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Sample records for strenuous exercise reduce

  1. Strenuous Exercise During Pregnancy: Is There a Limit?

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Linda M.; Satin, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate fetal responses to strenuous exercise in physically active and inactive women. Study Design 45 healthy women (15 Non-Exercisers, 15 Regularly Active, 15 Highly Active) underwent a peak treadmill test at 28-0/7 to 32-6/7 weeks. Fetal well-being [umbilical artery Dopplers, fetal heart tracing/rate, biophysical profile (BPP)] was evaluated pre and post-exercise. Uterine artery Dopplers were also obtained. Results Umbilical and uterine artery Doppler indices were similar among activity groups and did not change with exercise (P>.05). BPP and fetal heart tracings were reassuring in all groups. However, subgroup analyses showed transient post-exercise fetal heart rate decelerations and elevated umbilical and uterine artery Doppler indices in 5 Highly Active women. Following this, BPP and fetal heart tracings were reassuring. Conclusions Overall fetal well-being is reassuring after short-duration, strenuous exercise in both active and inactive pregnant women. A subset of Highly Active women experienced transient fetal heart rate decelerations and Doppler changes immediately after exercise. Athletes may push beyond a threshold intensity at which fetal well-being may be compromised. However, potential impact on neonatal outcomes is unknown. PMID:22939718

  2. The apoptotic response to strenuous exercise of the gastrocnemius and solues muscle fibers in rats.

    PubMed

    Koçtürk, S; Kayatekin, B M; Resmi, H; Açikgöz, O; Kaynak, C; Ozer, E

    2008-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on apoptosis of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle fibers and clarify the role of oxidative metabolism in the strenuous exercise-induced apoptosis. The experiment was designed with 49 (n = 49) male, 24-week-old, L. Wistar albino rats. Strenuous exercise model was applied to 42 (n = 42) rats and seven (n = 7) rats served as rested controls. All rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups (n = 7): rested control (C), immediately after exercise (0 h) and 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after exercise. Apoptotic nuclei were shown by single stranded DNA (ssDNA) determination. Oxidative damage in mitochondrial fractions of the muscle tissues was evaluated by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratios. Caspase-9, -8 and -3 activities and the level of cytochrome c (Cyt c) were measured in the cytosolic fractions of muscle tissues to follow mitochondrial-dependent (intrinsic) or ligand-mediated death receptor (extrinsic) pathways of apoptosis. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were also determined. Based on our results, apoptosis is significantly triggered in muscle fibers by strenuous exercise (P < 0.05). Apoptosis in the soleus muscle tissues mostly depends on the intrinsic pathway and may be triggered by increased oxidative stress. In contrast, extrinsic pathway of apoptosis was predominant in the gastrocnemius muscle and increases of TNF-alpha and IL-6 may play a significant role. PMID:18030491

  3. Effect of Yoga Practice on Levels of Inflammatory Markers After Moderate and Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doreswamy, Venkatesh; Narasipur, Omkar Subbaramajois; Kunnavil, Radhika; Srinivasamurthy, Nandagudi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives To evaluate the effect of yoga practice and exercise challenge on Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and lipid profile. Materials and Methods Two hundred and eighteen subjects participated in the study. One hundred and nine volunteers (51 males and 58 females) in the age group of 20 to 60 years, who practiced yoga regularly for over five years for a period of one hour daily, performed a bout of moderate exercise and a bout of strenuous exercise as per Standardized Shuttle Walk test protocol. Anthropometrically matched, age matched and gender matched subjects, who did not practice yoga (non-yoga group) were chosen as controls (non-yoga, n=109). The non-yoga group also performed similar exercises. The blood samples of both the groups were collected before and after the exercises. TNF-? and IL-6 was analysed before and after the exercise by Sandwich ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Results Resting plasma TNF-? concentration was significantly higher in non-yoga group when compared to yoga group (p<0.05). There was an increase in TNF-? levels in both the groups in response to strenuous exercise. There was no gender difference in TNF-? and IL-6 levels before and after exercise in yoga and non-yoga groups. Conclusion Regular practice of yoga lowers basal TNF-? and IL-6 levels. It also reduces the extent of increase of TNF-? and IL-6 to a physical challenge of moderate exercise and strenuous exercise. There is no significant gender difference in the TNF-? and IL-6 levels. Regular practice of yoga can protect the individual against inflammatory diseases by favourably altering pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:26266115

  4. Chemokines are elevated in plasma after strenuous exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, K; Rohde, T; Asp, S; Schjerling, P; Pedersen, B K

    2001-03-01

    During the last few years much attention has been paid to the chemokines. Chemokine receptors are necessary to render a target permissive for infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and high concentrations of chemokines have been shown to protect against the progression of HIV disease towards death. In the present study, we investigated the capability of strenuous exercise to induce elevated plasma concentrations of the chemokines interleukin (IL)-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta. Eight male athletes completed the Copenhagen Marathon 1997. Blood was sampled before, immediately after the run and every 30 min during a 4 h recovery period. Plasma chemokine concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The IL-8, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta concentrations all peaked 0.5 h after the run when they were 6.7-fold, 3.5-fold and 4.1-fold increased, respectively. The elevated concentrations of chemokines in plasma after exercise could have implications for HIV-infected individuals; a possibility that needs further investigation. PMID:11320643

  5. Exercise-Induced Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Shunt in a Patient Complaining of Dyspnea during Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jun; Hong, Seong-Eun; Jung, Dong-Min; Choi, Nan-Young; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Park, Seung-Ah; Kim, Soon-Young; Park, Woo-Jung

    2014-01-01

    A 51-year-old highly fit man presented for dyspnea with strenuous aerobic exercise. The patient was asymptomatic and all tests were normal at rest. With increasing exercise intensity, he suddenly complained of dyspnea and showed a severe exercise-induced hypoxemia with an excessive alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference. In agitated saline contrast echocardiography at peak exercise, a large amount of left to right shunt was identified after > 5 cardiac cycles, which suggests the presence of exercise-induced intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt in this patient. PMID:25031800

  6. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study. PMID:26506374

  7. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study. PMID:26506374

  8. Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Haykowsky, Mark J; Mayne, Jonathan R; Jones, Richard L; Petersen, Stewart R

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate left-ventricular function during strenuous exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). With the use of two-dimensional echocardiography, images of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired during sustained exercise (3 x 10 min) under two conditions: 1) SCBA, or 2) low resistance breathing valve. Twenty healthy men volunteered for the study, and in each condition subjects wore fire protective equipment. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cavity areas during systole and diastole (ESCA and EDCA, respectively), esophageal pressure, ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, perceived physical, thermal and respiratory distress, and core temperature were measured at regular intervals. Urine specific gravity (<1.020 g/ml) and hematological variables were used to infer hydration status. All subjects began both trials in a euhydrated state. No differences were found between conditions for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, perceived distress, or any hematological variables. Peak expiratory esophageal pressure was always higher (P < 0.05), while EDCA and stroke area (SA) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) with the SCBA. ESCA, end-systolic transmural pressure (ESTMP), and LV contractility (ESTMP/ESCA) were similar between conditions. Sustained exercise with fire protective equipment resulted in significant reductions in EDCA, ESCA, and SA from the start of exercise, which was associated with a 6.3 +/- 0.8% reduction in plasma volume, an increase in core temperature (37.0 +/- 0.4 to 38.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C), and a significant increase in heart rate (146.9 +/- 2.1 to 181.7 +/- 2.4 beats/min) throughout exercise. The results from this study support research by others showing that increased intrathoracic pressure reduces LV preload (EDCA); however, the novelty of the present study is that when venous return is compromised by sustained exercise and heat stress, SA cannot be maintained. PMID:19008481

  9. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol. PMID:26157555

  10. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol. PMID:26157555

  11. Mechanics of breathing during strenuous exercise in Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Art, T; Anderson, L; Woakes, A J; Roberts, C; Butler, P J; Snow, D H; Lekeux, P

    1990-12-01

    The changes induced by exercise on the mechanics of breathing, as well as the simultaneous changes occurring in arterial blood gas tensions and in respiratory gas exchange were investigated in 6 healthy thoroughbred horses, performing a treadmill exercise of increasing intensity. Respiratory airflow and tidal volume (VT) were measured with ultrasonic flowmeters. Pleural pressure changes were measured by an oesophageal balloon catheter. Gas concentration of the expired air was analysed with a mass spectrometer; the oxygen consumption (VO2) and the carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were computed breath-by-breath. Arterial blood gas values were obtained by sampling from the carotid artery. Between rest and fast gallop VT, respiratory frequency, expired minute ventilation (VE), VO2, VCO2, total pulmonary resistance (RL), mechanical work of breathing (Wrm) and PaCO2 increased significantly while PaO2 decreased significantly. The Wrm.VO2(-1) ratio in galloping horses increased exponentially with VE. This, together with the relationship between the changes in PaO2 and in PaCO2 and the increase in the ventilatory mechanics parameters, suggests that the mechanics of breathing may be one of the factors constraining further increase in ventilation in exercising healthy horses. PMID:2080318

  12. The effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 30 subjects were selected, including 15 people who performed continued regular exercises and 15 people as the control group. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. The difference of mean change between groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. However, the maximal systolic blood pressure was found to be an exercise-induced high blood pressure. Thus, it is thought that a risk diagnosis for it through a regular exercise stress test is necessary. PMID:26933659

  13. The effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 30 subjects were selected, including 15 people who performed continued regular exercises and 15 people as the control group. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. The difference of mean change between groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. However, the maximal systolic blood pressure was found to be an exercise-induced high blood pressure. Thus, it is thought that a risk diagnosis for it through a regular exercise stress test is necessary. PMID:26933659

  14. Melatonin decreases muscular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise and stimulates growth factor synthesis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Leandro da Silva; Dermargos, Alexandre; da Silva Junior, Edenilson Pinto; Weimann, Eleine; Lambertucci, Rafael Herling; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Strenuous exercise is detrimental to athletes because of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Melatonin, a classic antioxidant, has been shown to exhibit beneficial effects regarding intense exercise and tissue repair. In this study, we evaluated the onset and resolution of inflammation in melatonin-treated and nontreated rats subjected to a strenuous exercise session. We also analyzed the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Control and treated rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise after a period of 10days of melatonin treatment (20mg/dL). Plasma and muscle levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2-alpha/beta (CINC-2?/?), l-selectin, macrophage inflammatory protein-3-alpha (MIP-3?), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured prior to, immediately after, and 2hr after exercise. Our data revealed decreases in the muscle concentrations of IL-1? (35%), TNF-? (13%), IL-6 (48%), and TBARS (40%) in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We also observed decreases in the plasma concentrations of IL-1? (17%) in the melatonin-treated group. VEGF-? concentrations and SOD activity increased by 179% and 22%, respectively, in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We concluded that muscle inflammation and oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise were less severe in the muscles of melatonin-treated animals than in the muscles of control animals. Thus, melatonin treatment may reverse exercise-induced skeletal muscle inflammation and stimulate growth factor synthesis. PMID:25546615

  15. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu. PMID:24599630

  16. Metabolic stress-like condition can be induced by prolonged strenuous exercise in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hambraeus, Leif; Piehl-Aulin, Karin; Essn-Gustavsson, Birgitta; kerfeldt, Torbjrn; Olsson, Roger; Stridsberg, Mats; Ronquist, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined energy metabolism during prolonged, strenuous exercise. We wanted therefore to investigate energy metabolic consequences of a prolonged period of continuous strenuous work with very high energy expenditure. Twelve endurance-trained athletes (6 males and 6 females) were recruited. They performed a 7-h bike race on high work-load intensity. Physiological, biochemical, endocrinological, and anthropometric muscular compartment variables were monitored before, during, and after the race. The energy expenditure was high, being 5557 kcal. Work-load intensity (% of VO2 peak) was higher in females (77.7%) than in men (69.9%). Muscular glycogen utilization was pronounced, especially in type I fibres (>90%). Additionally, muscular triglyceride lipolysis was considerably accelerated. Plasma glucose levels were increased concomitantly with an unchanged serum insulin concentration which might reflect an insulin resistance state in addition to proteolytic glyconeogenesis. Increased reactive oxygen species (malondialdehyde (MDA)) were additional signs of metabolic stress. MDA levels correlated with glycogen utilization rate. A relative deficiency of energy substrate on a cellular level was indicated by increased intracellular water of the leg muscle concomitantly with increased extracellular levels of the osmoregulatory amino acid taurine. A kindred nature of a presumed insulin-resistant state with less intracellular availability of glucose for erythrocytes was also indicated by the findings of decreased MCV together with increased MCHC (haemoconcentration) after the race. This strenuous energy-demanding work created a metabolic stress-like condition including signs of insulin resistance and deteriorated intracellular glucose availability leading to compromised fuelling of ion pumps, culminating in a disturbed cellular osmoregulation indicated by taurine efflux and cellular swelling. PMID:19242868

  17. Mitochondrial dynamic remodeling in strenuous exercise-induced muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction: regulatory effects of hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhihui; Bai, Liyuan; Yan, Jiong; Li, Yuan; Shen, Weili; Wang, Ying; Wertz, Karin; Weber, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Yan; Liu, Jiankang

    2011-05-15

    Physical exercise is considered to exert a positive effect on health, whereas strenuous or excessive exercise (Exe) causes fatigue and damage to muscle and immune functions. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. We designed a protocol to mimic Exe and explore the ensuing cellular damage and involvement of mitochondrial dynamics. We found that Exe was prone to decrease endurance capacity and induce damage to renal function and the immune system. Muscle atrophy markers atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA were increased by Exe, accompanied by increased autophagy and mitochondrial fission in skeletal muscle. Exe caused a decrease in PGC-1? and complex I expression; it also activated JNK and Erk1/2 pathways and consequently induced p53, p21, and MnSOD expression in skeletal muscle. The involvement of oxidant-induced autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction was confirmed in C2C12 myoblasts. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural olive polyphenol, efficiently enhanced endurance capacity and prevented Exe-induced renal and immune system damage. Also, HT treatment inhibited both the Exe-induced increase in autophagy and mitochondrial fission and the decrease in PGC-1? expression. In addition, HT enhanced mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrial complex I and II activities in muscle of Exe rats. These results demonstrate that Exe-induced fatigue and damage to muscle and immune functions may be mediated via the regulation of mitochondrial dynamic remodeling, including the downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and upregulation of autophagy. HT supplementation may regulate mitochondrial dynamic remodeling and enhance antioxidant defenses and thus improve exercise capacity under Exe conditions. PMID:21421045

  18. Morphological and biochemical effects of strenuous exercise on immature long bones.

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, J. A.; Pedrini-Mille, A.; Pedrini, V. A.; Vailas, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the effects of intense exercise on the growth of long bones in immature animals, young male white leghorn chickens were run five days per week starting at four weeks of age on motor-driven treadmills. Work intensity was determined on the basis of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) with the exercise intensity maintained at 70-80 percent VO2 max. Young animals ran continuously for 30 minutes, older animals 45 to 60 minutes each day. Runners and controls (10 animals per group) were sacrificed at 8, 12, 14 and 20 weeks of age. The lengths of the femurs and tibiotarsus were significantly stunted at 8-, 12- and 14 weeks in the runners but had nearly recovered at 20 weeks of age. Both bones also demonstrated significantly decreased total cross-sectional areas in 8-, 12- and 14 week-old runners as well as decreased cortical cross-sectional areas. The tibiotarsus also remained significantly smaller in the 20-week-old runners, but the femur had recovered in terms of radial growth. Intermolecular pyridinoline collagen crosslinks were identical in amount in the two groups with the femur collagen significantly less cross-linked than the tibiotarsus. The delayed growth of the exercised avian young bone is consistent with data obtained from children and young mammalian models. The osteogenic response to exercise that produces an increased bone mass in adult tissue appears either suppressed or overcome in young avian bone indicating that it may be erroneous to assume that data obtained from adult tissue are also applicable to young growing bone. PMID:7634027

  19. Combined effects of sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive performances during The North Face Ultra Trail du Mont Blanc (UTMB).

    PubMed

    Hurdiel, Rmy; Pez, Thierry; Daugherty, Johanna; Girard, Julien; Poussel, Mathias; Poletti, Laurence; Basset, Patrick; Theunynck, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combined sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive and neurobehavioral performance among long-distance runners completing one of the most difficult ultramarathons in the world. Seventeen runners participated. Each had a wrist-worn actigraph throughout the race to record their sleep time. In addition, each individual's performance in 10-min response-time tests before and after the race was recorded and a questionnaire enabled participants to report any difficulties they experienced during the competition. During race completion times of 27 to 44 h, combined acute lack of sleep (12 17 min of rest during the race) and strenuous exercise (168.0 km) had marked adverse effects on cognitive performances ranging from mere lengthening of response time to serious symptoms such as visual hallucinations. This study suggests that regardless of rest duration and time in race, cognitive performances of ultramarathoners are adversely affected. PMID:25333827

  20. Near-Infrared Light Therapy to Attenuate Strength Loss After Strenuous Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Larkin-Kaiser, Kelly A.; Christou, Evangelos; Tillman, Mark; George, Steven; Borsa, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Near-infrared (NIR) light therapy is purported to act as an ergogenic aid by enhancing the contractile function of skeletal muscle. Improving muscle function is a new avenue for research in the area of laser therapy; however, very few researchers have examined the ergogenic effects of NIR light therapy and the influence it may have on the recovery process during rehabilitation. Objective: To evaluate the ergogenic effect of NIR light therapy on skeletal muscle function. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-nine healthy men (n = 21) and women (n = 18; age = 20.0 0.2 years, height = 169 2 cm, mass = 68.4 1.8 kg, body mass index = 23.8 0.4 kg/m2). Intervention(s): Each participant received active and sham treatments on the biceps brachii muscle on 2 separate days. The order of treatment was randomized. A class 4 laser with a cumulative dose of 360 J was used for the active treatment. After receiving the treatment on each day, participants completed an elbow-flexion resistance-exercise protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were elbow range of motion, muscle point tenderness, and strength (peak torque). Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess changes in these measures between treatments at baseline and at follow-up, 48 hours postexercise. Additionally, immediate strength loss postexercise was compared between treatments using a paired t test. Results: Preexercise to postexercise strength loss for the active laser treatment, although small, was less than with the sham treatment (P = .05). Conclusions: Applied to skeletal muscle before resistance exercise, NIR light therapy effectively attenuated strength loss. Therefore, NIR light therapy may be a beneficial, noninvasive modality for improving muscle function during rehabilitation after musculoskeletal injury. However, future studies using higher treatment doses are warranted. PMID:25397864

  1. Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency enhances exercise capacity due to increased lipid oxidation during strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2015-02-20

    A large percentage of energy produced during high-intensity exercise depends on the aerobic glycolytic pathway. Maintenance of a cytoplasmic redox balance ([NADH]/[NAD(+)] ratio) by the glycerophosphate shuttle involves sustained aerobic glycolysis. Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) catalyzes an oxidation reaction in the glycerophosphate shuttle. In this study, we examined whether GPD1 deficiency decreases exercise capacity due to impairment of aerobic glycolysis by using the GPD1 null mouse model BALB/cHeA (HeA). Unexpectedly, we found that exercise endurance was significantly higher in HeA mice than in BALBc/By (By) mice used as controls. Furthermore, aerobic glycolysis in HeA mice was not impaired. During exercise, lipid oxidation was significantly higher in HeA mice than in By mice, concomitant with an increase in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). HeA mice also showed a delay in the onset of muscle glycogen usage and lactate production during exercise. These data suggest that contribution of lipid oxidation as a fuel source for exercise is increased in HeA mice, and GPD1 deficiency enhances exercise capacity by increasing lipid oxidation, probably due to activation of AMPK. We propose that GPD1 deficiency induces an adaptation that enhances lipid availability in the skeletal muscle during exercise. PMID:25603051

  2. VITAMIN E REDUCES MUSCLE DAMAGE AND BIOMARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER EXERCISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strenuous exercise can cause muscle injury resulting in inflammation and oxidative stress. We examined whether supplementation with vitamin E could reduce this muscle damage and whether there were age-related differences in this response. 16 young (YM, 26.4 ± 3.3 y) and 16 older (OM, 71.1 ± 4.0 y) m...

