (ST) results in greater changes to health markers than either intervention alone. Methods Fifty-seven overweight/obese participants (19M/39F) (mean ± SD; age 43.6 ± 9.9 y, BMI 35.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2) completed the 12-week study and were randomly assigned to 1) EX: exercise 5-days/week for 40-minutes/session at moderate intensity; 2) rST: reduce ST and increase non-exercise physical activity; 3) EX-rST: combination of EX and rST and 4) CON: maintain behavior. Fasting lipids, blood pressure (BP), VO2 peak, BMI and 2-hr oral glucose tolerance tests were completed pre- and post-intervention. Results EX and EX-rST increased VO2 peak by ~10% and decreased systolic BP (both p<0.001). BMI decreased by ?3.3% (95% CI: ?4.6 to ?1.9%) for EX-rST and ?2.2% (?3.5 to 0.0%) for EX. EX-rST significantly increased C-ISI by 17.8% (2.8 to 32.8%) and decreased insulin area-under-the-curve by 19.4% (?31.4 to ?7.3%). No other groups improved in insulin action variables. rST group decreased ST by 7% (~50 min/day), however BP was the only health-related outcome that improved. Conclusions EX and EX-rST improved VO2 peak and BMI providing further evidence that moderate intensity exercise is beneficial. The within-group analysis provides preliminary evidence that exercising and reducing ST may result in improvements in metabolic biomarkers that are not seen with exercise alone, though between group differences did not reach statistical significance. Future studies, with larger samples, should examine health-related outcomes resulting from greater reductions in ST over longer intervention periods. PMID:24971677

Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Lyden, Kate; Staudenmayer, John; Hickey, Amanda; Viskochil, Richard; Braun, Barry; Freedson, Patty S.

2014-01-01

79

Cognitive function following treadmill exercise in thermal protective clothing.  

PubMed

Occupational injuries are common among firefighters who perform strenuous physical exertion in extreme heat. The thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters inhibits normal thermoregulation, placing the firefighter at risk of hypohydration and hyperthermia that may result in cognitive decline. We tested whether cognitive function changes after treadmill exercise in TPC. In an initial study (Cog 1), ten healthy volunteers performed up to 50 min of treadmill exercise while wearing TPC in a heated room. A battery of neurocognitive tests evaluating short-term memory, sustained and divided attention, and reaction time was administered immediately before and after exercise. In a follow-up study (Cog 2), 19 healthy volunteers performed a similar exercise protocol with the battery of cognitive tests administered pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and serially up to 120 min after exercise. Subjects performed 46.4 ± 4.6 and 48.1 ± 3.6 min of exercise in the Cog 1 and Cog 2, respectively. In both studies heart rate approached age predicted maximum, body mass was reduced 1.0-1.5 kg, and body core temperature increased to levels similar to what is seen after fire suppression. Neurocognitive test scores did not change immediately after exercise. Recall on a memory test was reduced 60 and 120 min after exercise. The mean of the 10 slowest reaction times increased in the 120 min after exercise. Fifty minutes of treadmill exercise in TPC resulted in near maximal physiologic strain but alterations in neurocognitive performance were not noted until an hour or more following exercise in TPC. PMID:21892644

Morley, Julia; Beauchamp, Gillian; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Reis, Steven E; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David

2012-05-01

80

Aerobic and Combined Exercise Sessions Reduce Glucose Variability in Type 2 Diabetes: Crossover Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER) or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB) sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). Methods Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years) wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement), and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods) as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods). Results Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ?16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P?=?0.003) and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P?=?0.004) were observed only after the COMB session. Conclusions Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises. Trial Registration Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS) in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise). ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00887094. PMID:23536769

Figueira, Franciele R.; Umpierre, Daniel; Casali, Karina R.; Tetelbom, Pedro S.; Henn, Nicoli T.; Schaan, Beatriz D.

2013-01-01

81

Post-exercise alcohol ingestion exacerbates eccentric-exercise induced losses in performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute alcohol intake on muscular performance in both the exercising and non-exercising legs in the days following\\u000a strenuous eccentric exercise was investigated to ascertain whether an interaction between post-exercise alcohol use and muscle\\u000a damage causes an increase in damage-related weakness. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the\\u000a quadriceps muscles of one leg on an

Matthew J. Barnes; Toby Mündel; Stephen R. Stannard

2010-01-01

82

Effect of prior high-intensity exercise on exercise- induced arterial hypoxemia in Thoroughbred horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

san. Effect of prior high-intensity exercise on exercise-in- duced arterial hypoxemia in Thoroughbred horses. J Appl Physiol 90: 2371-2377, 2001.—Strenuously exercising horses exhibit arterial hypoxemia and exercise-induced pul- monary hemorrhage (EIPH), the latter resulting from stress failure of pulmonary capillaries. The present study was car- ried out to examine whether the structural changes in the blood-gas barrier caused by a

MURLI MANOHAR; THOMAS E. GOETZ; ASLAM S. HASSAN

83

Reducing exercise-induced muscular injury in kendo athletes with supplementation of coenzyme Q10.  

PubMed

Intensive physical exercise may cause muscular injury and increase oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), on muscular injury and oxidative stress during exercise training. Eighteen male students, all elite Japanese kendo athletes, were randomly assigned to either a CoQ10 group (n 10) or a placebo group (n 8) in a double-blind manner. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per d for 20 d, while subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of a placebo. All subjects practised kendo 5.5 h per d for 6 d during the experimental period. Blood samples were taken 2 weeks before, during (1 d, 3 d, 5 d) and 1 week after the training. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration significantly increased in both groups (at 3 d and 5 d). Serum CK (at 3 d), Mb (at 3 d) and lipid peroxide (at 3 d and 5 d) of the CoQ10 group were lower than those of the placebo group. The leucocyte counts in the placebo group significantly increased (at 3 d) and neutrophils significantly increased in both groups (at 3 d and 5 d). Serum scavenging activity against superoxide anion did not change in either group. These results indicate that CoQ10 supplementation reduced exercise-induced muscular injury in athletes. PMID:18284711

Kon, Michihiro; Tanabe, Kai; Akimoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Fuminori; Tanimura, Yuko; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Tadashi; Kono, Ichiro

2008-10-01

84

Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia?dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishment by assessment of tissue oxygenation maximal change and recovery change, respectively. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled, of whom 9 (age 33.3 ± 4.4 years, five males) completed the study. Each subject took part in three MRI visits, with dietary nitrate (7cl concentrated beetroot juice) consumed before the third visit. During each visit fMRIs were conducted concurrently with plantar flexion exercise at workloads of 15% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found between visits 1 and 2 in the fMRI measures. A decrease in maximal change was found at 15% MVC in soleus between visits 2 and 3 (5.12 ± 2.36 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.004) and between visits 1 and 3 (4.43 ± 2.12 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.043), but not at 25% MVC or within gastrocnemius. There was no difference in recovery change between visits. We found that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces tissue oxygenation alterations during physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This effect is more prominent in muscles with predominantly type 1 fibers and at lower workloads. This indicates that in healthy subjects dietary nitrate predominantly affects skeletal muscle energy efficiency with no change in oxygen delivery. PMID:25052493

Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R.; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

2014-01-01

85

Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:25120082

Mota, Marcelo Mendonca; da Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, Andre Sales; Araujo, Joao Eliakim dos Santos; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar Cabral; Wichi, Rogerio Brandao; Santos, Marcio Roberto Viana

2014-01-01

86

The influence of strenuous muscle stimulation on the menarche.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the average age at which menarche begins is lowering by three to four years every century, that is, four months every decade, according to both Japanese, and European and American annual changes of the average age. It emerged that the menarche shows a tendency to occur later in female gymnasts, because of the influence of strenuous muscle stimulation, and the fact that a higher level of technic is required in gymnastic games each year. These conclusions have been drawn from replies submitted to a questionnaire distributed among a relatively small number of gymnasts who participated in the competitions including the Inter High School Championship and the World Cup Championship. For example, at the age of 14, the percentage of women who had menstruated is almost 100% among women in general, but only 24% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, the average age at menarche of the latter being later than that of the former by as many as 3 years. At the age of 16, the percentage of women who had menstruated is 100% among women in general, but on the other hand, it is only 60% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, in other words, only a low percentage of women, of the latter group, had menstruated. Finally in our study, we established that the age at menarche of gymnasts is three or five years later than that of women in general. From our study, we concluded that the excessive burden imposed on muscles might cause an abnormal menstrual cycle, and the influence on menstruation would be considerable. PMID:6473975

Yabuuchi, F; Ichikawa, Y; Arakawa, M; Chiba, G

1984-03-01

87

Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, reduces body fat without weight rebound like swimming exercise in mice.  

PubMed

Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The body weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal body weight as exercise. PMID:21878735

Haramizu, Satoshi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

2011-08-01

88

Aerobic exercise training fails to reduce blood pressure in nondipper-type hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess whether aerobic exercise training is an effective and an alternative method to control blood pressure (BP) in hypertension, 32 uncomplicated, never treated patients suffering from mild-to-moderate essential arterial hypertension (EAH) were included in an aerobic exercise training program using a regular standardized cycle ergometer exercise for 3 months. In all EAH patients, before and after the exercise training

Renato Nami; Sergio Mondillo; Eustachio Agricola; Salvatore Lenti; Giuseppe Ferro; Niccolò Nami; Maria Tarantino; Gianni Glauco; Emilia Spanò; Carlo Gennari

2000-01-01

89

Maturation and Strenuous Training in Young Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research studies suggesting that girls who exercise vigorously may experience disruptions in maturational processes suggests that carefully-monitored sports participation and training have no effect on growth and maturation. (Author/CB)

Zimmerman, David R.

1987-01-01

90

Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise, via reduced leptin levels, in obese women with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, the authors' aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, 11 of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-wk aerobic-training program. They attended 3 sessions/wk, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30-40 min) at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. Fat-mass percentage and distribution were measured, and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and postintervention. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants' maximal oxygen uptake (20.2 ± 5.8 vs.23.7 ± 6.3 ml · kg-1 · min-1; p < .001), and plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced in the intervention group (54.2 ± 6.7 vs.45.7 ± 6.1 ng/ml; p = .026). Further significant correlations between plasma leptin and indices of obesity were found. In contrast, no significant changes were found in adiponectin levels (p > .05). None of the tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training program reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome. PMID:23307488

Ordoñez, Francisco J; Fornieles-Gonzalez, Gabriel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Miguel A; Rosety, Ignacio; Diaz, Antonio J; Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel

2013-06-01

91

Creatine supplementation reduces increased homocysteine concentration induced by acute exercise in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism after acute\\u000a aerobic and anaerobic exercise. A total of 112 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: aerobic exercise (A), aerobic exercise\\u000a plus creatine supplementation (ACr), anaerobic exercise (An), and anaerobic exercise plus creatine-supplemented (AnCr). Creatine\\u000a supplementation consisted of the addition of 2%

Rafael Deminice; Helio Vannucchi; Lívia Maria Simões-Ambrosio; Alceu Afonso Jordao

92

Influence of aerobic exercise on depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

43 depressed undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment condition in which they participated in strenuous exercise, a placebo treatment condition in which they practiced relaxation exercises, or a no-treatment condition. Aerobic capacity was assessed before and after a 10-wk treatment period. Self-reported depression was assessed before, during, and after the treatment period. Results show that

I. Lisa McCann; David S. Holmes

1984-01-01

93

Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility\\/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL18, CRP, and IL6 independent of ?-blockers, BMI, and psychosocial factors in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased serum levels of inflammatory mediators have been associated with numerous disease states including atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and overall mortality. We hypothesized that a long-term exercise intervention among older adults would reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, and this reduction would be mediated, in part, by improvements in psychosocial factors and\\/or by ?-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. Adults ?age 64 were

M. L. Kohut; D. A. McCann; D. W. Russell; D. N. Konopka; J. E. Cunnick; W. D. Franke; M. C. Castillo; A. E. Reighard; E. Vanderah

2006-01-01

94

Adult scoliosis can be reduced through specific SEAS exercises: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background It has been known since many years that scoliosis can continue to progress after skeletal maturity: the rate of progression has shown to be linear, and it can be used to establish an individual prognosis. Once there is progression there is an indication for treatment: usually it is proposed a surgical one. There are very few papers on an alternative rehabilitation approach; since many years we propose specific SEAS exercises and the aim of this study is to present one case report on this approach. Case presentation All radiographs have been measured blindly twice using the same protractor by one expert physician whose repeatability error proved to be < 3° Cobb; the average measurement has been used. In this case a 25 years old female scoliosis patient, previously treated from 14 (Risser 1) to 19 years of age with a decrease of the curve from 46° to 37°, showed a progression of 10° Cobb in 6 years. The patient has then been treated with SEAS exercises only, and in one year progression has been reverted from 47° to 28.5°. Conclusion A scoliosis curve is made of different components: the structural bony and ligamentous components, and a postural one that counts up to 9° in children, while it has not been quantified in adults. This case shows that when adult scoliosis aggravates it is possible to intervene with specific exercises (SEAS) not just to get stability, but to recover last years collapse. The reduction of scoliotic curve through rehabilitation presumably does not indicate a reduction of the bone deformity, but rely on a recovery of the upright postural collapse. This reduction can decrease the chronic asymmetric load on the spine and, in the long run, reduce the risks of progression. PMID:19087344

Negrini, Alessandra; Parzini, Silvana; Negrini, Maria Gabriella; Romano, Michele; Atanasio, Salvatore; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

2008-01-01

95

The Physical Strenuousness of Work is Slightly Associated with an Upward Trend in the Body Mass Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between the physical strenuousness of work and the body mass index in Finland, using individual microdata over the period 1972-2002. The data contain self-reported information about the physical strenuousness of a respondent’s current occupation. Our estimates show that the changes in the physical strenuousness of work can explain around 8% at most of the definite

Petri Böckerman; Edvard Johansson; Pekka Jousilahti; Antti Uutela

2007-01-01

96

Exercise reduces sick leave in patients with non-acute non-specific low back pain: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate whether exercise alone or as a part of a multidisciplinary treatment reduces sick leave in patients with non-specific non-acute low back pain. Methods: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed. A qualitative analysis of the sick leave results was performed applying pre-defined levels of evi- dence. In studies comparing exercise with usual care, pooled effect sizes

Jan Kool; Bie de R. A; Peter Oesch; O. Knusel; Piet van den Brandt; Stefan Bachmann

2004-01-01

97

Haemorheology in exercise and training.  

PubMed

Disruption of the normal rheological properties of blood is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and plays a significant role in the aetiology of atherothrombogenesis. The acute increase in whole blood viscosity may unfavourably affect the microcirculatory blood flow and oxygen delivery to the tissues. It is universally accepted that exercise and physical activity performed on a regular basis has health benefits. However, the effects of exercise on the rheological properties of blood have not received much research attention. Recent, limited evidence indicates that the viscosities of whole blood and plasma increase in response to a variety of exercise protocols. The increase in whole blood viscosity is mainly attributed to an increase in haematocrit and plasma viscosity, whereas the deformability and aggregability of red blood cells remain unaltered. The increases in plasma viscosity and haematocrit have been ascribed to exercise-induced haemoconcentration as a result of fluid transfer from the blood to the interstitial spaces. The haemorheological changes associated with strenuous exercise appear to be linked with enhanced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant capacity, and that may affect oxygen delivery and availability to the tissues. Although significant advances have been made in many areas of exercise haematology, the long-term effects of endurance training on blood rheology have been very briefly examined and the exact effect of training has not as yet been determined. Available cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that the blood of endurance athletes is more dilute and this has been attributed to an expansion of blood volume, particularly plasma volume as a result of training. The low haematocrit values in trained athletes represent a hydration condition rather than iron stores deficiency. It has been suggested that this hypervolaemia and blood dilutional effect of endurance training may be advantageous for heat dissipation and greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise. Enhanced blood fluidity also facilitates oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles because of a reduced resistance to blood flow within the microcirculation. Furthermore, the increase in plasma volume may contribute to the body water pool and help offset dehydration. The influence of strength and power training on blood rheology is not known. The physiological mechanisms responsible for and the functional consequences of the haemorheological changes associated with exercise to a large extent remain speculative. The paradox of haematocrit and blood rheology in exercise and training warrants additional studies. Likewise, further investigations are necessary to determine the possible link between overtraining and blood rheological profiles. PMID:16076228

El-Sayed, Mahmoud S; Ali, Nagia; El-Sayed Ali, Zeinab

2005-01-01

98

Exercise Programs for Citizens Sixty and Over--Why Not?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An outline is given of an exercise program for older adults which is designed to increase strength, endurance, and flexibility. Brief descriptions are provided of exercises progressing from modest tone-ups for flexibility to activities involving mildly strenuous physical efforts such as jogging, bicycling, and hiking. Suggestions are offered for…

Butts, Frank; Anderson, Gene

99

Sex differences in creatine kinase after acute heavy resistance exercise on circulating granulocyte estradiol receptors.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown reduced tissue disruption and inflammatory responses in women as compared to men following acute strenuous exercise. While the mechanism of this action is not known, estrogen may reduce the inflammatory response through its interaction with granulocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine if estrogen receptor ? expression on granulocytes is related to sex differences in tissue disruption in response to an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol. Seven healthy, resistance-trained, eumenorrheic women (23 ± 3 years, 169 ± 9.1 cm, 66.4 ± 10.5 kg) and 8 healthy, resistance-trained men (25 ± 5 years, 178 ± 6.7 cm, 82.3 ± 9.33 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects performed an acute resistance exercise test consisting of six sets of five squats at 90% of the subject's one repetition maximum. Blood samples were obtained pre-, mid-, post-, and 1-, 6-, and 24-h postexercise. Blood samples were analyzed for 17-?-estradiol by ELISA, creatine kinase by colorimetric enzyme immunoassay, and estradiol receptors on circulating granulocytes through flow cytometry. Men had higher CK concentrations than women at baseline/control. Men had significantly higher CK concentrations at 24-h postexercise than women. No significant changes in estradiol ? receptors were expressed on granulocytes after exercise or between sexes. While sex differences occur in CK activity in response to strenuous eccentric exercise, they may not be related to estradiol receptor ? expression on granulocytes. Thus, although there are sex differences in CK expression following acute resistance exercise, the differences may not be attributable to estrogen receptor ? expression on granulocytes. PMID:22270483

Wolf, Megan R; Fragala, Maren S; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Luk, Hui-Ying; Maresh, Carl M; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J

2012-09-01

100

Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

1992-01-01

101

Short-Term Aerobic Exercise Reduces Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The relationship between increased arterial stiffness and cardiovascular mortality is well established in type 2 diabetes. We examined whether aerobic exercise could reduce arterial stiffness in older adults with type 2 diabetes complicated by comorbid hypertension and hyperlipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 36 older adults (mean age 71.4 ± 0.7 years) with diet-controlled or oral hypoglycemic–controlled type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an aerobic group (3 months vigorous aerobic exercise) and a nonaerobic group (no aerobic exercise). Exercise sessions were supervised by a certified exercise trainer three times per week, and a combination of cycle ergometers and treadmills was used. Arterial stiffness was measured using the Complior device. RESULTS When the two groups were compared, aerobic training resulted in a decrease in measures of both radial (?20.7 ± 6.3 vs. +8.5 ± 6.6%, P = 0.005) and femoral (?13.9 ± 6.7 vs. +4.4 ± 3.3%, P = 0.015) pulse-wave velocity despite the fact that aerobic fitness as assessed by Vo2max did not demonstrate an improvement with training (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that a relatively short aerobic exercise intervention in older adults can reduce multifactorial arterial stiffness (type 2 diabetes, aging, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia). PMID:19509011

Madden, Kenneth M.; Lockhart, Chris; Cuff, Darcye; Potter, Tiffany F.; Meneilly, Graydon S.

2009-01-01

102

Evidence for the role of isometric exercise training in reducing blood pressure: potential mechanisms and future directions.  

PubMed

Hypertension, or the chronic elevation in resting arterial blood pressure (BP), is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and estimated to affect ~1 billion adults worldwide. The goals of treatment are to lower BP through lifestyle modifications (smoking cessation, weight loss, exercise training, healthy eating and reduced sodium intake), and if not solely effective, the addition of antihypertensive medications. In particular, increased physical exercise and decreased sedentarism are important strategies in the prevention and management of hypertension. Current guidelines recommend both aerobic and dynamic resistance exercise training modalities to reduce BP. Mounting prospective evidence suggests that isometric exercise training in normotensive and hypertensive (medicated and non-medicated) cohorts of young and old participants may produce similar, if not greater, reductions in BP, with meta-analyses reporting mean reductions of between 10 and 13 mmHg systolic, and 6 and 8 mmHg diastolic. Isometric exercise training protocols typically consist of four sets of 2-min handgrip or leg contractions sustained at 20-50 % of maximal voluntary contraction, with each set separated by a rest period of 1-4 min. Training is usually completed three to five times per week for 4-10 weeks. Although the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations remain to be fully clarified, improvements in conduit and resistance vessel endothelium-dependent dilation, oxidative stress, and autonomic regulation of heart rate and BP have been reported. The clinical significance of isometric exercise training, as a time-efficient and effective training modality to reduce BP, warrants further study. This evidence-based review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of isometric exercise training on resting BP. PMID:24174307

Millar, Philip J; McGowan, Cheri L; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Araujo, Claudio G; Swaine, Ian L

2014-03-01

103

Daily exercise lowers blood pressure and reduces visceral adipose tissue areas in overweight Japanese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the link between a reduction in blood pressure (BP) and daily exercise. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical intervention study with exercise education. Subjects: 43 overweight Japanese men aged 32–59 years (BMI, 29.0±2.3 kg\\/m2) at baseline. Among the participants, a randomly selected 23 overweight men (BMI, 28.5±1.7) were further enrolled into the 10 months exercise program. Measurements: BP

Nobuyuki Miyatake; Kayo Takahashi; Jun Wada; Hidetaka Nishikawa; Akie Morishita; Hisao Suzuki; Mie Kunitomi; Hirofumi Makino; Shohei Kira; Masafumi Fujii

2003-01-01

104

Short-term Aerobic Exercise Reduces Nitroglycerin-induced Orthostatic Intolerance in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims/Hypothesis Older adults are at a high risk for syncope due to orthostatic intolerance (OI), and this risk increases with comorbid type 2 diabetes and vasoactive medications. Despite many benefits, previous investigations have shown worsening OI with aerobic training. We examined whether aerobic exercise reduced OI in older adults with type 2 diabetes who were given a short-acting vasoactive agent (nitroglycerin). Methods Forty older adults (25 males and 15 females, mean age 71.4 ± 0.7 years, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years) with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects were randomized to each of 2 groups: an aerobic group (3 months of vigorous aerobic exercise) and a nonaerobic (no aerobic exercise) group. Exercise sessions were supervised by a certified exercise trainer 3 times per week. After being given 400 ?g of sublingual nitroglycerin, each subject was placed in a 70° head-up tilt for 30 minutes. Results When the 2 groups were compared using a Cox proportional hazards model, tilt table tolerance was significantly better in the aerobic group as compared to in the nonaerobic group (?2MC = 7.271, P = 0.007). Conclusions Our findings indicate that a relatively short aerobic exercise intervention can improve postnitroglycerin orthostatic tolerance in older adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21346593

Madden, Kenneth M.; Lockhart, Chris K.; Potter, Tiffany F.; Cuff, Darcye J.; Meneilly, Graydon S.

2013-01-01

105

Beta-alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise.  

PubMed

The oral ingestion of beta-alanine, the rate-limiting precursor in carnosine synthesis, has been shown to elevate the muscle carnosine content. Carnosine is thought to act as a physiologically relevant pH buffer during exercise but direct evidence is lacking. Acidosis has been hypothesised to influence oxygen uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise. The present study aimed to investigate whether oral beta-alanine supplementation could reduce acidosis during high-intensity cycling and thereby affect oxygen uptake kinetics. 14 male physical education students participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Subjects were supplemented orally for 4 weeks with 4.8 g/day placebo or beta-alanine. Before and after supplementation, subjects performed a 6-min cycling exercise bout at an intensity of 50% of the difference between ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO(2peak). Capillary blood samples were taken for determination of pH, lactate, bicarbonate and base excess, and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics were determined with a bi-exponential model fitted to the averaged breath-by-breath data of three repetitions. Exercise-induced acidosis was significantly reduced following beta-alanine supplementation compared to placebo, without affecting blood lactate and bicarbonate concentrations. The time delay of the fast component (Td(1)) of the oxygen uptake kinetics was significantly reduced following beta-alanine supplementation compared to placebo, although this did not reduce oxygen deficit. The parameters of the slow component did not differ between groups. These results indicate that chronic beta-alanine supplementation, which presumably increased muscle carnosine content, can attenuate the fall in blood pH during high-intensity exercise. This may contribute to the ergogenic effect of the supplement found in some exercise modes. PMID:19841932

Baguet, Audrey; Koppo, Katrien; Pottier, Andries; Derave, Wim

2010-02-01

106

Intensive Exercise Reduces the Fear of Additional Falls in Elderly People: Findings from the Korea Falls Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Falls among older people are a major public health problem and may result in fracture, medical complications that require hospitalization, and fear of additional falls. Given the prevalence and impact of the fear of falling again, reducing the incidence of falls is important to prevent additional falls. This study analyzed whether exercise programs decrease the fear of future falls in elderly patients who have fallen previously. Methods A randomized controlled study was performed that included 65 elderly community-dwelling subjects who had fallen in the previous year. Subjects were randomized into two groups: an exercise group (EG, n = 36) and a control group (CG, n = 29). The EG participated in three exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. Muscle strength, balance, agility, flexibility, and muscular endurance were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results After the 12-week exercise program, the subjects in the EG demonstrated remarkable improvement in their walking speed, balance (p = 0.003), back strength (p = 0.08), lower extremity strength (p = 0.004), and flexibility (p < 0.001). When asked whether they were afraid of falling, more participants in the EG than in the CG responded "not at all" or "a little." Conclusions The 12-week exercise program described here reduced the fear of falling (p = 0.02). It also improved the balance, flexibility, and muscle strength of the participants and was associated with improved quality of life. PMID:23269883

Oh, Dong Hyun; Park, Ji Eun; Lee, Eon Sook; Oh, Sang Woo; Cho, Sung Il; Jang, Soong Nang

2012-01-01

107

Effect of Postexercise Recovery Procedures Following Strenuous Stair-climb Running  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effects of hot\\/cold water immersion, static stretching, and no recovery (control) interventions on leg strength, rowing performance, and indicators of muscle soreness\\/damage in the 72 hours following strenuous stair-climb running. Club (n = 14) and elite (Sports Institute) (n = 6) rowers performed the training run on three separate occasions. After each run, participants completed a

Elisa Robey; Brian Dawson; Carmel Goodman; John Beilby

2009-01-01

108

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent  

E-print Network

there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically­70% HR reserve) over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF). Findings: Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5

Palmeri, Thomas

109

Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-11.asp, free with no login]. PMID:25365815

Lee, George

2014-01-01

110

Physical Exercise Reduces the Expression of RANTES and Its CCR5 Receptor in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Humans  

PubMed Central

RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-?, IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue. PMID:24895488

Baturcam, Engin; Tiss, Ali; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said

2014-01-01

111

Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}  

SciTech Connect

Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

Yan Zhencheng [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Liu Daoyan [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhang Lili [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Shen Chenyi [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Ma Qunli [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Cao Tingbing [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Wang Lijuan [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Nie Hai [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zidek, Walter [Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Tepel, Martin [Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Zhu Zhiming [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)]. E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

2007-03-09

112

Long-term compulsive exercise reduces the rewarding efficacy of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.  