  3. Effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee beverages on oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Viana, Andr Luiz Machado; Fonseca, Miriam das Dores Mendes; Meireles, Elisson Lamin Jernimo; Duarte, Stella Maris da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Paula, Fernanda Borges de Araujo

    2012-03-01

    Many authors attribute the antioxidant activity of brewed coffee to its caffeine content. In addition, caffeine intake has been associated with increased performance during physical exercise. This study analyzed the in vivo effects of drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee (8%, w/v) on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats subjected to intense exercise. It was observed that exercise induced lipid peroxidation (estimated using malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (evaluated by determining the formation of carbonyl groups) in the muscle (P?exercise (P?exercise. PMID:22173821

  4. Comparison of indirect calorimetry and a new breath 13C/12C ratio method during strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Romijn, J A; Coyle, E F; Hibbert, J; Wolfe, R R

    1992-07-01

    A new stable isotope method for the determination of substrate oxidation rates in vivo is described and compared with indirect calorimetry at rest and during high-intensity exercise (30 min at 80-85% maximal O2 uptake capacity) in six well-trained cyclists. This method uses the absolute ratios of 13C/12C in expired air, endogenous glucose, fat, and protein in addition to O2 consumption and is independent of CO2 production (VCO2). Carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates at rest, calculated by both methods, were not significantly different. During exercise the breath 13C/12C ratio increased and reached a steady state after 15-20 min. Carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise were 39.4 +/- 5.2 and 41.7 +/- 5.7 mg.kg-1.min-1 [not significant (NS)], and fat oxidation rates were 7.3 +/- 1.3 and 6.9 +/- 1.2 mg.kg-1.min-1 (NS), using indirect calorimetry, and the breath ratio method, respectively. We conclude that the breath 13C/12C ratio method can be used to calculate substrate oxidation under different conditions, such as the basal state and exercise. In addition, the results obtained by this new method support the validity of the underlying assumption that indirect calorimetry regards VCO2 as a reflection of tissue CO2 production, during exercise in trained subjects, even up to 80-85% maximal O2 uptake. PMID:1636700

  5. Effect of a booster vaccination against influenza and equine herpes virus on cardio-respiratory adjustments to strenuous exercise and training in thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted in order to assess whether exercise- and training-induced cardio-respiratory adjustments are modified during the 10-day period which follows a booster vaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and equine herpesvirus-1 (Equiffa). Nine healthy vaccinated thoroughbred horses were used. Six were revaccinated and three were kept as control. All the horses completed a standardised exercise test (SET) that was repeated 4 times, i.e. 10 (SET1) and 2 (SET2) days before revaccination, and 2 (SET3) and 10 (SET4) days after revaccination. During the whole experimental period the horses were trained 6 days per week according to an interval training schedule. Respiratory airflow, tidal volume, respiratory rate and expired minute volume (VE) were measured using a face mask and 2 ultra-sonic pneumotachographs. The oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained on a breath-by-breath basis, using a mass spectrometer. Heart rate (HR) was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analysed for biochemical determinations. Blood was also sampled before and 21 days after the booster vaccination for circulating antibody titration. The peak VO2, VCO2, ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO2) and oxygen pulse (VO2/HR) were significantly improved by the 3-week training period. The other cardio-respiratory parameters as well as most of the blood parameters remained unchanged throughout the 4 SETs. The revaccination did not impair any of the parameters measured before, during, or after the SETs. All revaccinated horses showed a rise in antibodies against influenza virus type A1 and A2 and EVH-1 compared to the control horses. It was concluded that, in our horses, revaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and EVH-1 did not impair their cardiorespiratory and metabolic adjustments to strenuous exercise and intense training, and that the seroconversion due to revaccination was unaffected by the intense daily exercise experienced by the animals in the post-vaccination period. PMID:8237183

  6. Human blood mononuclear cell in vitro cytokine response before and after two different strenuous exercise bouts in the presence of bloodroot and Echinacea extracts.

    PubMed

    Senchina, David S; Hallam, Justus E; Dias, Amila S; Perera, M Ann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this multidisciplinary investigation was to characterize cytokine production by human blood mononuclear cells after 2 contrasting exercise bouts (a maximal graded oxygen consumption [VO(2)max] test and 90 min of cycling at 85% of ventilatory threshold [VT]) when stimulated in vitro with extracts from bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), coneflower (Echinacea tennesseensis), or solvent vehicle controls. Blood was sampled pre- and post-exercise. Production of TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-10 were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. In the VO(2)max test there was a main effect of exercise such that exercise increased cytokine synthesis and a main effect of stimulant such that bloodroot extracts significantly increased cytokine production compared to other stimulants or controls. In the 90-min bout, there was a main effect of exercise for TNF and IL-1beta (but not IL-10) such that exercise decreased cytokine synthesis and a main effect of stimulant such that bloodroot extracts significantly increased cytokine production compared to other stimulants or controls, with exercisexstimulant interactions for both IL-1beta and IL-10. A similar though weaker effect was seen with Echinacea extracts; subsequent biochemical analyses suggested this was related to alkamide decay during 3 years undisturbed storage at ultralow (-80 degrees C) temperature. In this study, the VO(2)max test was associated with enhanced cytokine production whereas the 90-min cycling at 85% VT was associated with suppressed cytokine production. Bloodroot extracts were able to increase cytokine production in both contexts. Herbal extracts purported to offset exercise-associated effects on immune activity warrant continued investigation. PMID:19766513

  7. Aerobic exercise before diving reduces venous gas bubble formation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Duji?, eljko; Duplan?ic, Darko; Marinovic-Terzi?, Ivana; Bakovi?, Darija; Ivan?ev, Vladimir; Valic, Zoran; Eterovi?, Davor; Petri, Nadan M; Wislff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown in a rat model that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise 20h before a simulated dive reduces bubble formation and after the dive protects from lethal decompression sickness. The present study investigated the importance of these findings in man. Twelve healthy male divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 280kPa at a rate of 100kPamin?1 breathing air and remaining at pressure for 80min. The ascent rate was 9mmin?1 with a 7min stop at 130kPa. Each diver underwent two randomly assigned simulated dives, with or without preceding exercise. A single interval exercise performed 24h before the dive consisted of treadmill running at 90% of maximum heart rate for 3min, followed by exercise at 50% of maximum heart rate for 2min; this was repeated eight times for a total exercise period of 40min. Venous gas bubbles were monitored with an ultrasonic scanner every 20min for 80min after reaching surface pressure. The study demonstrated that a single bout of strenuous exercise 24h before a dive to 18 m of seawater significantly reduced the average number of bubbles in the pulmonary artery from 0.98 to 0.22 bubbles cm?2(P= 0.006) compared to dives without preceding exercise. The maximum bubble grade was decreased from 3 to 1.5 (P= 0.002) by pre-dive exercise, thereby increasing safety. This is the first report to indicate that pre-dive exercise may form the basis for a new way of preventing serious decompression sickness. PMID:14755001

  8. Intense Physical Exercise Reduces Overt Attentional Capture.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel; Huertas, Florentino; Molina, Enrique; Bennett, Simon

    2015-10-01

    The abrupt onset of a visual stimulus typically results in overt attentional capture, which can be quantified by saccadic eye movements. Here, we tested whether attentional capture following onset of task-irrelevant visual stimuli (new object) is reduced after a bout of intense physical exercise. A group of participants performed a visual search task in two different activity conditions: rest, without any prior effort, and effort, immediately after an acute bout of intense exercise. The results showed that participants exhibited (1) slower reaction time of the first saccade toward the target when a new object was simultaneously presented in the visual field, but only in the rest activity condition, and (2) more saccades to the new object in the rest activity condition than in the effort activity condition. We suggest that immediately after an acute bout of effort, participants improved their ability to inhibit irrelevant (distracting) stimuli. PMID:26524101

  9. Acute Effects of Moderate and Strenuous Running on Trace Element Distribution in the Brain, Liver, and Spleen of Trained Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ergen, K?van; ?nce, Hrrem; Dzova, Halil; Karako, Yunus; Emre, M. Hanifi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Trace elements such as manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) play key roles in metabolic reactions and are important in many physiological enzymatic processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the acute effects of moderate and strenuous running (treadmill) exercise on the levels of Mn, Co and Cr in the brain, liver, and spleen of trained rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar-Albino adult male rats were used in the study. Rats were grouped as control group (no mandated exercise; n=8), moderate exercise group (30 min exercise duration; n=7), and strenuous exercise group (60 min exercise duration; n=6). The levels of Mn, Co, and Cr in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, and spleen were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cr levels in liver of rats increased in parallel to the time course of running supporting the exercise training effect on the action of insulin. Compared to the control group, the level of Co significantly decreased in the brain stem of rats in the moderate exercise group (p=0.009) and in the frontal lobe of rats in the strenuous exercise group (p=0.004). In the strenuous exercise group, an examination of the brain stem revealed that the level of Mn significantly decreased (p=0.001), and levels of Co and Cr were apparently depleted to the extent that these elements were no longer detectable. Conclusion: A notable finding is that during or after single bout strenuous exercise, levels of Co decreased in the spleen and particularly decreased in the brain stem of regularly trained rats. From this study, it can be inferred that sportsmen should aware trace element disturbances among the body parts or depletion of some trace elements after single bout of chronic strenuous running exercise. PMID:25207079

  10. Does exercise reduce the burden of fractures? A review.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Magnus

    2002-12-01

    The null hypothesis that exercise has no effect on fracture rates in old age cannot be rejected on the basis of any published, randomized, prospective data. The view that exercise reduces the number of fractures is based on prospective and retrospective, observational cohort studies and case-control studies, all hypothesis-generating, not hypothesis-testing. Consistently replicated sampling bias may confirm the finding when evaluating other than randomized prospective studies. Better health, better muscle function, more muscle mass, better coordination may lead to exercise. The causal relationship could be between better health and exercise and better health and fewer fractures, not exercise and fewer fractures. The hypothesis should be tested in prospective, randomized studies evaluating hip, spine and other fragility fractures separately. Blinded studies assessing the effects of exercise can obviously not be done, but open trials can and should be undertaken to increase the level of evidence within the evidence-based system. There are firm data supporting the view that exercise during growth builds a stronger skeleton. Exercise during growth seems to result in high peak BMD and high muscle strength. However, the Achilles heel of exercise is its cessation. Are the skeletal and muscular benefits attained during growth retained after the cessation of exercise and can any residual benefits be found in old age, the period when fragility fractures rise exponentially? Does exercise during adulthood produce any biologically important reduction in surrogate end-points for fractures other than BMD, since BMD can be influenced only marginally by exercise after completion of growth? Recommendations for exercise should be based on evidence, not on opinion. Can continued recreational exercise maintain some of the benefits in BMD and muscle function achieved in youth? What level of recreational exercise is needed to retain these benefits, if not fully, then at least to some extent? Dose-response relationships should be quantified. Furthermore, the effect of exercise on independent, surrogate end-points for fractures, such as bone size, shape, architecture, muscle function, fall frequency and frequency of injurious falls during defined periods in the life cycle must be determined. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence of effect, but if we recommend exercise then should this be to children, adults, elderly, men and women with fractures, all persons? What type of exercise? For how long? Lifelong? If exercise could be implemented for most persons in society, would this reduce the number of fractures? Would the increased costs associated with the efforts to increase the activity level be lower than the reduced costs associated with any reduction in fractures? Our inability to answer these questions must be acknowledged before recommendations are made at the community level. PMID:12553521

  11. Exercise reduces angiotensin II responses in rat femoral veins.

    PubMed

    Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Rossignoli, Patrícia de Souza; Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; de Lábio, Roger William; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2013-06-01

    The control of blood flow during exercise involves different mechanisms, one of which is the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to exercise-induced blood flow redistribution. Moreover, although angiotensin II (Ang II) is considered a potent venoconstrictor agonist, little is known about its effects on the venous bed during exercise. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the Ang II responses in the femoral vein taken from sedentary and trained rats at rest or subjected to a single bout of exercise immediately before organ bath experiments. Isolated preparations of femoral veins taken from resting-sedentary, exercised-sedentary, resting-trained and exercised-trained animals were studied in an organ bath. In parallel, the mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 (ppET-1), as well as the ETA and ETB receptors, was quantified by real-time PCR in this tissue. The results show that, in the presence of L-NAME, Ang II responses in resting-sedentary animals were higher compared to the other groups. However, this difference disappeared after co-treatment with indomethacin, BQ-123 or BQ-788. Moreover, exercise reduced ppET-1 mRNA expression. These reductions in mRNA expression were more evident in resting-trained animals. In conclusion, either acute or repeated exercise adapts the rat femoral veins, thereby reducing the Ang II responses. This adaptation is masked by the action of locally produced nitric oxide and involves, at least partially, the ETB- mediated release of vasodilator prostanoids. Reductions in endothelin-1 production may also be involved in these exercise-induced modifications of Ang II responses in the femoral vein. PMID:23528515

  12. Exercise reduces persistent ductus arteriosus shunting in piglets.

    PubMed

    Seaberg, D; Lorenz, E; Lund, G; Rysavy, J; Pierpont, M E; Zhang, S L; Einzig, S

    1987-11-01

    To determine the effects of dynamic exercise on ductal left to right shunting and skeletal and myocardial blood flow distribution, a persistent ductus arteriosus was created by balloon catheters in neonatal piglets. At 8-10 weeks of age, aortic, pulmonary artery, and left atrial catheters were placed and radiolabelled microspheres injected for measuring left ventricular output, organ blood flows, and ductus left to right shunting at rest and during treadmill exercise (1.6 mph). At rest, effective left ventricular output and myocardial and skeletal muscle blood flows were similar in the study group and controls. Exercise increased skeletal muscle and left ventricular blood flows similarly in the control and study group and did not accentuate the exercise induced small reduction in the left ventricular subendocardial to subepicardial blood flow ratio. This was due to a significant reduction in the ductus left to right shunt during exercise (mean(SD) 34(15) vs 18(7)%, p less than 0.02) and maintenance of effective left ventricular output in the study group (447(144) vs 446(98) ml.min-1.kg-1 in controls). The reduction in ductus shunting during exercise was due to a significant decrease in systemic vascular resistance and a small increase in pulmonary vascular and ductus resistance. Thus, reduced persistent ductus arteriosus shunting and maintenance of effective left ventricular output prevents myocardial perfusion abnormalities during dynamic exercise in swine with a persistent ductus and small to moderate left to right shunts. PMID:3370667

  13. Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls

    PubMed Central

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Evin, Ruya; Irez, Salih Gokhan; Korkusuz, Feza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the exercise group when compared to the non-exercise group. In conclusion, Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women. Key points Pilates-based exercises improve dynamic balance, reaction time and muscle strength in the elderly. Pilates exercise may reduce the number of falls in elderly women by increasing these fitness parameters. PMID:24149302

  14. Milk consumption following exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate-vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

  15. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    PubMed Central

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V˙O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V˙O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

  16. Exercise training reduces insulin resistance in postmyocardial infarction rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youhua; Tian, Zhenjun; Zang, Weijin; Jiang, Hongke; Li, Youyou; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Shengfeng

    2015-04-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) induces cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). This study examines the effects of MI-related IR on vasorelaxation and its underlying mechanisms, with a specific focus on the role of exercise in reversing the impaired vasorelaxation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+Exercise. MI+Exercise rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill training. Cardiac contraction, myocardial and arterial structure, vasorelaxation, levels of inflammatory cytokines, expression of eNOS and TNF-α, and activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined in aortas. MI significantly impaired endothelial structure and vasodilation (P < 0.05-0.01), as indicated by decreased arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin. MI also attenuated the myocardial contractile response, decreased aortic PI3K/Akt/eNOS expression and phosphorylation by insulin, and increased IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression and p38 MAPK activity (P < 0.05-0.01). Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in aortas, facilitated myocardial contractile response and arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin, and increased arterial PI3K/Akt/eNOS activity. Moreover, exercise markedly reversed increased p38 MAPK activity and normalized inflammatory cytokines in post-MI arteries. Inhibition of PI3K with LY-294002, and eNOS with L-NAME significantly blocked arterial vasorelaxation and PI3K/Akt/eNOS phosphorylation in response to insulin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction in response to insulin plays an important role in MI-related IR. The reversal of IR by exercise is most likely associated with normalizing inflammatory cytokines, increasing the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS, and reducing the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:25907785

  17. Exercise training reduces insulin resistance in postmyocardial infarction rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhua; Tian, Zhenjun; Zang, Weijin; Jiang, Hongke; Li, Youyou; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Shengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) induces cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). This study examines the effects of MI-related IR on vasorelaxation and its underlying mechanisms, with a specific focus on the role of exercise in reversing the impaired vasorelaxation. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+Exercise. MI+Exercise rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill training. Cardiac contraction, myocardial and arterial structure, vasorelaxation, levels of inflammatory cytokines, expression of eNOS and TNF-α, and activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined in aortas. MI significantly impaired endothelial structure and vasodilation (P < 0.05–0.01), as indicated by decreased arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin. MI also attenuated the myocardial contractile response, decreased aortic PI3K/Akt/eNOS expression and phosphorylation by insulin, and increased IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression and p38 MAPK activity (P < 0.05–0.01). Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in aortas, facilitated myocardial contractile response and arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin, and increased arterial PI3K/Akt/eNOS activity. Moreover, exercise markedly reversed increased p38 MAPK activity and normalized inflammatory cytokines in post-MI arteries. Inhibition of PI3K with LY-294002, and eNOS with L-NAME significantly blocked arterial vasorelaxation and PI3K/Akt/eNOS phosphorylation in response to insulin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction in response to insulin plays an important role in MI-related IR. The reversal of IR by exercise is most likely associated with normalizing inflammatory cytokines, increasing the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS, and reducing the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:25907785

  18. Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

  19. [Exercise reduces bone mineral density loss in women].

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Helge, Eva Wulff

    2015-08-24

    High impact training is essential for building and maintaining strong bones throughout life. Adequate load will stimulate strength independently of age, sex and hormonal production, but the effect may be small (elderly) or pronounced (certain athletes, prepubertal children). Gained bone mass is partly preserved with age. Walking has no osteogenic effect except in very inactive persons. In postmenopausal women the effect of added training to estrogen-treatment is modest. Exercises to prevent falls are important in this group. Hormonal contraceptives may reduce the effect of training in premenopausal women. PMID:26324186

  20. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 0.6 to 7.2 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 1.8 to 5.6 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 5 to 110 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 1 to 7 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 3 to 15 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 8 to 168 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 1.0 to 19.9 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 1.6 to 26.3 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  1. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 0.6 to 7.2 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 1.8 to 5.6 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 5 to 110 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 1 to 7 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 3 to 15 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 8 to 168 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 1.0 to 19.9 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 1.6 to 26.3 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  2. Prognosis: does exercise training reduce adverse events in heart failure?

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Haykowsky, Mark J F; Taylor, Rod S

    2015-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) were once discouraged from participating in exercise programs because of concerns regarding safety and the potential for harm to an already damaged myocardium. However, studies over the last 3 decades have provided extensive insights into both the health outcome benefits of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these benefits. Studies on the outcome benefits of exercise training, including mortality and hospitalization, have been convincing. This article reviews the physiologic benefits of exercise training in HF, studies on exercise training in women, results and implications of the HF-ACTION trial, and recent meta-analyses using the Cochrane data base. PMID:25432474

  3. Exercise at the Extremes: The Amount of Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Molossi, Silvana; Lee, Duck-Chul; Emery, Michael S; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-01-26

    Habitual physical activity and regular exercise training improve cardiovascular health and longevity. A physically active lifestyle is, therefore, a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. An appropriate volume and intensity are essential to maximally benefit from exercise interventions. This document summarizes available evidence on the relationship between the exercise volume and risk reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, therisks and benefits of moderate- versus high-intensity exercise interventions are compared. Findings are presented forthe general population and cardiac patients eligible for cardiac rehabilitation. Finally, the controversy of excessivevolumes of exercise in the athletic population is discussed. PMID:26796398

  4. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

  5. 30(+) years of exercise in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lotgering, Frederik K

    2014-01-01

    In 1980 I came to Loma Linda to study maternal exercise, with Dr. Longo as my mentor. For millennia strenuous exercise was considered harmful for the fetus. Early studies reinforced that idea, by showing that exercise reduced uterine blood flow and fetal PO2 by up to 40 and 29 %, respectively. But utero-placental reserve is ~50 %. So why was fetal PO2 so much reduced during exercise?Methods proved to be important. It took chronically instrumented animals accustomed to the laboratory environment, experiments standardized to fitness of the individual (%VO2max), measurement of total uterine blood flow, and blood gas values corrected for body temperature. The results were simple and hold till this day. Uterine blood flow decreases linearly with maternal heart rate increase, which depends on exercise intensity and duration. Maximal reduction in uterine blood flow is ~20 % and uterine O2-uptake remains unaltered because blood flow reduction is compensated by increases in hematocrit and uterine O2-extraction. Fetal body temperature increases with that of the mother by ~2 C at maximal exercise and fetal blood gas values are little affected by exhaustive maternal exercise, if properly corrected for temperature. So I left Loma Linda knowing that pregnant sheep can exercise to exhaustion without harm to the fetus, thanks to effective compensatory mechanisms.After returning to Erasmus University Rotterdam further studies in humans showed that physical fitness is unaffected by pregnancy, weight-gain affects performance, and strenuous exercise in healthy pregnant women does not harm the fetus. Thus, the millennia-old perspective has changed. PMID:25015805

  6. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  7. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few

  8. Sudden infant death syndrome: neonatal hypodynamia (reduced exercise level).

    PubMed

    Reid, G M

    2001-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been described as a silent unexpected death during sleep. Infants with near-miss SIDS have shown a higher heart rate and diminished heart rate variability during sleep. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep rate variability was related to respiration. A decreased heart rate variability was also observed in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or prenatal hypoxia. It was hypothesized that decreased heart rate variability and decreased body measurement during sleep were related to a decreased arousal response. Cardiac output is greater in the supine position. Acetylcholine slows the heart beat. Postural changes modify the acute baroreflex control of the heart rate. The cerebellum also contributes to the reflex anti-orthostatic (supine) cardiovascular response to postural change. Delayed myelination of various areas of the brain occurred in SIDS victims and it was suggested that the defect in central respiratory control could be a motor rather than a sensory problem, and that the search for abnormalities should be extended to regions in the cerebellum and pre-frontal-temporal-limbic systems. The cerebellum exercises control over motor neuron impulses from the cerebral cortex to lower structures. An extended period of neonatal decreased body movement has its counterpart in the astronaut exposed to the deconditioning effect of zero gravity. Hypodynamia induces hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, renal inositoluria and impaired nerve conduction. Myoinositol is 20 times higher in fetal-like tissue than in adults. The insecticide lindane (gammexane) is an inositol antagonist. Lindane administration to neonatal rats induced low levels of specific components of myelin proteins in oligodendrocytes in the brain. The activity of these specific enzymes was reduced in oligodendrocytes in the brain of SIDS victims. It is hypothesized that lindane administration to laboratory neonatal animals is a laboratory model for studying delayed development of the brain in SIDS. PMID:11359347

  9. Chronic exercise training versus acute endurance exercise in reducing neurotoxicity in rats exposed to lead acetate?

    PubMed Central

    Shahandeh, Mohammad; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Sarkisian, Vaginak

    2013-01-01

    After intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lead acetate, rats received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (1522 m/min, 2564 minutes) and/or treadmill exercise at 1.6 km/h until exhaustion. The markers related to neurotoxicity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. 8 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.04) and plasma level of total antioxidant capacity of rats exposed to lead acetate (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.001). Acute exercise only decreased the hippocampal malondialdehyde level (P = 0.09) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.66). Acute exercise also enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in rats exposed to lead acetate, insignificantly (P = 0.99). These findings suggest that chronic treadmill exercise can significantly decrease neurotoxicity and alleviate oxidative stress in rats exposed to lead acetate. However, acute endurance exercise was not associated with these beneficial effects. PMID:25206718

  10. Reduced catecholamine response to exercise in amenorrheic athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found an array of endocrine disturbances related to energy deprivation in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Purpose: We examined the catecholamine response to exercise in five eumenorrheic (EU) and five amenorrheic (AM) athletes, matched by age (mean T SEM: EU = 29.8 T 2.5 ...

  11. Clinical Utility of Exercise Training in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

  12. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  13. Aerobic exercise training reduces cardiac function in adult male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Laura M; Kirschenman, Raven; Quon, Anita; Morton, Jude S; Shah, Amin; Davidge, Sandra T

    2015-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Exercise is an effective preventive intervention for cardiovascular diseases; however, it may be detrimental in conditions of compromised health. The aim of this study was to determine whether exercise training can improve cardiac performance after I/R injury in IUGR offspring. We used a hypoxia-induced IUGR model by exposing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to 21% oxygen (control) or hypoxic (11% oxygen; IUGR) conditions from gestational day 15 to 21. At 10 wk of age, offspring were randomized to a sedentary group or to a 6-wk exercise protocol. Transthoracic echocardiography assessments were performed after 6 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last bout of exercise, ex vivo cardiac function was determined using a working heart preparation. With exercise training, there was improved baseline cardiac performance in male control offspring but a reduced baseline cardiac performance in male IUGR exercised offspring (P < 0.05). In male offspring, exercise decreased superoxide generation in control offspring, while in IUGR offspring, it had the polar opposite effect (interaction P ? 0.05). There was no effect of IUGR or exercise on cardiac function in female offspring. In conclusion, in male IUGR offspring, exercise may be a secondary stressor on cardiac function. A reduction in cardiac performance along with an increase in superoxide production in response to exercise was observed in this susceptible group. PMID:26157059

  14. Benefits of exercise intervention in reducing neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, John L.; McMillan, Jim; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a widespread and potentially incapacitating pathological condition that encompasses more than 100 different forms and manifestations of nerve damage. The diverse pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy affects autonomic, motor and/or sensory neurons, and the symptoms that typify the condition are abnormal cutaneous sensation, muscle dysfunction and, most notably, chronic pain. Chronic neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and is often characterized by either exaggerated responses to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) or pain resulting from stimuli that would not normally provoke pain (allodynia). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of some pathways associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy and then discuss the benefits of exercise interventions. The development of neuropathic pain is a highly complex and multifactorial process, but recent evidence indicates that the activation of spinal glial cells via the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 and increases in the production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and brain derived neurotropic factor are crucial steps. Since many of the most common causes of peripheral neuropathy cannot be fully treated, it is critical to understand that routine exercise may not only help prevent some of those causes, but that it has also proven to be an effective means of alleviating some of the conditions most distressing symptoms. More research is required to elucidate the typical mechanisms of injury associated with peripheral neuropathy and the exercise-induced benefits to those mechanisms. PMID:24772065

  15. Ageing reduces the compensatory vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise: the role of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Darren P; Walker, Branton G; Curry, Timothy B; Joyner, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We tested the hypotheses that (1) the compensatory vasodilatation in skeletal muscle during hypoxic exercise is attenuated in ageing humans and (2) local inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the forearm of ageing humans will have less impact on the compensatory dilatation during rhythmic exercise with hypoxia, due to a smaller compensatory dilator response. Eleven healthy older subjects (61 2 years) performed forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during saline infusion (control) and NO synthase inhibition (NG-monomethyl-l-arginine; l-NMMA) under normoxic and normocapnic hypoxic (80% arterial O2 saturation) conditions. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml min?1 (100 mmHg)?1) was calculated from forearm blood flow (ml min?1) and blood pressure (mmHg). To further examine the effects of ageing on the compensatory vasodilator response to hypoxic exercise we compared the difference in ?FVC (% change compared to respective normoxic exercise trial) between the older subjects (present study) and previously published data from an identical protocol in young subjects. During the control condition, the compensatory vasodilator response to hypoxia was similar between the old and young groups at 10% exercise (28 6%vs. 40 8%, P = 0.11) but attenuated at 20% exercise (14 4%vs. 31 6%, P < 0.05). l-NMMA during hypoxic exercise only blunted the compensatory vasodilator response in the young group (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that ageing reduces the compensatory vasodilator response to hypoxic exercise via blunted NO signalling. PMID:21282292

  16. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bretland, Rachel Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  17. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  18. Fatiguing exercise initiated later in life reduces incidence of fibrillation and improves sleep quality in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan; Feng, Yue; Wen, Deng Tai; Wang, Hui; Wu, Xiu Shan

    2015-08-01

    As the human body ages, the risk of heart disease and stroke greatly increases. While there is evidence that lifelong exercise is beneficial to the heart's health, the effects of beginning exercise later in life remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether exercise training started later in life is beneficial to cardiac aging in Drosophila. We examined 4-week-old wild-type virgin female flies that were exposed to exercise periods of either 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 h per day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. Using M-mode traces to analyze cardiac function by looking at parameters including heart rate, rhythmicity, systolic and diastolic diameter, and interval and fractional shortening, we found that cardiac function declined with age, shown by an increase in the number of fibrillation events and a decrease in fractional shortening. About 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise per day displayed a reduced incidence of fibrillation events, and only physical exercise lasting 2.5-h period increased fractional shortening and total sleep time in Drosophila. These data suggested that training exercise needs to be performed for longer duration to exert physiological benefits for the aging heart. Additionally, climbing ability to assess the exercise-induced muscle fatigue was also measured. We found that 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise caused exercise-induced fatigue, and fatiguing exercise is beneficial for cardiac and healthy aging overall. This study provides a basis for further study in humans on the impact of beginning an exercise regimen later in life on cardiac health. PMID:26206392

  19. Amlodipine reduces blood pressure during dynamic resistance exercise in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Souza, D R; Gomides, R S; Costa, L A R; Queiroz, A C C; Barros, S; Ortega, K C; Mion, D; Tinucci, T; Forjaz, C L M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, amlodipine, on blood pressure (BP) during resistance exercise performed at different intensities in hypertensives. Eleven hypertensives underwent 4 weeks of placebo and amlodipine (random double-blinded crossover design). In each phase, they performed knee extension exercise until exhaustion following three protocols: one set at 100% of 1 RM (repetition maximum), three sets at 80% of 1 RM, and three sets at 40% of 1 RM. Intraarterial BP was measured before and during exercise. Amlodipine reduced maximal systolic/diastolic BP values achieved at all intensities (100%?= 225 6/141 3 vs. 207 6/130 6 mmHg; 80%?= 289 8/178 5 vs. 273 10/169 6 mmHg; 40%?= 289 10/176 8 vs. 271 11/154 6 mmHg). Amlodipine blunted the increase in diastolic BP that occurred during the second and third sets of exercise at 40% of 1RM (+75 6 vs. +61 5 mmHg and +78 7 vs. +64 5 mmHg, respectively). Amlodipine was effective in reducing the absolute values of systolic and diastolic BP during resistance exercise and in preventing the progressive increase in diastolic BP that occurs over sets of low-intensity exercise. These results suggest that systemic vascular resistance is involved in BP increase during resistance exercise, and imply that hypertensives receiving amlodipine are at lower risk of increased BP during resistance exercise than non-medicated patients. PMID:24256097

  20. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms. PMID:24911173

  1. Reducing indices of unhappiness among individuals with profound multiple disabilities during therapeutic exercise routines.

    PubMed Central

    Green, C W; Reid, D H

    1999-01-01

    A program was developed to reduce indices of unhappiness that accompanied therapeutic exercise routines among people with profound multiple disabilities. Indices of unhappiness were recorded, using an observation system that had been validated through previous research involving happiness-related variables, while support personnel conducted exercises with 3 participants. A multicomponent program was then implemented that involved presenting highly preferred stimuli before, during, and after each exercise session. Results indicated that the program was accompanied by reduced indices of unhappiness for each participant relative to the traditional method of conducting the exercises, although changes in the preferred stimuli used with 1 participant were required before consistent reductions occurred. Results are discussed regarding the importance of reducing unhappiness indices as a means of enhancing aspects of the daily quality of life for people with profound multiple disabilities. Areas for future research are also discussed, focusing on expanding the unhappiness-reduction procedures to other routine events that may occasion indices of unhappiness. PMID:10396767

  2. Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important step ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  3. Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PT Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important ... BACK: Nutrition More Exercises Information Back to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...

  4. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the many who presently remain suboptimally treated) by providing a new therapeutic avenue as an alternative or augmentative compliment to established interventions for migraine. PMID:26643584

  5. Endurance exercise immediately before sea diving reduces bubble formation in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Olivier; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Vallee, Nicolas; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have observed that a single bout of exercise can reduce the formation of circulating bubbles on decompression but, according to different authors, several hours delay were considered necessary between the end of exercise and the beginning of the dive. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of exercise taken immediately before a dive on bubble formation. 24 trained divers performed open-sea dives to 30 msw depth for 30 min followed by a 3 min stop at 3 msw, under two conditions: (1) a control dive without exercise before (No-Ex), (2) an experimental condition in which subjects performed an exercise before diving (Ex). In the Ex condition, divers began running on a treadmill for 45 min at a speed corresponding to their own ventilatory threshold 1 h before immersion. Body weight, total body fluid volume, core temperature, and volume of consumed water were measured. Circulating bubbles were graded according to the Spencer scale using a precordial Doppler every 30 min for 90 min after surfacing. A single sub-maximal exercise performed immediately before immersion significantly reduces bubble grades (p < 0.001). This reduction was correlated not only to sweat dehydration, but also to the volume of water drunk at the end of the exercise. Moderate dehydration seems to be beneficial at the start of the dive whereas restoring the hydration balance should be given priority during decompression. This suggests a biphasic effect of the hydration status on bubble formation. PMID:21107599

  6. Roles played by histamine in strenuous or prolonged masseter muscle activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Hiroyuki; Niijima-Yaoita, Fukie; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kumamoto, Hiroyuki; Watanbe, Makoto; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Tadano, Takeshi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2013-12-01

    Bruxism and/or clenching, resulting in fatigue or dysfunction of masseter muscles (MM), may cause temporomandibular disorders. Functional support of the microcirculation is critical for prolonged muscle activity. Histamine is a regulator of the microcirculation and is supplied by release from its stores and/or by de novo production via the induction of histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Interleukin (IL)-1, a cytokine involved in temporomandibular disorders, is an inducer of HDC. In the present study, we examined the roles of histamine, HDC and IL-1 in MM activity. Experiments were conducted using our R+G+ model. A mouse restrained (R+) inside a narrow cylinder (front end blocked with a thin plastic strip) gnaws away (G+) the strip to escape, with the weight reduction in the strip serving as an index of MM activity. Fexofenadine (a peripherally acting histamine H1 receptor antagonist) reduced MM activity in normal mice. Both H1 receptor-deficient and HDC-deficient mice exhibited low MM activity. Prolonged R+G+ induced HDC activity in MM. Mast cell-deficient mice exhibited strikingly low HDC induction in MM (and also in the quadriceps femoris muscle) in response to muscle activity or IL-1?. Mast cells were present around blood vessels and nerves in the epimysium and perimysium of MM. These results, together with others reported previously, suggest that: (i) peripheral histamine supports strenuous MM activity; (ii) strenuous MM activity stimulates mast cells to release histamine and to induce HDC (which replenishes the histamine pool in mast cells, possibly mediated by IL-1); and (iii) peripheral histamine H1 receptor antagonists may be effective in treating temporomandibular disorders or preventing prolonged clenching and/or bruxism. PMID:24138758

  7. Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Vincent J; Merkus, Daphne; Bender, Shawn B; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold

    2013-12-01

    Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, at rest and during treadmill exercise. The increases in systemic vascular conductance produced by ATP (relative to nitroprusside) and exercise were blunted in FH compared with Control swine. The vasoconstrictor response to eNOS inhibition, with nitro-l-arginine (NLA), was attenuated in FH compared with Control swine, both at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, whereas the vasodilator response to nitroprusside was enhanced slightly, the vasodilator response to PDE5 inhibition, with EMD360527, was reduced in FH compared with Control swine. Finally, in the pulmonary circulation, FH resulted in attenuated vasodilator responses to ATP, while maintaining the responses to both NLA and EMD360527. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia reduces exercise-induced vasodilation in the systemic but not the pulmonary circulation. This reduction appears to be the principal result of a decrease in NO bioavailability, which is mitigated by a lower PDE5 activity. PMID:24157527

  8. Familial hypercholesterolemia impairs exercise-induced systemic vasodilation due to reduced NO bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Vincent J.; Merkus, Daphne; Bender, Shawn B.; Tharp, Darla L.; Bowles, Douglas K.; Duncker, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function [e.g., the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway], limits shear stress-induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, at rest and during treadmill exercise. The increases in systemic vascular conductance produced by ATP (relative to nitroprusside) and exercise were blunted in FH compared with Control swine. The vasoconstrictor response to eNOS inhibition, with nitro-l-arginine (NLA), was attenuated in FH compared with Control swine, both at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, whereas the vasodilator response to nitroprusside was enhanced slightly, the vasodilator response to PDE5 inhibition, with EMD360527, was reduced in FH compared with Control swine. Finally, in the pulmonary circulation, FH resulted in attenuated vasodilator responses to ATP, while maintaining the responses to both NLA and EMD360527. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia reduces exercise-induced vasodilation in the systemic but not the pulmonary circulation. This reduction appears to be the principal result of a decrease in NO bioavailability, which is mitigated by a lower PDE5 activity. PMID:24157527

  9. Possible beneficial effect of exercise, by reducing oxidative stress, on the incidence of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, S; Davidge, S T

    2001-12-01

    We hypothesize that regular exercise enhances antioxidative enzymes in pregnant women, which reduce oxidative stress and, thus, the incidence of preeclampsia. Oxidative stress with enhanced lipid peroxide formation could lead to endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia. Other conditions, such as increased transferrin saturation and decreased iron-binding capacity, directly and indirectly promote the process of oxidative stress and subsequent endothelial dysfunction. Exercise increases oxidative metabolism and produces a prooxidant environment. This acidic environment during exercise (at or beyond anaerobic threshold) promotes oxygen release from hemoglobin and increases in PO(2) in tissues, as well as releases iron from transferrin. When exercise is repeated regularly, the body promptly adjusts so that oxidative stress is eliminated or reduced. The body's adaptations to a regular exercise habit seem to have an antioxidant effect. In humans, training effects have been identified with an enhanced activity of antioxidative enzymes. Another concerted adaptation that regular exercise brings to women's bodies is resistance against production of prooxidants by increasing the number of mitochondria. Equally important is a training effect that decreases susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Evidence suggests that physically active women are less likely to develop preeclampsia. In theory, intracellular and extracellular conditions resulting from regular exercise should counteract the enhancement of oxidative stress, thus interfering with the process leading to endothelial dysfunction. This position paper describes a hypothesis and includes a brief review of exercise physiology and biochemical research in preeclampsia. Unlike other preventive treatments, such as aspirin or calcium supplements, a regular exercise habit leads to a positive and healthy lifestyle without concern of side effects. PMID:11788108

  10. A Dyadic Exercise Intervention to Reduce Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; McMahon, James M.; Morrow, Gary R.; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Studies have found disparities in psychological distress between lesbian and gay cancer survivors and their heterosexual counterparts. Exercise and partner support are shown to reduce distress. However, exercise interventions haven't been delivered to lesbian and gay survivors with support by caregivers included. Methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), ten lesbian and gay and twelve heterosexual survivors and their caregivers were randomized as dyads to: Arm 1, a survivor-only, 6-week, home-based, aerobic and resistance training program (EXCAP©®); or Arm 2, a dyadic version of the same exercise program involving both the survivor and caregiver. Psychological distress, partner support, and exercise adherence, were measured at baseline and post-intervention (6 weeks later). We used t-tests to examine group differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors and between those randomized to survivor-only or dyadic exercise. Results: Twenty of the twenty-two recruited survivors were retained post-intervention. At baseline, lesbian and gay survivors reported significantly higher depressive symptoms (P = .03) and fewer average steps walked (P = .01) than heterosexual survivors. Post-intervention, these disparities were reduced and we detected no significant differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors. Participation in dyadic exercise resulted in a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in survivor-only exercise for all survivors (P = .03). No statistically significant differences emerged when looking across arm (survivor-only vs. dyadic) by subgroup (lesbian/gay vs. heterosexual). Conclusion: Exercise may be efficacious in ameliorating disparities in psychological distress among lesbian and gay cancer survivors, and dyadic exercise may be efficacious for survivors of diverse sexual orientations. Larger trials are needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26652029

  11. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  12. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise.