PubMed

Although exercise has been known to regulate brain plasticity, its impact on psychostimulant reward and the associated mesolimbic dopamine system remained scarcely explored. A psychostimulant, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), is currently a worldwide abused drug of choice. We decided to examine the modulating effects of long-term, compulsive treadmill exercise on the hedonic value of MDMA in male C57BL/6J mice. MDMA-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was used as a behavioral paradigm to indicate the reward efficacy of MDMA. We observed that sedentary control mice all demonstrated reliable MDMA-induced CPP with our conditioning protocol. Interestingly, pre-exposure to a treadmill exercise decreased the later MDMA-induced CPP in a running period-dependent manner. Specifically, mice undergoing a 12-week treadmill running exercise did not exhibit any approaching bias toward the MDMA-associated compartment in this CPP paradigm. Twelve weeks of treadmill running did not alter peripheral metabolism of MDMA 30min following single intraperitoneal injection of MDMA (3mg/kg). We further used microdialysis technique to study the underlying mechanisms for the impaired MDMA reward produced by the12-week exercise pre-exposure. We found that acute MDMA-stimulated dopamine release in nucleus accumbens was abolished in the exercised mice, whereas an obvious elevation of accumbal dopamine release was observed in sedentary control mice. Finally, the 12-week exercise program did not alter the protein levels of primary dopamine receptors, vesicular or membrane transporters in this area. We conclude that the long-term, compulsive exercise is effective in curbing the reward efficacy of MDMA possibly via its direct effect on reversing the MDMA-stimulated dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. PMID:17949827

Chen, Hsiun Ing; Kuo, Yu Min; Liao, Chung-Hsien; Jen, Chauying J; Huang, A Min; Cherng, Chianfang G; Su, Shu-Wen; Yu, Lung

2008-02-11

113

Long-term compulsive exercise reduces the rewarding efficacy of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although exercise has been known to regulate brain plasticity, its impact on psychostimulant reward and the associated mesolimbic dopamine system remained scarcely explored. A psychostimulant, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), is currently a worldwide abused drug of choice. We decided to examine the modulating effects of long-term, compulsive treadmill exercise on the hedonic value of MDMA in male C57BL\\/6J mice. MDMA-induced conditioned place

Hsiun Ing Chen; Yu Min Kuo; Chung-Hsien Liao; Chauying J. Jen; A Min Huang; Chianfang G. Cherng; Shu-Wen Su; Lung Yu

2008-01-01

114

Aerobic exercise but not resistance exercise reduces intrahepatic lipid content and visceral fat and improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether regular exercise alone (no caloric restriction) is a useful strategy to reduce adiposity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors in obese girls. We examined the effects of aerobic (AE) vs. resistance exercise (RE) alone on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese girls. Forty-four obese adolescent girls (BMI ?95th percentile, 12-18 yr) with abdominal obesity (waist circumference 106.5 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to 3 mo of 180 min/wk AE (n = 16) or RE (n = 16) or a nonexercising control group (n = 12). Total fat and VAT were assessed by MRI and intrahepatic lipid by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Intermuscular AT (IMAT) was measured by CT. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic (80 mU·m(2)·min(-1)) euglycemic clamp. Compared with controls (0.13 ± 1.10 kg), body weight did not change (P > 0.1) in the AE (-1.31 ± 1.43 kg) and RE (-0.31 ± 1.38 kg) groups. Despite the absence of weight loss, total body fat (%) and IMAT decreased (P < 0.05) in both exercise groups compared with control. Compared with control, significant (P < 0.05) reductions in VAT (?-15.68 ± 7.64 cm(2)) and intrahepatic lipid (?-1.70 ± 0.74%) and improvement in insulin sensitivity (?0.92 ± 0.27 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) per ?U/ml) were observed in the AE group but not the RE group. Improvements in insulin sensitivity in the AE group were associated with the reductions in total AT mass (r = -0.65, P = 0.02). In obese adolescent girls, AE but not RE is effective in reducing liver fat and visceral adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity independent of weight loss or calorie restriction. PMID:24045865

Lee, SoJung; Deldin, Anthony R; White, David; Kim, YoonMyung; Libman, Ingrid; Rivera-Vega, Michelle; Kuk, Jennifer L; Sandoval, Sandra; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva

2013-11-15

115

Treadmill exercise reduces spinal cord injury-induced apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in rats  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis occurring secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) causes further neural damage and functional loss. In this study, a rat model was used to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on SCI-induced apoptosis and expression of neurotrophic factors. To produce SCI, a contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) was applied subsequent to laminectomy at the T9–T10 level. Following SCI, treadmill exercise was performed for six weeks. Hindlimb motor function was evaluated with a grid-walking test. The expression of neurotrophic factors and the level of apoptosis at the site of SCI were determined by western blotting. SCI reduced hindlimb motor function and suppressed expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the ratio of phosphorylated Akt to Akt (pAkt/Akt) and the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) to Bax (Bcl-2/Bax) were decreased, and cleaved caspase-3 expression was increased by SCI. Treadmill exercise enhanced hindlimb motor function and increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3 and IGF-1 in the SCI rats. Treadmill exercise increased PI3K expression, the pAkt/Akt and the Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and suppressed cleaved caspase-3 expression in the injured spinal cord. This study demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes the recovery of motor function by suppressing apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. The beneficial effect of exercise may be attributed to the increase in expression of neurotrophic factors via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24520250

JUNG, SUN-YOUNG; KIM, DAE-YOUNG; YUNE, TAE YOUNG; SHIN, DONG-HOON; BAEK, SANG-BIN; KIM, CHANG-JU

2014-01-01

116

Individual susceptibility to hypoperfusion and reductions in exercise performance when perfusion pressure is reduced: evidence for vasodilator phenotypes.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether cardiovascular compensatory response phenotypes exist in the face of a reduced perfusion pressure challenge to exercising muscle oxygen delivery (O2D), and whether these responses might be exercise intensity (EI) dependent. Ten healthy men (19.5 ± 0.4 yr) completed two trials of progressive forearm isometric handgrip exercise to exhaustion (24.5 N increments every 3.5 min) in each of forearm above and below heart level [forearm arterial perfusion pressure (FAPP) difference of 29.5 ± 0.97 mmHg]. At the end of each EI, measurements of forearm blood flow (FBF; ml/min) via brachial artery Doppler and echo ultrasound, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; mmHg) via finger photoplethysmography, and exercising forearm venous effluent via antecubital vein catheter revealed distinct cardiovascular response groups: n = 6 with compensatory vasodilation vs. n = 4 without compensatory vasodilation. Compensatory vasodilators were able to blunt the perfusion pressure-evoked reduction in submaximal O2D in the arm-above-heart condition, whereas nonvasodilators did not (-22.5 ± 13.6 vs. -65.4 ± 14.1 ml O2/min; P < 0.05), and in combination with being able to increase O2 extraction, nonvasodilators defended submaximal V?o2 and experienced less of an accumulated submaximal O2D deficit (-80.7 ± 24.7 vs. -219.1 ± 36.0 ml O2/min; P < 0.05). As a result, the compensatory vasodilators experienced less of a compromise to peak EI than nonvasodilators (-24.5 ± 3.5 N vs. -52.1 ± 8.9 N; P < 0.05). In conclusion, in the forearm exercise model studied, vasodilatory response phenotypes exist that determine individual susceptibility to hypoperfusion and the degree to which aerobic metabolism and exercise performance are compromised. PMID:24970851

Bentley, Robert F; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Moynes, Jackie S; Poitras, Veronica J; Walsh, Jeremy J; Tschakovsky, Michael E

2014-08-15

117

Explosives detection by sniffer dogs following strenuous physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced olfactory efficiency in sniffer dogs results mainly from overheating, and causes physiological and behavioural resources to be diverted from concentration on the assigned task and applied instead to methods of body cooling. Dogs do not possess sweat glands, and panting is the main means of cooling the body. Since a dog can either sniff or pant, but can never

Irit Gazit; Joseph Terkel

2003-01-01

118

Pulmonary haemodynamics in the exercising horse and their relationship to exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is a common occurrence in race horses. Although blood in cases of EIPH has been suspected to originate from the bronchial circulation, which receives approximately 1% of the left ventricular output, physiological evidence has recently emerged to indicate that the pulmonary circulation, which receives the entire output of the right ventricle, is a more likely source. High transmural pulmonary capillary pressures have been shown to cause breaks in the capillary endothelium, basement membrane as well as in the alveolar epithelium. Blood constituents escape into the interstitium and alveoli through such breaks in the blood-gas barrier--a phenomenon referred to as stress failure of pulmonary capillaries. Concomitant measurement of pulmonary arterial and venous pressures in strenuously exercising horses have revealed that both of these variables increased dramatically such that the intravascular pulmonary capillary pressure during exertion at 14 m/s (heart rate of 214 beats/min) approached 105 cm H2O (79 mmHg). Alveolar pressure during peak inhalation is likely to be negative; therefore, it is probable that transmural (intravascular minus perivascular) pulmonary capillary pressure of maximally exercising horses may be greater than 105 cm of water. Thus, the pulmonary blood-gas barrier, which has to be thin to provide for adequate diffusion of O2, is exposed to very high transmural forces associated with high cardiac output during exercise. Recent evidence suggests that the alveolar-capillary membrane may not be able to withstand the high transmural forces during maximal exertion, and that stress failure of pulmonary capillaries occurs, leading to EIPH. Intravenous furosemide premedication 4 h before exercise attenuates the exercise-induced rise in pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous pressures and, therefore, may be efficacious in reducing or limiting the extent of EIPH in race horses. PMID:8298955

Manohar, M; Hutchens, E; Coney, E

1993-01-01

119

Prophylactic tolperisone for post-exercise muscle soreness causes reduced isometric force--a double-blind randomized crossover control study.  

PubMed

The role of tolperisone hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant in relieving painful muscle spasm is recently being discussed. The present study hypothesizes that the prophylactic use of tolperisone hydrochloride may effectively relieve post-exercise muscle soreness, based on the spasm theory of exercise pain. Twenty male volunteers, aged 25.2 +/- 0.82 years (mean +/- SEM) participated in 10 sessions in which they received oral treatment with placebo or the centrally acting muscle relaxant tolperisone hydrochloride (150 mg) three times daily for 8 days, in randomized crossover double-blind design. Time course assessments were made for pressure pain threshold, Likert's pain score (0-5), pain areas, range of abduction, isometric force, and electromyography (EMG) root mean square (RMS) during maximum voluntary isometric force on day 1 and 6, immediately after an eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle, and 24 and 48 h after the exercise. Treatment with placebo or tolperisone hydrochloride was initiated immediately after the assessments on the first day baseline assessments. On the sixth day baseline investigations were repeated and then the subjects performed six bouts of standardized intense eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle for provocation of post-exercise muscle soreness (PEMS). Perceived intensity of warmth, tiredness, soreness and pain during the exercise bouts were recorded on a 10 cm visual analogue pain scale. VAS scores and pressure pain thresholds did not differ between tolperisone and placebo treatment. All VAS scores increased during the exercise bouts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 as compared to bout 1. Increased pain scores and pain areas were reported immediately after, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Pressure pain thresholds were reduced at 24 and 48 h after the exercise in the exercised hand. Range of abduction of the index finger was reduced immediately after the exercise and was still reduced at 24 h as compared to the non-exercised hand. The EMG RMS amplitude was also reduced immediately after the exercise, but was increased at 24 and 48 h. Isometric force was reduced immediately after the exercise as compared to days 1, 6, and the 24 and 48 h post-exercise assessments with a greater reduction following the tolperisone hydrochloride treatment and the reduction was more in tolperisone group as compared to the placebo group. The results suggest, that the prophylactic intake of tolperisone hydrochloride provides no relief to pain in course of post-exercise muscle soreness but results in reduction in isometric force. PMID:12935792

Bajaj, Prem; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Svensson, Peter

2003-01-01

120

Spleen emptying and venous hematocrit in humans during exercise.  

PubMed

The spleen may release pooled erythrocytes to the general circulation during strenuous conditions such as heavy exercise. Most of our knowledge of this reservoir function of the spleen derives from animal studies, and the splenic contribution to the circulating blood volume in humans has been regarded as unimportant. We recorded the erythrocyte content in the human spleen during graded bicycle exercise to maximal working capacity. In five normal adults 99mTc-labeled autologous erythrocytes were injected intravenously, and the subjects were placed on bicycles with the back against a gamma camera focusing on the spleen. During increasing exercise the splenic erythrocyte content decreased linearly, and at maximal work load it had been reduced to a mean of 34.2% (range 44-26%) of the initial count rate at supine rest. Concomitantly norepinephrine and epinephrine in plasma increased gradually, whereas neuropeptide Y increased only at maximal exercise. A rise in hematocrit from a mean of 44.6 to 48 was observed, but the autotransfusion of erythrocytes from the spleen only partly explains the rise in hematocrit during physical activity. PMID:8387068

Laub, M; Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Hovind, P; Kanstrup, I L; Christensen, N J; Nielsen, S L

1993-03-01

121

Five Exercises Can Reduce Neck, Shoulder Pain Of Women Office Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Study finds physiological changes in one muscle help ease pain." This press release describes the experimental design and findings from the published study "Effect of contrasting physical exercise on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles" by Lars L. Andersen, Jesper L. Andersen, Charlotte Suetta, Michael Kjaer, Karen Sogaard, and Gisela Sjogaard in Journal of Applied Physiology, September 2009.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2009-11-18

122

Exercise Training Reduces Sympathetic Modulation on Cardiovascular System and Cardiac Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSpontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) show increased cardiac sympathetic activity, which could stimulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac damage, and apoptosis. Norepinephrine (NE)-induced cardiac oxidative stress seems to be involved in SHR cardiac hypertrophy development. Because exercise training (ET) decreases sympathetic activation and oxidative stress, it may alter cardiac hypertrophy in SHR. The aim of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether

Mariane Bertagnolli; Paulo C. Schenkel; Cristina Campos; Cristiano T. Mostarda; Dulce E. Casarini; Adriane Belló-Klein; Maria C. Irigoyen; Katya Rigatto

2008-01-01

123

Pyridostigmine reduces QTc interval during recovery from maximal exercise in ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a randomized, cross-over, and double-blind design, 14 patients with coronary heart disease were submitted, to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests on a treadmill, 2 h after the oral administration of either placebo or pyridostigmine bromide (45 mg), a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. One observer, who was blind to the experimental condition, measured RR and QT intervals over the 12 electrocardiographic leads

Renata R. T. Castro; Salvador M. Serra; Graciema Porphirio; Fernanda S. N. S. Mendes; Leonardo P. J. Oliveira; Antonio C. L. Nóbrega

2006-01-01

124

Aerobic Exercise Reduced Oxidative Stress in Saliva of Persons With Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on uric acid (UA), total antioxidant activity (TAA), oxidative stress (OS) and nitrite a stable nitric oxide (NO) metabolite in saliva from persons with Down syndrome (DS). Stimulated saliva was sampled from 12 participants 1 hour before and immediately after a 1,600-meter walking test. Uric acid

Jean C. Zambrano; Ramón Marquina; Nancy Sulbarán; Antonio J. Rodríguez-Malaver; Rafael A. Reyes

2009-01-01

125

Diet and Exercise Interventions Reduce Intrahepatic Fat Content and Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both obesity and aging increase intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, which leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of diet and diet in conjunction with exercise on IHF content and associated metabolic abnormalities in obese older adults. Eighteen obese (BMI ?30 kg\\/m2) older (?65 years old) adults completed a 6-month

Krupa Shah; Abby Stufflebaum; Tiffany N. Hilton; David R. Sinacore; Samuel Klein; Dennis T. Villareal

2009-01-01

126

A Comparison of Exercise and Meditation in Reducing Physiological Response to Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of brief treadmill exercise and meditation with a placebo-control treatment for reduction in several physiological and psychological measures of stress, anxiety, and tension before and after a written final examination in 48 high-test anxiety subjects. The subjects, 24 men and 24 women,…

Sime, Wesley E.

127

A Simple Exercise-to-Play Proposal that would Reduce Games Addiction and Keep Players Healthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Games players usually get addicted to video games in general and more specifically to those that are usually played over the internet. These players prefer to stay at home and play games rather than playing sports or outdoor games. This paper presents a proposal that aims to implement a simple way to let video games players exercise in order to

Nael Hirzallah

2013-01-01

128

Intense Exercise during the First Two Trimesters of Unapparent Pregnancy: Case Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents nonexperimental retrospective data on the weights, menstrual cycle intervals, pregnancy symptoms, and running programs of two women who exercised intensely during their first two trimesters. Although these two cases suggest that strenuous anaerobic exercise during pregnancy is not harmful, more studies are needed. (IAH)

Cohen, Gloria C.; And Others

1989-01-01

129

Antioxidants in exercise nutrition.  

PubMed

Physical exercise may be associated with a 10- to 20-fold increase in whole body oxygen uptake. Oxygen flux in the active peripheral skeletal muscle fibres may increase by as much as 100- to 200-fold during exercise. Studies during the past 2 decades suggest that during strenuous exercise, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is elevated to a level that overwhelms tissue antioxidant defence systems. The result is oxidative stress. The magnitude of the stress depends on the ability of the tissues to detoxify ROS, that is, antioxidant defences. Antioxidants produced by the body act in concert with their exogenous, mainly dietary, counterparts to provide protection against the ravages of reactive oxygen as well as nitrogen species. Antioxidant supplementation is likely to provide beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative tissue damage. While universal recommendations specifying types and dosages of antioxidants are difficult to make, it would be prudent for competitive athletes routinely engaged in strenuous exercise to seek an estimate of individual requirement. A new dimension in oxidant biology has recently unfolded. Although excessive oxidants may cause damage to tissues, lower levels of oxidants in biological cells may act as messenger molecules enabling the function of numerous physiological processes. It is plausible that some exercise-induced beneficial effects are actually oxidant-mediated. Such developments call for an even more careful analysis of the overall significance of types and amounts of antioxidants in diet. While these complexities pose significant challenges, experts agree that if used prudently, oxidants and antioxidants may serve as potent therapeutic tools. Efforts to determine individual needs of athletes and a balanced diet rich in antioxidant supplements are highly recommended. PMID:11708399

Sen, C K

2001-01-01

130

Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. PMID:23684439

Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

2013-05-01

131

Enhancement of preoxygenation for decompression sickness protection: effect of exercise duration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Since strenuous exercise for 10 min during preoxygenation was shown to provide better protection from decompression sickness (DCS) incidence than resting preoxygenation, a logical question was: would a longer period of strenuous exercise improve protection even further? HYPOTHESIS: Increased strenuous exercise duration during preoxygenation increases DCS protection. METHODS: There were 60 subjects, 30 men and 30 women, who were exposed to 9,144 m (4.3 psia) for 4 h while performing mild, upper body exercise. Before the exposures, each subject performed three preoxygenation profiles on different days in balanced order: a 90-min resting preoxygenation control; a 240-min resting preoxygenation control; and a 90-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 15 min. The subjects were monitored at altitude for venous gas emboli (VGE) with an echo-imaging system and observed for signs and symptoms of DCS. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in occurrence of DCS following any of the three preoxygenation procedures. Results were also comparable to an earlier report of 42% DCS with a 60-min preoxygenation including a 10-min exercise. There was no difference between VGE incidence in the comparison of protection offered by a 90-min preoxygenation with or without 13 min of strenuous exercise. The DCS incidence following a 240-min resting preoxygenation, 40%, was higher than observed during NASA studies and nearly identical with the earlier 42% DCS after a 60-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 10 min. CONCLUSION: The protection offered by a 10 min exercise in a 60-min preoxygenation was not increased with extension of the preoxygenation exercise period to 15 min in a 90-min preoxygenation, indicating an upper time limit to the beneficial effects of strenuous exercise.

Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Fischer, Michele D.; Kannan, Nandini

2002-01-01

132

A COX-2 inhibitor reduces muscle soreness, but does not influence recovery and adaptation after eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor on the recovery of muscle function, inflammation, regeneration after, and adaptation to, unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Thirty-three young males and females participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Seventy unilateral, voluntary, maximal eccentric actions with the elbow flexors were performed twice (bouts 1 and 2) with the same arm, separated by 3 weeks. The test group participants were administered 400 mg/day of celecoxib for 9 days after bout 1. After both bouts 1 and 2, concentric and isometric force-generating capacity was immediately reduced (approximately 40-50%), followed by the later appearance of muscle soreness and increased serum creatine kinase levels. Radiolabelled autologous leukocytes (detected by scintigraphy) and monocytes/macrophages (histology) accumulated in the exercised muscles, simultaneously with increased satellite cell activity. These responses were reduced and recovery was faster after bout 2 than 1, demonstrating a repeated-bout effect. No differences between the celecoxib and placebo groups were detected, except for muscle soreness, which was attenuated by celecoxib. In summary, celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, did not detectably affect recovery of muscle function or markers of inflammation and regeneration after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, nor did the drug influence the repeated-bout effect. However, it alleviated muscle soreness. PMID:19522751

Paulsen, G; Egner, I M; Drange, M; Langberg, H; Benestad, H B; Fjeld, J G; Hallén, J; Raastad, T

2010-02-01

133

Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.  

PubMed

Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge. PMID:23904096

Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

2013-11-01

134

Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryotherapy is an effective treatment for acute sports injury to soft tissue, although the effect of cryotherapy on exercise-induced muscle damage is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following strenuous eccentric exercise. After performing a bout of damage-inducing eccentric exercise (eight sets of five

ROGER ESTON; DANIEL PETERS

1999-01-01

135

Whole-body cryostimulation as an effective way of reducing exercise-induced inflammation and blood cholesterol in young men-->.  

PubMed

Inflammation may accompany obesity and a variety of diseases, or result from excessive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise under laboratory conditions. The study also sought to establish if cold treatment changes the lipid profile and modifies energy expenditure in young people. Eighteen healthy and physically active, college-aged men volunteered to participate in the experiment. They were divided into two subgroups: CRY- submitted to whole-body cryostimulation, and CONT- a control group. Both groups performed eccentric work to induce muscle damage. Blood samples were collected before and 24 h after the exercise. Over the five days that followed, the CRY group was exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (twice a day, for 3 min, at a temperature of -110?C). After this period of rest, both groups repeated a similar eccentric work session, following the same schedule of blood collection. The perceived pain was noted 24h after each session of eccentric workout. A 30-minute step up/down work-out induced delayed-onset muscle soreness in both groups. The five-day recovery period accompanied by exposure to cold significantly enhanced the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. It also led to a pronounced reduction in levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?, and reduced muscle damage. The values for IL-10 before the second bout of eccentric exercise in the CRY group were 2.0-fold higher in comparison to baseline, whereas in the CONT group, the concentration remained unchanged. Furthermore, blood concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? fell significantly in the CRY group. The main finding of this study was that a series of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation significantly reduced the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise. The lipid profile was also improved, but there was no effect on energy expenditure during the exercise. PMID:24998353

Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert A; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kaczor, Jan J; Antosiewicz, J?drzej; Skrobot, Wojciech; Kujach, Sylwester; Laskowski, Rados?aw

2014-03-01

136

Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) treatment before knee extensor\\u000a eccentric exercise on indirect markers of muscle damage. Thirty-six healthy men were randomized in LLLT group (n = 18) and placebo group (n = 18). After LLLT or placebo treatment, subjects performed 75 maximal knee extensors eccentric contractions (five sets of\\u000a 15 repetitions;

Bruno Manfredini Baroni; Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior; Thiago De Marchi; André Luiz Lopes; Mirian Salvador; Marco Aurélio Vaz

2010-01-01

137

For Women With PCOS, Acupuncture And Exercise May Bring Relief, Reduce Risks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study, ÃÂLow-frequency electro-acupuncture and physical exercise decrease high muscle sympathetic nerve activity in polycystic ovary syndromeÃÂ was conducted by Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Elizabeth Jedel, Per Olof Janson and Vrsa Bergmann Sverrisdottir, all of the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. The study is in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, published by The American Physiological Society.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2006-06-29

138

The repeated bout effect of reduced-load eccentric exercise on elbow flexor muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this study we investigated the extent to which an initial eccentric exercise consisting of two (2ECC) or six maximal eccentric\\u000a actions (6ECC) of the elbow flexors would produce a similar effect to 24 maximal eccentric actions (24ECC), on a second bout\\u000a of 24ECC performed 2 weeks later. Male students (n=34) were assigned to one of three groups, and with

Kazunori Nosaka; K. Sakamoto; M. Newton; P. Sacco

2001-01-01

139

Enhanced glucose availability for working muscles reduces exercise hyperthermia in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Body temperature and metabolic responses to 2 h treadmill exercise in dogs given glucose intravenously (25–30 mg·kg–1· min–1 throughout the run) were compared with those measured in the same animals with elevated plasma FFA concentrations (soya bean oil ingestion+intravenous heparin) and in control experiments (24 h fasting). In comparison with control conditions enhanced glucose availability for the working muscles caused

Barbara Kruk; Krystyna Nazar; Hanna Kaciuba-U?ci?ko; Stanis?aw Koz?owski

1987-01-01

140

Effect of exercise training on long-term weight maintenance in weight-reduced men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether endurance training is effective for successful long-term weight maintenace after weight reduction. Fifteen male obese subjects (age, 37.3 ± 5.2 years; body weight [BW], 96.2 ± 13.6 kg; body mass index [BMI], 30.9 ± 2.8 kg · m?2) participated in a 16-month exercise-intervention study. During the first 4 months, all subjects trained three to four times

Wilrike J. Pasman; Wim H. M. Saris; Erik Muls; Greet Vansant; Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga

1999-01-01

141

Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.  