    PubMed

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of 'natural' breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  13. The Efficacy of Exercise Therapy in Reducing Shoulder Pain Related to Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Barbara; Cheifetz, Oren; Gillespie, Jessica; Snowden, Katie; Temesy, Jessica; Vandenberk, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Recent research indicates that physiotherapy interventions, such as exercise and manual therapy, may be effective in decreasing the frequency of side effects linked with breast cancer treatment, including fatigue, pain, nausea, and decreased quality of life. This systematic review aims to determine the efficacy of exercise therapy in reducing shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment and to identify outcome measures that can be used to assess shoulder pain in this population. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using portals such as the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE (1996 to April 2011), and Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985 to April 2011). Databases were searched for relevant studies published up to April 2011. Participants in relevant studies were adults (?18 years of age) with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer at any point during the treatment of their disease. Results: Six articles were independently appraised by two blinded reviewers. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, each analyzing different types of exerciseshoulder/arm/scapular strengthening/stabilization, postural exercises, general exercises and conditioning, shoulder range-of-motion exercises, and lymphedema exerciseswith respect to their efficacy in reducing shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment. Conclusions: Results suggest that exercise targeting shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment may be effective. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the lack of methodological quality and homogeneity of the studies included. Clinicians should use valid outcome measures, such as the visual analogue scale and brief pain inventory, to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. PMID:24396158

  14. AB 1. Prevalence and etiology of reduced exercise capacity among patients with scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, Afroditi K.; Siakka, Panagiota; Pitsiou, Georgia; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Chavouzis, Nikolaos; Paspala, Asimina; Boura, Panagiota; Garyfallos, Alexandros; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Stanopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Background Scleroderma is a connective tissue disorder characterized by reduced exercise tolerance. The aim of the study is: (I) to estimate the prevalence of decreased maximum exercise capacity, (II) to investigate the cause of this functional limitation (respiratory or cardiovascular disorders) and (III) to study potential differences of clinical, radiological, functional characteristics and blood serology among scleroderma patients with functional limitation of different etiology. Material and methods A consecutive population of 82 scleroderma patients (11.9% male; 49.8 years old and 88.1% female; 54.9 years old), who were evaluated at the respiratory physiology laboratory of the Respiratory Failure Unit, constituted the study population. Patients underwent spirometry, measurement of diffusion capacity, resting Doppler echocardiography and maximum cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer. Data on previous thorax computed tomography and blood serology were also recorded. Breathing Reserve at the end of exercise was calculated as: BR = (FEV1 40) - peak minute ventilation. Patients with BR <11 lt presented with respiratory limitation, the ones with peak oxygen uptake (VO2 max%) <75% predicted presented with circulatory limitation, while the ones with both BR ?11 lt and VO2 max% ?75% presented with normal maximum exercise capacity. Results Exercise capacity was normal in 37.8% of patients (group N), reduced exercise capacity due to respiratory limitation in 12.2% (group R) and reduced exercise capacity due to circulatory limitation in 50% (group C). Patients of group R, compared to those of group C, were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 years old; P=0.018), had a more severe respiratory restriction (measured by TLC%) (61.3 vs. 84.5; P<0.001), presented with pulmonary hypertension less often (P=0.048) and reached a lower VO2 max% (67.8% vs. 71.1%). Neither autoantibodies subtype (Anti sc70 or ACA), nor systemic arterial pressure during exercise differed between the two groups. Conclusions: Reduced exercise capacity occurs very often among patients with scleroderma. The most common cause is circulatory limitation, while the less frequent respiratory limitation occurs among older patients with more severe lung involvement.

  15. Fasting and recovery from exercise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise

    2010-06-01

    Recovery after strenuous exercise involves processes that are dependent on fluid and food intake. Current sports nutrition guidelines provide recommendations for the quantity and timing of consumption of nutrients to optimise recovery issues such as refuelling, rehydration and protein synthesis for repair and adaptation. Recovery of immune and antioxidant systems is important but less well documented. In some cases, there is little effective recovery until nutrients are supplied, while in others, the stimulus for recovery is strongest in the period immediately after exercise. Lack of appropriate nutritional support will reduce adaption to exercise and impair preparation for future bouts. Ramadan represents a special case of intermittent fasting undertaken by many athletes during periods of training as well as important competitive events. The avoidance of fluid and food intake from sunrise to sundown involves prolonged periods without intake of nutrients, inflexibility with the timing of eating and drinking over the day and around an exercise session, and changes to usual dietary choices due to the special foods involved with various rituals. These outcomes will all challenge the athlete's ability to recover optimally between exercise sessions undertaken during the fast or from day to day. PMID:20460259

  16. Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mind and spirit. Learn More Learn More Adaptive Tai Chi Deep breathing and slow, gentle movements are the ... Larger Text Print Exercise Yoga and MS Adaptive Tai Chi Get pumped for exercise Research shows strength training ...

  17. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F.; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

  18. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-? (P < 0.05) and TGF-? (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  19. Exercise training enhances rat pancreatic islets anaplerotic enzymes content despite reduced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zoppi, Claudio C; Calegari, Vivian C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C

    2011-09-01

    Endurance exercise has been shown to reduce pancreatic islets glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways are directly related to GSIS signaling. However, the effect of endurance training upon pancreatic islets anaplerotic enzymes is still unknown. In this sense, we tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise decreases GSIS by reducing anaplerotic/cataplerotic enzymes content. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups as follows: control sedentary group (CTL), trained 1 day per week (TRE1), trained 3 days per week (TRE3) and trained 5 days per week (TRE5x) and submitted to an 8 weeks endurance-training protocol. After the training protocol, pancreatic islets were isolated and incubated with basal (2.8 mM) and stimulating (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations for GSIS measurement by radioimmunoassay. In addition, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) content were quantified by western blotting. Our data showed that 8 weeks of chronic endurance exercise reduced GSIS by 50% in a dose-response manner according to weekly exercise frequency. PYC showed significant twofold increase in TRE3. PYC enhancement was even higher in TRE5 (p < 0.0001). PDH and PDK4 reached significant 25 and 50% enhancement, respectively compared with CTL. ACL and GDH also reported significant 50 and 75% increase, respectively. The absence of exercise-induced correlations among GSIS and anaplerotic/cataplerotic enzymes suggests that exercise may control insulin release by activating other signaling pathways. The observed anaplerotic and cataplerotic enzymes enhancement might be related to ?-cell surviving rather than insulin secretion. PMID:21287194

  20. Exercise reduces arterial pressure augmentation through vasodilation of muscular arteries in humans.

    PubMed

    Munir, Shahzad; Jiang, Benyu; Guilcher, Antoine; Brett, Sally; Redwood, Simon; Marber, Michael; Chowienczyk, Philip

    2008-04-01

    Exercise markedly influences pulse wave morphology, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated whether effects of exercise on the arterial pulse result from alterations in stroke volume or pulse wave velocity (PWV)/large artery stiffness or reduction of pressure wave reflection. Healthy subjects (n = 25) performed bicycle ergometry. with workload increasing from 25 to 150 W for 12 min. Digital arterial pressure waveforms were recorded using a servo-controlled finger cuff. Radial arterial pressure waveforms and carotid-femoral PWV were determined by applanation tonometry. Stroke volume was measured by echocardiography, and brachial and femoral artery blood flows and diameters were measured by ultrasound. Digital waveforms were recorded continuously. Other measurements were made before and after exercise. Exercise markedly reduced late systolic and diastolic augmentation of the peripheral pressure pulse. At 15 min into recovery, stroke volume and PWV were similar to baseline values, but changes in pulse wave morphology persisted. Late systolic augmentation index (radial pulse) was reduced from 54 +/- 3.9% at baseline to 42 +/- 3.7% (P < 0.01), and diastolic augmentation index (radial pulse) was reduced from 37 +/- 1.8% to 25 +/- 2.9% (P < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by an increase in femoral blood flow (from 409 +/- 44 to 773 +/- 48 ml/min, P < 0.05) and an increase in femoral artery diameter (from 8.2 +/- 0.4 to 8.6 +/- 0.4 mm, P < 0.05). In conclusion, exercise dilates muscular arteries and reduces arterial pressure augmentation, an effect that will enhance ventricular-vascular coupling and reduce load on the left ventricle. PMID:18296568

  1. Whole body heat loss is reduced in older males during short bouts of intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Larose, Joanie; Wright, Heather E; Stapleton, Jill; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Hardcastle, Stephen; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-09-15

    Studies in young adults show that a greater proportion of heat is gained shortly following the start of exercise and that temporal changes in whole body heat loss during intermittent exercise have a pronounced effect on body heat storage. The consequences of short-duration intermittent exercise on heat storage with aging are unclear. We compared evaporative heat loss (HE) and changes in body heat content (?Hb) between young (20-30 yr), middle-aged (40-45 yr), and older males (60-70 yr) of similar body mass and surface area, during successive exercise (4 15 min) and recovery periods (4 15 min) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) and under fixed environmental conditions (35 C/20% relative humidity). HE was lower in older males vs. young males during each exercise (Ex1: 283 10 vs. 332 11 kJ, Ex2: 334 10 vs. 379 5 kJ, Ex3: 347 11 vs. 392 5 kJ, and Ex4: 347 10 vs. 387 5 kJ, all P < 0.02), whereas HE in middle-aged males was intermediate to that measured in young and older adults (Ex1: 314 13, Ex2: 355 13, Ex3: 371 13, and Ex4: 365 8 kJ). HE was not significantly different between groups during the recovery periods. The net effect over 2 h was a greater ?Hb in older (267 33 kJ; P = 0.016) and middle-aged adults (245 16 kJ; P = 0.073) relative to younger counterparts (164 20 kJ). As a result of a reduced capacity to dissipate heat during exercise, which was not compensated by a sufficiently greater rate of heat loss during recovery, both older and middle-aged males had a progressively greater rate of heat storage compared with young males over 2 h of intermittent exercise. PMID:23883671

  2. Endurance Exercise Accelerates Myocardial Tissue Oxygenation Recovery and Reduces Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tiantian; Xu, Xiaohua; Sandvick, Taylor M.; Hutchinson, Kirk; Wold, Loren E.; Hu, Keli; Sun, Qinghua; Thomas, D. Paul; Ren, Jun; He, Guanglong

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training offers cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, few essential signals have been identified to underscore the protection from injury. In the present study, we hypothesized that exercise-induced acceleration of myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery contributes to this protection. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were trained on treadmills for 45 min/day at a treading rate of 15 m/min for 8 weeks. At the end of 8-week exercise training, mice underwent 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 60-min or 24-h reperfusion. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry was performed to measure myocardial tissue oxygenation. Western immunoblotting analyses, gene transfection, and myography were examined. The oximetry study demonstrated that exercise markedly shortened myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery time following reperfusion. Exercise training up-regulated Kir6.1 protein expression (a subunit of ATP-sensitive K+ channel on vascular smooth muscle cells, VSMC sarc-KATP) and protected the heart from I/R injury. In vivo gene transfer of dominant negative Kir6.1AAA prolonged the recovery time and enlarged infarct size. In addition, transfection of Kir6.1AAA increased the stiffness and reduced the relaxation capacity in the vasculature. Together, our study demonstrated that exercise training up-regulated Kir6.1, improved tissue oxygenation recovery, and protected the heart against I/R injury. This exercise-induced cardioprotective mechanism may provide a potential therapeutic intervention targeting VSMC sarc-KATP channels and reperfusion recovery. PMID:25474642

  3. Physical exercise reduces synthesis of ADMA, SDMA, and L-Arg.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano; Scotti, Luca; Guagnano, Maria Teresa; Bosco, Gabriella; Bucciarelli, Valentina; Di Ilio, Emanuela; Speranza, Lorenza; Martini, Filippo; Bucciarelli, Tonino

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and low plasma level of L-arginine (L-ARG) are all conditions likely to decrease nitric oxide (NO) production. Aim of this study is to evaluate ADMA, SDMA, and L-ARG plasmatic levels before and after physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We studied 30 patient with mean age 52 + 4.5 years. After inclusion in the study, before the execution of physical exercise, heparinized blood sample was drawn from an indwelling arterial line for determination of ADMA, L-ARG and SDMA (baseline values). Subsequently a blood sample was drawn after the physical exercise. The mean plasma concentrations of ADMA (0.68 + 0.06 vs 0.48 + 0.05 mol/L) and SDMA (0.45 + 0.03 vs 0.30 + 0.03 mol/L) were significantly lower after physical exercise in comparison to baseline value, while L-ARG mean levels were increased (44.20 + 10.5 vs 74.13 + 11.2 mol/L). Physical exercise has a beneficial effect by reducing plasmatic ADMA and SDMA levels, and increasing L-ARG substrate for endothelial NO. PMID:25961421

  4. Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Part I: Exercising Nonpharmacologic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen Ra.; Loggie, Jennifer M. H.

    1992-01-01

    Essential hypertension is diagnosed with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. Studies indicate exercise can be a clinically useful treatment, though strenuous exercise may be contraindicated for some. The article discusses the physician's role in diagnosis, nonpharmacologic interventions, exercise safety and effectiveness, and

  5. Dehydration reduces left ventricular filling at rest and during exercise independent of twist mechanics.

    PubMed

    Sthr, Eric J; Gonzlez-Alonso, Jos; Pearson, James; Low, David A; Ali, Leena; Barker, Horace; Shave, Rob

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduction in stroke volume (SV), previously shown to occur with dehydration and increases in internal body temperatures during prolonged exercise, is caused by a reduction in left ventricular (LV) function, as indicated by LV volumes, strain, and twist ("LV mechanics"). Eight healthy men [age: 20 2, maximal oxygen uptake (VO?max): 58 7 mlkg?min?] completed two, 1-h bouts of cycling in the heat (35C, 50% peak power) without fluid replacement, resulting in 2% and 3.5% dehydration, respectively. Conventional and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to determine LV volumes, strain, and twist at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise at baseline, both levels of dehydration, and following rehydration. Progressive dehydration caused a significant reduction in end-diastolic volume (EDV) and SV at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (rest: ?-33 14 and ?-21 14 ml, respectively; exercise: ?-30 10 and ?-22 9 ml, respectively, during 3.5% dehydration). In contrast to the marked decline in EDV and SV, systolic and diastolic LV mechanics were either maintained or even enhanced with dehydration at rest and during knee-extensor exercise. We conclude that dehydration-induced reductions in SV at rest and during exercise are the result of reduced LV filling, as reflected by the decline in EDV. The concomitant maintenance of LV mechanics suggests that the decrease in LV filling, and consequently ejection, is likely caused by the reduction in blood volume and/or diminished filling time rather than impaired LV function. PMID:21700893

  6. L-arginine reduces exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, A; Piquard, F; Geny, B; Doutreleau, S; Lampert, E; Mettauer, B; Lonsdorfer, J

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the effect of L-arginine supplementation (L-ARG) on physiological and metabolic changes during exercise, we determined in a double-blind study the cardiorespiratory (heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) and the metabolic (lactate and ammonia) responses to maximal exercise after either an intravenous L-ARG hydrochloride salt or placebo load in 8 healthy subjects. Exercise-induced increases in heart rate, VO(2) and VCO(2) were not significantly different after L-ARG or placebo. By contrast, peak plasma ammonia and lactate were significantly decreased after L-ARG load (60.6 +/- 8.2 vs. 73.1 +/- 9.1 micro mol x l(-1), p < 0.01 and 7.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 8.2 +/- 1.1 mmol x l(-1), p < 0.01, for ammonia and lactate, respectively). Plasma L-citrulline increased significantly during exercise only after L-ARG load, despite a concomitant decrease in plasma L-ARG. Furthermore, a significant inverse relationship was observed between changes in lactate and L-citrulline concentrations after L-ARG load (r = -0.84, p = 0.009). These results demonstrate that intravenous L-ARG reduces significantly exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia. Taken together, the specific L-citrulline increase and the inverse relationship observed between L-citrulline and plasma lactate after L-ARG might support that L-ARG supplementation enhances the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway during exercise. PMID:12215958

  7. Exercise and diet enhance fat oxidation and reduce insulin resistance in older obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Sistrun, Sakita N.; Krishnan, Raj K.; Del Aguila, Luis F.; Marchetti, Christine M.; O'Carroll, Susan M.; O'Leary, Valerie B.; Kirwan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Older, obese, and sedentary individuals are at high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise training improves metabolic anomalies associated with such diseases, but the effects of caloric restriction in addition to exercise in such a high risk group are not known. Changes in body composition and metabolism during a lifestyle intervention were investigated in twenty three older, obese men and women (aged 66 ± 1 years, BMI 33.2 ± 1.4 kg.m−2) with impaired glucose tolerance. All volunteers undertook twelve weeks of aerobic exercise training (5 days per week for 60 min @ 75% VO2max) with either normal caloric intake (eucaloric group, 1901 ± 277 kcal.day−1, n = 12) or a reduced-calorie diet (hypocaloric group, 1307 ± 70 kcal.day−1, n = 11), as dictated by nutritional counseling. Body composition (decreased fat mass; maintained fat-free mass), aerobic fitness (VO2max), leptinemia, insulin sensitivity, and intramyocellular lipid accumulation (IMCL) in skeletal muscle improved in both groups (P < 0.05). Improvements in body composition, leptin and basal fat oxidation were greater in the hypocaloric group. Following the intervention there was a correlation between the increase in basal fat oxidation and the decrease in IMCL (r = −0.53, P = 0.04). In addition, basal fat oxidation was associated with circulating leptin after (r = 0.65, P = 0.0007), but not before the intervention (r = 0.05, P = 0.84). In conclusion, these data show that exercise training improves resting substrate oxidation and creates a metabolic milieu that appears to promote lipid utilization in skeletal muscle, thus facilitating a reversal of insulin resistance. We also demonstrate that leptin sensitivity is improved, but that such a trend may rely on reducing caloric intake in addition to exercise training. PMID:18323464

  8. Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484

  9. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  10. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

  11. Reduced pulmonary function in children with the Fontan circulation affects their exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Iren Lindbak; Fredriksen, Per Morten; Bjrnstad, Per G; Thaulow, Erik; Gronn, Morten

    2006-06-01

    Most children with functionally univentricular hearts nowadays are treated surgically by creating a total cavopulmonary connection. In the resulting Fontan circulation, the venous return and the pulmonary arterial bed are coupled in series, bypassing the heart. This gives the potential for interaction between the abnormal circulation and function of the lungs. In this study, we investigated the pattern of impairment of pulmonary function, and its relation to decreased exercise capacity. We performed spirometry in 33 (85 percent) of 39 eligible Norwegian children, aged from 8 to 16, with a total cavopulmonary connection, along with whole body plethysmography, the carbon monoxide single breath test, and a peak treadmill exercise test. The single breath test showed a mean corrected diffusing capacity of 66.5 percent of predicted, giving a z score of minus 2.88. The mean residual volume measured by whole body plethysmography was 146.8 percent, equivalent to a z score of 2.46, whereas the mean residual volume measured by the single breath test was 102.4 percent of predicted, this being the same as a z score of 0.43. The mean peak treadmill exercise test was 70.0 percent of predicted, equivalent with a z score of minus 3.07. Mean forced vital capacity was 85.7 percent of predicted, the equivalent z score being minus 0.92. Lung function correlated with the peak treadmill exercise test. We have shown, therefore, that children with the Fontan circulation have reduced diffusing capacity, possibly caused by the abnormal circulation through the lungs. The difference between residual volume measured by plethysmography and the single breath test implies trapping of air. The correlation of parameters for lung function with peak consumption of oxygen during exercise indicates that the abnormalities of pulmonary function may affect physical capacity. PMID:16725065

  12. Reduced Satellite Cell Numbers and Myogenic Capacity in Aging Can Be Alleviated by Endurance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Gabi; Rauner, Gat; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Benayahu, Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary. Methodology Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo). The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro). We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging. PMID:20967266

  13. Long-term exercise treatment reduces oxidative stress in the hippocampus of aging rats.

    PubMed

    Marosi, K; Bori, Z; Hart, N; Srga, L; Koltai, E; Radk, Z; Nyakas, C

    2012-12-13

    Exercise can exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions of older subjects and it can also play an important role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. At the same time it is perceivable that limited information is available on the nature of molecular pathways supporting the antioxidant effects of exercise in the brain. In this study 12-month old, middle-aged female Wistar rats were subjected to daily moderate intensity exercise on a rodent treadmill for a period of 15weeks which covered the early aging period unmasking already some aging-related molecular disturbances. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the amount of protein carbonyls, the levels of antioxidant intracellular enzymes superoxide dismutases (SOD-1, SOD-2) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the hippocampus. In addition, to identify the molecular pathways that may be involved in ROS metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, the activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the protein level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were measured. Our results revealed a lower level of ROS associated with a reduced amount of protein carbonyls in the hippocampus of physically trained rats compared to sedentary controls. Furthermore, exercise induced an up-regulation of SOD-1 and GPx enzymes, p-AMPK and PGC-1?, that can be related to an improved redox balance in the hippocampus. These results suggest that long-term physical exercise can comprises antioxidant properties and by this way protect neurons against oxidative stress at the early stage of aging. PMID:22982624