PubMed

The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous. PMID:20543745

Tanskanen, Minna M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Uusitalo, Arja L; Huovinen, Jukka; Nissilä, Juuso; Kinnunen, Hannu; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo

2011-03-01

142

Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit.  

PubMed

The myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) response to resistance exercise (REX) and protein ingestion during energy deficit (ED) is unknown. In young men (n = 8) and women (n = 7), we determined protein signaling and resting postabsorptive MPS during energy balance [EB; 45 kcal·kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1)·day(-1)] and after 5 days of ED (30 kcal·kg FFM(-1)·day(-1)) as well as MPS while in ED after acute REX in the fasted state and with the ingestion of whey protein (15 and 30 g). Postabsorptive rates of MPS were 27% lower in ED than EB (P < 0.001), but REX stimulated MPS to rates equal to EB. Ingestion of 15 and 30 g of protein after REX in ED increased MPS ~16 and ~34% above resting EB (P < 0.02). p70 S6K Thr(389) phosphorylation increased above EB only with combined exercise and protein intake (~2-7 fold, P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term ED reduces postabsorptive MPS; however, a bout of REX in ED restores MPS to values observed at rest in EB. The ingestion of protein after REX further increases MPS above resting EB in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that combining REX with increased protein availability after exercise enhances rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during short-term ED and could in the long term preserve muscle mass. PMID:24595305

Areta, José L; Burke, Louise M; Camera, Donny M; West, Daniel W D; Crawshay, Siobhan; Moore, Daniel R; Stellingwerff, Trent; Phillips, Stuart M; Hawley, John A; Coffey, Vernon G

2014-04-15

143

Exercise training reduces PGE2 levels and induces recovery from steatosis in tumor-bearing rats.  

PubMed

The effects of endurance training on PGE (2) levels and upon the maximal activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system were studied in rats bearing the Walker 256 carciosarcoma. Animals were randomly assigned to a sedentary control (SC), sedentary tumor-bearing (ST), exercised control (EC), and as an exercised tumor-bearing (ET) group. Trained rats ran on a treadmill (60% VO (2) max) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. We examined the mRNA expression (RT-PCR) and maximal activity (radioassay) of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase system enzymes (CPT I and CPT II), as well as the gene expression of fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in the liver. PGE (2) content was measured in the serum, in tumor cells, and in the liver (ELISA). CPT I and CPT II maximal activity were decreased (p<0.01) in ST when compared with SC. In contrast, serum PGE (2) was increased (p<0.05) in cachectic animals as compared with SC. In the liver, PGE (2) content was also increased (p<0.05) when compared with SC. Endurance training restored maximal CPT I and CPT II activity in the tumor-bearing animals (p<0.0001). Exercise training induced PGE (2) levels to return to control values in the liver of tumor-bearing training rats (p<0.05) and decreased the eicosanoid content in the tumor (p<0.01). In conclusion, endurance training was capable of reestablishing liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system activity associated with decreased PGE (2) levels in cachectic tumor-bearing animals, preventing steatosis. PMID:21064006

Lira, F S; Yamashita, A; Carnevali, L C; Gonçalves, D C; Lima, W P; Rosa, J C; Caperuto, E C; Rosa, L F C; Seelaender, M

2010-12-01

144

The repeated bout effect of reduced-load eccentric exercise on elbow flexor muscle damage.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the extent to which an initial eccentric exercise consisting of two (2ECC) or six maximal eccentric actions (6ECC) of the elbow flexors would produce a similar effect to 24 maximal eccentric actions (24ECC), on a second bout of 24ECC performed 2 weeks later. Male students (n = 34) were assigned to one of three groups, and with their non-dominant arm performed either 2ECC (n = 12), 6ECC (n = 10), or 24ECC (n = 12) as a first bout of exercise. Two weeks later all groups performed 24ECC. Maximal isometric strength, range of motion, upper arm circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration were assessed before, immediately after, and for 4 days after exercise. Changes in all variables were compared between the bouts and groups by a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. All variables changed significantly (P< 0.05) after 2ECC, 6ECC, and 24ECC, but the amount of change after 2ECC and 6ECC was significantly smaller (P<0.05) than both 6ECC and 24ECC, and 24ECC, respectively. After the second bout, the 6ECC and 24ECC groups showed a profound repeated bout effect, and no significant differences were found between the groups. All variables except muscle soreness were significantly (P< 0.05) larger after the second bout for the 2ECC group, however the changes observed after 24ECC were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than those observed after the first 24ECC of the 24ECC group. These results suggest that it is not necessary to conduct a high number of eccentric actions in the first bout to elicit a repeated bout effect in a subsequent bout performed some time later. PMID:11513318

Nosaka, K; Sakamoto, K; Newton, M; Sacco, P

2001-07-01

145

Physical exercise reduces cardiac defects in type 2 spinal muscular atrophy-like mice  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of death in infants worldwide, is due to the misexpression of the survival of motor neuron protein, causing death of motor neurons. Several clinical symptoms suggested that, in addition to motor neurons, the autonomic nervous systems could be implicated in the cardiac function alterations observed in patienst with SMA. These alterations were also found in a severe SMA mouse model, including bradycardia and a reduction of sympathetic innervation, both associated with autonomic imbalance. In the present study, we investigate the extent of autonomic dysfunction and the effects of a running-based exercise on the altered cardiorespiratory function in type 2 SMA-like mice. We observed that the SMA induced: (1) a dramatic alteration of intrinsic cardiac conduction associated with bradycardia; (2) a severe cardiomyopathy associated with extensive ventricular fibrosis; and (3) a delay in cardiac muscle maturation associated with contractile protein expression defects. Furthermore, our data indicate that the sympathetic system is not only functioning, but also likely contributes to alleviate the bradycardia and the arrhythmia in SMA-like mice. Moreover, physical exercise provides many benefits, including the reduction of cardiac protein expression defect, the reduction of fibrosis, the increase in cardiac electrical conduction velocity, and the drastic reduction in bradycardia and arrhythmias resulting in the partial restoration of the cardiac function in these mice. Thus, modulating the cardiorespiratory function in SMA could represent a new target for improving supportive care and for developing new pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that would most certainly include physical exercise. PMID:22930275

Biondi, Olivier; Lopes, Philippe; Desseille, Céline; Branchu, Julien; Chali, Farah; Salah, Amina Ben; Pariset, Claude; Chanoine, Christophe; Charbonnier, Frédéric

2012-01-01

146

Both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduce the facing-the-viewer bias in biological motion perception.  

PubMed

Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1) or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2) would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2) would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1) or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2), and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our results provide further support that the facing-the-viewer bias for biological motion stimuli is related to the sociobiological relevance of such stimuli. PMID:24987956

Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F

2014-01-01

147

Dietary L-glutamine supplementation reduces the growth of the Morris Hepatoma 7777 in exercise-trained and sedentary rats.  

PubMed

Dietary glutamine supplementation and exercise have been reported independently to enhance immune function and reduce tumor growth. We study the effect of both of these interventions on the growth of the Morris Hepatoma 7777, implanted in 59 female Sprague-Dawley Buffalo rats. Rats were fed a nutritionally complete, purified diet with or without L-glutamine 20 g/kg diet and randomized to swim 3 h/d or to remain sedentary. After 14 d, the mean tumor weight of glutamine-supplemented rats was lower (P < 0.0001) than that of unsupplemented rats (5.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.5 g, respectively). Exercise did not alter tumor growth. Glutamine supplementation increased [3H] thymidine incorporation by splenocytes incubated with Concanavalin A and the proportion of natural killer cells in spleen, but not cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 cells. Glutamine supplementation did not alter glutamine concentrations in plasma (691 +/- 12 mumol/L) or soleus muscle (5328 +/- 102 pmol/mg) but resulted in higher (P < 0.004) plasma concentrations of leucine, isoleucine and valine, precursors of glutamine. Splenocytes from exercised rats had a higher (P < 0.001) mitogen response than those from sedentary rats. Isolated tumor cells demonstrated high rates of non-oxidative glucose and glutamine metabolism and consumption of glutamine, tryptophan and methionine. However, neither diet nor exercise significantly affected glucose or glutamine metabolism by tumor cells. The precise mechanism of tumor growth suppression by oral glutamine supplementation is not clear but may be related to changes in substrate availability, improved tumor-directed natural killer cytotoxic activity or a faster response to an immune challenge. PMID:9040560

Shewchuk, L D; Baracos, V E; Field, C J

1997-01-01

148

Abnormalities in exercising skeletal muscle in congestive heart failure can be explained in terms of decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis, reduced metabolic efficiency, and increased glycogenolysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To distinguish between the effects of reduced oxidative capacity and reduced metabolic efficiency on skeletal muscle bioenergetics during exercise in patients with congestive heart failure. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Patients were studied by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during aerobic exercise and recovery, and results compared with controls. RESULTS: In flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (26 patients) there was a 30% decrease in oxidative capacity compared with control (mean (SE) 36 (2) v 51 (4) mM/min) and also a 40% decrease in "effective muscle mass" (5 (1) v 9 (1) arbitrary units), probably at least partly the result of reduced metabolic efficiency. Both contribute to increased phosphocreatine depletion and intracellular acidosis during exercise. However, an increased concentration of ADP (an important mitochondrial regulator) during exercise permitted near-normal rates of oxidative ATP synthesis. Results were similar in gastrocnemius muscle (20 patients), with a 30% decrease in maximum oxidative capacity (29 (4) v 39 (3) mM/min) and a 65% decrease in effective muscle mass (5 (1) v 13 (2) arbitrary units). Exercise training improved maximum oxidative capacity in both muscles, and in gastrocnemius effective muscle mass also. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle exercise abnormalities in patients with congestive heart failure results more from decreased metabolic efficiency than from the abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidation. Both decreased efficiency and defective mitochondrial oxidation result in an increased activation of glycogen phosphorylase, and may be improved by exercise training. PMID:8774325

Kemp, G. J.; Thompson, C. H.; Stratton, J. R.; Brunotte, F.; Conway, M.; Adamopoulos, S.; Arnolda, L.; Radda, G. K.; Rajagopalan, B.

1996-01-01

149

The challenge of asthma in adolescent athletes: exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) with and without known asthma.  

PubMed

Exercise induced bronchconstriction (EIB) is defined as a transient increase in airway resistance reflected as at least a 10% decline in FEV1 following at least 6-8 minutes of strenuous exercise. Up to 90% of asthmatics, 45% of individuals with allergic rhinitis, 50% of Olympic athletes, and 12% of the general population have EIB. EIB in adolescence may be either under- or over-diagnosed because of denial of symptoms or misperception of dyspnea or other respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis cannot always rely on history alone and may require an objective exercise challenge or surrogate measure. Management of EIB may require reduction in the exercise provoking the asthma but it can usually be successfully managed with training and the appropriate use of medications, including inhaled beta-agonists, inhaled steroids, and/or leukotriene antagonists. Nonpharmacologic therapy with face masks, warming up and down, and calisthenics may also be an effective adjunct in reducing medication needs. For most adolescents, proper pharmacotherapy will provide complete control of the airway and a normal healthy lifestyle without exercise restrictions. PMID:20568554

Randolph, Chris

2010-04-01

150

Exercise training reduces resting heart rate via downregulation of the funny channel HCN4  

PubMed Central

Endurance athletes exhibit sinus bradycardia, that is a slow resting heart rate, associated with a higher incidence of sinus node (pacemaker) disease and electronic pacemaker implantation. Here we show that training-induced bradycardia is not a consequence of changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system but is caused by intrinsic electrophysiological changes in the sinus node. We demonstrate that training-induced bradycardia persists after blockade of the autonomous nervous system in vivo in mice and in vitro in the denervated sinus node. We also show that a widespread remodelling of pacemaker ion channels, notably a downregulation of HCN4 and the corresponding ionic current, If. Block of If abolishes the difference in heart rate between trained and sedentary animals in vivo and in vitro. We further observe training-induced downregulation of Tbx3 and upregulation of NRSF and miR-1 (transcriptional regulators) that explains the downregulation of HCN4. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for the potentially pathological heart rate adaptation to exercise training. PMID:24825544

D'Souza, Alicia; Bucchi, Annalisa; Johnsen, Anne Berit; Logantha, Sunil Jit R.J.; Monfredi, Oliver; Yanni, Joseph; Prehar, Sukhpal; Hart, George; Cartwright, Elizabeth; Wisloff, Ulrik; Dobryznski, Halina; DiFrancesco, Dario; Morris, Gwilym M.; Boyett, Mark R.

2014-01-01

151

Exercise Can Rescue Recognition Memory Impairment in a Model with Reduced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

Running is a potent stimulator of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus and these newly generated hippocampal neurons seem to be implicated in memory functions. Here we have used a mouse model expressing activated Ras under the direction of the neuronal Synapsin I promoter (named synRas mice). These mice develop down-regulated proliferation of adult hippocampal precursor cells and show decreased short-term recognition memory performances. Voluntary physical activity reversed the genetically blocked generation of hippocampal proliferating cells and enhanced the dendritic arborisation of the resulting doublecortin newly generated neurons. Moreover, running improved novelty recognition in both wild type and synRas littermates, compensating their memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a potential mediator of physical exercise acting in the hippocampus on dentate neurons and their precursors. This was confirmed here by the identification of doublecortin-immunoreactive cells expressing tyrosine receptor kinase B BDNF receptor. While no difference in BDNF levels were detected in basal conditions between the synRas mice and their wild type littermates, running was associated with enhanced BDNF expression levels. Thus increased BDNF signalling is a candidate mechanism to explain the observed effects of running. Our studies demonstrate that voluntary physical activity has a robust beneficial effect even in mice with genetically restricted neurogenesis and cognition. PMID:20204139

Lafenêtre, Pauline; Leske, Oliver; Ma-Högemeie, Zhanlu; Haghikia, Aiden; Bichler, Zoe; Wahle, Petra; Heumann, Rolf

2009-01-01

152

Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

Tipton, Charles M.

1991-01-01

153

Effects of Estrogen on Muscle Damage in Response to an Acute Resistance Exercise Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine Kinase (CK) is used as a measure of exercise-induced muscle membrane damage. During acute eccentric (muscle lengthening) exercise, muscle sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and Z-lines are damaged, thus causing muscle proteins and enzymes to leak into the interstitial fluid.\\u000aStrenuous eccentric exercise produces an elevation of oxygen free radicals, which further increases muscle damage. Muscle soreness and fatigue can be

Megan R. Wolf

2009-01-01

154

An update on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction with and without asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is defined as transient, reversible bronchoconstriction that develops after strenuous\\u000a exercise. It is a heterogeneous syndrome made up of a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from the asymptomatic military recruit\\u000a whose condition is detected by diagnostic exercise challenge to the athlete with known asthma to the elite athlete for whom\\u000a EIB represents an overuse or injury syndrome. If

Chris Randolph

2009-01-01

155

Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain  

PubMed Central

The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

Steig, Amy J.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Higgins, Janine A.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Eckel, Robert H.; Hill, James O.

2011-01-01

156

Effect of Verbascoside on reducing the concentration of oxygen free radicals of skeletal muscle during and after exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatiguing exercise can produce oxidative stress in muscle, leading to the injury of muscle. We used the electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques studied the effects of Verbascoside, extracted from Pedicularis, on antioxidative stress following fatiguing exercise. 70 rats were randomly divided into two groups, exercise control and Verbascoside treatment group. The rats in Verbascoside group were fed with Verbascoside 3.2

Jingxian Li; Kai-Ming Chan; Jingfen Lu; Dong Xin; Hui Li; Jiannian Gao

1998-01-01

157

Whole Body Periodic Acceleration Reduces Levels of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After Eccentric Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Several recovery strategies have been used, with limited effectiveness, to reduce the muscle discomfort or pain and the diminished muscle performance following a bout of unaccustomed physical activity, a condition known as delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Muscle damage in this condition is associated with mechanical disruption of the muscle and connective tissue and inflammation and increased oxidative

Daniel H. Serravite

2010-01-01

158

Cost-effectiveness of diet and exercise interventions to reduce overweight and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To analyze whether two dietary weight loss interventions—the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) program and a low-fat diet program— would be cost-effective in Australia, and to assess their potential to reduce the disease burden related to excess body weight.Design:We constructed a multi-state life-table-based Markov model in which the distribution of body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart

M Forster; J L Veerman; J J Barendregt; T Vos

2011-01-01

159

Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial  

PubMed Central

Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572 PMID:19545359

Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Herve; Horton, Kenneth; Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen J; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

2009-01-01

160

Effects of weight stigma on exercise motivation and behavior: a preliminary investigation among college-aged females.  

PubMed

This study examined the relation between weight stigma, exercise motivation and exercise behavior. One hundred female undergraduates (BMIs [kg/m(2)] 17-38) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem and exercise motivation, and reported on their exercise behavior. Stigma experiences were positively correlated with BMI and body dissatisfaction. Importantly, stigma experiences were related to increased desire to avoid exercise, even when controlling for BMI and body dissatisfaction. Exercise avoidance was in turn related to less frequent strenuous and moderate exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma (through its impact on avoidance motivation) could potentially decrease physical activity levels. PMID:18086724

Vartanian, Lenny R; Shaprow, Jacqueline G

2008-01-01

161

The Feasibility of Reducing and Measuring Sedentary Time among Overweight, Non-Exercising Office Workers  

PubMed Central

This study examined the feasibility of reducing free-living sedentary time (ST) and the convergent validity of various tools to measure ST. Twenty overweight/obese participants wore the activPAL (AP) (criterion measure) and ActiGraph (AG; 100 and 150 count/minute cut-points) for a 7-day baseline period. Next, they received a simple intervention targeting free-living ST reductions (7-day intervention period). ST was measured using two questionnaires following each period. ST significantly decreased from 67% of wear time (baseline period) to 62.7% of wear time (intervention period) according to AP (n = 14, P < 0.01). No other measurement tool detected a reduction in ST. The AG measures were more accurate (lower bias) and more precise (smaller confidence intervals) than the questionnaires. Participants reduced ST by ~5%, which is equivalent to a 48_min reduction over a 16-hour waking day. These data describe ST measurement properties from wearable monitors and self-report tools to inform sample-size estimates for future ST interventions. PMID:22175004

Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Libertine, Amanda; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty

2012-01-01

162

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.AimsTo examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.DesignParticipants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using

Maciej S. Buchowski; Natalie N. Meade; Evonne Charboneau; Sohee Park; Mary S. Dietrich; Ronald L. Cowan; Peter R. Martin; Antonio Verdejo García

2011-01-01

163

Cortical Excitability of Psychiatric Disorders: Reduced Post-Exercise Facilitation in Depression Compared to Schizophrenia and Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In normal subjects, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from the motor cortex are increased after non-fatiguing exercise of hand muscles. This phenomenon is called post-exercise facilitation. This study aims to test the hypothesis that psychiatric syndromes (major depressive episode, schizophrenia) have different levels of post-exercise facilitation compared to controls.Methods: Patients with DSM-IV major depressive

Philip D. Reid; Brett Daniels; Marzena Rybak; Yvonne Turnier-Shea; Saxby Pridmore

2002-01-01

164

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Effect Of VC On Immunoendocrine And Oxidative Stress Responses To Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depression of the immune system function that is typically observed after strenuous exercise is believed to be possibly mediated by stress hormones, cytokines and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure immunoendocrine and oxidative stress responses after the ingestion of two different doses of Vitamin C (VC) supplementation. Twenty-four healthy untrained males participated in a 30-min

BABAEI P; RAHMANI-NIA F; NAKHOSTIN B

2009-01-01

165

Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p?exercise in both treatment groups. During the 60 hour recovery period, a significant (p?=?0.047) interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p?exercise and interestingly coincided with a gradual increase in plasma antioxidant capacity, whereas biomarkers for inflammation were still elevated after 60 hours recovery. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise and blueberry consumption. These findings may benefit the sporting community who should consider dietary interventions that specifically target health and performance adaptation. PMID:22564864

2012-01-01

166

Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.  

PubMed

The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. PMID:24814689

McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

2014-12-01

167

THE USE OF DRILL EXERCISES IN HELPING STUDENTS REDUCE SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT ERRORS IN ACADEMIC WRITING: A CASE STUDY IN IPBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine if drill exercises are effective in reducing the Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA) errors in the academic writings of B. Ed. TESL Year 1 students in the Learning Support programme. For the purpose of this study, the three participants involved sat for a pre-test which involved the writing of an expository essay. From

Tan Aig Bee

168

Moderate swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines without causing oxidative stress in tissues of middle-aged rats.  

PubMed

The levels of circulatory inflammatory markers, including interleukin (IL) IL-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interferon (INF-?), are known to increase associated to aging. Caffeine has been reported to produce many beneficial effects for health. Exercise is considered to be a safe medicine to attenuate inflammation and cellular senescence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate-intensity swimming exercise (3 % of body weight, 20 min per day, 4 weeks) and sub-chronic supplementation with caffeine (30 mg/kg, 4 weeks) on the serum cytokine levels in middle-aged (18 months) Wistar rats. The effects of swimming exercise and caffeine on oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats were also investigated. The two-way ANOVA of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels demonstrated a significant exercise x caffeine interaction for IL-1? (F (1, 16) = 9.5772; p = 0.0069), IL-6 (F (1, 16) = 8.0463; p = 0.0119) and INF-? (F (1, 16) = 15.078; p = 0.0013). The two-way ANOVA of TNF-? levels revealed a significant exercise × caffeine interaction (F (1, 16) = 9.6881; p = 0.00670). Swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation increased the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the rat liver and gastrocnemius muscle. Hepatic and renal markers of damage were not modified. In conclusion, a moderate-intensity swimming exercise protocol and caffeine supplementation induced positive adaptations in modulating cytokine levels without causing oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats. PMID:24481487

Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Dobrachinski, Fernando; da Rocha, Juliana T; Carvalho, Nelson R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

2014-05-01

169

Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies  

PubMed Central

This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Estivill-Torrus, Guillermo; Santin, Luis J.

2014-01-01

170

Effect of strenuous live-fire drills on cardiovascular and psychological responses of recruit firefighters.  

PubMed

The study examined the effects of repeated strenuous live-fire drills on cardiovascular and psychological responses of male recruit firefighters (n = 7). Participants performed three trials of a standardized set of tasks while inside a training structure containing several live fires. Measurements of heart rate, aortic blood flow, perceived exertion, respiratory and thermal distress, reaction time, and error rate were obtained before testing, after each trial and during recovery. Heart rate increased significantly during each of the trials, reaching age-predicted maximal values. Stroke volume was significantly lower after trial 3 versus trial 1 and prevalues. Perceived exertion, respiratory distress, and thermal distress all increased, indicating greater stress following firefighting activities. Reaction time and error rate did not change significantly, but there was a tendency for more errors following trials 2 and 3 versus trial 1. The training drills resulted in considerable physiological and psychological strain, which has the potential to impair cognitive function. Firefighters are encouraged to take all possible steps to mitigate the extent of the cardiovascular strain. PMID:11219758

Smith, D L; Manning, T S; Petruzzello, S J

2001-02-20

171

Exercise-related changes in umbilical and uterine artery waveforms as assessed by Doppler ultrasound scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of strenuous symptom-limited exercise on umbilical and uterine blood flow. Study Design: Twenty-two primiparous women between 30 and 34 weeks of gestation were recruited. At rest, umbilical and uterine artery waveforms were assessed by measuring the pulsatility index. This was followed by a symptom-limited incremental exercise test. Fetal umbilical

Mairead M. Kennelly; Michael Geary; Noel McCaffrey; Paul McLoughlin; Anthony Staines; Peter McKenna

2002-01-01

172

Electromyographic activity of the biceps brachii after exercise-induced muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that strenuous eccentric exercise may result in muscle damage. We proposed that vigorous eccentric exercise (EE) would impair myoelectric activity of the biceps brachii. This study utilised a 7-day prospective time-series design. Ten healthy males performed a session of 70 maximal EE elbow flexion contractions. Analysis of surface electromyography activity (sEMG) was performed on the signals

Sirous Ahmadi; Peter J. Sinclair; Nasim Foroughi; Glen M. Davis

173

Effect of different durations of exercise on transferrin-bound iron uptake by rat erythroblast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated effects of different durations of exercise on transferrin receptor (TfR) expression on the membrane of rat erythroblasts. Female rats were assigned to six groups: 3, 6 and 12 months of strenuous exercise (swimming 2 h\\/day, 5 days\\/wk) groups and their corresponding controls. At the end of experiments, the erythroblasts were isolated for Tf binding assay and transferrin-bound

Zhong Ming Qian; De Sheng Xiao; Qin Kui Liao; Kwok Ping Ho

2002-01-01

174

Application of bioreactance for cardiac output assessment during exercise in healthy individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with cardiac failure, bioreactance-based cardiac output (CO) monitoring provides a valid non-invasive method for\\u000a assessing cardiac performance during exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of this technique during\\u000a strenuous exercise in healthy, trained individuals. Fourteen recreational cyclists, mean (SD) age of 34 (8) years and relative\\u000a peak oxygen uptake of (VO2) 56 (6) ml kg?1 min?1,

Adrian Elliott; James H. Hull; David Nunan; Djordje G. Jakovljevic; David Brodie; Lesley Ansley

2010-01-01

175

Reduced Mechanical Efficiency in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease but Normal Peak VO2 with Small Muscle Mass Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied six patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FEV1 1.1 0.2 L, 32% of predicted) and six age- and activity level-matched control subjects while performing both maxi- mal bicycle exercise and single leg knee-extensor exercise. Arterial and femoral venous blood sampling, thermodilution blood flow measurements, and needle biopsies allowed the assessment of mus- cle oxygen supply, utilization, and

Russell S. Richardson; Bryan T. Leek; Timothy P. Gavin; Luke J. Haseler; Sundar R. D. Mudaliar; Robert Henry; Odile Mathieu-Costello; Peter D. Wagner

176

Reduced Hypoglycemia and Increased Time in Target Using Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery During Nights With or Without Antecedent Afternoon Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Afternoon exercise increases the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in subjects with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that automated feedback-controlled closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery would be superior to open-loop (OL) control in preventing NH and maintaining a higher proportion of blood glucose levels within the target blood glucose range on nights with and without antecedent afternoon exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects completed two 48-h inpatient study periods in random order: usual OL control and CL control using a proportional-integrative-derivative plus insulin feedback algorithm. Each admission included a sedentary day and an exercise day, with a standardized protocol of 60 min of brisk treadmill walking to 65–70% maximum heart rate at 3:00 p.m. RESULTS Among 12 subjects (age 12–26 years, A1C 7.4 ± 0.6%), antecedent exercise increased the frequency of NH (reference blood glucose <60 mg/dL) during OL control from six to eight events. In contrast, there was only one NH event each on nights with and without antecedent exercise during CL control (P = 0.04 vs. OL nights). Overnight, the percentage of glucose values in target range was increased with CL control (P < 0.0001). Insulin delivery was lower between 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. on nights after exercise on CL versus OL, P = 0.008. CONCLUSIONS CL insulin delivery provides an effective means to reduce the risk of NH while increasing the percentage of time spent in target range, regardless of activity level in the mid-afternoon. These data suggest that CL control could be of benefit to patients with type 1 diabetes even if it is limited to the overnight period. PMID:23757427

Sherr, Jennifer L.; Cengiz, Eda; Palerm, Cesar C.; Clark, Bud; Kurtz, Natalie; Roy, Anirban; Carria, Lori; Cantwell, Martin; Tamborlane, William V.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.