  14. Sex-Role Orientation and the Responses of Men to Exercise Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigation of whether males' gender roles mediated their perception of strenuous physical exercise indicated that, in comparison to "feminine" males, "masculine" males reported lower physical strain, while "androgynous" males had more positive effect and greater endurance. (Author/CB)

  15. NOS inhibition increases bubble formation and reduces survival in sedentary but not exercised rats

    PubMed Central

    Wislff, Ulrik; Richardson, Russell S; Brubakk, Alf O

    2003-01-01

    Previously we have shown that chronic as well as a single bout of exercise 20 h prior to a simulated dive protects rats from severe decompression illness (DCI) and death. However, the mechanism behind this protection is still not known. The present study determines the effect of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on bubble formation in acutely exercised and sedentary rats exposed to hyperbaric pressure. A total of 45 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (270-320 g) were randomly assigned into exercise or sedentary control groups, with and without NOS inhibition, using l-NAME (0.05 or 1 mg ml?1) (a nonselective NOS inhibitor). Exercising rats ran intervals on a treadmill for 1.5 h, 20 h prior to the simulated dive. Intervals alternated between 8 min at 8590 % of maximal oxygen uptake, and 2 min at 5060 %. Rats were compressed (simulated dive) in a pressure chamber, at a rate of 200 kPa min?1 to a pressure of 700 kPa, and maintained for 45 min breathing air. At the end of the exposure period, rats were decompressed linearly to the surface (100 kPa) at a rate of 50 kPa min?1. Immediately after reaching the surface the animals were anaesthetised and the right ventricle was insonated using ultrasound. The study demonstrated that sedentary rats weighing more than 300 g produced a large amount of bubbles, while those weighing less than 300 g produced few bubbles and most survived the protocol. Prior exercise reduced bubble formation and increased survival in rats weighing more than 300 g, confirming the results from the previous study. During NOS inhibition, the simulated dive induced significantly more bubbles in all sedentary rats weighing less than 300 g. However, this effect could be attenuated by a single bout of exercise 20 h before exposure. The present study demonstrates two previously unreported findings: that administration of l-NAME allows substantial bubble formation and decreased survival in sedentary rats, and that a single bout of exercise protects NOS-inhibited rats from severe bubble formation and death. This is the first report to indicate that biochemical processes are involved in bubble formation, and this information may be important in the search for preventive measures for and treatment of DCI. PMID:12527743

  16. Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males

  17. Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

  18. Regular and moderate exercise before experimental sepsis reduces the risk of lung and distal organ injury.

    PubMed

    de Arajo, Carla C; Silva, Johnatas D; Samary, Cynthia S; Guimares, Isabela H; Marques, Patrcia S; Oliveira, Gisele P; do Carmo, Luana G R R; Goldenberg, Regina C; Bakker-Abreu, Ilka; Diaz, Bruno L; Rocha, Nazareth N; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2012-04-01

    Physical activity modulates inflammation and immune response in both normal and pathologic conditions. We investigated whether regular and moderate exercise before the induction of experimental sepsis reduces the risk of lung and distal organ injury and survival. One hundred twenty-four BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to two groups: sedentary (S) and trained (T). Animals in T group ran on a motorized treadmill, at moderate intensity, 5% grade, 30 min/day, 3 times a week for 8 wk. Cardiac adaptation to exercise was evaluated using echocardiography. Systolic volume and left ventricular mass were increased in T compared with S group. Both T and S groups were further randomized either to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture surgery (CLP) or sham operation (control). After 24 h, lung mechanics and histology, the degree of cell apoptosis in lung, heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine villi, and interleukin (IL)-6, KC (IL-8 murine functional homolog), IL-1?, IL-10, and number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and peritoneal lavage (PLF) fluids as well as plasma were measured. In CLP, T compared with S groups showed: 1) improvement in survival; 2) reduced lung static elastance, alveolar collapse, collagen and elastic fiber content, number of neutrophils in BALF, PLF, and plasma, as well as lung and distal organ cell apoptosis; and 3) increased IL-10 in BALF and plasma, with reduced IL-6, KC, and IL-1? in PLF. In conclusion, regular and moderate exercise before the induction of sepsis reduced the risk of lung and distal organ damage, thus increasing survival. PMID:22267391

  19. Exercise Training Reduces Peripheral Arterial Stiffness and Myocardial Oxygen Demand in Young Prehypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. METHODS Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 8089mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 1835 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. RESULTS PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.63.6mm Hg and 11.93.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.05.1mm Hg and 7.23.4mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.05). PHRT and PHET decreased augmentation index (AIx) by 7.5% 2.8% and 8.1% 3.2% (P < 0.05), AIx@75 by 8.0% 3.2% and 9.2% 3.8% (P < 0.05), and left ventricular wasted pressure energy, an index of extra left ventricular myocardial oxygen requirement due to early systolic wave reflection, by 573161 dynes s/cm2 and 612167 dynes s/cm2 (P < 0.05), respectively. PHRT and PHET reduced carotidradial PWV by 1.020.32 m/sec and 0.920.36 m/sec (P < 0.05) and femoraldistal PWV by 1.040.31 m/sec and 1.340.33 m/sec (P < 0.05), respectively. No significant changes were observed in the time-control groups. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that both resistance and endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects. PMID:23736111

  20. Circulating ANGPTL8/Betatrophin Is Increased in Obesity and Reduced after Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Sriraman, Devarajan; Cherian, Preethi; AlKhairi, Irina; Elkum, Naser; Behbehani, Kazem; Abubaker, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    Objective ANGPTL8 is a liver and adipose tissue produced protein that regulates the level of triglyceride in plasma as well as glucose homeostasis. This study was designed to evaluate the level of ANGPTL8 in obese and non-obese subjects before and after exercise training. Methods A total of 82 non-obese and 62 adult obese were enrolled in this study. Subjects underwent a three months of exercise training. Both full length and C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 were measured by ELISA. Results Our data show that the full length ANGPTL8 level was increased in obese subjects (1150.04 ± 108.10 pg/mL) compared to non-obese (775.54 ± 46.12) pg/mL (p-Value = 0.002). C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 was also increased in obese subjects 0.28 ± 0.04 ng/mL vs 0.20 ± 0.02 ng/mL in non-obese (p-value = 0.058). In obese subjects, the levels of both forms were reduced after three months of exercise training; full length was reduced from 1150.04 ± 108.10 pg/mL to 852.04 ± 51.95 pg/mL (p-Values 0.015) and c-terminal form was reduced from 0.28 ± 0.04 ng/mL to 0.19 ± 0.03 ng/mL (p-Value = 0.058). Interestingly, full length ANGPTL8 was positively associated with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in non-obese (r = 0.317, p-Value = 0.006) and obese subjects (r = 0.346, p-Value = 0.006) C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 on the other hand, did not show any correlation in both groups. Conclusion In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ANGPTL8 was increased in obesity and reduced after exercise training supporting the potential therapeutic benefit of reducing ANGPTL8. The various forms of ANGPTL8 associated differently with FBG suggesting that they have different roles in glucose homeostasis. PMID:26784326

  1. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Marcelo Mendona; da Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, Andr Sales; Arajo, Joo Eliakim dos Santos; de Oliveira, Antnio Cesar Cabral; Wichi, Rogrio Brando; Santos, Mrcio Roberto Viana

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 5 to 126.7 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 5 to 105.1 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:25120082

  2. Exercise, muscle, and CHO metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, M

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrates (CHO) are a key source of energy for contracting skeletal muscle during strenuous exercise and fatigue during such exercise often coincides with CHO depletion. Our current understanding of the importance of CHO for exercise metabolism has its foundations in classic studies in the early 20th century by Scandinavian physiologists and Bengt Saltin contributed significantly to that tradition. This brief review summarizes our contemporary understanding of key aspects of muscle glycogen and glucose metabolism during exercise, through the lens of seminal studies by Bengt Saltin. PMID:26589114

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise, via reduced leptin levels, in obese women with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ordoez, Francisco J; Fornieles-Gonzalez, Gabriel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Miguel A; Rosety, Ignacio; Diaz, Antonio J; Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, the authors' aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, 11 of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-wk aerobic-training program. They attended 3 sessions/wk, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30-40 min) at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. Fat-mass percentage and distribution were measured, and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and postintervention. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants' maximal oxygen uptake (20.2 5.8 vs.23.7 6.3 ml kg-1 min-1; p < .001), and plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced in the intervention group (54.2 6.7 vs.45.7 6.1 ng/ml; p = .026). Further significant correlations between plasma leptin and indices of obesity were found. In contrast, no significant changes were found in adiponectin levels (p > .05). None of the tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training program reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome. PMID:23307488

  4. Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise.

    PubMed

    Minett, Geoffrey M; Duffield, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e., team sports) induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness, and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise. PMID:24550837

  5. Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise

    PubMed Central

    Minett, Geoffrey M.; Duffield, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e., team sports) induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness, and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise. PMID:24550837

  6. Exercise Programs for Citizens Sixty and Over--Why Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Frank; Anderson, Gene

    An outline is given of an exercise program for older adults which is designed to increase strength, endurance, and flexibility. Brief descriptions are provided of exercises progressing from modest tone-ups for flexibility to activities involving mildly strenuous physical efforts such as jogging, bicycling, and hiking. Suggestions are offered for

  7. Adult scoliosis can be reduced through specific SEAS exercises: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Negrini, Alessandra; Parzini, Silvana; Negrini, Maria Gabriella; Romano, Michele; Atanasio, Salvatore; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been known since many years that scoliosis can continue to progress after skeletal maturity: the rate of progression has shown to be linear, and it can be used to establish an individual prognosis. Once there is progression there is an indication for treatment: usually it is proposed a surgical one. There are very few papers on an alternative rehabilitation approach; since many years we propose specific SEAS exercises and the aim of this study is to present one case report on this approach. Case presentation All radiographs have been measured blindly twice using the same protractor by one expert physician whose repeatability error proved to be < 3° Cobb; the average measurement has been used. In this case a 25 years old female scoliosis patient, previously treated from 14 (Risser 1) to 19 years of age with a decrease of the curve from 46° to 37°, showed a progression of 10° Cobb in 6 years. The patient has then been treated with SEAS exercises only, and in one year progression has been reverted from 47° to 28.5°. Conclusion A scoliosis curve is made of different components: the structural bony and ligamentous components, and a postural one that counts up to 9° in children, while it has not been quantified in adults. This case shows that when adult scoliosis aggravates it is possible to intervene with specific exercises (SEAS) not just to get stability, but to recover last years collapse. The reduction of scoliotic curve through rehabilitation presumably does not indicate a reduction of the bone deformity, but rely on a recovery of the upright postural collapse. This reduction can decrease the chronic asymmetric load on the spine and, in the long run, reduce the risks of progression. PMID:19087344

  8. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-11-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1, 12 subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6 mg/kg body wt; CAF) or placebo (PLA) intake. In S2, 6 subjects performed one low-intensity (20 W) and three intense (50 W) 3-min (separated by 5 min) one-legged knee-extension exercise bouts with (CAF) and without (CON) prior caffeine supplementation for determination of muscle interstitial K(+) and Na(+) with microdialysis. In S1 Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 16% better (P < 0.05) in CAF compared with PLA. In CAF, plasma K(+) at the end of the Yo-Yo IR2 test was 5.2 0.1 mmol/l with no difference between the trials. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) were higher (P < 0.05) in CAF than PLA at rest and remained higher (P < 0.05) during exercise. Peak blood glucose (8.0 0.6 vs. 6.2 0.4 mmol/l) and plasma NH(3) (137.2 10.8 vs. 113.4 13.3 ?mol/l) were also higher (P < 0.05) in CAF compared with PLA. In S2 interstitial K(+) was 5.5 0.3, 5.7 0.3, 5.8 0.5, and 5.5 0.3 mmol/l at the end of the 20-W and three 50-W periods, respectively, in CAF, which were lower (P < 0.001) than in CON (7.0 0.6, 7.5 0.7, 7.5 0.4, and 7.0 0.6 mmol/l, respectively). No differences in interstitial Na(+) were observed between CAF and CON. In conclusion, caffeine intake enhances fatigue resistance and reduces muscle interstitial K(+) during intense intermittent exercise. PMID:21836046

  9. Physical Exercise as a Laboratory Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Robert R.

    1977-01-01

    Provides background relating cardiorespiratory disease to physical activity. Three laboratory activities are described: pulse response to posture change and quiet activity, pulse response to exercise (mild increasing to strenuous), and ability to extract oxygen. The last includes information on construction of an ergometer. (CS)

  10. Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  11. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  12. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  13. Capsiate Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Cost of Contraction in Exercising Mouse Skeletal Muscle In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health. PMID:26030806

  14. Resistance exercise increases AMPK activity and reduces 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Hans C; Fujita, Satoshi; Cadenas, Jerson G; Chinkes, David L; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2006-10-15

    Resistance exercise is a potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis and muscle cell growth, with the increase in protein synthesis being detected within 2-3 h post-exercise and remaining elevated for up to 48 h. However, during exercise, muscle protein synthesis is inhibited. An increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity has recently been shown to decrease mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling to key regulators of translation initiation. We hypothesized that the cellular mechanism for the inhibition of muscle protein synthesis during an acute bout of resistance exercise in humans would be associated with an activation of AMPK and an inhibition of downstream components of the mTOR pathway (4E-BP1 and S6K1). We studied 11 subjects (seven men, four women) before, during, and for 2 h following a bout of resistance exercise. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected at each time point from the vastus lateralis. We utilized immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting methods to measure muscle AMPKalpha2 activity, and mTOR-associated upstream and downstream signalling proteins, and stable isotope techniques to measure muscle fractional protein synthetic rate (FSR). AMPKalpha2 activity (pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1)) at baseline was 1.7 +/- 0.3, increased immediately post-exercise (3.0 +/- 0.6), and remained elevated at 1 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle FSR decreased during exercise and was significantly increased at 1 and 2 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at Thr37/46 was significantly reduced immediately post-exercise (P < 0.05). We conclude that AMPK activation and a reduced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 may contribute to the inhibition of muscle protein synthesis during resistance exercise. However, by 1-2 h post-exercise, muscle protein synthesis increased in association with an activation of protein kinase B, mTOR, S6K1 and eEF2. PMID:16873412

  15. Short-Term Aerobic Exercise Reduces Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Kenneth M.; Lockhart, Chris; Cuff, Darcye; Potter, Tiffany F.; Meneilly, Graydon S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The relationship between increased arterial stiffness and cardiovascular mortality is well established in type 2 diabetes. We examined whether aerobic exercise could reduce arterial stiffness in older adults with type 2 diabetes complicated by comorbid hypertension and hyperlipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 36 older adults (mean age 71.4 ± 0.7 years) with diet-controlled or oral hypoglycemic–controlled type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an aerobic group (3 months vigorous aerobic exercise) and a nonaerobic group (no aerobic exercise). Exercise sessions were supervised by a certified exercise trainer three times per week, and a combination of cycle ergometers and treadmills was used. Arterial stiffness was measured using the Complior device. RESULTS When the two groups were compared, aerobic training resulted in a decrease in measures of both radial (−20.7 ± 6.3 vs. +8.5 ± 6.6%, P = 0.005) and femoral (−13.9 ± 6.7 vs. +4.4 ± 3.3%, P = 0.015) pulse-wave velocity despite the fact that aerobic fitness as assessed by Vo2max did not demonstrate an improvement with training (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that a relatively short aerobic exercise intervention in older adults can reduce multifactorial arterial stiffness (type 2 diabetes, aging, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia). PMID:19509011

  16. Serum free light chains are reduced in endurance trained older adults: Evidence that exercise training may reduce basal inflammation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Campbell, John P

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, free light chains (FLCs) are used as key serum biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of plasma cell malignancies, but polyclonal FLCs can also be used as an accurate real-time indicator of immune-activation and inflammation. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the effects of exercise training status on serum FLCs in older adults, and secondly, to examine if training status moderated serum FLC responses to acute exercise. Kappa and lambda serum FLC levels were measured in 45 healthy older adults (aged ≥60years) who were either sedentary, physically active or endurance trained. FLCs were measured at baseline and in response to an acute bout of submaximal exercise. The endurance trained group had significantly lower levels of kappa and lambda serum FLCs compared with physically active or sedentary elderly adults; these effects were independent of age, BMI and renal function. There was no significant difference in whole immunoglobulins between groups. Exercise training status had no effect on serum FLC responses to acute exercise, which were marginal. In conclusion, endurance training was associated with lower FLC levels compared with less physically active individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance training may be beneficial in reducing basal inflammation in older adults as well as elevated FLCs present in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, often associated with ageing. FLCs may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of exercise intervention studies in healthy and clinical populations. PMID:26921802

  17. Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL-18, CRP, and IL-6 independent of beta-blockers, BMI, and psychosocial factors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohut, M L; McCann, D A; Russell, D W; Konopka, D N; Cunnick, J E; Franke, W D; Castillo, M C; Reighard, A E; Vanderah, E

    2006-05-01

    Increased serum levels of inflammatory mediators have been associated with numerous disease states including atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and overall mortality. We hypothesized that a long-term exercise intervention among older adults would reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, and this reduction would be mediated, in part, by improvements in psychosocial factors and/or by beta-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. Adults age 64 were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment (CARDIO) or a flexibility/strength exercise treatment (FLEX) 3 days/week, 45 min/day for 10 months. A subgroup of subjects treated with non-selective beta(1)beta(2) adrenergic antagonists were included to evaluate the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptor adaptations as mediators of an exercise-induced change in inflammation. The inflammatory mediators [C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-18] and the psychosocial factors (depression, perceived stress, optimism, sense of coherence, and social support) were measured pre- and post-intervention. The CARDIO treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 compared to the FLEX treatment (significant treatment x time interaction, p<.05), whereas TNFalpha declined in both groups (main effect of time, p=.001). However, several psychosocial factors (depression, optimism, and sense of coherence) improved in both groups suggesting that the reduction of CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 in the CARDIO group was not mediated by improvements in psychosocial scores. With respect to the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptors, both CARDIO subjects treated with beta-adrenergic antagonists and those who were not treated with those medications demonstrated similar reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, IL-18, and TNFalpha. In summary, we have observed that an aerobic exercise intervention can significantly reduce serum inflammatory mediators, but beta-adrenergic receptors and psychosocial factors do not appear to be involved. PMID:16504463

  18. Creatine supplementation reduces increased homocysteine concentration induced by acute exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Deminice, Rafael; Vannucchi, Helio; Simes-Ambrosio, Lvia Maria; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism after acute aerobic and anaerobic exercise. A total of 112 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: aerobic exercise (A), aerobic exercise plus creatine supplementation (ACr), anaerobic exercise (An), and anaerobic exercise plus creatine-supplemented (AnCr). Creatine supplementation consisted of the addition of 2% creatine monohydrate to the diet. After 28days, the rats performed an acute moderate aerobic exercise bout (1h swimming with 4% of total body weight load) or an acute intense anaerobic exercise bout (6נ30-s vertical jumps into the water with a 30-s rest between jumps, with 50% of total body weight load). The animals were killed before (pre) and at 0, 2, and 6h (n=8) after acute exercise. Plasma Hcy concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) up to 2h after anaerobic exercise (An group: pre 8.71.2, 0h 13.22.3, 2h 13.54.2, and 6h 12.12.2, ?mol/l). The same did not occur in acute aerobic exercised animals. Nevertheless, creatine supplementation significant decreased (P<0.05) homocysteine concentration independent of exercise intensity (AnCr group: pre 17%, 0h 80%, 2h 107%, and 6h 48%; ACr group: pre 17%, 0h 19%, 2h 28%, and 6h 27%). Increased S-adenosylhomocysteine was also found in the An group. In conclusion, acute intense anaerobic exercise increased plasma Hcy concentration. On the other hand, creatine supplementation decreased plasma Hcy independent of exercise intensity. PMID:21394640

  19. Development of Countermeasures and Exercise Protocols to Reduce the Effects of Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Pandurang M.