2013-01-01

177

Effects of Verapamil on Top of Trandolapril on Exercise Tolerance and Cardiac Performance in Patients with Hypertension and Reduced Left Ventricular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium antagonists and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors act synergistically in reducing blood pressure through additive hemodynamic and vasculoprotective effects. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of combined verapamil SR plus trandolapril treatment (verapamil SR\\/trandolapril) versus trandolapril monotherapy at rest and during exercise in patients with essential hypertension (WHO I–II) and mild left

V. Mitrovic; D. Djuric; W. D. Patyna; B. Urgatz; M. Parzeller; T. Notter

2001-01-01

178

The effect of repeated endurance exercise on IL6 and sIL6R and their relationship with sensations of fatigue at rest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strenuous, prolonged exercise increases interleukin-6 (IL-6) release. The effect of IL-6 is dependent on the availability of IL-6 receptors. Few studies have addressed the impact of exercise on IL-6 receptor levels or procalcitonin (PCT), an indicator of systemic inflammation. Changes in these molecules may give insight into cytokine-related mechanisms underlying exercise-related fatigue. Thirteen trained male subjects partook in the study.

Paula Robson-Ansley; Martin Barwood; Jane Canavan; Susan Hack; Clare Eglin; Sarah Davey; Jennifer Hewitt; James Hull; Les Ansley

2009-01-01

179

Reduced energy intake and moderate exercise reduce mammary tumor incidence in virgin female BALB/c mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concurrent effects of diet (standard AIN-76A, restricted AIN-76A and high-fat diet) and moderate rotating-drum treadmill exercise on the incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in virgin female BALB/cMed mice free of murine mammary tumor virus are evaluated. Analyses show that, although energy intake was related to mammary tumor incidence, neither body weight nor dietary fat predicted tumor incidence.

Lane, Helen W.; Teer, Patricia; Keith, Robert E.; White, Marguerite T.; Strahan, Susan

1991-01-01

180

Quantification of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage with bronchoalveolar lavage.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) causes serious economic losses in the horse racing industry. Endoscopic examination indicates that 40-90% of horses exhibit EIPH following sprint exercise, but the limitations of the endoscope prevent diagnosis in many horses. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was utilised to detect red blood cells (RBCs) in the terminal airways in 6 horses. Two lavages were performed at weekly intervals prior to exercise, one within 90 min after exercise, and 5 at weekly intervals after exercise. The horses were exercised strenuously at 12.5-14.6 m/s on a treadmill (3 degree incline). Heart rates ranged from 192-207 beats/min, and mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) ranged from 80-102 mmHg. Neither epistaxis nor endoscopic evidence of EIPH was seen in any of the 6 horses following exercise. However, the number of RBCs in the lavage fluid increased significantly over control values immediately after exercise in all horses but returned to control values by one week after exercise. Haemosiderophages in the BAL fluid did not increase until one week after exercise and remained elevated for 3 weeks after exercise. Twenty per cent of the total population of alveolar macrophages contained haemosiderin. A positive relationship occurred between the number of RBCs in the lavage fluid and mPAP; the amount of haemorrhage increased as the mPAP exceeded 80 to 90 mmHg. The results with BAL used as the diagnostic tool, suggest that all strenuously exercised horses may exhibit EIPH; the amount of haemorrhage appears to be associated with the magnitude of the high pulmonary arterial pressure. PMID:9705109

Meyer, T S; Fedde, M R; Gaughan, E M; Langsetmo, I; Erickson, H H

1998-07-01

181

Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

182

Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity  

PubMed Central

Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fabio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

2011-01-01

183

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: Effects on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular response to exercise  

SciTech Connect

Many patients with coronary artery disease treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) have a history of previous myocardial injury resulting in a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). The effects of successful PTCA on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function in these patients were compared to treatment in patients with normal left ventricular EF. There were 21 patients with a normal EF (mean EF 59 +/- 2%) (Group I) and 15 patients with reduced EF (mean EF 43 +/- 1%) (Group II). Before PTCA a similar degree of reversible myocardial ischemia was present on thallium scintigraphy. At peak exercise left ventricular EF in the Group I patients decreased by 4 +/- 1% compared to 8 +/- 1% in Group II. At one month following successful PTCA there was resolution of reversible myocardial ischemia in both groups. No changes in EF at rest were observed. At the same level of exercise as before PTCA the mean EF was 5 +/- 1% higher than the pretreatment value in Group I and 10 +/- 1% higher in Group II. Thus in this study reversible myocardial ischemia was associated with severe compromise in the left ventricular response to exercise which was substantially improved by PTCA.

Singh, A.; Chandler, S.; Pears, D.; Perry, R.; Murray, R.G.; Shiu, M.F.

1989-05-01

184

A controlled intervention to promote a healthy body image, reduce eating disorder risk and prevent excessive exercise among trainee health education and physical education teachers.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum. PMID:20656796

Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

2010-10-01

185

Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on markers of skeletal muscle damage after strenuous contractile activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of short-term creatine supplementation (CrS) upon markers of strenuous contractile activity-induced\\u000a damage in human and rat skeletal muscles was investigated. Eight Ironman triathletes were randomized into the placebo (Pl;\\u000a n = 4) and creatine-supplemented (CrS; n = 4) groups. Five days prior to the Ironman competition, the CrS group received creatine monohydrate (20 g day?1) plus maltodextrin (50 g) divided in two equal doses.

Reinaldo Abunasser Bassit; Carlos Hermano da Justa Pinheiro; Kaio Fernando Vitzel; Antônio José Sproesser; Leonardo R. Silveira; Rui Curi

2010-01-01

186

Post-Exercise Phosphocreatine Recovery, an Index of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, is Reduced in Diabetic Patients With Lower Extremity Complications  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify differences in the post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery, an index of mitochondrial function, in diabetic patients with and without lower extremity complications. Research Methods and Design We enrolled healthy control subjects and three groups of T2DM patients: patients without complications, with peripheral neuropathy and both peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease. We employed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic (MRS) measurements to perform continuous measurements of phosphorous metabolites (PCr and Pi) during a 3-minute graded exercise at the level of the posterior calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles). Micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements were also performed. Results The resting Pi/PCr ratio and PCr at baseline and the maximum reached during exercise was similar in all groups. The post-exercise time required for recovery of Pi/PCr ratio and PCr levels to resting levels, an assessment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, was significantly higher in the diabetic patients with neuropathy and those with both neuropathy and PAD (p <0.01 for both measurements). These two groups had also higher levels of TNF?, (p<0.01) and G-CSF (p <0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that only G-CSF, OPG and TNF? were significant contributing factors in the variation of the Pi/PCr ratio recovery time. No associations were observed between micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements and Pi/Pcr ration or Pcr recovery time. Conclusions Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is impaired only in T2DM patients with neuropathy whether PAD is present or not and is associated with the increased proinflammatory state that was observed in these groups. PMID:23465172

Tecilazich, Francesco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E.; Guest, Julie; Villafuerte, Rose; Sampanis, Christos; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Zuo, Chun; Veves, Aristidis

2013-01-01

187

Effects of administering a selected ergogenic aid prior to strenuous activity  

E-print Network

, and recovery heart rates, 3) to determine the effects of Stim-0-Stam on endurance t1me, and 4) to determine the effects of Stim-0-Stam on oxygen intake during recovery. Procedure Thirty male volunteers served as subjects for the study. The subjects were... on each and at the culmination of the exercise bout. Recovery measures of : heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen intake were then determined I ' for five minutes following the exercise bout. During Test One, no , treatment was administered. During...

Lambert, Jacqueline

2012-06-07

188

Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans  

PubMed Central

Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial–venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12–23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension () (R2 ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

2014-01-01

189

Pediatric exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: contemporary developments in epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and therapy.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is transient narrowing of the airways following strenuous exercise. It is the earliest sign of asthma and the last to resolve. EIB is found in 90 % of asthmatics and reflects underlying control of asthma. This review is focused on the contemporary developments in pediatric EIB: the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis and management. Proper diagnosis by objective pulmonary function and/or exercise challenge and therapy should allow the pediatric asthmatic to enjoy a healthy lifestyle including participation in the chosen sport. PMID:23925985

Randolph, Christopher

2013-12-01

190

Thermoregulation of the testicle in response to exercise and subsequent effects on seminal characteristics in stallions  

E-print Network

characterized. A more recent study with a better-defined exercise regimen consisting of repeated strenuous exercise (until exhaustion) on a high-speed treadmill 2 d/wk for 4 wk was found to cause a distinct stress reaction in stallions that compromised... al. (2006) sought to determine how SST would be affected by treadmill or ridden exercise in stallions wearing a net-like testicular sling (suspensory) designed to hold the testicles close to the body during jumping, eventing, or fox hunting...

Mawyer, Jeannette Diane

2012-07-16

191

Clinical trials using a telemetric endoscope for use during over-ground exercise: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Dynamic collapse of the upper respiratory tract (URT) is a common cause of poor performance in horses. These conditions occur predominantly during strenuous exercise when the URT is unable to maintain dilation in the face of high inspiratory pressures. In most cases, these disorders cannot be accurately diagnosed during a resting endoscopic examination. To date, a definitive diagnosis of dynamic URT obstructions has been possible only by performing an endoscopic examination during high-speed treadmill exercise. However, recent technological advances now enable URT endoscopy to be performed while the horse is exercising in its normal environment. PMID:19165944

Franklin, H; Burnt, J F; Allen, K J

2008-11-01

192

Response of parathyroid hormone to exercise and bone mineral density in adolescent female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study investigates 1) the effects of amount of exercise on levels of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium, and\\u000a 2) the relationship between PTH response and bone mineral density in adolescent female athletes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  Twenty-one female athletes on a top-ranked high school basketball team in Japan participated in a one-month intensive basketball\\u000a program. Subjects were divided into moderate-exercise and strenuous-exercise

Haruko Takada; Kaei WASHINO; Tadayuki Hanai; Hirotoshi Iwata

1998-01-01

193

Action Mechanism of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Intervened by Exercise Therapy in Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), an imbalance between androgen/estrogen, overexpression of stromal, and epithelial growth factors associated with chronic inflammation, has become an atypical direct cause of mortality of aged male diseases. Ginkgo possesses anti-inflammatory, blood flow-enhancing, and free radical scavenging effects. Considering strenuous exercise can reduce BPH risks, we hypothesize Ginkgo + exercise (Ginkgo + Ex) could be beneficial to BPH. To verify this, rat BPH model was induced by s.c. 3.5?mg testosterone (T) and 0.1?mg estradiol (E2) per head per day successively for 8 weeks, using mineral oil as placebo. Cerenin® 8.33??L/100?g was applied s.c. from the 10th to the 13th week, and simultaneously, Ex was applied (30?m/min, 3 times/week). In BPH, Ginkgo alone had no effect on T, 5?-reductase, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but suppressed androgen receptor (AR), aromatase, E2 and estrogen receptor (ER), and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); Ex alone significantly reduced T, aromatase, E2, ER, AR, and PCNA, but highly raised DHT. While Ginkgo + Ex androgenically downregulated T, aromatase, E2, and ER, but upregulated DHT, AR, and PCNA, implying Ginkgo + Ex tended to worsen BPH. Conclusively, Ginkgo or Ex alone may be more beneficial than Ginkgo + Ex for treatment of BPH. PMID:23690843

Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liu, Jia-Hong; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chung, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Chou

2013-01-01

194

Long-term effectiveness of bone-setting, light exercise therapy, and physiotherapy for prolonged back pain: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chiropractic manipulation and strenuous exercise therapy have been shown effective in the treatment of nonspecific back pain. Bone-setting, the predecessor of modern manual therapies, still survives in some parts of Finland and was compared with a light exercise therapy and nonmanipulative, pragmatic physiotherapy in a year-long randomized controlled trial on patients with long-term back pain. Methods: One hundred fourteen

Heikki M. Hemmilä; Sirkka M. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi; Sinikka Levoska; Pekka Puska

2002-01-01

195

Automating arm movement training following severe stroke: functional exercises with quantitative feedback in a gravity-reduced environment.  

PubMed

An important goal in rehabilitation engineering is to develop technology that allows individuals with severe motor impairment to practice arm movement without continuous supervision from a rehabilitation therapist. This paper describes the development of such a system, called Therapy WREX or ("T-WREX"). The system consists of an orthosis that assists in arm movement across a large workspace, a grip sensor that detects hand grip pressure, and software that simulates functional activities. The arm orthosis is an instrumented, adult-sized version of the Wilmington Robotic Exoskeleton (WREX), which is a five degrees-of-freedom mechanism that passively counterbalances the weight of the arm using elastic bands. After providing a detailed design description of T-WREX, this paper describes two pilot studies of the system's capabilities. The first study demonstrated that individuals with chronic stroke whose arm function is compromised in a normal gravity environment can perform reaching and drawing movements while using T-WREX. The second study demonstrated that exercising the affected arm of five people with chronic stroke with T-WREX over an eight week period improved unassisted movement ability (mean change in Fugl-Meyer score was 5 points +/- 2 SD; mean change in range of motion of reaching was 10%, p < 0.001). These results demonstrate the feasibility of automating upper-extremity rehabilitation therapy for people with severe stroke using passive gravity assistance, a grip sensor, and simple virtual reality software. PMID:17009498

Sanchez, Robert J; Liu, Jiayin; Rao, Sandhya; Shah, Punit; Smith, Robert; Rahman, Tariq; Cramer, Steven C; Bobrow, James E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

2006-09-01

196

Acute Schmorl's Node during Strenuous Monofin Swimming: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Study Design?This case report describes an acute Schmorl's node (SN) in an elite monofin athlete during exercise. The patient presented with severe back pain and leg numbness and was managed successfully with conservative treatment. Objective?The aim of our communication was to describe a rare presentation of a common pathological condition during an intense sport. Background?Swimming is not generally considered to be a sport activity that leads to spinal injuries. SNs are usually asymptomatic lesions, incidentally found on imaging studies. There is no correlation between swimming and symptomatic SN formation. Case Report?A 16-year-old monofin elite athlete suffered from an acute nonradiating back pain during extreme exercise. His back pain was associated with a fracture of the superior L5 end plate and an acute SN at the L5 vertebral body with perilesional bone marrow edema. The pain resolved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bed rest. The athlete had an excellent outcome and returned to his training activities 6 months after his incident. Conclusion?SN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe back pain, especially in sport-related injuries. SNs present with characteristic imaging findings. Due to the benign nature of these lesions, surveillance-only management may be the best course of action. PMID:24353963

Paterakis, Konstantinos N.; Brotis, Alexandros G.; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Karachalios, Theofilos; Fountas, Kostas N.; Karantanas, Apostolos

2012-01-01

197

Exercise-Induced Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Key Points  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) occurs in 90% of individuals with asthma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The prevalence of EIA among athletes ranges between 3 and 11%.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a EIA is characterized by transient airway obstruction occurring after strenuous exertion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Pathophysiological mechanisms that could possibly explain the phenomenon of EIA include respiratory, heat or water loss (or\\u000a both), hyperventilation leading to the

Rahmat Afrasiabi

198

Psychologic aspects of exercise.  

PubMed

Physicians are well aware of the health benefits of exercise, but probably less cognizant of the many psychologic benefits of regular exercise. In recent years more attention has been paid to the psychologic effects of exercise, and much evidence can be found in the literature to support these beneficial effects. Psychologic states such as anxiety, distress, depression, and coronary-prone behavior have been found to be reduced by regular aerobic exercise. Exercise has also been shown to elevate mood, increase intellectual functioning, and improve self-concept. In encouraging their patients to exercise, physicians can more effectively motivate them by following certain psychologic principles, thereby ensuring greater compliance and adherence to the exercise program. Doing an objective fitness assessment establishes a baseline and creates a stimulus for awareness for the patient. The resulting exercise prescription will more likely be followed if the physician helps the patient establish realistic goals, and understand the minimums of exercise that can still lead to improvement, the exercise physiology behind the prescription, and the physical and psychologic gains to be made from exercise. It can also be extremely helpful if the physician individualizes the program to make it convenient and fun, provides supervision and ample positive reinforcement, and teaches by example, that is, not only be a proponent of exercise, but a participant. In spite of the many benefits of exercise, there are certain psychologic liabilities as a result of excessive exercise. Negative states such as exercise addiction, overtraining, and burnout can be attributed to excess exercise, but they are also often a result or symptom of other psychologic problems. By being aware and knowledgeable, the physician can intervene in this system to help the individual confront the real problems and maintain his or her participation in the sport or exercise program. PMID:2015642

Anthony, J

1991-01-01

199

Effects of Exercise on Brain Inflammation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exercise is evolving as a therapeutic measure for both general health and brain health. Exercise reduces the risk of many systemic diseases and has been shown to improve cognition and memory. The mechanisms through which exercise achieves these positive n...

M. C. Durbin

2010-01-01

200

Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

1998-01-01

201

Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed

Hanna van Waart; Martijn M. Stuiver; Wim H van Harten; Gabe S. Sonke; Neil K. Aaronson

2010-01-01

202

Questionable Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

1999-01-01

203

Exercise, the athlete's heart, and sudden cardiac death.  

PubMed

Physical activity is a potent therapy for both the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Exercise appears to most benefit people who are the least active. There is some evidence to suggest that a curvilinear relationship exists between exercise and survival, whereby beyond an optimal level of fitness, the principle of diminishing returns applies. Indeed, some go further in suggesting that there is evidence that extreme athletic training may be harmful in some individuals. The incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes is greater than in matched, nonathletic counterparts, and this finding is driven by the provocation of an underlying cardiac abnormality by strenuous exertion. The task of detecting pathological myocardial substrate in athletes is made difficult by physiological adaptations to exercise that can mimic the appearance of cardiomyopathies and ion channelopathies in some individuals. This article details the clinical evaluation of the athlete with reference limits for cardiac physiological remodeling and discusses the diagnostic dilemmas that arise. PMID:24875977

D'Silva, Andrew; Sharma, Sanjay

2014-05-01

204

Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training  

PubMed Central

Introduction The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO) or protein ingestion. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum) followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO)) and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO) cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass?1, 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO), or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO). Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass?1) 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. Results Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05). Phosphorylation of mTORSer2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05), while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05). Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (?29–109%, P<0.05). However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05) and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05). Conclusion We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation to training and/or subsequent performance. PMID:24533082

Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Areta, Jose L.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Hawley, John A.; Coffey, Vernon G.

2014-01-01

205

Long-term effects of two psychological interventions on physical exercise and self-regulation following coronary rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cardiac rehabilitation programs, patients learn how to adopt a healthier lifestyle, including regular, strenuous physical\\u000a activity. Long-term success is only modest despite good intentions. To improve exercise adherence, a 3-group experiment was\\u000a designed that included innovative psychological interventions. All 3 groups underwent a standard care rehabilitation program.\\u000a Patients in the 2 treatment groups were instructed not only to produce

Falko F. Sniehotta; Urte Scholz; Ralf Schwarzer; Bärbel Fuhrmann; Ulrich Kiwus; Heinz Völler

2005-01-01

206

Type 2 Diabetes Elicits Lower Nitric Oxide, Bradykinin Concentration and Kallikrein Activity Together with Higher DesArg9-BK and Reduced Post-Exercise Hypotension Compared to Non-Diabetic Condition  

PubMed Central

This study compared the plasma kallikrein activity (PKA), bradykinin concentration (BK), DesArg9-BK production, nitric oxide release (NO) and blood pressure (BP) response after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed by individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 10 without type 2 diabetes (ND) underwent three sessions: 1) maximal incremental test on cycle ergometer to determine lactate threshold (LT); 2) 20-min of constant-load exercise on cycle ergometer, at 90% LT and; 3) control session. BP and oxygen uptake were measured at rest and at 15, 30 and 45 min post-exercise. Venous blood samples were collected at 15 and 45 minutes of the recovery period for further analysis of PKA, BK and DesArg9-BK. Nitrite plus nitrate (NOx) was analyzed at 15 minutes post exercise. The ND group presented post-exercise hypotension (PEH) of systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure on the 90% LT session but T2D group did not. Plasma NOx increased ~24.4% for ND and ~13.8% for T2D group 15min after the exercise session. Additionally, only ND individuals showed increases in PKA and BK in response to exercise and only T2D group showed increased DesArg9-BK production. It was concluded that T2D individuals presented lower PKA, BK and NOx release as well as higher DesArg9-BK production and reduced PEH in relation to ND participants after a single exercise session. PMID:24265812

Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Arsa, Gisela; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Puga, Guilherme Morais; Lima, Laila Candida de Jesus; Campbell, Carmen Silvia Grubert; Franco, Octavio Luiz

2013-01-01

207

The Mind Body Programs reduce the impact of stress through a variety of research driven skill-building exercises to improve medical symptoms, mood, and well-being. The six core components of our mind body programs are  

E-print Network

-building exercises to improve medical symptoms, mood, and well-being. The six core components of our mind body or In Part Mind Body Medicine Consultation For patients seeking to add a mind body component to their medicalThe Mind Body Programs reduce the impact of stress through a variety of research driven skill

Mootha, Vamsi K.

208

Hypocaloric Diet and Regular Moderate Aerobic Exercise Is an Effective Strategy to Reduce Anthropometric Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Obese Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies show that diet and exercise are important in the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether additional regular moderate aerobic exercise during a treatment with hypocaloric diet has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress and molecular damage in the obese patient. Methods: Oxidative stress of 16 normal-weight (NW) and 32 obese 1 (O1)

Liliana Gutierrez-Lopez; Jose Ruben Garcia-Sanchez; Maria de Jesus Rincon-Viquez; Eleazar Lara-Padilla; Martha P. Sierra-Vargas; Ivonne M. Olivares-Corichi

2012-01-01

209

Exercise Prescription.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

Ribisl, Paul M.

210

Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements  

SciTech Connect

Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rowland, R.A. (Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Chemical Preparedness Div.)

1991-01-01

211

Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based) versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength), in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360) are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR 2159) PMID:21138561

2010-01-01

212

Core Stabilization Exercise Prescription, Part 2  

PubMed Central

Context Therapeutic exercises are frequently prescribed to patients with low back pain. Numerous exercise programs for patients with low back pain have been described. Many of these treatment programs are based on 1 of 2 popular rehabilitation strategies: a motor control exercise approach or a general exercise approach. Data Sources PubMed clinical queries from 1966 to March 2013 for keyword combinations including motor control exercise, core stability exercise, therapeutic exercise, general exercise, global exercise, local exercise, transversus abdominis, segmental stabilization, and low back pain. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of a motor control exercise approach, a general exercise approach, or both for patients with low back pain that were published in scientific peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction Included studies underwent appraisal for exercise intervention and outcomes. Results Fifteen studies were identified (8, motor control exercise approach without general exercise comparison; 7, general exercise approach with or without motor control exercise approach comparison). Current evidence suggests that exercise interventions may be effective at reducing pain or disability in patients with low back pain. Conclusion: Stabilization exercises for patients with low back pain may help to decrease pain and disability. It may not be necessary to prescribe exercises purported to restore motor control of specific muscles. PMID:24427425

Brumitt, Jason; Matheson, J. W.; Meira, Erik P.

2013-01-01

213

The affective beneficence of vigorous exercise revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. High exercise intensity may be associated with reduced adherence to exercise programmes, possibly because it is perceived as aversive. However, several authors have suggested that an intensity as high as 60% or 70% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) is necessary for exercise to elicit positive affective changes. To elucidate this discrepancy, the affective responses to increasing levels of exercise

Eric E. Hall; Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Steven J. Petruzzello

2002-01-01

214

Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete’s anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation. PMID:24688170

Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

2014-01-01

215

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...

216

Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections, Study Finds According to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. ...