    2000-01-01

    I have helped scientists at NASA-JSC in analyzing data from many projects. Some of the major ones are: (1) cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) following bed rest, (2) the effects of dietary sodium, (3) in-flight cycle exercise mitigates reduced oxygen consumption at submaximal heart rates following space flight, (4) exercise thermoregulation after 13 days of head down bed rest, and (5) bed rest induced orthostatic intolerance. Many of the projects have now been completed and some of them are in the process of being published and others have been presented at national meetings. These projects have helped me be a true statistician and given me a real-life perspective of how interesting and complicated data can be. As a by-product of of these involvements I have been able to write and publish some methodological research that have applications in NASA and elsewhere. For instance, while I was at JSC, I happened to meet Dr. Al Feiveson and got into a discussion of the Space Shuttle Reliability. This led us to rethink about the way the data on the accelerated life testing of space shuttle pressure vessels had been analyzed. This has resulted in a major statistical paper and the paper has appeared in one of the top journals in the field of Statistics. A review of the paper by the editor of the journal was published in AmStatNews, a copy is attached with this report. I have presented these findings at the national/international statistics conference and at other places. I have also written another paper on reliability and a paper on calibration techniques that have applications in the engineering and the biomedical branches of NASA. Further, I am currently in the process of writing at least two more papers that have direct applications in NASA related studies.

  20. Reduced ventricular flow propagation velocity in elite athletes is augmented with the resumption of exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Louise H; Arnolda, Leonard F; Deague, Jenny A; Playford, David; Maurogiovanni, Antonio; O'Driscoll, Gerard; Green, Daniel J

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exercise induces physiological enlargement of the left ventricle (athlete's heart), but the effects of current and long-term exercise training on diastolic function have not been investigated. Echocardiography and Doppler imaging were used to assess left ventricular (LV) dimensions and indices of diastolic filling in 22 elite athletes at the end of their off-season (baseline) and, subsequently, following 3 and 6 months of training. Twelve matched controls were also studied at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Compared to controls at baseline, athletes exhibited significantly higher LV mass (235.7 7.1 g versus 178.1 14.5 g, P < 0.01) and reduced flow propagation velocity (VP: 50.21 1.7 versus 72.2 3.6 cm s?1, P < 0.01), a measure of diastolic function. Three months of training further increased LV mass in athletes (253.2 7.1 g; P < 0.01 versus baseline), and significantly increased their VP (66.7 2.5 cm s?1; P < 0.05 versus baseline). These trends for increased mass and diastolic filling persisted following 6 months of training (LV mass 249.0 8.7 g P < 0.05 versus baseline; VP 75.7 3.0 cm s?1; P < 0.01 versus baseline, and P = 0.01 versus 3 months). This study suggests that following a period of relative inactivity the rate of ventricular relaxation during early diastole may be slowed in athletes who exhibit ventricular hypertrophy, whilst resumption of training increases the speed of ventricular relaxation in the presence of further hypertrophy of the left ventricle. PMID:15661822

  1. Aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular changes of small mesenteric and coronary arteries in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Fernanda R; Briones, Ana M; Garca-Redondo, Ana B; Galn, Mara; Martnez-Revelles, Sonia; Avendao, Maria S; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Fernandes, Tiago; Vassallo, Dalton V; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Salaices, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experimental Approach Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks were used to evaluate vascular structural, mechanical and functional properties. Key Results Exercise did not affect lumen diameter, wall thickness and wall/lumen ratio but reduced vascular stiffness of coronary and mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise also reduced collagen deposition and normalized altered internal elastic lamina organization and expression of MMP-9 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise did not affect contractile responses of coronary arteries but improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. In mesenteric arteries, training normalized the increased contractile responses induced by U46619 and by high concentrations of acetylcholine. In vessels from SHR, exercise normalized the effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in vasodilator or vasoconstrictor responses, normalized the increased O2? production and the reduced Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression and increased NO production. Conclusions and Implications Exercise training of SHR improves endothelial function and vascular stiffness in coronary and small mesenteric arteries. This might be related to the concomitant decrease of oxidative stress and increase of NO bioavailability. Such effects demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular system and could contribute to a reduction in blood pressure. PMID:22994554

  2. Evidence for the role of isometric exercise training in reducing blood pressure: potential mechanisms and future directions.

    PubMed

    Millar, Philip J; McGowan, Cheri L; Cornelissen, Vronique A; Araujo, Claudio G; Swaine, Ian L

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension, or the chronic elevation in resting arterial blood pressure (BP), is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and estimated to affect ~1 billion adults worldwide. The goals of treatment are to lower BP through lifestyle modifications (smoking cessation, weight loss, exercise training, healthy eating and reduced sodium intake), and if not solely effective, the addition of antihypertensive medications. In particular, increased physical exercise and decreased sedentarism are important strategies in the prevention and management of hypertension. Current guidelines recommend both aerobic and dynamic resistance exercise training modalities to reduce BP. Mounting prospective evidence suggests that isometric exercise training in normotensive and hypertensive (medicated and non-medicated) cohorts of young and old participants may produce similar, if not greater, reductions in BP, with meta-analyses reporting mean reductions of between 10 and 13 mmHg systolic, and 6 and 8 mmHg diastolic. Isometric exercise training protocols typically consist of four sets of 2-min handgrip or leg contractions sustained at 20-50 % of maximal voluntary contraction, with each set separated by a rest period of 1-4 min. Training is usually completed three to five times per week for 4-10 weeks. Although the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations remain to be fully clarified, improvements in conduit and resistance vessel endothelium-dependent dilation, oxidative stress, and autonomic regulation of heart rate and BP have been reported. The clinical significance of isometric exercise training, as a time-efficient and effective training modality to reduce BP, warrants further study. This evidence-based review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of isometric exercise training on resting BP. PMID:24174307

  3. Central blockade of nitric oxide transmission impairs exercise-induced neuronal activation in the PVN and reduces physical performance.

    PubMed

    Lima, Paulo M A; Santiago, Henrique P; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cndido C

    2014-09-01

    The blockade of central nitric oxide (NO) signaling modifies the thermoregulatory and metabolic adjustments that occur during exercise, thereby impairing physical performance. However, the brain areas involved in this response remain unknown. Nitrergic neurons are present in the hypothalamic areas that are activated during exercise and participate in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, such as, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). To investigate whether brain NO signaling affects thermoregulation during exercise through the activation of hypothalamic neurons, rats underwent acute submaximal treadmill exercise (18 mmin(-1), 5% inclination) until fatigue received an intracerebroventricular injection of 1.43 ?mol N?-nitro-l-arginine metil ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or saline (SAL). Skin tail temperature (Tsk) and internal body temperature (Ti) were continuously recorded and c-Fos expression was determined in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME treatment reduced physical performance by 48%, which was positively correlated with tail vasodilation capacity, which was reduced by 28%, and negatively correlated with heat storage rate (HSR), which was increased by 38%. Physical exercise until fatigue increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME-treatment significantly reduced the exercise-induced c-Fos expression in the PVN, whereas it had no effect in the SON. Interestingly, the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the PVN was closely correlated with physical performance and inversely associated with HSR. Thus, the inhibition of central NO attenuates neuronal activation induced by exercise in the PVN, impairs the autonomic regulation of heat dissipation, and anticipates the fatigue. Brain NO seems to play a role in exercise performance through the regulation of neuronal activation in the PVN, but not in the SON, although the SON neurons are also activated by running exercise. Moreover, this role in performance mediated by neuronal activation in the PVN can be related with the improvement of thermoregulatory adjustments that occur during exercise. PMID:25234442

  4. Preliminary study of an exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep among long-term haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Radha; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Singh, Surindar Kaur Surat; Lim, Soo Kun; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Fatigue and quality of sleep are the main factors that contribute to a poor quality of life among patients on long-term haemodialysis. Studies have also emphasised the importance of exercise for improving the wellbeing of dialysis patients. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a predialysis low-to-moderate-intensity exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep disorders among long-term haemodialysis patients. METHODS In this quasi-experimental study, an exercise programme was conducted three times a week for 12 weeks before long-term haemodialysis patients underwent dialysis at two centres. The patients were categorised into either the exercise group (n = 28) or control group (n = 27). The latter was asked to maintain their current lifestyles. Assessments of fatigue and sleep disorder levels were performed for both groups using self-reported questionnaires at baseline and after intervention. The patients’ perception of the exercise programme was also determined using self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS Paired sample t-test indicated improvements in fatigue level in the exercise group (mean fatigue score: post-treatment 40.5 ± 7.9 vs. pre-treatment 30.0 ± 10.9). Improvements in sleep disorders were also observed in the exercise group (mean score: post-treatment 7.6 ± 3.3 vs. pre-treatment 10.1 ± 3.8). However, sleep quality deteriorated in the control group (mean score: post-treatment 10.7 ± 2.9 vs. pre-treatment 9.3 ± 2.9). CONCLUSION Simple low-to-moderate-intensity exercise is effective for improving fatigue, sleep disorders and the overall quality of life among haemodialysis patients. PMID:25273932

  5. Glutathione administration reduces mitochondrial damage and shifts cell death from necrosis to apoptosis in ageing diabetic mice hearts during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, S; Botta, A; Gottfred, S; Nusrat, A; Laher, I; Ghosh, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effect of antioxidants on ageing type 2 diabetic (T2D) hearts during exercise is unclear. We hypothesized that GSH therapy during exercise reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress (mOXS) and cell death in ageing db/db mice hearts. Experimental Approach The effect of GSH on cardiac mOXS and cell death was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Key Results During exercise, GSH treatment protected db/db hearts from exaggerated mOXS without reducing total cell death. Despite similar cell death, investigations on apoptosis-specific single-stranded DNA breaks and necrosis-specific damage provided the first in vivo evidence of a shift from necrosis to apoptosis, with reduced fibrosis following GSH administration in exercised db/db hearts. Further support for a GSH-regulated switch in death phenotypes came from NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and H9c2 cardiomyocytes treated with H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar to in vivo findings, augmenting GSH by overexpressing glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCLc) protected fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes from necrosis induced by H2O2, but elevated caspase-3 and apoptosis instead. Similar to in vivo findings, where GSH therapy in normoglycaemic mice suppressed endogenous antioxidants and augmented caspase-3 activity, GCLc overexpression during staurosporine-induced death, which was not characterized by ROS, increased GSH efflux and aggravated death in fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, confirming that oxidative stress is required for GSH-mediated cytoprotection. Conclusions and Implications While GSH treatment is useful for reducing mOXS and attenuating necrosis and fibrosis in ageing T2D hearts during exercise, such antioxidant treatment could be counterproductive in the healthy heart during exercise. PMID:25039894

  6. High-intensity exercise and carbohydrate-reduced energy-restricted diet in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Francesco; de Morree, Helma M; Matschke, Verena; Marcora, Samuele M; Milousis, Athanasios; Thom, Jeanette M; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2010-11-01

    Continuous high glycemic load and inactivity challenge glucose homeostasis and fat oxidation. Hyperglycemia and high intramuscular glucose levels mediate insulin resistance, a precursor state of type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate whether a carbohydrate (CHO)-reduced diet combined with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) enhances the beneficial effects of the diet alone on insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation in obese individuals. Nineteen obese subjects underwent 14days of CHO-reduced and energy-restricted diet. Ten of them combined the diet with HIIT (4min bouts at 90% VO(2peak) up to 10 times, 3 times a week). Oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS) increased significantly in both groups; [diet-exercise (DE) group: pre 37770, post 39668mLmin(-1)m(-2); diet (D) group: pre 36591, post 40487mLmin(-1)m(-2); P<0.001]. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio (RER) decreased significantly in both groups (DE group: pre 0.910.06, post 0.880.06; D group: pre 0.920.07, post 0.860.07; P=0.002). VO(2peak) increased significantly in the DE group (pre 275, post 326mLkg(-1)min(-1); P<0.001), but not in the D group (pre 269, post 268mLkg(-1)min(-1)). Lean mass and resistin were preserved only in the DE group (P<0.05). Fourteen days of CHO-reduced diet improved OGIS and fat oxidation (RER) in obese subjects. The energy-balanced HIIT did not further enhance these parameters, but increased aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) and preserved lean mass and resistin. PMID:20628884

  7. Lack of Nrf2 reduces voluntary exercise in mice: influences of sex and diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise is generally accepted to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the adaptations occurring during exercise are not well understood. The Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway adapts cells to elevated ROS. We tested...

  8. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 10 y) performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial) and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation (omega-3 trial). Before and 48 h after eccentric exercise, signs of inflammation was assessed by measuring soreness ratings, swelling (arm circumference and arm volume), and temperature (infrared skin sensor). Arm soreness increased (p < 0.0001) in response to eccentric exercise; the magnitude of increase in soreness was 15% less in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.004). Arm circumference increased after eccentric exercise in the control trial (p = 0.01) but not in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.15). However, there was no difference between trials (p = 0.45). Arm volume and skin temperature did not change in response to eccentric exercise in either trial. These findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation decreases soreness, as a marker of inflammation, after eccentric exercise. Based on these findings, omega-3 supplementation could provide benefits by minimizing post-exercise soreness and thereby facilitate exercise training in individuals ranging from athletes undergoing heavy conditioning to sedentary subjects or patients who are starting exercise programs or medical treatments such as physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation. Key points Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to reduce inflammation in numerous inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Chrohns disease. Although strenuous exercise is known to cause acute increases in inflammation, it is not clear if omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates this adverse response to exercise. Our research demonstrates that 3000 mgd-1 omega-3 fatty acid supplementation minimizes the severe, delayed-onset muscle soreness that results from strenuous eccentric strength exercise. This information, along with a plethora of information showing that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has other health benefits, demonstrates that a readily available over the counter nutritional supplement (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids) reduces delayed-onset soreness caused by strenuous strength exercise. This information has obvious relevance to athletic populations but also to other groups such as physical therapy patients and newly admitted cardiac rehabilitation patients, as muscle soreness, if left unchecked, can slow the progress in adapting to a new exercise program. Furthermore, as inflammation is known to be involved in the pathogenesis if numerous diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, it is likely prudent for individuals to use inflammation-attenuating interventions, such as omega-3 supplementation, to keep inflammatory responses to physical activity at a minimum. PMID:24150614

  9. The role of exercise in reducing the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus in obese women.

    PubMed

    Artal, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic continues unabated, now rapidly expanding to developing countries. Multiple comorbidities and premature mortality are associated with obesity, most frequently diabetes. The associated financial and economical burden is escalating as well. The sedentary lifestyle adopted by many pregnant women because of traditional practices and the current recommendation for gestational weight gain are contributing factors to the obesity and diabetes epidemic. Physical inactivity is recognized as an independent risk factor for obesity insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; the physiological and hormonal changes associated with pregnancy magnify this risk. Conversely, evidence and accumulated experience indicate that antenatal lifestyle interventions that include physical activity and judicious dieting could improve the pregnancy outcome and reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and is effective as an adjunctive therapy for diabetes in pregnancy. All major professional organizations, among them American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Diabetes Association (ADA), Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), recommend lifestyle interventions that include diet and exercise to prevent or manage gestational diabetes or diabetes mellitus. PMID:25240421

  10. My gut feeling says rest: Increased intestinal permeability contributes to chronic diseases in high-intensity exercisers.

    PubMed

    Van Houten, Jason M; Wessells, Robert J; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2015-12-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and many of these conditions are linked to chronic inflammation. One potential cause of chronic inflammation is an increased intestinal epithelial permeability. Recent studies have demonstrated that parasympathetic stimulation via the efferent abdominal vagus nerve increases the expression and proper localization of tight junction proteins and decreases intestinal epithelial permeability. This finding may provide a novel approach for treating and preventing many chronic conditions. Importantly, physical activity is associated with increased resting parasympathetic (vagal) activity and lower risk of chronic diseases. However, high intensity long duration exercise can be harmful to overall health. Specifically, individuals who frequently exercise strenuously and for longer time intervals have the same mortality rates as sedentary individuals. This may be explained, in part, by longer periods of reduced vagal activity as vagal activity is markedly reduced both during and after intense exercise. We hypothesize that one mechanism by which exercise provides its health benefits is by increasing resting vagal activity and decreasing intestinal epithelial permeability, thus decreasing chronic inflammation. Additionally, we hypothesize that long periods of reduced vagal activity in individuals who exercise at high intensities and for longer durations, decrease the integrity of the intestinal barrier, putting them at greater risk of chronic inflammation and a host of chronic diseases. Thus, this hypothesis provides a conceptual link between the well-established benefits of frequent exercise and the paradoxical deleterious effects of prolonged, high-intensity exercise without adequate rest. PMID:26415977

  11. Load Variation Influences on Joint Work During Squat Exercise in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Logan, Rachel L.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercises that load the axial skeleton, such as the parallel squat, are incorporated as a critical component of a space exercise program designed to maximize the stimuli for bone remodeling and muscle loading. Astronauts on the International Space Station perform regular resistance exercise using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Squat exercises on Earth entail moving a portion of the body weight plus the added bar load, whereas in microgravity the body weight is 0, so all load must be applied via the bar. Crewmembers exercising in microgravity currently add approx.70% of their body weight to the bar load as compensation for the absence of the body weight. This level of body weight replacement (BWR) was determined by crewmember feedback and personal experience without any quantitative data. The purpose of this evaluation was to utilize computational simulation to determine the appropriate level of BWR in microgravity necessary to replicate lower extremity joint work during squat exercise in normal gravity based on joint work. We hypothesized that joint work would be positively related to BWR load.

  12. Acute exercise induces cortical inhibition and reduces arousal in response to visual stimulation in young children.

    PubMed

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Mierau, Julia; Hense, Andreas; Hense, Johannes; Strüder, Heiko K

    2014-05-01

    Physical exercise is known to induce a range of transient or sustained psychophysiological effects including stress reduction and improvements in cognitive performance. Previous studies in the area have focused on adults and there has been little research on the relationship between physical exercise and brain function in young children. This study examined the relationship between cortical oscillations, arousal and cognitive performance following physical exercise in 5/6-year preschoolers. Participants completed two counterbalanced sessions of 45 min exercise or a control condition. Electroencephalography (EEG) was measured at rest with the eyes closed and the eyes open, as well as during cognitive performance in a task requiring attention and reaction speed. This was done before (PRE) and after (POST) each session once the participants' heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise values. The percentage change in spectral power from PRE to POST (Δ) differed significantly between conditions. Specifically, Δ alpha-1 power differed significantly between exercise (+5%) and the control condition (-5.9%) with the eyes-open, but not with the eyes-closed. This effect did not significantly differ between cortical regions (i.e., it was global). Further, Δ beta-1 and Δ beta-2 power differed significantly between exercise (beta-1: -10.8%, beta-2: -23.8%) and the control condition (beta-1: -4.3%, beta-2: -5.3%) at frontal sites independent of visual input. Despite significant changes in resting state EEG, cognitive performance and task-related EEG remained unaffected by exercise. The results were interpreted to indicate cortical inhibition and attenuation of arousal in response to visual stimulation following exercise in young children. PMID:24412583

  13. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-01-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 3.4years) with hemoglobin SS or S/?0 thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.63.5years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 6.9 vs. 37.09.2 mL/kg/min, P<0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (?VO2/?WR, 92 vs. 122 mL/min/watt, P<0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (?VO2/?HR, 124 vs. 207 mL/beat, P<0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (?VE/?VO2, 428 vs. 325, P<0.001) and ventilation efficiency (?VE/?VCO2, 30.33.7 vs. 27.32.5, P<0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

  14. Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys

    2013-06-01

    Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:?CAA declined 75 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P < 0.001), but was unchanged in BAL (P = 0.061). Exercise time was shorter in TYR-free (59.8 19.0 min vs. 66.2 16.9 min in TYR-free and BAL respectively; P = 0.036). Heart rate (P = 0.298), core (P = 0.134) and skin (P = 0.384) temperature, RPE (P > 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:?CAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat. PMID:23288035

  15. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  16. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10°C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise. PMID:26343750

  17. Creatine supplementation reduces oxidative stress biomarkers after acute exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Deminice, Rafael; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle and plasma markers of oxidative stress after acute aerobic exercise. A total of 64 Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 32) and creatine-supplemented group (n = 32). Creatine supplementation consisted of the addition of 2% creatine monohydrate to the diet. After 28 days, the rats performed an acute moderate aerobic exercise bout (1-h swimming with 4% of total body weight load). The animals were killed before (pre) and at 0, 2 and 6 h (n = 8) after acute exercise. As expected, plasma and total muscle creatine concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the creatine-supplemented group compared to control. Acute exercise increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and total lipid hydroperoxide. The same was observed in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. Creatine supplementation decreased these markers in plasma (TBARS: pre 6%, 0 h 25%, 2 h 27% and 6 h 20%; plasma total lipid hydroperoxide: pre 38%, 0 h 24%, 2 h 12% and 6 h 20%, % decrease). Also, acute exercise decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio in soleus muscle, which was prevented by creatine supplementation (soleus: pre 8%, 0 h 29%, 2 h 30% and 6 h 44%, % prevention). The results show that creatine supplementation inhibits increased oxidative stress markers in plasma and muscle induced by acute exercise. PMID:22009139