217

A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

2010-01-01

218

Exercise Provides Direct Biphasic Cardioprotection via Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Epidemiologic investigations have shown that exercise reduces morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease. In this study, using a rat model, we attempted to determine whether exercise can reduce ischemic injury to the heart and elucidate a mechanism for the cardiopro- tective effect of exercise. Results showed that exercise significantly reduced the magnitude of a myocardial infarction in biphasic

Nobushige Yamashita; Shiro Hoshida; Kinya Otsu; Michio Asahi; Tsunehiko Kuzuya; Masatsugu Hori

219

Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through reducing Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in spontaneous hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of cognition. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum of the ADHD rat. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYR) weighing 210± 10 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n= 15): control group, ADHD group, ADHD and methylphenidate (MPH)-treated group, ADHD and treadmill exercise group. The rats in the MPH-treated group as a positive control received 1 mg/kg MPH orally once a day for 28 consecutive days. The rats in the treadmill exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 28 days. Motor coordination and balance were determined by vertical pole test. Immunohistochemistry for the expression of calbindinD-28 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the cerebellar vermis and Western blot for GFAP, Bax, and Bcl-2 were conducted. In the present results, ADHD significantly decreased balance and the number of calbindin-positive cells, while GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum were significantly increased in the ADHD group compared to the control group (P< 0.05, respectively). In contrast, treadmill exercise and MPH alleviated the ADHD-induced the decrease of balance and the number of calbindine-positive cells, and the increase of GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum (P< 0.05, respectively). Therefore, the present results suggested that treadmill exercise might exert ameliorating effect on ADHD through reduction of Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum. PMID:24678501

Yun, Hyo-Soon; Park, Mi-Sook; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

2014-01-01

220

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System  

PubMed Central

There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise. PMID:22701195

Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

2012-01-01

221

Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

2004-01-01

222

Metformin and exercise reduce muscle FAT\\/CD36 and lipid accumulation and blunt the progression of high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Derangements in skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism,associated with insulin resistance in obesity appear to involve decreased FA oxidation and increased accumulation,of lipids such as ceramides and diacylglycerol (DAG). We investigated potential lipid-related mechanisms,of metformin (Met) and\\/or exercise (Ex) for blunting the progression of hyperglycemia\\/hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in female Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a high-fat

Angela C. Smith; Kerry L. Mullen; Kathryn A. Junkin; Jennifer Nickerson; A. Chabowski; A. Bonen; David J. Dyck

2007-01-01

223

Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Exercise for Reducing Trapezius Muscle Dysfunction in Survivors of Head and Neck Cancer: A Case-Series Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Damage to the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) can result in denervation of the trapezius muscle in patients undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Trapezius denervation leads to muscle weakness and dysfunction that, for some patients, persists despite the return of conduction along the SAN. This prospective case series describes an intervention involving a combination of a novel type of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with bilateral exercise. Methods: Three survivors of head and neck cancer participated in the 6-week program. NMES was applied over the region of the SAN on the affected side while subjects performed bilateral voluntary scapular retraction and elevation exercises against resistance. The NMES was delivered using relatively wide pulse widths and high frequencies to enhance the electrically evoked sensory volley and was triggered by the onset of trapezius muscle activity on the non-affected side. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) assessments and patient-rated outcomes were administered at baseline and 6 weeks. Results: All patients showed improvements in shoulder flexion and abduction ROM and reported reductions in pain and disability. Conclusions: This combination of NMES and bilateral exercise may prove to be an effective component of a comprehensive shoulder rehabilitation program for patients with persistent trapezius muscle dysfunction as a result of SAN damage. PMID:23729969

Baldwin, Evan R.L.; Baldwin, Terri D.; Lancaster, Josh S.; McNeely, Margaret L.

2012-01-01

224

Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.  

PubMed

The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

2014-08-01

225

Protocol for Work place adjusted Intelligent physical exercise reducing Musculoskeletal pain in Shoulder and neck (VIMS): a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Specific strength training is a promising type of physical exercise for relieving neck and shoulder pain in office workers. However, the optimal combination of frequency and exercise duration, as well as the importance of exercise supervision, is unknown. The VIMS study investigates in a cluster randomized controlled design the effectiveness of different time wise combinations of specific strength training with identical accumulated volume, and the relevance of training supervision for safe and effective training. Methods/design A cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks duration where employed office workers are randomized to 1 × 60 min, 3 × 20 min, 9 × 7 min per week of specific strength training with training supervision, to 3 × 20 min per week of specific strength training with a minimal amount of training supervision, or to a reference group without training. A questionnaire will be sent to 2000 employees in jobs characterized by intensive computer work. Employees with cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease will be excluded. The main outcome measure is pain in the neck and shoulders at week 20. Trial Registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027390. PMID:20687940

2010-01-01

226

Can Lifestyle Interventions Do More than Reduce Diabetes Risk? Treating Depression in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes with Exercise and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  

PubMed Central

The epidemic of metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes is global in scope and comprehensive in its impact on individuals, health care systems, and societies. One in four patients with diabetes will experience depression in their lifetime. Comorbid depression is associated with poorer outcomes, greater functional disability, and early mortality. Prior studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise as an efficacious form of treatment for depression in the general population. Few studies have evaluated this strategy in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Program ACTIVE (Appalachians Coming Together to Increase Vital Exercise) was designed to treat depression among adults with type 2 diabetes by pairing aerobic activity with individual cognitive behavioral therapy. This combination treatment approach has been shown to be feasible to implement in a rural environment and promising in terms of depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular outcomes. Data from this study suggest that exercise can be used to achieve multiple benefits for adults with type 2 diabetes. Future work to compare this approach to singular treatment strategies for adults at risk for type 2 diabetes is needed. PMID:22350739

de Groot, Mary; Doyle, Todd; Kushnick, Michael; Shubrook, Jay; Merrill, Jennifer; Rabideau, Erin; Schwartz, Frank

2012-01-01

227

Can lifestyle interventions do more than reduce diabetes risk? Treating depression in adults with type 2 diabetes with exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy.  

PubMed

The epidemic of metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes is global in scope and comprehensive in its impact on individuals, health care systems, and societies. One in four patients with diabetes will experience depression in their lifetime. Comorbid depression is associated with poorer outcomes, greater functional disability, and early mortality. Prior studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise as an efficacious form of treatment for depression in the general population. Few studies have evaluated this strategy in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Program ACTIVE (Appalachians Coming Together to Increase Vital Exercise) was designed to treat depression among adults with type 2 diabetes by pairing aerobic activity with individual cognitive behavioral therapy. This combination treatment approach has been shown to be feasible to implement in a rural environment and promising in terms of depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular outcomes. Data from this study suggest that exercise can be used to achieve multiple benefits for adults with type 2 diabetes. Future work to compare this approach to singular treatment strategies for adults at risk for type 2 diabetes is needed. PMID:22350739

de Groot, Mary; Doyle, Todd; Kushnick, Michael; Shubrook, Jay; Merrill, Jennifer; Rabideau, Erin; Schwartz, Frank

2012-04-01

228

Postexercise energy expenditure in response to acute aerobic or resistive exercise.  

PubMed

Postexercise energy metabolism was examined in male subjects age 22-35 years in response to three different treatments: a strenuous bout of resistive exercise (REx), a bout of stationary cycling (AEx) at 50% peak VO2, and a control condition (C) of quiet sitting. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured the morning of and the morning following each condition. Recovery oxygen consumption (RcO2) was measured for 5 hr following each treatment. Total 5-hr RcO2 was higher for the REx treatment relative to both AEx and C, with the largest treatment differences occurring early during recovery. There were no large treatment differences in postexercise respiratory exchange ratio values, except for the first hour of recovery following REx. RMR measured 14.5 hr postexercise for the REx condition was significantly elevated compared to C. These results suggest that strenuous resistive exercise results in a greater excess postexercise oxygen consumption compared to steady-state endurance exercise of similar estimated energy cost. PMID:7874151

Gillette, C A; Bullough, R C; Melby, C L

1994-12-01

229

Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?  

PubMed

As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function. PMID:24617099

Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

2014-01-01

230

Walking, exercising, and smoking: does neighborhood matter?  

PubMed

Neighborhood context could affect health behaviors because of structure or contagion. We expected that residents of US neighborhoods where a high percentage of residents are poor and do not have college degrees would be more likely to smoke and less likely to walk and exercise. We examined the hypotheses using multi-level data in which survey information from a representative sample of Illinois residents is linked to census-tract information about poverty and education in their neighborhood. Contrary to expectations we found that residents of poor neighborhoods were more likely to walk than those in less disadvantaged places, adjusting for individual poverty, household income, education, race, ethnicity, sex, age, and marital status. This was the case despite the fact that residents of poor neighborhoods were more afraid to leave the house and feared being victimized on the streets. Consistent with expectations we found that residents of neighborhoods where a high percentage of residents are college educated are more likely to walk. Thus, the two aspects of neighborhood socioeconomic status had opposite effects on walking. Neighborhood context had no effect on the likelihood of exercising strenuously. Men in poor neighborhoods were more likely to smoke than those in less disadvantaged places, but neighborhood context had no significant effect on women's likelihood of smoking. PMID:10832573

Ross, C E

2000-07-01

231

?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (P¼0·004, d ¼ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (P¼0·005, d ¼ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P¼0·08, d ¼ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John

2013-08-28

232

Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors, reduces blood flow and aerobic energy turnover in the exercising human leg  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) are substances that have been proposed to be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during physical activity. We measured haemodynamics, plasma ATP and V?O2 at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (19 ± 1 W) in nine healthy subjects with and without intra-arterial infusion of indomethacin (Indo; 621 ± 17 ?g min?1), Indo +NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA; 12.4 ± 0.3 mg min?1) (double blockade) and Indo +l-NMMA + tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 12.4 ± 0.3 mg min?1) (triple blockade). Double and triple blockade lowered leg blood flow (LBF) at rest (P < 0.05), while it remained unchanged with Indo. During exercise, LBF and vascular conductance were 2.54 ± 0.10 l min?1 and 25 ± 1 mmHg, respectively, in control and they were lower with double (33 ± 3 and 36 ± 4%, respectively) and triple (26 ± 4 and 28 ± 3%, respectively) blockade (P < 0.05), while there was no difference with Indo. The lower LBF and vascular conductance with double and triple blockade occurred in parallel with a lower O2 delivery, cardiac output, heart rate and plasma [noradrenaline] (P < 0.05), while blood pressure remained unchanged and O2 extraction and femoral venous plasma [ATP] increased. Despite the increased O2 extraction, leg V?O2 was 13 and 17% (triple and double blockade, respectively) lower than control in parallel to a lower femoral venous temperature and lactate release (P < 0.05). These results suggest that NO and prostaglandins play important roles in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during moderate intensity exercise and that EDHFs do not compensate for the impaired formation of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, inhibition of NO and prostaglandin formation is associated with a lower aerobic energy turnover and increased concentration of vasoactive ATP in plasma. PMID:17347273

Mortensen, Stefan P; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva

2007-01-01

233

Volcanological Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, which builds on knowledge gained in previous homework exercises located at the same site, asks students in an undergraduate class at Tulane University to answer some basic questions about volcanoes, and to determine the volcanic hazards associated with Mt. Rainier, Washington; Montserrat, West Indies; and Long Valley Caldera, California by searching the World Wide Web.

Nelson, Stephen

234

Effects of liquid cooling garments on recovery and performance time in individuals performing strenuous work wearing a firefighter ensemble.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages of 15 min exercise at 75% VO2max, and 10 min rest following each exercise stage. During each session, one of the following six conditions was administered in a randomized order: control (no cooling, CON); air ventilation of exhaust SCBA gases rerouted into the PFE (AV); top cooling garment (TCG); TCG combined with AV (TCG+AV); a shortened whole body cooling garment (SCG), and SCG combined with AV (SCG+AV). Results showed that total PT completed was longer under SCG and SCG+AV compared with CON, AV, TCG, and TCG+AV (p<0.01). Magnitude of core temperature (Tc) elevation was significantly decreased when SCG was utilized (p<0.01), and heart rate recovery rate (10 min) was enhanced under SCG, SCG+AV, TCG, and TCG+AV compared with CON (p<0.05). Estimated Esw rate (kg·h(-1)) was the greatest in CON, 1.62 (0.37), and the least in SCG+AV 0.98 (0.44): (descending order: CON>AV>TCG=TCG+AV>SCG>SCG+AV) without a statistical difference between the conditions (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggest that the application of LCG underneath the PFE significantly improves the recovery during a short period of rest and prolongs performance time in subsequent bouts of exercise. LCG also appears to be an effective method for body cooling that promotes heat dissipation during uncompensable heat stress. PMID:21660834

Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

2011-07-01

235

Cardiovascular exercise in the U.S. space program: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exercise deconditioning during space flight may impact a crewmember's ability to perform strenuous or prolonged tasks during and after a spaceflight mission. In this paper, we review the cardiovascular exercise data from U.S. spaceflights from the Mercury Project through International Space Station (ISS) expeditions and potential implications upon current and future missions. During shorter spaceflights (<16 days), the heart rate (HR) response to exercise testing and maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) are not changed. The submaximal exercise HR responses during longer duration flights are less consistent, and VO 2 max has not been measured. Skylab data demonstrated no change in the exercise HR response during flight which would be consistent with no change in VO 2 max; however, during ISS flight exercise HR is elevated early in the mission, but approaches preflight levels later during the missions, perhaps due to performance of exercise countermeasures. An elevated exercise HR is consistently observed after both short and long duration spaceflight, and crewmembers appear to recover at rates which are affected by the length of the mission.

Moore, Alan D.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

2010-04-01

236

Exercise counteracts the effects of short-term overfeeding and reduced physical activity independent of energy imbalance in healthy young men.  

PubMed

Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men age 25 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned either to consume 50% more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps day(-1) to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n = 14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n = 12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended by exercise, thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (17 ± 16 nmol (120 min) l(-1); P = 0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (1 ± 6 nmol (120 min) l(-1)). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP-1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and visfatin was significantly down-regulated (P ? 0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose tissue was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P = 0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects of short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus. PMID:24167223

Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Richardson, Judith D; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

2013-12-15

237

The effect of physical exercise on endothelial function.  

PubMed

Endothelium is essential for maintenance of health of the vessel wall and for the local regulation of vascular tone and structure and haemostasis. Regular physical exercise, which is known to promote a favourable cardiovascular state, may improve endothelial function via several mechanisms. Indeed, it augments blood flow and laminar shear stress, resulting in increased nitric oxide production and bioavailability. In this regard, the beneficial effects of training on endothelial function can be mediated in a number of ways, including synthesis of molecular mediators, changes in neurohormonal release and oxidant/antioxidant balance. On the other hand, physical exercise can also elicit systemic molecular pathways connected with angiogenesis and chronic anti-inflammatory action with consequent modification of the endothelial function. However, its benefit depends on the type and intensity of training performed. While strenuous exercise increases oxidative metabolism and produces a pro-oxidant environment, only regular moderate physical activity promotes an antioxidant state and preserves endothelial function. Thus, exercise may have a beneficial effect on the development of cardiovascular disease through preserving endothelial function. PMID:19757859

Di Francescomarino, Samanta; Sciartilli, Adolfo; Di Valerio, Valentina; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Gallina, Sabina

2009-01-01

238

Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007). We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission. PMID:25105034

Bhalla, Mary Colleen; Dick-Perez, Ryan

2014-01-01

239

Our World: Exercise in Space  

NASA Video Gallery

Find out why exercise is so important to the astronauts who travel into space. Learn how gravity affects our bodies and what astronauts must do in reduced gravity environments to keep their bodies ...

240

Exercise response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

1975-01-01

241

Exercise after heart transplantation: An overview  

PubMed Central

While life expectancy is greatly improved after a heart transplant, survival is still limited, and compared to the general population, the exercise capacity and health-related quality of life of heart transplant recipients are reduced. Increased exercise capacity is associated with a better prognosis. However, although several studies have documented positive effects of exercise after heart transplantation (HTx), little is known about the type, frequency and intensity of exercise that provides the greatest health benefits. Moreover, the long-term effects of exercise on co-morbidities and survival are also unclear. Exercise restrictions apply to patients with a denervated heart, and for decades, it was believed that the transplanted heart remained denervated. This has since been largely disproved, but despite the new knowledge, the exercise restrictions have largely remained, and up-to-date guidelines on exercise prescription after HTx do not exist. High-intensity, interval based aerobic exercise has repeatedly been documented to have superior positive effects and health benefits compared to moderate exercise. This applies to both healthy subjects as well as in several patient groups, such as patients with metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease or heart failure. However, whether the effects of this type of exercise are also applicable to heart transplant populations has not yet been fully established. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current knowledge about the exercise capacity and effect of exercise among heart transplant recipients and to discuss future exercise strategies. PMID:24392312

Nytr?en, Kari; Gullestad, Lars

2013-01-01

242

Dynamic changes in dna methylation status in peripheral blood Mononuclear cells following an acute bout of exercise: Potential impact of exercise-induced elevations in interleukin-6 concentration.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations and DNA methylation in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of trained runners after a bout of prolonged, strenuous exercise. Eight healthy trained males completed a treadmill run at 60% vVO2max for 120 min followed by a 5-km time trial in a fasted condition. Whole blood samples were taken prior to, immediately before and 24 h following exercise. From these samples, PBMCs were isolated for analysis and plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured. The methylation status of DNA extracted from PBMCs was analysed using the Illumina 27k methylation beadchip platform. Global DNA methylation status was unaltered immediately and up to 24 hours following a bout of prolonged exercise in comparison to pre-exercise. Despite no change in global DNA methylation, plasma IL-6 concentrations were significantly related to the DNA methylation status of 11 genes. Our study demonstrates that the methylome is stable, while discovering a novel link between exercise-induced increases in circulating IL-6 and the DNA methylation status of 11 individual genes. Based on our preliminary findings, the mechanisms by which changes in plasma IL-6 concentrations and DNA methylation in response to exercise interact require further study. PMID:25316129

Robson-Ansley, P J; Saini, A; Toms, C; Ansley, L; Walshe, I H; Nimmo, M A; Curtin, J A

2014-01-01

243

Do exercise motives predict obligatory exercise?  

PubMed

Few studies have examined whether factors predicting obligatory exercise differ by gender. 303 participants completed the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire and the Reason for Exercise Inventory. All variables correlated significantly. However, the correlation between exercising for fitness and obligatory exercise was significantly stronger in women than men. In women, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, fitness, and to enhance mood; in men, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, enjoyment, and perceived attractiveness. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:22365798

Pritchard, Mary E; Beaver, Jessica L

2012-04-01

244

Exercise-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 and IL-8 genes in endurance horses  

PubMed Central

Background The stress response is a critical factor in the training of equine athletes; it is important for performance and for protection of the animal against physio-pathological disorders. In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to acute and strenuous exercise were investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect modifications in transcription levels of the genes for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), which were derived from previous genome-wide expression analysis. Significant up-regulation of these two genes was found in 10 horses that had completed a race of 90–120 km in a time-course experimental design. Conclusion These results suggest that MMP-1 and IL-8 are both involved in the exercise-induced stress response, and this represents a starting point from which to understand the adaptive responses to this phenomenon. PMID:19552796

Cappelli, Katia; Felicetti, Michela; Capomaccio, Stefano; Pieramati, Camillo; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea

2009-01-01

245

Mediating Mechanisms in a Program to Reduce Intentions to Use Anabolic Steroids and Improve Exercise Self-Efficacy and Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the mediating mechanisms responsible for the effects of a program designed to reduce intentions to use anabolic steroids, improve nutrition, and increase strength training self-efficacy. Fifteen of 31 high school football teams (ND 1,506 players at baseline) in Oregon and Washington were assigned to receive the intervention. The multicomponent program addressed the social influences promoting ergogenic drug

David P. MacKinnon; Linn Goldberg; Greg N. Clarke; Diane L. Elliot; JeeWon Cheong; Angela Lapin; Esther L. Moe; Jennifer L. Krull

2001-01-01

246

High Intensity Exercise Enhances Platelet Reactivity to Shear Stress and Coagulation during and after Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute cardiac events, such as angina, myocardial infarction and sudden death. It is believed that regular low-intensity exercise can reduce, while high-intensity exercise may provoke acute cardiac events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise both at low and high intensities on the ventilatory

Hideo Ikarugi; Masashi Shibata; Shiori Shibata; Hiromitsu Ishii; Tomomi Taka; Junichiro Yamamoto

2003-01-01

247

Heart rate and oxygen uptake response to exercise in children with low peak exercise heart rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal children achieve the same increase of oxygen uptake (VO2) in response to exercise even though resting and submaximal exercise heart rates vary greatly as a function of age, body size and physical conditioning. To determine whether the VO2 response to exercise is altered when heart rate is significantly reduced by heart disease, we compared 78 children who achieved a

I. M. Schulze-Neick; H. U. Wessel; M. H. Paul

1992-01-01

248

Exercise-Induced Urticaria  

MedlinePLUS

... I get hives during exercise? You should stop exercising as soon as you notice the hives. If ... exercise? You probably don't have to quit exercising. Most symptoms can be controlled by taking the ...

249

[Exercise addiction].  

PubMed

Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

2013-01-01

250

Aerobic Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study, using a modified single systems design, attempted to answer the question: what effect does an occupational therapy aerobic exercise program have on adolescents with depression? The sample was comprised of four adolescent boys from a private psychiatric hospital. Their ages ranged from 12 to 18 years and all had a primary diagnosis of major depression. The program

Chestina B. Brollier; Natalie Hamrick; Beth Jacobson

1995-01-01

251

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

252

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

253

Effect of Acute Exercise on Upper-Limb Volume in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Strenuous upper-extremity activity and/or exercise have traditionally been prescribed for breast cancer survivors with or at risk of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an acute bout of exercise on upper-limb volume and symptoms in breast cancer survivors, with the intent to provide pilot data to guide a subsequent larger study. Methods: Twenty-three women who regularly participated in dragon-boat racing took part in the study. A single exercise bout was performed at a moderate intensity (rating of perceived exertion: 13–14) for 20 continuous minutes on an arm ergometer. The difference between affected and unaffected limb volume was assessed pre- and post-exercise via measurements of limb circumference at five time points. Results: Although limb volume increased following exercise in both limbs, the difference between the limbs remained stable at each measurement point. Only one participant was found to have an increase in arm-volume difference of >100 ml post intervention, and only four participants reported symptoms of tension and/or heaviness in the affected limb. Conclusion: The results suggest that limb volume in breast cancer survivors increases after an acute bout of upper-limb exercise but that, for the majority of women, the response is not different between affected and unaffected limbs. Future research using a larger sample and more sensitive measurement methods are recommended. PMID:20808486

Campbell, Kristin L.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.

2009-01-01

254

Exercise with prebreathe appears to increase protection from decompression sickness: Preliminary findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle involves one hour of prebreath with 100% oxygen, decompression of the entire Shuttle to 10.2 psia for at least 12 hours, and another prebreath for 40 minutes before decompression to the 4.3 psia suit pressure. We are investigating the use of a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen beginning with a ten-minute strenuous exercise period as an alternative for the staged decompression schedule described above. The 10-minute exercise consists of dual-cycle ergometry performed at 75% of the subject's peak oxygen uptake to increase denitrogenation efficiency by increasing ventilation and perfusion. The control exposures were preceded by a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen while resting in a supine position. The twenty-two male subjects were exposed to 4.3 psia for 4 hours while performing light to moderate exercise. Preliminary results from 22 of the planned 26 subjects indicate 76% DCS following supine, resting prebreathe and 38% following prebreathe with exercise. The staged decompression schedule has been shown to result in 23% DCS which is not significantly different from the exercise-enhanced prebreathe results. Prebreathe including exercise appears to be comparable to the protection afforded by the more lengthy staged decompression schedule. Completion of the study later this year will enable planned statistical analysis of the results.

Webb, James T.; Fischer, Michele D.; Heaps, Cristine L.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

1994-01-01

255

Randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial  

E-print Network

[29]. Birth weight predicts subse- quent lean mass at different ages, independently of gesta- tional age, and has been shown to correlate with grip strength in older individuals [30,31]. While aerobic fit- ness is known to reduce cardiovascular risk... circumfer- ences are measured using a D-loop non-stretch fibreglass tape measure. The waist is defined as the mid-point transaxial slices are acquired through the largest bulk of the soleus muscle, the localisation images are planned such that the top...

Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Herve; Horton, Kenneth; De Lucia Rolfe, Ema; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen; Ahie Sayer, Avan; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

2009-06-19

256

Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.  

PubMed

Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p < 0.05). "Exercise is hard work for me," "Exercise tires me," and "There are too few places for me to exercise" were the most common perceived barriers. These findings can assist with development of exercise opportunities for power wheelchair users. PMID:23761004

Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

2013-01-01

257

Mechanism of sympathetic activation during prolonged physical exercise in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems likely that depletion of body carbohydrates may account for the rise in the sympathetic activity during prolonged exercise, since glucose given during or before exercise reduces the increase in plasma catecholamines. The aim of the present study was to find out whether the increase in plasma noradrenaline (NA) in response to exercise can be reduced by 1. increasing

S. Kozlowski; K. Nazar; Z. Brzezifiska; D. Stephens; H. Kaciuba-U?ci?ko; A. Kobry?

1983-01-01

258

Augmenting Exercise Systems with Virtual Exercise Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhering to an exercise program is a challenge for everybody who wants to build a healthier body and lifestyle through physical\\u000a exercise. We have developed an Virtual Exercise Environment (VEE) that augments stationary exercise equipment with virtual\\u000a reality techniques to make exercising more enjoyable. Our VEE system consists of a recording system to capture video, distance\\u000a and incline data about

Wei Xu; Jaeheon Jeong; Jane Mulligan

2009-01-01

259

Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  

PubMed

The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

2013-03-01

260

Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image.  

PubMed

Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has explored how, or even whether, exercise is associated with positive body image. Therefore, we examined whether exercise frequency was positively related to three aspects of positive body image (body appreciation, internal body orientation, and functional body satisfaction) among 321 college women. Appearance-based exercise motivation (the extent exercise is pursued to influence weight or shape) was hypothesized to moderate these associations. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that exercise frequency was related to higher positive body image, but high levels of appearance-based exercise motivation weakened these relationships. Thus, messages promoting exercise need to de-emphasize weight loss and appearance for positive body image. PMID:24529336

Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

2014-03-01

261

Exercise after heart transplantation.  

PubMed

Exercise intolerance in heart transplant recipients (HTR) has a multifactorial origin, involving complex interactions among cardiac, neurohormonal, vascular, skeletal muscle and pulmonary abnormalities. However, the role of these abnormalities may differ as a function of time after transplantation and of many other variables. The present review is aimed at evaluating the role of cardiac, pulmonary and muscular factors in limiting maximal aerobic performance of HTR, and the benefits of chronic exercise. Whereas pulmonary function does not seem to affect gas exchange until a critical value of diffusing lung capacity is attained, cardiac and skeletal muscle function deterioration may represent relevant factors limiting maximal and submaximal aerobic performance. Cardiac function is mainly limited by chronotropic incompetence and diastolic dysfunction, whereas muscle activity seems to be limited by impaired oxygen supply as a consequence of the reduced capillary network. The latter may be due to either immunosuppressive regimen or deconditioning. Endurance and strength training may greatly improve muscle function and maximal aerobic performance of HTR, and may also reduce side effects of immunosuppressive therapy and control risk factors for cardiac allograft vasculopathy. For the above reasons exercise should be considered an important therapeutic tool in the long-term treatment of heart transplant recipients. PMID:13680240

Marconi, Claudio; Marzorati, Mauro

2003-10-01

262

Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1993-01-01

263

Proposed new mechanism for food and exercise induced anaphylaxis based on case studies  

PubMed Central

We present two cases of food and exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FEIA) in patients with a diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to the implicated foods. Patient A had FEIA attributed to fresh coriander and tomato and Patient B to fresh celery. These food allergens have been implicated in OAS and have structural antigenic similarity to that of birch and/or grass. Both patients’ allergies were confirmed by fresh skin prick tests. In both cases, strenuous exercise was antecedent to the systemic anaphylaxis reaction and subsequent ingestion without exercise produced only local symptoms of perioral pruritus. We review the current proposed mechanisms for food and exercise induced anaphylaxis to oral allergens and propose a novel and more biologically plausible mechanism. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of exercise on gastric acid secretion decreases the digestion of oral allergens and preserves structural integrity, thereby allowing continued systemic absorption of the allergen whether it be profilins, lipid transfer proteins, or other antigenic determinants. PMID:23509907

2013-01-01

264

Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

265

Prenatal Exercise Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range,

Tiffany Field

266

Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress  

PubMed Central

Among athletes strenuous exercise, dehydration and gastric emptying (GE) delay are the main causes of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, whereas gut ischemia is the main cause of their nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and (blood) diarrhea. Additionally any factor that limits sweat evaporation, such as a hot and humid environment and/or body dehydration, has profound effects on muscle glycogen depletion and risk for heat illness. A serious underperfusion of the gut often leads to mucosal damage and enhanced permeability so as to hide blood loss, microbiota invasion (or endotoxemia) and food-born allergen absorption (with anaphylaxis). The goal of exercise rehydration is to intake more fluid orally than what is being lost in sweat. Sports drinks provide the addition of sodium and carbohydrates to assist with intestinal absorption of water and muscle-glycogen replenishment, respectively. However GE is proportionally slowed by carbohydrate-rich (hyperosmolar) solutions. On the other hand, in order to prevent hyponatremia, avoiding overhydration is recommended. Caregiver's responsibility would be to inform athletes about potential dangers of drinking too much water and also advise them to refrain from using hypertonic fluid replacements. PMID:21955383

2011-01-01

267

Exercise stress test  

MedlinePLUS

... EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill ... This test is done at a medical center or health care provider's office. The technician will place 10 flat, ...

268

The Exercise Message: More, More, More  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the 2005 Dietary Guidelines made their debut in January, there were gasps of disbelief when it came to the exercise recommendations: ninety minutes of exercise every day? Could they possibly be serious? The recommendations for adults as written in the Executive Summary of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 basically say: æ To reduce the risk of chronic diseases

Winters C; Lang W

269

Exercise as a treatment for osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of Review: This review highlights recent important research, future directions, and clinical applications for exercise and osteoarthritis. It focuses on knee osteoarthritis because of its prevalence and the dearth of research involving other joint osteoarthritis. The review covers exercise prescription for symptomatic relief, and its potential role in reducing development and slowing progression of osteoarthritis. Recent Findings: Meta-analyses support

Kim Bennell; Rana Hinman

2005-01-01

270

Exercise hemorheology: Moving from old simplistic paradigms to a more complex picture.  

PubMed

Classic studies on exercise hemorheology evidenced that blood fluidity is impaired during exercise (short term exercise-induced hyperviscosity) and is improved as a result of regular exercise practice (hemorheologic fitness). Extensive description of these events led to the concepts of "the triphasic effects of exercise", "the paradox of hematocrit", and "the hemorheological paradox of lactate". However, some results obtained in training studies do not fit with this classical picture and cannot be explained by a simplistic paradigm based on the Hagen-Poiseuille law. Taking into account the non-linearity of the effects of viscosity factors on blood flow and oxygen delivery helps to elaborate another picture. For example, moderately high values of hematocrit and erythrocyte rigidity induced by high intensity exercise are likely to trigger a physiological vasodilation improving circulatory adaptation (rather than limiting performance as was previously assumed). This may apply to the acute rise in red cell rigidity observed during strenuous exercise, and also to the paradoxical rise in hematocrit or red cell rigidity observed after some training protocols and that did not fit with the previous (simplistic) paradigms. The "healthy primitive lifestyle" hypothesis assumes that evolution has selected genetic polymorphisms leading to insulin resistance as an adaptative strategy to cope with continuous low intensity physical activity and a special alimentation based on lean meat and wild herbs (i.e., moderately high in protein, rich in low glycemic index carbohydrates, and poor in saturated fat). We propose here that this model may help to explain on an evolutionary perspective these apparently inconsistent findings. The pivotal explanation is that the true physiological picture would be that of an individual whose exercise and nutritional habits are close from this lifestyle, both sedentary subjects and trained athletes representing situations on the edge of this model. PMID:23478223

Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Romain, Ahmed-Jérôme; Guiraudou, M; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric

2013-01-01

271

Emergency exercise methodology  

SciTech Connect

Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

Klimczak, C.A.

1993-03-01

272

Emergency exercise methodology  

SciTech Connect

Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

Klimczak, C.A.

1993-01-01

273

Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice.  

PubMed

Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); and (3) exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1) or (4) 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5). Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training. PMID:24595275

Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

2014-01-01

274

Exercise Responses after Inactivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

Convertino, Victor A.

1986-01-01

275

Immune responses to resistance exercise.  

PubMed

Resistance exercise induces changes in leukocyte redistribution, phenotypical surface expression and leukocyte functionality. Several factors have been shown to alter the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of response including manipulation of acute program variables, the aging process, and nutritional supplementation. Rest period length and load can modify the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of leukocytosis post exercise. Aging diminishes both the duration and magnitude of the post exercise leukocytosis and reduces leukocyte functionality. The few studies that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements (e.g., carbohydrate, whey protein, caffeine) peri-resistance exercise showed minimal effects on leukocyte responses. Sex differences exist in the timing and magnitude of leukocyte infiltration into skeletal muscle. The immune response to resistance exercise is only a small part of the recovery paradigm. A better understanding of how acute program variables and other factors such as aging, sex and nutritional supplementation affect the immune response to resistance exercise is important in the context of improving recovery, performance and health. PMID:22876721

Freidenreich, Daniel J; Volek, Jeff S

2012-01-01

276

Media-Augmented Exercise Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

Krueger, T.

2002-01-01

277

Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.  

PubMed

The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

1995-01-01

278

Epigenetic adaptation to regular exercise in humans.  

PubMed

Regular exercise has numerous health benefits, for example, it reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has also been shown that the risk of type 2 diabetes can be halved in high-risk groups through nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions involving exercise and diet. Nevertheless, the number of people living a sedentary life is dramatically increasing worldwide. Researchers have searched for molecular mechanisms explaining the health benefits of regular exercise for decades and it is well established that exercise alters the gene expression pattern in multiple tissues. However, until recently it was unknown that regular exercise can modify the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in humans. This review will focus on recent progress in the field of regular exercise and epigenetics. PMID:24632002

Ling, Charlotte; Rönn, Tina

2014-07-01

279

Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular variables. Plasma volume (% delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P < 0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training for all regimens indicating no effect of these training regimens on the level of vascular fluid shifts.

Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

280

Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

Kohler, Fred

281

Exercise for Asthma Patients. Little Risk, Big Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asthma patients can benefit from 20 to 30 minutes of exercise at 60 to 85% of maximum heart rate several times a week. Improved fitness can reduce airway reactivity and medication use. The capacity to exercise requires good general control of asthma. Patients must learn to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by using inhaled medications…

Disabella, Vincent; Sherman, Carl

1998-01-01

282

Sport & Exercise General Information  

E-print Network

of your ability, fitness level or motivation to exercise the service has something to help you getSport & Exercise General Information Distinctly Active www.hw.ac.uk/sports Find us on Facebook at Centre for Sport and Exercise at Heriot-Watt University Follow us on Twitter Contact us: Sport & Exercise

Howie, Jim

283

Exercise Is Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

Elrick, Harold

1996-01-01

284

New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance  

PubMed Central

The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward ‘central command’ mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal ‘tonic’ activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of ? opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O2 transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes – probably acting in concert with feedforward central command – contribute significantly to preserving O2 transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development. PMID:22826128

Dempsey, Jerome A

2012-01-01

285

Astronauts Exercising in Space Video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

2001-01-01

286

Left ventricular mechanics and arterial-ventricular coupling following high-intensity interval exercise.  

PubMed

High-intensity exercise induces marked physiological stress affecting the secretion of catecholamines. Sustained elevations in catecholamines are thought to desensitize cardiac beta receptors and may be a possible mechanism in impaired cardiac function following strenuous exercise. In addition, attenuated arterial-ventricular coupling may identify vascular mechanisms in connection with postexercise attenuations in ventricular function. Thirty-nine normally active (NA) and endurance-trained (ET) men and women completed an echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function before and after an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (15 bouts of 1:2 min work:recovery cycling: 100% peak power output and 50 W, respectively). Following exercise, time to peak twist and peak untwisting velocity were delayed (P < 0.01) but did not differ by sex or training status. Interactions for sex and condition (rest vs. exercise) were found for longitudinal diastolic strain rate (men, 1.46 ± 0.19 to 1.28 ± 0.23 s(-1) vs. women, 1.62 ± 0.25 to 1.63 ± 0.26 s(-1); P = 0.01) and arterial elastance (men 2.20 ± 0.65 to 3.24 ± 1.02 mmHg · ml(-1) · m(-2) vs. women 2.51 ± 0.61 to 2.93 ± 0.68 mmHg · ml(-1) · m(-2); P = 0.04). No cardiac variables were found associated with catecholamine levels. The change in twist mechanics was associated with baseline aortic pulse-wave velocity (r(2) = 0.27, P = 0.001). We conclude that males display greater reductions in contractility in response to high-intensity interval exercise, independent of catecholamine concentrations. Furthermore, a novel association of arterial stiffness and twist mechanics following high-intensity acute exercise illustrates the influence of vascular integrity on cardiac mechanics. PMID:24052036

Cote, Anita T; Bredin, Shannon S D; Phillips, Aaron A; Koehle, Michael S; Glier, Melissa B; Devlin, Angela M; Warburton, Darren E R

2013-12-01

287

Principles of exercise prescription for patients with chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common and debilitating condition characterized by reduced exercise tolerance. While exercise\\u000a training was once thought to be contraindicated for patients with CHF, a substantial body of data has been published over\\u000a the last two decades to support the use of exercise programs for these patients. Improvements in exercise capacity, quality\\u000a of life, and mortality

Jonathan Myers

2008-01-01

288

Food and exercise calculator  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A food and exercise calculating aid enables an individual to quickly determine how much of a selected exercise is necessary to burn off the calories consumed by a selected food item. Nutritional information for various food items and metabolic equivalent information for various exercises are stored in memories. The user accesses the memories for selected foods and exercises, as well as for the user's weight, and the aid calculates the exercise time duration necessary for the selected food.

2005-07-12

289

Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic\\u000a effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect\\u000a of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the\\u000a impact on subsequent high-intensity exercise performance in the heat. Twelve male

N. D. Clarke; D. P. M. Maclaren; T. Reilly; B. Drust

2011-01-01

290

Exercise capacity in the elderly.  

PubMed

One of the primary manifestations of ageing is a reduced ability to respond to physiologic challenges. With aging, the ability to perform exercise and physical work declines and is reflected in the reduction in maximal oxygen consumption. Although this decline is influenced to some degree by the state of health and age, it seems that maintenance of regular physical activity significantly counteracts the loss of aerobic capacity. In healthy old age, the cardiovascular system is able to compensate for certain age-associated declines in cardiac function. A program of endurance training, even when begun in old age, can restore more youthful levels of physical fitness and results in tangible improvements in certain resting, submaximal and maximal indicators of exercise capacity. With comprehensive preexercise clinical screening, physical training can be conducted safely with minimal musculoskeletal problems in the aged. The long-term effects of exercise on morbidity, mortality and psychologic function in old age are unknown. PMID:3511665

Posner, J D; Gorman, K M; Klein, H S; Woldow, A

1986-02-12

291

Exercise training and immune crosstalk in breast cancer microenvironment: exploring the paradigms of exercise-induced immune modulation and exercise-induced myokines  

PubMed Central

Observational research suggests that exercise may reduce the risk of breast cancer and improve survival. One proposed mechanism for the protective effect of aerobic exercise related to cancer risk and outcomes, but has not been examined definitively, is the immune response to aerobic exercise. Two prevailing paradigms are proposed. The first considers the host immune response as modifiable by aerobic exercise training. This exercise-modulated immune-tumor crosstalk in the mammary microenvironment may alter the balance between tumor initiation and progression versus tumor suppression. The second paradigm considers the beneficial role of exercise-induced, skeletal muscle-derived cytokines, termed “myokines”. These myokines exert endocrine-like effects on multiple organs, including the mammary glands. In this systematic review, we i) define the role of macrophages and T-cells in breast cancer initiation and progression; ii) address the two paradigms that support exercise-induced immunomodulation; iii) systematically assessed the literature for exercise intervention that assessed biomarkers relevant to both paradigms in human intervention trials of aerobic exercise training, in healthy women and women with breast cancer; iv) incorporated pre-clinical animal studies and non-RCTs for background discussion of putative mechanisms, through which aerobic exercise training modulates the immunological crosstalk, or the myokine-tumor interaction in the tumor microenvironment; and v) speculated on the potential biomarkers and mechanisms that define an exercise-induced, anti-tumor “signature”, with a view toward developing relevant biomarkers for future aerobic exercise intervention trials. PMID:25360210

Goh, Jorming; Niksirat, Negin; Campbell, Kristin L

2014-01-01

292

Treating Diabetes with Exercise - Focus on the Microvasculature  

PubMed Central

The rising incidence of diabetes and the associated metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and hypertension have led to investigation of a number of drugs to treat these diseases. However, lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise remain the first line of defense. The benefits of exercise are typically presented in terms of weight loss, improved body composition and reduced fat mass, but exercise can have many other beneficial effects. Acute effects of exercise include major changes in blood flow through active muscle, an active hyperemia that increases the delivery of oxygen to the working muscle fibers. Longer term exercise training can affect the vasculature, improving endothelial health and possibly basal metabolic rates. Further, insulin sensitivity is improved both acutely after a single bout of exercise and shows chronic effects with exercise training, effectively reducing diabetes risk. Exercise-mediated improvements in endothelial function may also reduce complications associated with both diabetes and other metabolic disease. Thus, while drugs to improve microvascular function in diabetes continue to be investigated, exercise can also provide many similar benefits on endothelial function and should remain the first prescription when treating insulin resistance and diabetes. This review will investigate the effects of exercise on the blood vessel and the potential benefits of exercise on cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PMID:24772374

Kolka, CM

2014-01-01

293

Skeletal muscle vasodilatation during maximal exercise in health and disease  

PubMed Central

Maximal exercise vasodilatation results from the balance between vasoconstricting and vasodilating signals combined with the vascular reactivity to these signals. During maximal exercise with a small muscle mass the skeletal muscle vascular bed is fully vasodilated. During maximal whole body exercise, however, vasodilatation is restrained by the sympathetic system. This is necessary to avoid hypotension since the maximal vascular conductance of the musculature exceeds the maximal pumping capacity of the heart. Endurance training and high-intensity intermittent knee extension training increase the capacity for maximal exercise vasodilatation by 20–30%, mainly due to an enhanced vasodilatory capacity, as maximal exercise perfusion pressure changes little with training. The increase in maximal exercise vascular conductance is to a large extent explained by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and vascular remodelling. The vasodilatory capacity during maximal exercise is reduced or blunted with ageing, as well as in chronic heart failure patients and chronically hypoxic humans; reduced vasodilatory responsiveness and increased sympathetic activity (and probably, altered sympatholysis) are potential mechanisms accounting for this effect. Pharmacological counteraction of the sympathetic restraint may result in lower perfusion pressure and reduced oxygen extraction by the exercising muscles. However, at the same time fast inhibition of the chemoreflex in maximally exercising humans may result in increased vasodilatation, further confirming a restraining role of the sympathetic nervous system on exercise-induced vasodilatation. This is likely to be critical for the maintenance of blood pressure in exercising patients with a limited heart pump capacity. PMID:23027820

Calbet, Jose A L; Lundby, Carsten

2012-01-01

294

Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

1986-03-01

295

Statistics for Chemists: Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

Wehrens, Ron

2011-03-25

296

Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm  

MedlinePLUS

... your lungs shrink (get smaller) while you are exercising. This makes it difficult to breathe. If you ... may help lessen the symptoms of EIB. Avoid exercising in extremely cold temperatures or when you have ...

297

Exercise and Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... made up of daily tasks, both occupational and leisure activities that are usually affected by arthritis. Exercise ... of exercise are 1) therapeutic/rehabilitative; 2) recreational/leisure; and 3) competitive/elite. Finding the right balance ...

298

Clinical Applications for Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

Goldstein, David

1989-01-01

299

Rotator Cuff Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... Hint: This is like the backhand swing in tennis.) Lower the arm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ... Hint: This is like the forehand swing in tennis.) Lower the forearm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ...

300

Aerobic exercise (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

301

Exercise-Induced Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise. It makes sense that cigarette smoke and pollen could trigger asthma symptoms, but why exercise? Cold, ... and nose should help. If air pollution or pollen also trigger asthma symptoms, your child may want ...

302

Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V?O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

2013-01-01

303

Pelvic floor muscle training exercises  

MedlinePLUS

Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... have fecal incontinence Pelvic floor muscle training exercises ...

304

Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression. PMID:21394856

Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Munoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.

2010-01-01

305

Stretch Band Exercise Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

2007-01-01

306

Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

307

Exercise-induced asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is common in asthmatic children and adolescents. Since it may cause limitations to daily life activities in up to 30%, mastering EIA is important in asthma management.EIA consists of bronchial obstruction occurring immediately, or soon after, physical exercise as a result of increased respiratory water and heat loss due to increased ventilation during exercise, with the subsequent

Kai-Håkon Carlsen; Karin C. L Carlsen

2002-01-01

308

Exercise and Your Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

309

Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

Young, Jocelyn

310

Exercising with Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... Keep a positive attitude l Maintain a healthy body weight Three types of exercise are best if you ... Examples of flexibility exercises include upper- and lower-body stretching, yoga, and tai ... support and protect joints. Weight-bearing exercises, such as weight lifting, fall into ...

311

Exercising in Cold Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

312

The economics of intense exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests

David O. Meltzer; Anupam B. Jena

2010-01-01

313

Effects of exercise training on the cardiovascular system: Pharmacological approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical exercise promotes beneficial health effects by preventing or reducing the deleterious effects of pathological conditions, such as arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer disease. Human movement studies are becoming an emerging science in the epidemiological area and public health. A great number of studies have shown that exercise training, in general, reduces

Angelina Zanesco; Edson Antunes

2007-01-01

314

Exercise and Acute Cardiovascular Events: Placing the Risks into Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitual physical activity reduces coronary heart disease events, but vig- orous activity can also acutely and transiently increase the risk of sudden cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction in susceptible persons. This scientific statement discusses the potential cardiovascular complications of exercise, their pathological substrate, and their incidence and suggests strategies to reduce these complications. Exercise-associated acute cardiac events generally occur

Paul D. Thompson; Barry A. Franklin; Gary J. Balady; Steven N. Blair; Domenico Corrado; N. A. Mark Estes III; Janet E. Fulton; Neil F. Gordon; William L. Haskell; Mark S. Link; Barry J. Maron; Murray A. Mittleman; Antonio Pelliccia; Nanette K. Wenger; Stefan N. Willich; Fernando Costa

315

The Effects of Exercise on Stress in Working Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working women distribute their time between career and family, leaving little time and energy for personal health. Proven links exist between chronic stress and disease, which can be alleviated through regular exercise. Focused efforts by employers and advanced practice nurses can promote exercise as an effective tool to reduce stress, resulting in disease prevention and reduced health care costs. The

Patricia A. Coulter; Kathy Dickman; Ann Maradiegue

2009-01-01

316

Exercise Prescription: Principles and Current Limitations  

PubMed Central

Exercise prescriptions must be both safe and effective, while maximizing patient compliance. Safety can be threatened by physical injury, cardiac emergencies and environmental hazards. Risk can be reduced by individualizing the prescription, although the stress ECG contributes little to the prevention of the exercise catastrophe. Effectiveness of a prescription must be gauged by development of aerobic power and muscular strength, reduction of obesity, improvement of flexibility and control of coronary risk factors. The variability of patient response limits the potential for accurate laboratory prescription of exercise; fine tuning must depend upon the patient's immediate reactions. PMID:21283273

Shephard, Roy J.

1983-01-01

317

Physical exercise and brain monoamines: a review.  

PubMed

A review of the literature on the relationship of exercise to mental health strongly suggests that the two are closely linked. Thus, physical activity has been reported to reduce depression symptoms and anxiety, and to improve coping with stress. Logically, many investigators have then tried to determine the physiological mechanisms that are responsible for this mood-elevating effect of exercise. Among the current hypotheses, those regarding the endorphin and the monoamine systems have received a great deal of attention. On that basis, the respective effects of physical exercise on brain dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin transmission are reviewed herein. In addition, suggestions are advanced for future research in this field. PMID:2678895

Chaouloff, F

1989-09-01

318

A Meta-Analysis of Core Stability Exercise versus General Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the effects of core stability exercise or general exercise for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Summary of Background Data Exercise therapy appears to be effective at decreasing pain and improving function for patients with chronic LBP in practice guidelines. Core stability exercise is becoming increasingly popular for LBP. However, it is currently unknown whether core stability exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise in patients with chronic LBP. Methods Published articles from 1970 to October 2011 were identified using electronic searches. For this meta-analysis, two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating core stability exercise versus general exercise for the treatment of patients with chronic LBP. Data were extracted independently by the same two individuals who selected the studies. Results From the 28 potentially relevant trials, a total of 5 trials involving 414 participants were included in the current analysis. The pooling revealed that core stability exercise was better than general exercise for reducing pain [mean difference (?1.29); 95% confidence interval (?2.47, ?0.11); P?=?0.003] and disability [mean difference (?7.14); 95% confidence interval (?11.64, ?2.65); P?=?0.002] at the time of the short-term follow-up. However, no significant differences were observed between core stability exercise and general exercise in reducing pain at 6 months [mean difference (?0.50); 95% confidence interval (?1.36, 0.36); P?=?0.26] and 12 months [mean difference (?0.32); 95% confidence interval (?0.87, 0.23); P?=?0.25]. Conclusions Compared to general exercise, core stability exercise is more effective in decreasing pain and may improve physical function in patients with chronic LBP in the short term. However, no significant long-term differences in pain severity were observed between patients who engaged in core stability exercise versus those who engaged in general exercise. Systematic Review Registration http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001717. PMID:23284879

Wang, Xue-Qiang; Zheng, Jie-Jiao; Yu, Zhuo-Wei; Bi, Xia; Lou, Shu-Jie; Liu, Jing; Cai, Bin; Hua, Ying-Hui; Wu, Mark; Wei, Mao-Ling; Shen, Hai-Min; Chen, Yi; Pan, Yu-Jian; Xu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Pei-Jie

2012-01-01

319

Blockade of TNF in vivo using cV1q antibody reduces contractile dysfunction of skeletal muscle in response to eccentric exercise in dystrophic mdx and normal mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the contribution of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to the severity of exercise-induced muscle damage and subsequent myofibre necrosis in mdx mice. Adult mdx and non-dystrophic C57 mice were treated with the mouse-specific TNF antibody cV1q before undergoing a damaging eccentric contraction protocol performed in vivo on a custom built mouse dynamometer. Muscle damage was

A. T. Piers; T. Lavin; H. G. Radley-Crabb; A. J. Bakker; M. D. Grounds; G. J. Pinniger

2011-01-01

320

Exercise in Preventionand Management of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Regular and vigorous physical exercise has been scientifically established as providing strong preventative medicine against\\u000a cancer with the potential to reduce incidence by 40%. The effect is strongest for breast and colorectal cancer; however, evidence\\u000a is accumulating for the protective influence on prostate cancer, although predominantly for more advanced disease and in older\\u000a men. Following cancer diagnosis, exercise prescription

Robert U. Newton; Daniel A. Galvão

2008-01-01

321

Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the pre-workout supplement Assault™ (MusclePharm, Denver, CO, USA) on upper and lower body muscular endurance, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, and choice reaction time in recreationally-trained males. Subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness, and focus were measured to examine associations between psychological factors and human performance. Methods Twelve recreationally-trained males participated in a 3-week investigation (mean +/- SD, age: 28 +/- 5 y, height: 178 +/- 9 cm, weight: 79.2 +/- 15.7 kg, VO2max: 45.7 +/- 7.6 ml/kg/min). Subjects reported to the human performance laboratory on three separate occasions. All participants completed a baseline/familiarization day of testing that included a maximal graded exercise test for the determination of aerobic capacity (VO2max), one-rep maximum (1-RM) for bench and leg press to determine 75% of 1-RM, choice reaction tests, and intermittent critical velocity familiarization. Choice reaction tests included the following: single-step audio and visual, one-tower stationary protocol, two-tower lateral protocol, three-tower multi-directional protocol, and three-tower multi-directional protocol with martial arts sticks. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest either the supplement (SUP) or the placebo (PL) during Visit 2. Subjects were provided with the cross-over treatment on the last testing visit. Testing occurred 20 min following ingestion of both treatments. Results Significant (p < 0.05) main effects for the SUP were observed for leg press (SUP: 13 ± 6 reps, PL: 11 ± 3 reps), perceived energy (SUP: 3.4 ± 0.9, PL: 3.1 ± 0.8), alertness (SUP: 4.0 ± 0.7, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), focus (SUP: 4.1 ± 0.6, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), choice reaction audio single-step (SUP: 0.92 ± 0.10 s, PL: 0.97 ± 0.11 s), choice reaction multi-direction 15 s (SUP: 1.07 ± 0.12 s, PL: 1.13 ± 0.14 s), and multi-direction for 30 s (SUP: 1.10 ± 0.11 s, PL: 1.14 ± 0.13 s). Conclusions Ingesting the SUP before exercise significantly improved agility choice reaction performance and lower body muscular endurance, while increasing perceived energy and reducing subjective fatigue. These findings suggest that the SUP may delay fatigue during strenuous exercise. PMID:22463603

2012-01-01

322

Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n = 18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7?yr) participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72?h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue) between the two menstrual cycle phases were small. PMID:24151587

Sipaviciene, Saule; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Kliziene, Irina; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas

2013-01-01

323

Comparison of Blood Lactate Elimination in Individuals With Paraplegia and Able-Bodied Individuals During Active Recovery From Exhaustive Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare blood lactate elimination between individuals with paraplegia (P) and able-bodied (AB) individuals after strenuous arm exercise. Methods: Eight P and 8 AB men (matched for age, height, and weight) participated in this study. Average weekly arm-training volume for P participants (eg, hand bike, wheelchair basketball) and AB participants (eg, swimming, rowing, cross-country skiing) was 4.1 ± 1.6 vs 2.8 ± 0.8 h. A maximal-arm-cranking intensity-graded exercise test to volitional exhaustion was performed by all test participants. Immediately after the exercise test, the participants performed arm cranking for another 30 minutes at a workload of one third of the maximally achieved power output. During this active recovery, mixed-capillary blood samples were taken for lactate analysis. Results: The lactate accumulation constant was significantly higher for P individuals, whereas the lactate elimination constant showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Individuals with paraplegia seem to have no disadvantages in lactate elimination after exhaustive arm exercise compared with able-bodied individuals. PMID:18533413

Leicht, Christof; Perret, Claudio

2008-01-01

324

Daily Supine LBNP Treadmill Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity During 14 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to microgravity or bed rest reduces upright exercise capacity. Exercise modes, durations, and intensities which will effectively and efficiently counteract such deconditioning are presently unresolved. We that daily supine treadmill interval training with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would prevent reduction in upright exercise capacity during 14 days of 6 deg. head-down bed rest (BR). Eight healthy male subjects underwent two 14 day BR protocols separated by 3 months. In a crossover design, subjects either remained at strict BR or performed 40 min of daily exercise consisting of supine walking and running at intensities varying from 40-80% of pre-BR upright peak oxygen uptake (VO2). LBNP during supine exercise was used to provide 1.0 to 1.2 times body weight of footward force. An incremental upright treadmill test to measure submaximal and peak exercise responses was given pre- and post-BR. In the non-exercise condition, peak VO2 and time to exhaustion were reduced 16 +/- 4% and 10 +/- 1% (p less than 0.05), respectively, from pre-BR. With LBNP exercise these variables were not significantly different (NS) from pre-BR. During submaximal treadmill speeds after BR, heart rate was higher (11 +/- 11 bpm, p less than 0.05) and respiratory exchange ratio was elevated (p less than 0.05) in the no exercise condition. Both were maintained at pre-BR levels in the LBNP exercise condition (NS from pre-BR). Since this supine treadmill interval training with addition of LBNP maintained upright exercise responses and capacity during BR, this countermeasure may also be effective during space flight.