  18. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  19. Reduced ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation after progressive resistance exercise in growing adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Nathan J; Nokleby, Jessica J; Thicke, Bethany M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate moderate intensity progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in growing adolescent rats and its effect on muscle hypertrophy (defined as an increase in fiber cross-sectional area [CSA]). We hypothesized that in adolescent animals moderate intensity PRE would increase (a) fiber CSA; (b) myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content; and (c) expression and phosphorylation of cell signaling molecules involved in translational regulation, compared with that in age-matched sedentary (SED) controls. In the PRE group, 3-week-old male rats were trained to climb a vertical ladder as a mode of PRE training such that by 10 weeks all animals in the PRE group had progressed to carry an additional 80% of their body weight per climb. In agreement with our hypotheses, we observed that 10 weeks of moderate PRE in adolescent animals was sufficient to increase the CSA of muscle fibers and increase MyHC content. The average muscle fiber CSA increased by >10%, and the total MyHC content increased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the PRE group compared with that in the SED animals. Concurrently, we investigated sustained changes in the expression and phosphorylation of key signaling molecules that are previously identified regulators of hypertrophy in adult animal models. Contrary to our hypotheses, expression and phosphorylation of the translational regulators mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt were not increased in the PRE group. In addition, we observed that the ratio of phosphorylated-to-unphosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) was reduced over sixfold in PRE animals (p < 0.05) and that total rpS6 protein levels were unchanged between PRE and SED animals (p > 0.05). We conclude that moderate intensity PRE is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy in adolescent animals, whereas the signaling mechanisms associated with muscle hypertrophy may differ between growing adolescents and adults. PMID:22614147

  20. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Katherine E.; Newsham, Katherine R.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might facilitate better training adaptations and exercise adherence. Key points Seven days of 3000 mg/day supplementation with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) attenuates the delayed onset muscle soreness and stiffness, and protects against the loss of joint range of motion that is caused by strenuous eccentric exercise. This benefit was observed in women, and supports the findings from other studies that were conducted on men or a combination of men and women The benefits from algae-derived DHA appear to be similar to those reported in other studies that used a combination of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) derived from fish oil The findings of better recovery from strenuous exercise with DHA supplementation, paired with other research which demonstrated that DHA and EPA protect against chronic diseases suggest that DHA is an attractive option These findings have relevance to athletic populations, in that DHA would be expected to facilitate recovery and allow for better performance during training and competition. However, DHA supplementation might also benefit non-athletic populations, such as individuals starting new exercise programs and patient populations that are prone to muscle soreness (e.g. physical therapy patients). PMID:26957941

  1. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might facilitate better training adaptations and exercise adherence. Key pointsSeven days of 3000 mg/day supplementation with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) attenuates the delayed onset muscle soreness and stiffness, and protects against the loss of joint range of motion that is caused by strenuous eccentric exercise.This benefit was observed in women, and supports the findings from other studies that were conducted on men or a combination of men and womenThe benefits from algae-derived DHA appear to be similar to those reported in other studies that used a combination of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) derived from fish oilThe findings of better recovery from strenuous exercise with DHA supplementation, paired with other research which demonstrated that DHA and EPA protect against chronic diseases suggest that DHA is an attractive optionThese findings have relevance to athletic populations, in that DHA would be expected to facilitate recovery and allow for better performance during training and competition. However, DHA supplementation might also benefit non-athletic populations, such as individuals starting new exercise programs and patient populations that are prone to muscle soreness (e.g. physical therapy patients). PMID:26957941

  2. Individual susceptibility to hypoperfusion and reductions in exercise performance when perfusion pressure is reduced: evidence for vasodilator phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Robert F; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Moynes, Jackie S; Poitras, Veronica J; Walsh, Jeremy J; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2014-08-15

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether cardiovascular compensatory response phenotypes exist in the face of a reduced perfusion pressure challenge to exercising muscle oxygen delivery (O2D), and whether these responses might be exercise intensity (EI) dependent. Ten healthy men (19.5 ± 0.4 yr) completed two trials of progressive forearm isometric handgrip exercise to exhaustion (24.5 N increments every 3.5 min) in each of forearm above and below heart level [forearm arterial perfusion pressure (FAPP) difference of 29.5 ± 0.97 mmHg]. At the end of each EI, measurements of forearm blood flow (FBF; ml/min) via brachial artery Doppler and echo ultrasound, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; mmHg) via finger photoplethysmography, and exercising forearm venous effluent via antecubital vein catheter revealed distinct cardiovascular response groups: n = 6 with compensatory vasodilation vs. n = 4 without compensatory vasodilation. Compensatory vasodilators were able to blunt the perfusion pressure-evoked reduction in submaximal O2D in the arm-above-heart condition, whereas nonvasodilators did not (-22.5 ± 13.6 vs. -65.4 ± 14.1 ml O2/min; P < 0.05), and in combination with being able to increase O2 extraction, nonvasodilators defended submaximal V̇o2 and experienced less of an accumulated submaximal O2D deficit (-80.7 ± 24.7 vs. -219.1 ± 36.0 ml O2/min; P < 0.05). As a result, the compensatory vasodilators experienced less of a compromise to peak EI than nonvasodilators (-24.5 ± 3.5 N vs. -52.1 ± 8.9 N; P < 0.05). In conclusion, in the forearm exercise model studied, vasodilatory response phenotypes exist that determine individual susceptibility to hypoperfusion and the degree to which aerobic metabolism and exercise performance are compromised. PMID:24970851

  3. Aerobic exercise but not resistance exercise reduces intrahepatic lipid content and visceral fat and improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Deldin, Anthony R.; White, David; Kim, YoonMyung; Libman, Ingrid; Rivera-Vega, Michelle; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Sandoval, Sandra; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether regular exercise alone (no caloric restriction) is a useful strategy to reduce adiposity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors in obese girls. We examined the effects of aerobic (AE) vs. resistance exercise (RE) alone on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese girls. Forty-four obese adolescent girls (BMI ?95th percentile, 1218 yr) with abdominal obesity (waist circumference 106.5 11.1 cm) were randomized to 3 mo of 180 min/wk AE (n = 16) or RE (n = 16) or a nonexercising control group (n = 12). Total fat and VAT were assessed by MRI and intrahepatic lipid by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Intermuscular AT (IMAT) was measured by CT. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic (80 mUm2min?1) euglycemic clamp. Compared with controls (0.13 1.10 kg), body weight did not change (P > 0.1) in the AE (?1.31 1.43 kg) and RE (?0.31 1.38 kg) groups. Despite the absence of weight loss, total body fat (%) and IMAT decreased (P < 0.05) in both exercise groups compared with control. Compared with control, significant (P < 0.05) reductions in VAT (??15.68 7.64 cm2) and intrahepatic lipid (??1.70 0.74%) and improvement in insulin sensitivity (?0.92 0.27 mgkg?1min?1 per ?U/ml) were observed in the AE group but not the RE group. Improvements in insulin sensitivity in the AE group were associated with the reductions in total AT mass (r = ?0.65, P = 0.02). In obese adolescent girls, AE but not RE is effective in reducing liver fat and visceral adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity independent of weight loss or calorie restriction. PMID:24045865

  4. Intense Exercise during the First Two Trimesters of Unapparent Pregnancy: Case Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Gloria C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report presents nonexperimental retrospective data on the weights, menstrual cycle intervals, pregnancy symptoms, and running programs of two women who exercised intensely during their first two trimesters. Although these two cases suggest that strenuous anaerobic exercise during pregnancy is not harmful, more studies are needed. (IAH)

  5. A Low-Glycemic Index Diet and Exercise Intervention Reduces TNF? in Isolated Mononuclear Cells of Older, Obese Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen R.; Haus, Jacob M.; Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Patrick-Melin, Aimee J.; Cook, Marc; Rocco, Michael; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 1 y; BMI: 34.2 0.7 kg?m?2) to a 12-wk, low (LGI = 40) or high- (HGI = 80) glycemic index diet plus aerobic exercise (5 d?wk?1, 60 min?d?1, 8085% heart ratemax) intervention. All food and fluids were provided during the study. Inflammation was assessed from cytokine (TNF? and IL-6) secretion using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) stimulated overnight with LPS. Glycemic response was determined following ingestion of a 75-g glucose solution. Fasting blood samples were collected for additional cytokine [TNF?, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)] analysis. Both interventions decreased BMI (P < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.01), and insulin (P = 0.02). The glycemic response was reduced only in the LGI group (P = 0.04). Plasma and MNC-derived TNF? secretion were reduced in the LGI group (P = 0.02) but increased in the HGI group (P = 0.02). Secretion of IL-6 from MNC and plasma IL-6 and MCP-1 concentrations were reduced in the LGI group. The change in MNC-derived TNF? (r = 0.43; P = 0.04) and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.44; P = 0.04) correlated with decreases in the glycemic response. These data highlight the importance of diet composition in the treatment and prevention of inflammation and hyperglycemia. A low-glycemic index diet has antiinflammatory and antidiabetogenic effects when combined with exercise in older, obese prediabetics. PMID:21525252

  6. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. PMID:26364732

  7. Exercise increases the frequency of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells, but reduces hematopoietic colony-forming capacity.

    PubMed

    Kroepfl, Julia Maria; Pekovits, Karin; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Fuchs, Robert; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Hofmann, Peter; Sedlmayr, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfram

    2012-11-01

    Circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) may be triggered by physical exercise and/or normobaric hypoxia from the bone marrow. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise and normobaric hypoxia on CPC number and functionality in the peripheral blood as well as the involvement of oxidative stress parameters as possibly active agents. Ten healthy male subjects (25.34.4 years) underwent a standardized cycle incremental exercise test protocol (40 W+20 W/min) under either normoxic (FiO2 ?0.21) or hypoxic conditions (FiO2<0.15, equals 3,500?m, 3?h xposure) within a time span of at least 1 week. Blood was drawn from the cubital vein before and 10, 30, 60, and 120?min after exercise. The number of CPCs in the peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry (CD34/CD45-positive cells). The functionality of cells present was addressed by secondary colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) assays. To determine a possible correlation between the mobilization of CPCs and reactive oxygen species, parameters for oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were obtained. Data showed a significant increase of CPC release under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions after 10?min of recovery (P<0.01). Most interestingly, although CD34+/CD45dim cells increased in number, the proliferative capacity of CPCs decreased significantly 10?min after cessation of exercise (P<0.05). A positive correlation between CPCs and MDA/MPO levels turned out to be significant for both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (P<0.05/P<0.01). Hypoxia did not provoke an additional effect. Although the CPC frequency increased, the functionality of CPCs decreased significantly after exercise, possibly due to the influence of increased oxidative stress levels. PMID:22616638

  8. Enhancement of preoxygenation for decompression sickness protection: effect of exercise duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Fischer, Michele D.; Kannan, Nandini

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since strenuous exercise for 10 min during preoxygenation was shown to provide better protection from decompression sickness (DCS) incidence than resting preoxygenation, a logical question was: would a longer period of strenuous exercise improve protection even further? HYPOTHESIS: Increased strenuous exercise duration during preoxygenation increases DCS protection. METHODS: There were 60 subjects, 30 men and 30 women, who were exposed to 9,144 m (4.3 psia) for 4 h while performing mild, upper body exercise. Before the exposures, each subject performed three preoxygenation profiles on different days in balanced order: a 90-min resting preoxygenation control; a 240-min resting preoxygenation control; and a 90-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 15 min. The subjects were monitored at altitude for venous gas emboli (VGE) with an echo-imaging system and observed for signs and symptoms of DCS. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in occurrence of DCS following any of the three preoxygenation procedures. Results were also comparable to an earlier report of 42% DCS with a 60-min preoxygenation including a 10-min exercise. There was no difference between VGE incidence in the comparison of protection offered by a 90-min preoxygenation with or without 13 min of strenuous exercise. The DCS incidence following a 240-min resting preoxygenation, 40%, was higher than observed during NASA studies and nearly identical with the earlier 42% DCS after a 60-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 10 min. CONCLUSION: The protection offered by a 10 min exercise in a 60-min preoxygenation was not increased with extension of the preoxygenation exercise period to 15 min in a 90-min preoxygenation, indicating an upper time limit to the beneficial effects of strenuous exercise.

  9. A Comparison of Exercise and Meditation in Reducing Physiological Response to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Wesley E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of brief treadmill exercise and meditation with a placebo-control treatment for reduction in several physiological and psychological measures of stress, anxiety, and tension before and after a written final examination in 48 high-test anxiety subjects. The subjects, 24 men and 24 women,

  10. The Effects of Impromptu Speech Exercises on Reducing Trait and Situational Communication Apprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbough, Timothy B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how the impromptu speech exercise affects trait and situational communication apprehension (CA). Uses McCroskey's Personal Report of Communication Apprehension to study trait CA and Clevenger's Speaker Anxiety Scale to measure situational CA. Indicates that subjects who completed the impromptu speech significantly lowered their

  11. Reduced sensations of intensity of breathlessness enhances maintenance of intense intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2004-07-01

    To identify the effect of normal breathlessness sensation elicited during intense intermittent exercise at exhaustion on limitation of exercise maintenance (Ex), the contribution of the flow-resistive unloading effect of normoxic helium-oxygen breathing on the breathlessness sensation to the change in the Ex was examined. Seven men repeatedly performed 12-s exercise at 160% maximal aerobic power output followed by passive recovery for 18-s under normal (CON) and unloaded (UL) breathing conditions until exhaustion. In UL, Ex was enhanced [mean (SD) 127.2 (11.8)% CON] concomitantly with reduction in averaged peak inhaled mouth pressure (PPmi) of recorded breathing cycles that reflected approximate true inspiratory muscle force output. At the iso-time point of CON exhaustion, the reduction in PPmi to [75.7(10.2)% CON] in UL was concomitant with the reductions in the rating of perceived breathlessness (RPB) [87.5 (13.1)% CON] and in the slope of time course for RPB (RPB/2-min period) [82.1 (17.2)% CON]. It was also concomitant with increases in ventilation and total oxygen consumption. However, the augmented oxygen consumption did not result in lowering of subjects' metabolic stress that was indicated by accumulations of blood lactate and plasma ammonia and uric acid. Nevertheless, the reductions in the RPB and RPB/2-min period, which reflected the breathlessness intensity, were correlated to the CON Ex enhancement in UL (RPB r=-0.57, RPB/2-min period r=-0.83; P<0.05). These findings implied that the normal noxious breathlessness sensation elicited during intense intermittent exercise at exhaustion might contribute to the limitation of subjects' exercise maintenance. PMID:15083370

  12. Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. PMID:23684439

  13. Process Evaluation of Workplace Interventions with Physical Exercise to Reduce Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zebis, Mette K.

    2014-01-01

    Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12 min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2 min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67–92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. PMID:25574172

  14. Stretching and Joint Mobilization Exercises Reduce Call-Center Operators Musculoskeletal Discomfort and Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Lacaze, Denise Helena; Sacco, Isabel de C. N.; Rocha, Lys Esther; de Bragana Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Casarotto, Raquel Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    AIM: We sought to evaluate musculoskeletal discomfort and mental and physical fatigue in the call-center workers of an airline company before and after a supervised exercise program compared with rest breaks during the work shift. INTRODUCTION: This was a longitudinal pilot study conducted in a flight-booking call-center for an airline in So Paulo, Brazil. Occupational health activities are recommended to decrease the negative effects of the call-center working conditions. In practice, exercise programs are commonly recommended for computer workers, but their effects have not been studied in call-center operators. METHODS: Sixty-four call-center operators participated in this study. Thirty-two subjects were placed into the experimental group and attended a 10-min daily exercise session for 2 months. Conversely, 32 participants were placed into the control group and took a 10-min daily rest break during the same period. Each subject was evaluated once a week by means of the Corlett-Bishop body map with a visual analog discomfort scale and the Chalder fatigue questionnaire. RESULTS: Musculoskeletal discomfort decreased in both groups, but the reduction was only statistically significant for the spine and buttocks (p=0.04) and the sum of the segments (p=0.01) in the experimental group. In addition, the experimental group showed significant differences in the level of mental fatigue, especially in questions related to memory Rienzo, #181ff and tiredness (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results demonstrate that appropriately designed and supervised exercise programs may be more efficient than rest breaks in decreasing discomfort and fatigue levels in call-center operators. PMID:20668622

  15. Exercise training does not reduce hyperlipidemia in pigs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tom R; Pellechia, Jonathan; Rector, R Scott; Sun, Grace Y; Sturek, Michael S; Laughlin, M Harold

    2002-12-01

    The pig is often used as a model for studying lipoprotein metabolism as it relates to human atherosclerosis, but few studies have examined the complete lipoprotein profile and related enzymes in swine ingesting an atherogenic diet. We examined whether exercise training would moderate the effects of an atherogenic diet on lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in miniature swine. Male (n = 30) and female (n = 32) swine were initially divided into 2 dietary groups: one consumed low-fat (8%) pig chow, and one consumed pig chow supplemented with 2% cholesterol, 17.1% coconut oil, 2.3% corn oil, and.7% sodium cholate (46% kcal from fat). Following 30 days on the diets, pigs from each diet group were further divided into sedentary and exercise trained subgroups, each cell with 6 to 8 pigs. Training occurred 5 days per week on a treadmill in which the intensity and duration were progressively increased during the 16- to 20-week training period to 75 minutes of aerobic running per session. A 4-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on time indicated that at the conclusion of the study the atherogenic diet caused significantly (P <.05) increased cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and subfractions, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subfractions, and LPL activity in both genders. For cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, HDL(2)-C, LDL-C, LDL(1&2)-C, and hepatic lipase, the female response to the diet was exaggerated compared to the male response. Exercise training produced no group differences or interactions on any lipoprotein variable. These results suggest that an atherogenic diet has a greater impact on the lipoproteins of female miniature swine than males. Furthermore, under the conditions of this study, exercise training does not moderate the effects of an atherogenic diet on lipoproteins. PMID:12489073

  16. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30?min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30?min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  17. Both Physical Exercise and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Reduce the Facing-the-Viewer Bias in Biological Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2014-01-01

    Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1) or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2) would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2) would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1) or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2), and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our results provide further support that the facing-the-viewer bias for biological motion stimuli is related to the sociobiological relevance of such stimuli. PMID:24987956

  18. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible. PMID:25993596

  19. Pushing to the limits: the dynamics of cognitive control during exhausting exercise.

    PubMed

    Schmit, Cyril; Davranche, Karen; Easthope, Christopher S; Colson, Serge S; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Radel, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating concurrent changes in cognitive control and cerebral oxygenation (Cox) during steady intense exercise to volitional exhaustion. Fifteen participants were monitored using prefrontal near-infrared spectroscopy and electromyography of the thumb muscles during the completion of an Eriksen flanker task completed either at rest (control condition) or while cycling at a strenuous intensity until exhaustion (exercise condition). Two time windows were matched between the conditions to distinguish a potential exercise-induced evolutive cognitive effect: an initial period and a terminal period. In the initial period, Cox remained unaltered and, contrary to theoretical predictions, exercise did not induce any deficit in selective response inhibition. Rather, the drop-off of the delta curve as reaction time lengthened suggested enhanced efficiency of cognitive processes in the first part of the exercise bout. Shortly before exhaustion, Cox values were severely reduced - though not characteristic of a hypofrontality state - while no sign of deficit in selective response inhibition was observed. Despite this, individual's susceptibility to making fast impulsive errors increased and less efficient online correction of incorrect activation was observed near exhaustion. A negative correlation between Cox values and error rate was observed and is discussed in terms of cerebral resources redistribution. PMID:25576908

  20. Intensive aerobic and muscle endurance exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No previous studies have examined the effect of intensive exercise in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary impairment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an eight-week intensive aerobic exercise and muscle endurance training program for patients with systemic sclerosis with 50100% of forced vital capacity. Methods A single-subject experimental design with repeated systematic measures during a six week A-phase (non-interventional baseline period) and an eight week B-phase (exercise intervention period) was used. Three women and one man with median age 66 years and median disease duration of 3.5?years completed aerobic exercise corresponding to 15 on the Borg RPE scale (strenuous) and muscular endurance training three times/week. Physical capacity (six-minute walk test), aerobic capacity (submaximal treadmill test) and muscle endurance in shoulder and hip flexion (Functional Index 2) were assessed every other week throughout the 14-week study. Activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire), quality of life (Short Form 36), Raynaud, Fatigue and Global Health during the recent week (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 14. Results Three participants improved significantly in muscular endurance, and two participants improved significantly or clinically relevant in aerobic capacity. All other variables remained unchanged, except for a trend towards reduced fatigue. Conclusions This eight week exercise program was largely successful with positive effects on aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813578 PMID:24507585

  1. Regulation of Muscle Glycogen Repletion, Muscle Protein Synthesis and Repair Following Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, John L.