Ertl, Andy C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Fortney, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ballard, R. E.; William, J. M.

1996-01-01

325

Neuromuscular dysfunction following eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on tremor and proprioception components of neuromuscular function. Six male and six female volunteers (aged 18-30 yr) performed 50 maximal eccentric muscle actions using the forearm flexors of the nondominant arm. Forearm flexor tremor and perception of voluntary force and joint position were monitored to assess changes in neuromuscular function. Data were analyzed using REANOVA. Serum creatine kinase activity increased from a baseline value of 68 +/- 13 IU.l-1 to 2849 +/- 852 IU.l-1 5 d after exercise (P < 0.05). This was accompanied by prolonged impaired joint range of motion (P < 0.01) and reduced maximum strength (P < 0.01). Muscle soreness peaked 3 d postexercise (P < 0.01; Wilcoxon test). Tremor amplitude was increased (P < 0.01) until 48 h after exercise, whereas the power frequency spectrum was unaffected. Perception of joint position at elbow angles of 1.57 rad (P < 0.01) and 2.09 rad (P < 0.05) and perception of force (P < 0.01) were significantly impaired when the control arm acted as the reference. Joint positions were more accurately reproduced when the experimental arm acted as its own reference. The increase in tremor amplitude and loss of proprioceptive function in the days after damage-inducing eccentric exercise suggest significant impairment of neuromuscular function. PMID:7476064

Saxton, J M; Clarkson, P M; James, R; Miles, M; Westerfer, M; Clark, S; Donnelly, A E

1995-08-01

326

Intention to Exercise in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and serious health issue that is strongly associated with excess weight. Exercise may be an effective mechanism for reducing the severity of OSA both in association with, and independent of, reduction in body weight. As such, increased exercise has been suggested as a potential intervention for OSA, particularly for patients with mild to moderate clinical severity. However, it is unknown how ready to engage in exercise patients with OSA are. Self-reported exercise intention was assessed in 206 consecutive patients attending a large tertiary sleep disorders service in Australia. Classification of the patients by Stage of Change, a construct of the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change, was supported by differences between the groups in level of habitual self-reported exercise. Cluster analysis identified 4 potential patient types, with differing profiles in perceived costs and benefits of exercise, and exercise-related self-efficacy. The validity of these patient clusters was also supported by differences between the groups in current self-reported exercise levels. The results may help to identify patients who are more likely to engage in increased exercise, and to identify barriers to exercise in patients less inclined to increase their exercise. Citation: Smith SS; Doyle G; Pascoe T et al. Intention to exercise in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):689–694. PMID:18198801

Smith, Simon S.; Doyle, Geoffrey; Pascoe, Thomas; Douglas, James A; Jorgensen, Greg

2007-01-01

327

Relationship of pulmonary arterial pressure to pulmonary haemorrhage in exercising horses.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is characterised by blood in the airways after strenuous exercise and results from stress failure of the pulmonary capillaries. The purpose of this experiment was to establish a threshold value of transmural pulmonary arterial pressure at which haemorrhage occurs in the exercising horse. Five geldings, age 4-14 years, were run in random order once every 2 weeks at 1 of 4 speeds (9, 11, 13, 15 m/s); one day with no run was used as a control. Heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and oesophageal pressure were recorded for the duration of the run. Transmural pulmonary arterial pressure was estimated by electronic subtraction of the oesophageal pressure from the intravascular pulmonary arterial pressure. Within 1 h of the run, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the red and white blood cells in the fluid were quantified. Red cell counts in the lavage fluid from horses running at 9, 11 and 13 m/s were not significantly different from the control value, but after runs at 15 m/s, red cell counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher. White cell counts were not different from control values at any speed. Analysis of red cell count vs. transmural pulmonary arterial pressure indicated that haemorrhage occurs at approximately 95 mmHg. Red cell lysis in the lavage fluid was also apparent at transmural pulmonary arterial pressures above 90 mmHg. We conclude that, in the exercising horse, a pulmonary arterial pressure threshold exists above which haemorrhage occurs, and that pressure is often exceeded during high speed sprint exercise. PMID:11037258

Langsetmo, I; Meyer, M R; Erickson, H H

2000-09-01

328

Evidence for determining the exercise prescription in patients with osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies include weight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA. The choice of the specific type and mode of delivery of the exercise should be individualized and should consider the patient's preferences. Ongoing monitoring and supervision by a health care professional are essential for patients to participate in and benefit from exercise. PMID:23445861

Gaught, Amber M; Carneiro, Kevin A

2013-02-01

329

Endometriosis and physical exercises: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Regular physical exercise seems to have protective effects against diseases that involve inflammatory processes since it induces an increase in the systemic levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts by reducing estrogen levels. Evidence has suggested that the symptoms associated with endometriosis result from a local inflammatory peritoneal reaction caused by ectopic endometrial implants. Thus, the objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between physical exercise and the prevalence and/or improvement of the symptoms associated with endometriosis. To this end, data available in PubMed (1985–2012) were surveyed using the terms “endometriosis and physical exercises”, “endometriosis and life style and physical exercises” in the English language literature. Only 6 of the 935 articles detected were included in the study. These studies tried establish a possible relationship between the practice of physical exercise and the prevalence of endometriosis. The data available are inconclusive regarding the benefits of physical exercise as a risk factor for the disease and no data exist about the potential impact of exercise on the course of the endometriosis. In addition, randomized studies are necessary. PMID:24393293

2014-01-01

330

Resistance exercise training and the orthostatic response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.

McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.

1997-01-01

331

Delta Opioid Receptors: The Link between Exercise and Cardioprotection  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the role of opioid receptor (OR) subtypes as a mechanism by which endurance exercise promotes cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Wistar rats were randomly divided into one of seven experimental groups: 1) control; 2) exercise-trained; 3) exercise-trained plus a non-selective OR antagonist; 4) control sham; 5) exercise-trained plus a kappa OR antagonist; 6) exercise-trained plus a delta OR antagonist; and 7) exercise-trained plus a mu OR antagonist. The exercised animals underwent 4 consecutive days of treadmill training (60 min/day at ?70% of maximal oxygen consumption). All groups except the sham group were exposed to an in vivo myocardial IR insult, and the myocardial infarct size (IS) was determined histologically. Myocardial capillary density, OR subtype expression, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured in the hearts of both the exercised and control groups. Exercise training significantly reduced the myocardial IS by approximately 34%. Pharmacological blockade of the kappa or mu OR subtypes did not blunt exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR-mediated infarction, whereas treatment of animals with a non-selective OR antagonist or a delta OR antagonist abolished exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exercise training enhanced the activities of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase but did not increase the left ventricular capillary density or the mRNA levels of HSP72, SOD, and catalase. In addition, exercise significantly reduced the protein expression of kappa and delta ORs in the heart by 44% and 37%, respectively. Together, these results indicate that ORs contribute to the cardioprotection conferred by endurance exercise, with the delta OR subtype playing a key role in this response. PMID:25415192

Borges, Juliana P.; Verdoorn, Karine S.; Daliry, Anissa; Powers, Scott K.; Ortenzi, Victor H.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

2014-01-01

332

Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training  

PubMed Central

Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

2013-01-01

333

Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

Hansen, Joyce

1980-01-01

334

Post-Plyometric Exercise Hypotension and Heart Rate in Normotensive Individuals: Influence of Exercise Intensity  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high, moderate and low intensity plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate responses. Methods Ten healthy normotensive men (age, 21.1±0.9 years; height, 175.8±6 cm; and body mass, 69.1±13.6 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated for three non-consecutive days in depth jump exercise from 20-cm box (low intensity [LI]), 40-cm box (moderate intensity [MI]) and 60-cm box (high intensity [HI]) for 5 sets of 20 repetitions. After each exercise session, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min for a period of 90 min. Results No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP, DBP and HR when the protocols (LI, MI and HI) were compared. The LI and HI protocols showed greater reduction in SBP at 40th-70th min of post-exercise (~9%), whereas the LI and MI protocols indicated greater reduction in DBP at 10th-50th min of post exercise (~10%). In addition, the change in the DBP for HI was not significant and the increases in the HR were similar for all intensities. Conclusion It can be concluded that a plyometric exercise (PE) can reduce SBP and DBP post-exercise and therefore we can say that PE has significant effects for reducing BP and HR or post-exercise hypotension. PMID:24799997

Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Moradkhani, Amir-Hossein

2013-01-01

335

Exercise-induced muscle damage from bench press exercise impairs arm cranking endurance performance.  

PubMed

The effects of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on the physiological, metabolic and perceptual responses during upper body arm cranking exercise are unknown. Nine physically active male participants performed 6 min of arm cranking exercise at ventilatory threshold (VT), followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) trial at a workload corresponding to 80 % of the difference between VT and [Formula: see text] 48 h after bench pressing exercise (10 × 6 repetitions at 70 % one repetition maximum) or 20 min sitting (control). Reductions in isokinetic strength and increased muscle soreness of the elbow flexors and extensors were evident at 24 and 48 h after bench pressing exercise (P < 0.05). Despite no change in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], HR and blood lactate concentration ([Bla]) between conditions (P > 0.05), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was higher during the 6 min arm cranking after bench pressing exercise compared to the control condition (P < 0.05). TTE was reduced in the treatment condition (207.2 ± 91.9 cf. 293.4 ± 75.6 s; P < 0.05), as were end [Formula: see text] (P < 0.05) and [Bla] at 0, 5 and 10 min after exercise (P < 0.05). RPE during the TTE trial was higher after bench pressing (P < 0.05), although end RPE was not different between conditions (P > 0.05). This study provides evidence that EIMD caused by bench pressing exercise increases the sense of effort during arm cranking exercise that leads to a reduced exercise tolerance. The findings have implications for individuals participating in concurrent endurance and resistance training of the upper body. PMID:22526252

Doncaster, Gregory G; Twist, Craig

2012-12-01

336

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

337

Understanding Exercise Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise dependence represents a condition in which an individual exercises excessively, often to the detriment of his or\\u000a her physical and psychological health and wellbeing. Despite substantial investigation of this phenomenon, researchers have\\u000a only recently developed conceptually sound diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence, and have yet to determine a suitably\\u000a convincing mechanism or explanation for its onset and development. Likewise,

Jeremy Adams

2009-01-01

338

Solutions for the Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For all the exercises in the book we provide solutions. These solutions are intended to help those who actively work on the\\u000a exercises to check the correctness of their solutions. In the spirit of Leonardo da Vinci’s saying “Studying without passion\\u000a damages the brain!”, we want to encourage the reader to really work on the exercises before peeking into the

Wolfgang Ertel

339

EVA Exercise Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California.

1990-01-01

340

EVA Exercise Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights, at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California

1990-01-01

341

Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

Loerch, Linda H.

2010-01-01

342

Exercise for the Overweight Patient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

Work, Janis A.

1990-01-01

343

The Invisible Benefits of Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether—and why—people underestimate how much they enjoy exercise. Design: Across four studies, 279 adults predicted how much they would enjoy exercising, or reported their actual feelings after exercising. Main Outcome Measures: Main outcome measures were predicted and actual enjoyment ratings of exercise routines, as well as intention to exercise. Results: Participants significantly underestimated how much they would

Matthew B. Ruby; Elizabeth W. Dunn; Andrea Perrino; Randall Gillis; Sasha Viel

2011-01-01

344

The effect of loratadine in exercise-induced asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the effect of loratadine in exercise induced asthma.Methods: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of 10 mg oral loratadine, once daily for three days in 11 children. At the end of the treatment period FEV1 was measured, and patients were exercised on a treadmill. FEV1 measurements were repeated at intervals after exercise.Results: Loratadine significantly reduced the decrease

A Baki; F Orhan

2002-01-01

345

Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain  

PubMed Central

Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.; Cotman, Carl W.

2014-01-01

346

Functional Electrical Stimulation of Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles under Varying Loads in Exercising Horses  

PubMed Central

Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVCP) is a life threatening condition and appears to be a good candidate for therapy using functional electrical stimulation (FES). Developing a working FES system has been technically difficult due to the inaccessible location and small size of the sole arytenoid abductor, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle. A naturally-occurring disease in horses shares many functional and etiological features with BVCP. In this study, the feasibility of FES for equine vocal fold paralysis was explored by testing arytenoid abduction evoked by electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were determined for innervated PCA muscle. We then tested the hypothesis that direct muscle stimulation can maintain airway patency during strenuous exercise in horses with induced transient conduction block of the laryngeal motor nerve. Six adult horses were instrumented with a single bipolar intra-muscular electrode in the left PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were within the normal range for innervated muscle at 0.55±0.38 v and 0.38±0.19 ms respectively. Intramuscular stimulation of the PCA muscle significantly improved arytenoid abduction at all levels of exercise intensity and there was no significant difference between the level of abduction achieved with stimulation and control values under moderate loads. The equine larynx may provide a useful model for the study of bilateral fold paralysis. PMID:21904620

Cheetham, Jon; Regner, Abby; Jarvis, Jonathan C.; Priest, David; Sanders, Ira; Soderholm, Leo V.; Mitchell, Lisa M.; Ducharme, Norm G.

2011-01-01

347

Functional electrical stimulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles under varying loads in exercising horses.  

PubMed

Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVCP) is a life threatening condition and appears to be a good candidate for therapy using functional electrical stimulation (FES). Developing a working FES system has been technically difficult due to the inaccessible location and small size of the sole arytenoid abductor, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle. A naturally-occurring disease in horses shares many functional and etiological features with BVCP. In this study, the feasibility of FES for equine vocal fold paralysis was explored by testing arytenoid abduction evoked by electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were determined for innervated PCA muscle. We then tested the hypothesis that direct muscle stimulation can maintain airway patency during strenuous exercise in horses with induced transient conduction block of the laryngeal motor nerve. Six adult horses were instrumented with a single bipolar intra-muscular electrode in the left PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were within the normal range for innervated muscle at 0.55±0.38 v and 0.38±0.19 ms respectively. Intramuscular stimulation of the PCA muscle significantly improved arytenoid abduction at all levels of exercise intensity and there was no significant difference between the level of abduction achieved with stimulation and control values under moderate loads. The equine larynx may provide a useful model for the study of bilateral fold paralysis. PMID:21904620

Cheetham, Jon; Regner, Abby; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Priest, David; Sanders, Ira; Soderholm, Leo V; Mitchell, Lisa M; Ducharme, Norm G

2011-01-01

348

Breast Cancer, Exercise and Acupuncture  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Breast Cancer, Exercise and Acupuncture HealthDay November 12, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Acupuncture Breast Cancer Exercise and Physical Fitness Transcript Exercise therapy and ...

349

Only Minutes a Day: Reframing Exercise Duration Affects Exercise Intentions and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies demonstrated that leading individuals to mentally reframe the time required for an exercise program (e.g., 2 hr per week) in terms of the equivalent daily amount (e.g., 17 min per day) reduced the perceived time commitment and increased people's willingness to try the program. Study 2 also identified a cognitive mechanism that mediated the effect of temporal framing on exercise

Johanna Peetz; Roger Buehler; Kathryn Britten

2011-01-01

350

Exercise-induced hypoalgesia - interval versus continuous mode.  

PubMed

Aerobic exercise at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity moderately reduces pain sensitivity and attenuates pain, even after a single session. If the analgesic effects depend on exercise intensity, then high-intensity interval exercise at 85% of maximal aerobic capacity should further reduce pain. The aim of this study was to explore the exercise-induced analgesic effects of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise and to compare them with the analgesic effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise. Twenty-nine young untrained healthy males were randomly assigned to aerobic-continuous (70% heart rate reserve (HRR)) and interval (4 × 4 min at 85% HRR and 2 min at 60% HRR between cycles) exercise modes, each lasting 30 min. Psychophysical pain tests, pressure and heat pain thresholds (HPT), and tonic heat pain (THP) were conducted before and after exercise sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. HPT increased (p = 0.056) and THP decreased (p = 0.013) following exercise unrelated to exercise type. However, the main time effect (pre-/postexercise) was a trend of increased HPT (45.6 ± 1.9 °C to 46.2 ± 1.8 °C; p = 0.082) and a significant reduction in THP (from 50.7 ± 25 to 45.9 ± 25.4 numeric pain scale; p = 0.043) following interval exercise. No significant change was found for the pressure pain threshold following either exercise type. In conclusion, interval exercise (85% HRR) has analgesic effects on experimental pain perception. This, in addition to its cardiovascular, muscular, and metabolic advantages may promote its inclusion in pain management programs. PMID:24773287

Kodesh, Einat; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

2014-07-01

351

Heat Loss Calculation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class exercise from Kirk Garrison is intended for construction students learning about home insulation and heating. The class will learn to calculate heat loss in a home by using an online home heat loss calculator. This exercise document includes student worksheets. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Garrison, Kirk

2012-03-27

352

Exercise, Mobility and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elderly population is growing both in size and in proportion of the total population. The costs to the community of the elderly being in poor health are also growing proportionately. The beneficial effects of exercise on various phys- iological and psychological parameters in the elderly have been well established. The effects of exercise on the mobility and independence of

Monica J. Daley; Warwick L. Spinks

2000-01-01

353

Exercise Adherence. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses exercise adherence, noting its vital role in maximizing the benefits associated with physical activity. Information is presented on the following: (1) factors that influence adherence to self-monitored programs of regular exercise (childhood eating habits, and psychological, physical, social, and situational factors); (2)…

Sullivan, Pat

354

Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

Mills, Brett D.; And Others

355

Exercise through Menopause.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

Stuhr, Robyn M.

2002-01-01

356

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise)  

E-print Network

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise) Model quality, validation exercise. You will need a web link to MolProbity (with Java), and the file 1JIRon1S83_Arg66_supr.kin download- ed from the kinemage.biochem.duke.edu BCH681 web site, or from Sakai. Part 1: MolProbity Go to the MolProbity web

Richardson, David

357

Exercise in Behavioral Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the preventive and rehabilitative applications of exercise and literature on exercise adherence from the past 10 years are briefly reviewed. Although there is now substantial evidence that a low level of physical activity is associated with decreased life expectancy for both men and women and contributes independently to the development of many prevalent chronic diseases, most adults and

Patricia M. Dubbert

1992-01-01

358

Exercise Against Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

1998-01-01

359

Effect of Acute Exercise on Prostate Cancer Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including aggressive prostate cancer. The mechanisms mediating the effects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modifications of endogenous hormone levels. Long-term exercise is known to reduce serum levels of growth stimulating hormones. In contrast, the endocrine effects of acute endurance exercise include increased levels of mitogenic factors such as GH and IGF-1. It can be speculated that the elevation of serum growth factors may be detrimental to prostate cancer progression into malignancy. The incentive of the current study is to evaluate the effect of acute exercise serum on prostate cancer cell growth. We designed an exercise intervention where 10 male individuals performed 60 minutes of bicycle exercise at increasing intensity. Serum samples were obtained before (rest serum) and after completed exercise (exercise serum). The established prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was exposed to exercise or rest serum. Exercise serum from 9 out of 10 individuals had a growth inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Incubation with pooled exercise serum resulted in a 31% inhibition of LNCaP growth and pre-incubation before subcutaneous injection into SCID mice caused a delay in tumor formation. Serum analyses indicated two possible candidates for the effect; increased levels of IGFBP-1 and reduced levels of EGF. In conclusion, despite the fear of possible detrimental effects of acute exercise serum on tumor cell growth, we show that even the short-term effects seem to add to the overall beneficial influence of exercise on neoplasia. PMID:23861774

Rundqvist, Helene; Augsten, Martin; Stromberg, Anna; Rullman, Eric; Mijwel, Sara; Kharaziha, Pedram; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Gustafsson, Thomas; Ostman, Arne

2013-01-01

360

ACE ID genotype affects blood creatine kinase response to eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

Unaccustomed exercise may cause muscle breakdown with marked increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. The skeletal muscle renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in exercise metabolism and tissue injury. A functional insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene (rs4646994) has been associated with ACE activity. We hypothesized that ACE ID genotype may contribute to the wide variability in individuals' CK response to a given exercise. Young individuals performed maximal eccentric contractions of the elbow flexor muscles. Pre- and postexercise CK activity was determined. ACE genotype was significantly associated with postexercise CK increase and peak CK activity. Individuals harboring one or more of the I allele had a greater increase and higher peak CK values than individuals with the DD genotype. This response was dose-dependent (mean +/- SE U/L: II, 8,882 +/- 2,362; ID, 4,454 +/- 1,105; DD, 2,937 +/- 753, ANOVA, P = 0.02; P = 0.009 for linear trend). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis, which included age, sex, body mass index, and genotype subtypes, revealed that ACE genotype was the most powerful independent determinant of peak CK activity (adjusted odds ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.64, P = 0.02). In conclusion, we indicate a positive association of the ACE ID genotype with CK response to strenuous exercise. We suggest that the II genotype imposes increased risk for developing muscle damage, whereas the DD genotype may have protective effects. These findings support the role of local RAS in the regulation of exertional muscle injury. PMID:17885020

Yamin, Chen; Amir, Offer; Sagiv, Moran; Attias, Eric; Meckel, Yoav; Eynon, Nir; Sagiv, Michael; Amir, Ruthie E

2007-12-01

361

Physical exercise and health.  

PubMed

Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals. PMID:25172071

Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique

2014-09-01

362

Sensorimotor gating and anxiety: Prepulse inhibition following acute exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined whether gating related deficits among individuals with high trait anxiety could be moderated by an acute bout of exercise. Low (LA) and high (HA) trait anxious participants engaged in either a quiet rest or an exercise session on separate occasions. Replicating previous findings, HA participants exhibited significantly reduced PPI at lead intervals of 30 and 60 ms relative

Aaron R. Duley; Charles H. Hillman; Stephen Coombes; Christopher M. Janelle

2007-01-01

363

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

364

Clinical utility of exercise training in chronic systolic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume of literature attesting to the clinical benefits of exercise training in patients with stable chronic heart failure (CHF) is substantial. Training can improve symptoms and exercise capacity, as well as reducing morbidity, mortality, and rates of emergency hospitalization. These benefits are apparent in all patients with stable CHF, irrespective of age or sex, or the etiology or severity

Andrew J. Stewart Coats

2011-01-01

365

PRESCRIBING AN EXERCISE PROGRAM AND MOTIVATING OLDER ADULTS TO COMPLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is strong experimental evidence to indicate that regular exercise can prevent disease, decrease the risk of falling, reduce physical disability, improve sleep, and enhance mood and general well being. Despite these benefits, approximately 50% of sedentary adults who start an exercise program stop within the first six months of involvement. To help older adults initiate and adhere to a

Barbara Resnick

2001-01-01

366

Intervention Study of Exercise for Depressive Symptoms in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: Clinical depression affects millions of women annually. Exercise has been studied as a potential antidepressant, with most studies supporting its efficacy. Ex- ercise also has the potential to reduce the risk for physical comorbidities that occur with de- pression. However, less is known about the types of exercise programs to which women with depressive symptoms will adhere.

Lynette L. Craft; Karen M. Freund; Larry Culpepper; Frank M. Perna

2007-01-01

367

Development and qualitative assessment of the GAMECycle exercise system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased physical activity is important for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, among people with disabilities, inactivity is prevalent. In order to encourage exercise among members of this group, an exercise system combining arm ergometry with video gaming, called the GAMECycle was previously developed. User input was received through an arm crank ergometer on a swivel, with the angular

Songfeng Guo; Garrett G. Grindle; Erica L. Authier; Rory A. Cooper; Shirley G. Fitzgerald; Annmarie Kelleher; Rosemarie Cooper

2006-01-01

368

Leg Immersion in Warm Water, Stretch-Shortening Exercise, and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage  

PubMed Central

Context: Whether muscle warming protects against exercise-induced muscle damage is unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise on the time course of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. Design: Crossover trial. Setting: Human kinetics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven healthy, untrained men (age ?=? 21.5 ± 1.7 years). Intervention(s): Participants' legs were immersed in a water bath at 44 ± 1°C for 45 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Creatine kinase changes in the blood, muscle soreness, prolonged (within 72 hours) impairment in maximal voluntary contraction force and height of drop jump, and electrically evoked muscle force at low and high stimulation frequencies at short and long muscle lengths. Results: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage, including creatine kinase activity in the blood, muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction force, and jump height. The values for maximal voluntary contraction force and jump height, however, were higher during prewarming than for the control condition at 48 hours after stretch-shortening exercise, but this difference was only minor at other time points. Muscle prewarming did not bring about any changes in the dynamics of low-frequency fatigue, registered at either short or long muscle length, within 72 hours of stretch-shortening exercise. Conclusions: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, the clinical application of muscle prewarming may be limited, because decreasing muscle damage did not necessarily lead to improved voluntary performance. PMID:19030137

Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Streckis, Vytautas; Mamkus, Gediminas; Drazdauskas, Adomas

2008-01-01

369

Estimating the Energy Costs of Intermittent Exercise  

PubMed Central

To date, steady state models represent the only acceptable methodology for the estimation of exercise energy costs. Conversely, comparisons made between continuous and intermittent exercise generally reveal major physiological discrepancies, leading to speculation as to why steady state energy expenditure models should be applied to intermittent exercise. Under intermittent conditions, skeletal muscle invokes varying aerobic and anaerobic metabolic responses, each with the potential to make significant contributions to overall energy costs. We hypothesize that if the aerobic-only energetic profile of steady state exercise can be used to estimate the energetics of non-steady state and intermittent exercise, then the converse also must be true. In fact, reasonable estimates of energy costs to work volumes or work rates can be demonstrated under steady state, non-steady state and intermittent conditions; the problem with the latter two is metabolic variability. Using resistance training as a model, estimates of both aerobic and anaerobic energy cost components, as opposed to one or the other, have reduced the overall energetic variability that appears inherent to brief, intense, intermittent exercise models. PMID:24235988

Scott, Christopher B.; Fountaine, Charles

2013-01-01

370

Exercise in osteoarthritis: moving from prescription to adherence.  

PubMed

Exercise is recommended for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) in all clinical guidelines irrespective of disease severity, pain levels, and functional status. For knee OA, evidence supports the benefits of various types of exercise for improving pain and function in the short term. However, there is much less research investigating the effects of exercise in patients with OA at other joints such as the hip and hand. It is important to note that while the magnitude of exercise benefits may be considered small to moderate, these effects are comparable to reported estimates for simple analgesics and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for OA pain but exercise has much fewer side effects. Exercise prescription should be individualized based on assessment findings and be patient centered involving shared decision making between the patient and clinician. Given that patient adherence to exercise declines over time, appropriate attention should be pain as reduced adherence attenuates the benefits of exercise. Given this, barriers and facilitators to exercise should be identified and strategies to maximize long-term adherence to exercise implemented. PMID:24792947

Bennell, Kim L; Dobson, Fiona; Hinman, Rana S

2014-02-01

371

Exercise performance during captopril and atenolol treatment in hypertensive patients.  

PubMed Central

1. Maximal aerobic exercise capacity, submaximal endurance exercise performance, and exercise haemodynamics have been studied in sixteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension during treatment with captopril and atenolol. 2. Administration of atenolol (1 x 100 mg day-1) or captopril (1 x 100 mg day-1) for 6 weeks resulted in similar supine and erect systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Heart rate was significantly lower during atenolol treatment. 3. Exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment, exercise diastolic blood pressure (at 100W) did not differ significantly. With atenolol exercise cardiac output was significantly lower and exercise stroke volume significantly higher than with captopril. 4. Maximal work rate, maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment (respectively 6%, 8% and 25%). Maximal respiratory exchange ratio and lactate concentration did not differ. 5. No statistically significant difference in submaximal endurance time between atenolol and captopril was found. Endurance time was reduced by 19% during atenolol and by 13% during captopril as compared with placebo. No difference in rating of perceived exertion between atenolol and captopril was present. 6. The results indicate that atenolol will reduce blood pressure during exercise more effectively than captopril in patients with hypertension. The limitation of submaximal endurance exercise performance by both agents is of similar magnitude. This may be regarded as an unwanted side effect in certain physically active patients with hypertension. PMID:1768565

Van Baak, M A; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T; Tan, E S

1991-01-01

372

Exercise: a neglected intervention in mental health care?  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a literature review examining the effects of exercise on mental health and well-being. Throughout history many societies, ancient and modern, have used exercise as a means of preventing disease, and promoting health and well-being. There is evidence that exercise is beneficial for mental health; it reduces anxiety, depression, and negative mood, and improves self-esteem and cognitive functioning. Exercise is also associated with improvements in the quality of life of those living with schizophrenia. However, exercise is seldom recognized by mainstream mental health services as an effective intervention in the care and treatment of mental health problems. There is evidence to suggest that exercise may be a neglected intervention in mental health care. PMID:15255923

Callaghan, P

2004-08-01

373

Exercise and osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

2009-01-01

374

Discrete Optimization 2012. Exercises 9-11 Exercise 9.  

E-print Network

on the combinatorial polytope. (Motivation: This is an easy way to strengthen the cover inequalities.) Exercise 10Discrete Optimization 2012. Exercises 9-11 Exercise 9. (Optional, more special.) In the 0 this dual problem provide some useful information for the primal problem? Exercise 11. Derive the Lagrangian

Damaschke, Peter

375

"It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

2000-01-01

376

Mood Benefits of Exercise Among College Students  

E-print Network

relationship Short bouts of exercise yield considerable psychological benefits; improving mood by reducing of major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(7), 587-596. Brown, S. A. (2005). Measuring-116. Champman, G.B. (1998). Sooner or later: The psychology of intertemporal choice. In D. L. Medin (Ed

New Hampshire, University of

377

Is "Activity" as Good as Exercise?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have long understood the relationship between exercise and cardiovascular fitness, but now they are looking into the potential of activity as the key to health. Activity is seen by the federal government as a way to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. (Author/MT)

Monahan, Terry

1987-01-01

378

Osteoporosis: What is the Role of Exercise?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has not yet identified the best combination of estrogen replacement, calcium, and exercise for fighting osteoporosis, but clinical experience indicates all are needed to prevent the rapid bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women. Physicians must encourage women to reduce their risk using all available options. (SM)

Munnings, Frances

1992-01-01

379

Does vigorous exercise have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson disease?  

PubMed Central

Parkinson disease (PD) is progressive, with dementia and medication-refractory motor problems common reasons for late-stage nursing-home placement. Increasing evidence suggests that ongoing vigorous exercise/physical fitness may favorably influence this progression. Parkinsonian animal models reveal exercise-related protection from dopaminergic neurotoxins, apparently mediated by brain neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity (predicted from in vitro studies). Similarly, exercise consistently improves cognition in animals, also linked to enhanced neuroplasticity and increased neurotrophic factor expression. In these animal models, immobilization has the opposite effect. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate at least some of this exercise benefit. In humans, exercise increases serum BDNF, and this is known to cross the blood–brain barrier. PD risk in humans is significantly reduced by midlife exercise, documented in large prospective studies. No studies have addressed whether exercise influences dementia risk in PD, but exercised patients with PD improve cognitive scores. Among seniors in general, exercise or physical fitness has not only been associated with better cognitive scores, but midlife exercise significantly reduces the later risk of both dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Finally, numerous studies in seniors with and without dementia have reported increased cerebral gray matter volumes associated with physical fitness or exercise. These findings have several implications for PD clinicians. 1) Ongoing vigorous exercise and physical fitness should be highly encouraged. 2) PD physical therapy programs should include structured, graduated fitness instruction and guidance for deconditioned patients with PD. 3) Levodopa and other forms of dopamine replenishment therapy should be utilized to achieve the maximum capability and motivation for patients to maintain fitness. PMID:21768599

2011-01-01

380

The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage following high-force eccentric exercise in men randomly administered Cr or placebo. Results indicated that 5 days of Cr supplementation did not reduce indirect makers of muscle damage or enhance recovery from high-force eccentric exercise.…

Rawson, Eric S.; Gunn, Bridget; Clarkson, Priscilla M.

2001-01-01

381

Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo

John Rosene; Tracey Matthews; Christine Ryan; Keith Belmore; Alisa Bergsten; Jill Blaisdell; James Gaylord; Rebecca Love; Michael Marrone; Kristine Ward; Eric Wilson

2009-01-01

382

Exercise When Young Provides Lifelong Benefits to Bone Structure and Strength  

SciTech Connect

Short-term exercise in growing rodents provided lifelong benefits to bone structure, strength, and fatigue resistance. Consequently, exercise when young may reduce the risk for fractures later in life, and the old exercise adage of 'use it or lose it' may not be entirely applicable to the skeleton.

Warden,S.; Fuchs, R.; Castillo, A.; Nelson, I.; Turner, C.

2007-01-01

383

The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

2013-01-01

384

Exercise Prescriptions for Active Seniors: A Team Approach for Maximizing Adherence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercise is an important "medication" that healthcare providers can prescribe for their geriatric patients. Increasing physical fitness by participating in regular exercise can reduce the effects of aging that lead to functional declines and poor health. Modest regular exercise can substantially lower the risk of death from coronary artery…

Brennan, Fred H., Jr.

2002-01-01

385

Sodium-sensitivity and exercise training-induced blood pressure reduction in older hypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise training has been shown to reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but individual responses are variable. Blood pressure responses to sodium loading are also heterogeneous. No studies have determined if sodium-sensitivity status differentially affects the blood pressure response to exercise training. Thus, we sought to determine whether blood pressure reductions with exercise training are different between sodium-sensitive (SS)

Jung-Jun Park; Michael D. Brown; Donald R. Dengel; Mark A. Supiano

2001-01-01

386

Exercise Thermoregulation in Men after One and 24-hours of 6 Degree Head-Down Tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exercise thermoregulation exercise is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise.

Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weldhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1998-01-01

387

Aerobic Exercise Training for Depressive Symptom Management in Adults Living With HIV Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic exercise training may help prevent or reduce depressive symptoms experienced by persons living with HIV infection. However, the psychological effects of aerobic exercise have not been studied exten- sively. This study evaluated the effects of an aerobic exercise training program on self-reported symptoms of depression in HIV-infected adults and examined the convergent validity of two widely used depressive symptom

Judith L. Neidig; Barbara A. Smith; Dale E. Brashers

2003-01-01

388

Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers.  

PubMed

The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20?minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity. PMID:24879888

Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

2014-10-01

389

Electromyographic Activity of the Biceps Brachii After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage  

PubMed Central

It is well known that strenuous eccentric exercise may result in muscle damage. We proposed that vigorous eccentric exercise (EE) would impair myoelectric activity of the biceps brachii. This study utilised a 7-day prospective time-series design. Ten healthy males performed a session of 70 maximal EE elbow flexion contractions. Analysis of surface electromyography activity (sEMG) was performed on the signals recorded during isometric contractions at 50% (IC50) and 80% (IC80) of maximum voluntary isometric torque (MVT), deriving RMS and MDF as sEMG parameters. Linear regression of the RMS and MDF time-series (20-s sustained IC50 and IC80) was used to extract intercepts and slopes of these signals on each day. Plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), MVT, arm circumference, subjective perception of soreness and elbow joint range of motion were also measured to assess effectiveness of EE to evoke muscle damage. CK increased over resting values until day 5 after EE, and remained significantly (p < 0.05) elevated even on day 7. MVT had decreased to 45% of its initial value by day 2 after EE, and remained significantly depressed for the following 6 days. In addition, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased, and range of motion decreased after EE. A significant shift of MDF intercept towards lower frequencies at both IC50 and IC80 was observed after EE in the exercised arm, and these values gradually recovered within the next 3 days during IC50. Although there were some changes in RMS values, these alterations were persistent in both control and exercised arms, and did not follow a consistent pattern. In conclusion, a prolonged reduction in MDF intercept was observed after EE, but this was not closely time-associated with the biochemical, anthropometric or functional markers of muscle damage. Compared to RMS, MDF was a more consistent measure to reflect changes in sEMG. Key pointsEMG can be a useful tool to detect exercise-induced muscle damage,MDF decreased after eccentric exercise,This decrease could be related to a reduction in the recruitment of fast twitch fibres, andCompared to RMS, MDF was a more consistent parameter to reflect the changes in EMG after eccentric exercise. PMID:24149479

Ahmadi, Sirous; Sinclair, Peter J.; Foroughi, Nasim; Davis, Glen M.

2007-01-01

390

A guide to exercise prescription.  

PubMed

Exercise is a fundamental component of good health. The American College of Sports Medicine and "Exercise is Medicine" recommend treating exercise as a vital sign, and assessing and prescribing physical activity at every medical visit. Meeting the recommended goals of physical activity results in a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. Physicians can improve health by prescribing exercise. PMID:24209719

Crookham, Jason

2013-12-01

391

Exercise: Issues for prescribing psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise has been associated with many psychological and physiological benefits. Increasing numbers of psychologists wish to prescribe exercise for their clients. The article warns that to do so requires special training. The author reviews the issues involved in exercise prescription: benefits and risks, nonadherence, exercise ignorance, safety, professional domain violations, ethical responsibility, and legal liability. The review concludes with recommendations

Mary Clearing-sky

1988-01-01

392

Physiological and Mood Changes Induced by Exercise Withdrawal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Participation in regular exercise has been associated with decreased prevalence of depressed mood, whereas transient periods of reduced activity result in decreased fitness. However, most research in these areas is limited by cross-sectional designs precl...

2004-01-01

393

[Female physiology during exercise].  

PubMed

Physiological responses and adaptations of women to exercise are influenced by her genetically determined morphological and functional characteristics, and by her level of physical fitness. Physiological responses of women during submaximal and maximal exercise differ quantitatively from those of men but adaptations to training are qualitatively similar in both. Studies demonstrate that differences between the sexes in performance of athletic events that require high aerobic or anaerobic capacity are due, to a large extent, to differences in body structure and composition: the average woman is smaller and lighter and has less muscle mass than the average man. These characteristics influence physiologic responses of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems during exercise. This article describes physiological responses of women during exercise in relation to her sex related morphological characteristics, and the adaptations that occur with physical training. PMID:2270262

Rivera Brown, A M

1990-04-01

394

Adventures in Exercise Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. The SALGains evaluation was used to compare the two approaches and significant improvements

Fitzpatrick, Kathleen A.

2004-09-01

395

Exercise in Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students expressed strong positive feelings about inquiry-based teaching methods the authors developed and implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Inquiry-based learning resulted in a higher order of learning not typically o

Mason, Cheryl L.; Dipasquale, Dana M.; Kolkhorst, Fred W.

2003-03-01

396

Hand and Finger Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

397

Exercise for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... of physical activity every day. Regular exercise helps children Feel less stressed Feel better about themselves Feel more ready to learn in school Keep a healthy weight Build and keep healthy bones, muscles and ...

398

Exercise and Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercise and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the ... until a bone breaks. Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. It is more common in women, but men ...

399

Exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Exercise training remains a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The choice of type of exercise training depends on the physiologic requirements and goals of the individual patient as well as the available equipment at the PR center. Current evidence suggests that, at ground walking exercise training, Nordic walking exercise training, resistance training, water-based exercise training, tai chi, and nonlinear periodized exercise are all feasible and effective in (subgroups) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In turn, these exercise training modalities can be considered as part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary PR program. PMID:24874127

Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Klijn, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A

2014-06-01

400

Diabetes mellitus and exercise.  

PubMed

The study deals with the subject of exercise in diabetic patients, with particular emphasis on acute physical stress in type--I and type--II diabetics. The principal task was to define metabolic changes as they occur in the diabetic subjected to acute stress induced by exercise, in comparison with non-diabetics; metabolic changes during prolonged stress as well as during the period of rest; and finally, to propose, on the basis of authors' experimental results and detailed literature research, appropriate rules of procedure for prescriptive exercise for the individual patient. There were 120 subjects divided into 8 groups. Using primarily a bicycle ergometer, the members of the individual groups were subjected to physical stress of various intensity and duration. A detailed analysis of each subject's metabolic response was performed, involving an assessment of 35 physiological and biochemical parameters, with main focus on determining biochemical changes. The study results are presented in detail both with respect to the metabolic response to a given stress in individual groups and comparatively for individual parameters with regard to specific stress rates and groups. Significant differences were found in the metabolic responses concerning the following parameters: acid-base balance, potassium, triglycerols, glucose, cholesterol, FFA, free glycerol, lactate, uric acid. On the basis of the results of experimental measurements, the following algorithm has been designed for prescribing exercise to diabetics: appropriate motivation; determination of the type of exercise; determination of the intensity of exercise; determination of the duration of exercise; respecting related contraindications and complications. A conclusion has been made that provided all possible risks and contraindications as well as prescription guidelines are respected, exercise is to be considered one of the basic principles of diabetes management. PMID:3673832

Rybka, J

1987-01-01

401

Exercise-Induced Hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The consequences of physical activity on the brain can readily be integrated into a hormetic framework. Whereas low- to moderate-intensity\\u000a exercise exerts positive effects on the body, excessive exercise can be detrimental for somatic health. Here we review the\\u000a evidence linking physical activity with cellular and functional modifications in different organ systems, with a focus on\\u000a the dose-response characteristics of

Alexis M. Stranahan; Mark P. Mattson

402

Secure Cabin Exercise Briefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of a simulation exercise designed to determine the estimated time required to configure a commercial aircraft cabin for safe transit of atmospheric turbulence. Simulations are to be carried out in a number of wide-body and narrow-body aircraft cabins using professional cabin crews and paid passenger subjects. A number of variables are considered including passenger load, flight attendant compliment, cabin class and cabin activities. Various scenarios are also being played out in the exercises.

Bogue, Rod

2003-01-01

403

Hypertension and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In normal children, the physiologic blood pressure response to exercise is complex, involving increases in stroke volume and\\u000a heart rate, changes in peripheral resistance, and a response to sympathetic output. With dynamic exercise, the increase in\\u000a cardiac output is accompanied by a continuous steep rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, a small decrease in diastolic\\u000a blood pressure, and

Rae-Ellen W. Kavey

404

Inverted Troughs Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise follows the progression of a winter weather event across the Central Plains states beginning 1200 UTC on 7 March 1999. Each forecast question is accompanied by Eta model data and includes a forecast discussion by Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This exercise compliments the Webcast, Inverted Troughs and their Associated Precipitation Regimes, based on a presentation by Phil Schumacher at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder Colorado.

Comet

2004-01-29

405

Virtual Five Animals Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Virtual Five Animals Exercise is an interactive game which is an important part of Virtual Olympic Museum for the Games of\\u000a the XXIX Olympiad. Users can learn and imitate Five Animals Exercise without any interactive device. To do these, we make\\u000a use of motion capture data to drive the virtual human motion, and use template matching method to recognize users’

Yue Qi; Xu-kun Shen; Qin-ping Zhao

2006-01-01

406

Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.  

PubMed

Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ?65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. PMID:25123196

Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

2014-10-01

407

Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

1992-01-01

408

Acute Effects of Competitive Exercise on Risk-Taking In A Sample of Adolescent Male Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise acutely reduces cravings for tobacco and alcohol, but the mechanism accounting for this relationship is not fully understood. To explore exercise's effects on general risk-taking, we compared the performances of twenty adolescent male athletes on the balloon analog risk task (BART) immediately after periods of exercise (playing tennis) and rest. Statistically significant risk-taking effects were observed post-exercise. The established

Anne C. Black; Edward Hochman; Marc I. Rosen

2012-01-01

409

Review of Tai Chi as an Effective Exercise on Falls Prevention in Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of accidental falls and fall-related injuries increases with age. Regular physical exercises can delay the age-related changes affecting postural balance and reduce the risk of falls. Although Tai Chi (TC) has become a popular exercise among the elderly, does regular TC exercise lead to fewer falls and fall-related injuries? Who would receive the most benefit from TC exercise?

Molly M. Schleicher; Lauren Wedam; Ge Wu

2012-01-01

410

Bone health across the lifespan--exercising our options.  

PubMed

Exercise is frequently extolled as an osteoporosis treatment. In reality, the use of exercise as an osteoporosis intervention lies more in its ability to: 1) maximize peak bone mass attained in youth; 2) maintain bone mass or reduce age-related bone loss; and 3) preserve muscle strength and postural stability to reduce the risk of falling and fracturing in the later years. PMID:12882476

Beck, Belinda R; Snow, Christine M

2003-07-01

411

Exercise, bone and nutrition.  

PubMed

Predisposition to poor skeletal health resulting in osteoporotic fracture is a major public health problem, the future economical impact of which is likely to be phenomenal. Two mechanisms principally determine adult bone health: (1) maximum attainment of peak bone mass (PBM); (2) the rate of bone loss with advancing age. Both aspects are regulated by a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors, and although genetic influences are believed to account for up to 75% of the variation in bone mass, there is still room for modifiable factors to play a vital role. Weight-bearing physical activity is beneficial to the skeleton, but clarification of the exact type, intensity and duration required for optimum bone mass is needed. Excessive levels of exercise, which result in amenorrhoea, are detrimental to skeletal health. The importance of Ca to bone remains controversial. There is evidence that Ca is effective in reducing late post-menopausal bone loss, but more research is required on the long-term benefit of increased Ca intake on PBM attainment. Vitamin D 'insufficiency' appears to be widespread amongst population groups and is an area of considerable public health concern. The role of other micronutrients on bone metabolism remains to be fully quantified, but data from a combination of experimental, clinical and observational studies suggest a positive link between alkaline-forming foods and indices of bone health. The influence of nutrient-gene interactions on the skeleton requires further elucidation, but it may be useful in the future to target nutrition advice at those individuals who are genetically susceptible to osteoporosis. PMID:11681642

New, S A

2001-05-01

412

Embodied intervention reduce depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

2011-10-01

413

Exercise as medicine: Role in the management of primary hypertension.  

PubMed

Primary hypertension affects ?1 in 5 Canadians and significantly increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and early mortality. Guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend lifestyle modifications (e.g., increased physical activity, smoking cessation, moderate alcohol consumption, improved dietary choices) as the frontline strategy to prevent and manage high blood pressure (BP). In particular, acute and chronic aerobic exercise has consistently been shown to reduce resting and ambulatory BP, with the largest effects in hypertensive patients. Current guidelines recommend 30-60 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise 4-7 days per week, in addition to activities of daily living. The role of resistance training in the management of hypertension is less clear, although available data suggests resistance exercise can be performed safely without risk of increasing BP or adverse events. Presently, resistance exercise (8-10 exercises, 1-2 set(s) of 10-15 repetitions, 2-3 days/week) is advocated only as an adjunct exercise modality. Patients desiring to begin an exercise program should complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q or PAR-Q+) or as required, the Electronic Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination (ePARmed-X) or Physician Clearance Form in consultation with their clinician and (or) trained exercise professional. A greater emphasis on utilizing exercise as medicine will produce positive nonpharmacologic benefits for hypertensive patients and improve overall cardiovascular risk profiles. PMID:24773307

Millar, Philip J; Goodman, Jack M

2014-07-01

414

The Influence of "wuqinxi" exercises on the Lumbosacral Multifidus  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To investigate the effect of the five animals (wuqinxi) exercises on the lumbosacral multifidus. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled two groups of volunteers, 15 volunteers who did the five animals exercises, the experimental group, and 15 volunteers who did aerobic exercise (walking), the control group. Both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention, the average surface electromyography (ASEMG) of the two groups in the process of ?exion and extension was recorded and analyzed using DASYLab10.0 software, and the flexion extension ratio (FER) was calculated. [Results] The ASEMG in the process of flexion was lower than the ASEMG in the process of extension both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention on both sides of all volunteers. There was no significant difference in FER between the experimental group and control group before the 1?year exercise intervention; however, the FER of experimental group was lower than that of the control group after the 1?year exercise intervention. There was no significant difference between the two sides in any individual both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention in both groups. [Conclusion] The “wuqinxi” exercises improved the function of the lumbosacral multifidus, and might be an alternative method of reducing low back pain. PMID:25013288

Zhang, Feng; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Jing

2014-01-01

415

The Influence of "wuqinxi" exercises on the Lumbosacral Multifidus.  

PubMed

[Purpose] To investigate the effect of the five animals (wuqinxi) exercises on the lumbosacral multifidus. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled two groups of volunteers, 15 volunteers who did the five animals exercises, the experimental group, and 15 volunteers who did aerobic exercise (walking), the control group. Both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention, the average surface electromyography (ASEMG) of the two groups in the process of ?exion and extension was recorded and analyzed using DASYLab10.0 software, and the flexion extension ratio (FER) was calculated. [Results] The ASEMG in the process of flexion was lower than the ASEMG in the process of extension both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention on both sides of all volunteers. There was no significant difference in FER between the experimental group and control group before the 1?year exercise intervention; however, the FER of experimental group was lower than that of the control group after the 1?year exercise intervention. There was no significant difference between the two sides in any individual both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention in both groups. [Conclusion] The "wuqinxi" exercises improved the function of the lumbosacral multifidus, and might be an alternative method of reducing low back pain. PMID:25013288

Zhang, Feng; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Jing

2014-06-01

416

Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core temperature after deconditioning appears to be caused by decreased peripheral vasodilation in humans. Factors related to glucose metabolism may influence this mechanism.

Greenleaf, J. E.

1997-01-01

417

Assessment and prevention of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.  

PubMed

The assessment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in athletes requires the measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) before and after vigorous exercise or a surrogate of exercise such as eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) of dry air or mannitol dry powder. Exercise testing in a laboratory has a low sensitivity to identify EIB, and exercise testing in the field can be a challenge in itself particularly in cold weather athletes. The EVH test requires the subject to ventilate dry air containing ?5% CO(2) for 6 min through a low-resistance circuit at a rate higher than that usually achieved on maximum exercise. A ?10% reduction in FEV(1) is a positive response to exercise and EVH and, when sustained, is usually associated with release of inflammatory mediators of broncho constriction. Another surrogate, mannitol dry powder, given by inhalation in progressively increasing doses, is used to mimic the dehydrating stimulus of exercise hyperpnoea. A positive mannitol test is a 15% fall in FEV(1) at ?635 mg and reveals potential for EIB. Mannitol has a high specificity for identifying a clinical diagnosis of asthma. Once a diagnosis of EIB is established, the athlete needs to know how to avoid EIB. Being treated daily with an inhaled corticosteroid to reduce airway inflammation, inhaling a ?(2) agonist or a cromone immediately before exercise, or taking a leukotriene antagonist several hours before exercise, all inhibit or prevent EIB. Other strategies include warming up prior to exercise and reducing respiratory water and heat loss by using face masks or nasal breathing. PMID:22247297

Anderson, Sandra D; Kippelen, Pascale

2012-05-01