    2004-01-01

    Recovery from prolonged strenuous exercise requires that depleted fuel stores be replenished, that damaged tissue be repaired and that training adaptations be initiated. Critical to these processes are the type, amount and timing of nutrient intake. Muscle glycogen is an essential fuel for intense exercise, whether the exercise is of an aerobic or anaerobic nature. Glycogen synthesis is a relatively slow process, and therefore the restoration of muscle glycogen requires special considerations when there is limited time between training sessions or competition. To maximize the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis it is important to consume a carbohydrate supplement immediately post exercise, to continue to supplement at frequent intervals and to consume approximately 1.2 g carbohydratekg-1 body wth-1. Maximizing glycogen synthesis with less frequent supplementation and less carbohydrate can be achieved with the addition of protein to the carbohydrate supplement. This will also promote protein synthesis and reduce protein degradation, thus having the added benefit of stimulating muscle tissue repair and adaptation. Moreover, recent research suggests that consuming a carbohydrate/protein supplement post exercise will have a more positive influence on subsequent exercise performance than a carbohydrate supplement. Key Points For rapid recovery from prolonged exercise, it is important to replenish muscle glycogen stores and initiate muscle tissue repair and adaptation. To maximize muscle glycogen replenishment, it is important to consume a carbohydrate supplement as soon after exercise as possible. Consume the carbohydrate frequently, such as every 30 minutes, and provide about 1.2 to 1.5 g of carbohydratekg-1 body wth-1. Efficiency of muscle glycogen storage can be increased significantly with the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement (~4 to 1 carbohydrate to protein ratio). The addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement also has the added advantage of limiting post exercise muscle damage and promoting muscle protein accretion. PMID:24482590

  2. Muscle Physiology Changes Induced by Every Other Day Feeding and Endurance Exercise in Mice: Effects on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Bies, Elizabeth; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Peña Amaro, José; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J.; Carrión, Ángel M.; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Every other day feeding (EOD) and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL) or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage. PMID:21085477

  3. Voluntary Exercise Can Ameliorate Insulin Resistance by Reducing iNOS-Mediated S-Nitrosylation of Akt in the Liver in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Hideko; Kaneki, Masao; Goto, Sataro; Shimokado, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise can ameliorate insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism, however, remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver plays an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. In this study, we tried to verify our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance by reducing the expression of iNOS and subsequent S-nitrosylation of key molecules of glucose metabolism in the liver. Twenty-one Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 18 non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or exercise group subjected to voluntary wheel running for 20 weeks. The voluntary exercise significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR in the OLETF rats. In addition, the exercise decreased the amount of iNOS mRNA in the liver in the OLETF rats. Moreover, exercise reduced the levels of S-nitrosylated Akt in the liver, which were increased in the OLETF rats, to those observed in the LETO rats. These findings support our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance, at least partly, by suppressing the iNOS expression and subsequent S-nitrosylation of Akt, a key molecule of the signal transduction pathways in glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:26172834

  4. Two- and 3-Dimensional Knee Valgus Are Reduced After an Exercise Intervention in Young Adults With Demonstrable Valgus During Squatting

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David R.; Oates, D. Craig; Clark, Micheal A.; Padua, Darin A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Two-dimensional (or medial knee displacement [MKD]) and 3-dimensional (3D) knee valgus are theorized to contribute to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, whether these displacements can be improved in the double-legged squat (DLS) after an exercise intervention is unclear. Objective: To determine if MKD and 3D knee valgus are improved in a DLS after an exercise intervention. Design: ?Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 participants were enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16) or intervention (n = 16) group. During a DLS, all participants demonstrated knee valgus that was corrected with a heel lift. Intervention(s): ?The intervention group completed 10 sessions of directed exercise that focused on hip and ankle strength and flexibility over a 2- to 3-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed MKD and 3D knee valgus during the DLS using an electromagnetic tracking system. Hip strength and ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion were measured. Change scores were calculated for MKD and 3D valgus at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% phases, and group (2 levels)-by phase (6 levels) repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Independent t tests were used to compare change scores in other variables (? < .05). Results: The MKD decreased from 20% to 50% of the DLS (P = .02) and 3D knee valgus improved from 30% to 50% of the squat phase (P = .001). Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion (knee extended) increased in the intervention group (P = .009). No other significant findings were observed (P > .05). Conclusions: ?The intervention reduced MKD and 3D knee valgus during a DLS. The intervention also increased ankle range of motion. Our inclusion criteria might have limited our ability to observe changes in hip strength. PMID:23724771

  5. Diastolic function is associated with quality of life and exercise capacity in stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Bussoni, M.F.; Guirado, G.N.; Roscani, M.G.; Polegato, B.F.; Matsubara, L.S.; Bazan, S.G.Z.; Matsubara, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise capacity and quality of life (QOL) are important outcome predictors in patients with systolic heart failure (HF), independent of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF). LV diastolic function has been shown to be a better predictor of aerobic exercise capacity in patients with systolic dysfunction and a New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification ?II. We hypothesized that the currently used index of diastolic function E/e' is associated with exercise capacity and QOL, even in optimally treated HF patients with reduced LVEF. This prospective study included 44 consecutive patients aged 5511 years (27 men and 17 women), with LVEF<0.50 and NYHA functional class I-III, receiving optimal pharmacological treatment and in a stable clinical condition, as shown by the absence of dyspnea exacerbation for at least 3 months. All patients had conventional transthoracic echocardiography and answered the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire, followed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT). In a multivariable model with 6MWT as the dependent variable, age and E/e' explained 27% of the walked distance in 6MWT (P=0.002; multivariate regression analysis). No association was found between walk distance and LVEF or mitral annulus systolic velocity. Only normalized left atrium volume, a sensitive index of diastolic function, was associated with decreased QOL. Despite the small number of patients included, this study offers evidence that diastolic function is associated with physical capacity and QOL and should be considered along with ejection fraction in patients with compensated systolic HF. PMID:24036912

  6. Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

  7. BP Neural Network Model-based Physical Exercises and Dietary Habits Relationships Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingwei; Zhang, Xuesheng; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous progress of society, increment of social pressure, people have paid little and little attentions to physical exercises and dietary necessity. Take Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shijiazhuang and Baotou university students as research objects, targeted at physical exercises time and dietary habits, it starts investigation. Make principal component analysis of investigation results, results indicates that cereal intake is principal component in dietary habits; strenuous exercise time and general physical exercise time are the principal components in physical exercise. Utilize BP neural network model, analyze these seven cities’ physical exercises and dietary habits conditions, the result indicates that except for Shenzhen, all the other six cities haven’t reached the standard.

  8. Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the key findings from her research: Increased dietary fiber reduced risk. Women who ate a diet low ... Liu, S., Solomon, C. G., & Hu, F. B. (2006). Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for ...

  9. Exercise at old age: does it increase or alleviate oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Ji, L L

    2001-04-01

    Aging is associated with increased free radical generation in the skeletal muscle that can cause oxidative modification of protein, lipid, and DNA. Physical activity has many well-established health benefits, but strenuous exercise increases muscle oxygen flux and elicits intracellular events that can lead to increased oxidative injury. The paradox arises as to whether exercise would be advisable to aged population. Research evidence indicates that senescent organisms are more susceptible to oxidative stress during exercise because of the age-related ultrastructural and biochemical changes that facilitate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aging also increases the incidence of muscle injury, and the inflammatory response can subject senescent muscle to further oxidative stress. Furthermore, muscle repair and regeneration capacity is reduced at old age that could potentially enhance the accrual of cellular oxidative damage. Predeposition of certain age-related pathologic conditions may exacerbate the risks. In spite of these risks, the elderly who are physically active benefit from exercise-induced adaptation in cellular antioxidant defense systems. Improved muscle mechanics, strength, and endurance make them less vulnerable to acute injury and chronic inflammation. Many critical questions remain regarding the relationship of aging and exercise as we enter a new millennium. For example, how does aging alter exercise-induced intracellular and intercellular mechanisms that generate ROS? Can acute and chronic exercise modulate the declined gene expression of metabolic and antioxidant enzymes seen at old age? Does exercise prevent age-dependent muscle loss (sarcopenia)? What kinds of antioxidant supplementation, if any, do aged people who are physically active need? Answers to these questions require highly specific research in both animals and humans. PMID:11795515

  10. Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Steig, Amy J.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Higgins, Janine A.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Eckel, Robert H.; Hill, James O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

  11. Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain.

    PubMed

    Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L; Wyatt, Holly R; Eckel, Robert H; Hill, James O; MacLean, Paul S

    2011-09-01

    The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

  12. Fasted Exercise and Increased Dietary Protein Reduces Body Fat and Improves Strength in Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G; Pritchard, P P; Papageorgiou, C; Phillips, S; Kumar, P; Langan-Evans, C; Routledge, H; Owens, D J; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a diet and exercise intervention in jockeys on body composition, metabolism, bone and mental health. 10 jockeys followed an individually prescribed 6-wk diet (Carbohydrate=2.5-3.5?g/kg, Protein=2.5?g/kg, Fat=1.0?g/kg). Body mass (59.24.6 vs. 57.64.5?kg), fat mass (7.53.5 vs. 6.22.6) and body fat (13.15.9 vs. 11.54.9%) all decreased (P<0.05) from pre to post-intervention whilst lean mass (47.15.3 vs. 47.05.5?kg) was maintained (P=0.80). RMR (1703329 vs. 1975313?kcal.d(-1)), VO2max (3.80.8 vs. 4.10.7?L/min(-?1)) chest strength (6511 vs. 7113?kg), leg strength (16028 vs. 17529?kg) and jumping height (406 vs. 485?cm) significantly increased (P<0.05). Bone health (DXA) did not change (P>0.05) at hip (-1.041.29 vs. -?0.760.71) or lumbar sites (-1.320.76 vs. -?1.310.77). Psychometrics (GHQ-12 and EAT-26) remained unchanged (10.34.3 vs. 8.93.8 and 14.89.6 vs. 11.05.6, P>0.05, respectively). This approach represents a marked difference from jockeys' habitual weight-making that largely involves dehydration and food deprivation. PMID:26212241

  13. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found. PMID:8100371

  14. Exploring effects of a natural combination medicine on exercise-induced inflammatory immune response: A double-blind RCT.

    PubMed

    Pilat, C; Frech, T; Wagner, A; Krger, K; Hillebrecht, A; Pons-Khnemann, J; Scheibelhut, C; Bdeker, R-H; Mooren, F-C

    2015-08-01

    Traumeel (Tr14) is a natural, combination drug, which has been shown to modulate inflammation at the cytokine level. This study aimed to investigate potential effects of Tr14 on the exercise-induced immune response. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, healthy, untrained male subjects received either Tr14 (n?=?40) or placebo (n?=?40) for 24?h after a strenuous experimental exercise trial on a bicycle (60?min at 80%VO2 max). A range of antigen-stimulated cytokines (in vitro), white blood cell count, lymphocyte activation and apoptosis markers, and indicators of muscle damage were assessed up to 24?h following exercise. The area under the curve with respect to the increase (AUCI ) was compared between both groups. The Tr14 group showed a reduced exercise-induced leukocytosis and neutrocytosis (P?exercise-induced immune response by (a) decreasing the inflammatory response of the innate immune system; and (b) augmenting the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. PMID:24924232

  15. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Herv; Horton, Kenneth; Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen J; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 19311939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572 PMID:19545359

  16. Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept) study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. Methods Eight, healthy men (27.1??6.9 yrs old) who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising <150 minutes per week) were randomly assigned to ingest MSM at either 1.5 grams per day or 3.0 grams per day for 30 days (28 days before and 2 days following exercise). Before and after the 28 day intervention period, subjects performed 18 sets of knee extension exercise in an attempt to induce muscle damage (and to be used partly as a measure of exercise performance). Sets 115 were performed at a predetermined weight for 10 repetitions each, while sets 1618 were performed to muscular failure. Muscle soreness (using a 5-point Likert scale), fatigue (using the fatigue-inertia subset of the Profile of Mood States), blood antioxidant status (glutathione and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity [TEAC]), and blood homocysteine were measured before and after exercise, pre and post intervention. Exercise performance (total work performed during sets 1618 of knee extension testing) was also measured pre and post intervention. Results Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p?=?0.080), with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p?=?0.073 with 3.0 grams; p?=?0.087 for both dosages combined). TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p?=?0.035), while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p?=?0.007). No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p?>?0.05). Conclusion MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance. PMID:23013531

  17. The Feasibility of Reducing and Measuring Sedentary Time among Overweight, Non-Exercising Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Libertine, Amanda; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of reducing free-living sedentary time (ST) and the convergent validity of various tools to measure ST. Twenty overweight/obese participants wore the activPAL (AP) (criterion measure) and ActiGraph (AG; 100 and 150 count/minute cut-points) for a 7-day baseline period. Next, they received a simple intervention targeting free-living ST reductions (7-day intervention period). ST was measured using two questionnaires following each period. ST significantly decreased from 67% of wear time (baseline period) to 62.7% of wear time (intervention period) according to AP (n = 14, P < 0.01). No other measurement tool detected a reduction in ST. The AG measures were more accurate (lower bias) and more precise (smaller confidence intervals) than the questionnaires. Participants reduced ST by ~5%, which is equivalent to a 48_min reduction over a 16-hour waking day. These data describe ST measurement properties from wearable monitors and self-report tools to inform sample-size estimates for future ST interventions. PMID:22175004

  18. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p < 0.001) decrease in isometric, concentric and eccentric torque was observed 12 hours following exercise in both treatment groups. During the 60 hour recovery period, a significant (p = 0.047) interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p < 0.05) until 36 hours post-exercise and interestingly coincided with a gradual increase in plasma antioxidant capacity, whereas biomarkers for inflammation were still elevated after 60 hours recovery. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise and blueberry consumption. These findings may benefit the sporting community who should consider dietary interventions that specifically target health and performance adaptation. PMID:22564864

  19. Multiple short bouts of exercise over 12-h period reduce glucose excursions more than an energy-matched single bout of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrup, ME; Fairchild, TJ; Keslacy, S; Weinstock, RS; Kanaley, JA

    2014-01-01

    Objective Long, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior are thought to negatively influence postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined the effects of a 1-h bout of morning exercise versus intermittent walking bouts of short duration on glucose excursions and insulin secretion over 12-h. Materials/Methods Eleven young, obese individuals (18–35y, BMI>30kg/m2) with impaired glucose tolerance were studied on three 12-h study days: 1) sedentary behavior (SED); 2) sedentary behavior with 1-h morning exercise (EX) at 60–65% VO2peak; and 3) sedentary behavior with 12-hourly, 5-min intervals of exercise (INT) at 60–65% VO2peak. Meals (1046 kJ/meal) were provided every 2-h. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and measured for glucose, insulin, and c-peptide concentrations. Results Glucose iAUC (12-h) was attenuated in the INT and SED conditions compared to the EX condition (P<0.05). Glucose concentrations were higher in the EX compared to the SED condition for ~150 min (20% of the study day), and comparison of the EX-INT study days revealed that glucose concentrations were greater for ~ 240 minutes (~1/3 of the 12-h day). In the SED condition, the 12-h insulin iAUC was ~15% higher (P<0.05) compared to the INT and EX conditions. Insulin production rate was found to increase ~20% with INT exercise vs. the SED and EX condition (P<0.05). Conclusions Short, frequent periods of exercise attenuated glucose excursions and insulin concentrations in obese individuals to a greater degree than an equal amount of exercise performed continuously in the morning. PMID:24439242

  20. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control Usual care. Measurements Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies. PMID:24591821

  1. The prevalence of lymphoedema in women who attended an information and exercise class to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, E; Purushotham, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema (BCRL) affects approximately 20 % of women undergoing axillary intervention. Women who attended a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class, including exercise instruction, anecdotally reported positive BCRL outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine BCRL outcomes and perceived benefit for attendees at a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class between 2000 and 2005. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two parts: (1) self-report questionnaire regarding lymphoedema status and benefit received from class and exercise programme; (2) clinical evaluation and objective measurement to confirm BCRL. 46 women completed questionnaires; 40 continued to clinical evaluation and objective measurement. BCRL prevalence defined as ≥10 % excess limb volume was only 5 %, although clinician judgement identified 23 % with arm lymphoedema and 8 % with lymphoedema limited to the hand. Clinician judgement correlated highly with patient self-report (Kappa = 0.833, p = 0.000). All women found the class beneficial, reporting increased confidence to return to normal life and a wide range of activities/exercise. We conclude that prevalence of BCRL should be determined by both clinical judgement and objective measurement to avoid underestimation. The benefit of group education with a lymphoedema expert and of exercise instruction should be further explored, and the potential for exercise to reduce BCRL prevalence should be examined. PMID:26759760

  2. Protective effects of polysaccharide from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on the swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Farong; Lu, Shunqing; Yu, Fahong; Feng, Shutao; McGuire, Peter M; Li, Rende; Wang, Rui

    2006-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of derivatives of galactosides and glucosides in a polysaccharide extract from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice. Exhaustive swimming exercise significantly increases the degree of lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde content and reduces the antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Our findings revealed that chronic oral treatment with the extract elevates enzymatic activities of SOD and GPx accompanied by a corresponding decrease in malondialdehyde. The antioxidative activities of these compounds against exercise-induced oxidative stress are correlated with various activities such as reducing the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, enhancing antioxidative defenses, and increasing the production of SOD and GPx activity and expression in different tissues. These compounds may be involved in glycogen metabolism to meet the requirement of working skeletal muscles and act as antioxidants by terminating the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation to maintain the morphological stability of mitochondria in spinal motor neurons. These observations suggest that E. kansui has antioxidative and antifatigue properties and can be given as prophylactic and (or) therapeutic supplements for increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and preventing lipid peroxidation during strenuous exercise. PMID:17218972

  3. Exercise-training in young Drosophila melanogaster reduces age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Nicole; Gosangi, Babina; Devilla, Shawn; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Declining mobility is a major concern, as well as a major source of health care costs, among the elderly population. Lack of mobility is a primary cause of entry into managed care facilities, and a contributing factor to the frequency of damaging falls. Exercise-based therapies have shown great promise in sustaining mobility in elderly patients, as well as in rodent models. However, the genetic basis of the changing physiological responses to exercise during aging is not well understood. Here, we describe the first exercise-training paradigm in an invertebrate genetic model system. Flies are exercised by a mechanized platform, known as the Power Tower, that rapidly, repeatedly, induces their innate instinct for negative geotaxis. When young flies are subjected to a carefully controlled, ramped paradigm of exercise-training, they display significant reduction in age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance. Fly lines with improved mitochondrial efficiency display some of the phenotypes observed in wild-type exercised flies. The exercise response in flies is influenced by the amount of protein and lipid, but not carbohydrate, in the diet. The development of an exercise-training model in Drosophila melanogaster opens the way to direct testing of single-gene based genetic therapies for improved mobility in aged animals, as well as unbiased genetic screens for loci involved in the changing response to exercise during aging. PMID:19517023

  4. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on markers of skeletal muscle damage after strenuous contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Bassit, Reinaldo Abunasser; Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano da Justa; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Sproesser, Antnio Jos; Silveira, Leonardo R; Curi, Rui

    2010-03-01

    The protective effect of short-term creatine supplementation (CrS) upon markers of strenuous contractile activity-induced damage in human and rat skeletal muscles was investigated. Eight Ironman triathletes were randomized into the placebo (Pl; n = 4) and creatine-supplemented (CrS; n = 4) groups. Five days prior to the Ironman competition, the CrS group received creatine monohydrate (20 g day(-1)) plus maltodextrin (50 g) divided in two equal doses. The Pl group received maltodextrin (50 g day(-1)) only. The effect of CrS (5 g day(-1)/kg body weight for 5 days) was also evaluated in a protocol of strenuous contractile activity induced by electrical stimulation in rats. Blood samples were collected before and 36 and 60 h after the competition and were used to determine plasma activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aldolase (ALD), glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. In rats, plasma activities of CK and LDH, muscle vascular permeability (MVP) using Evans blue dye, muscle force and fatigue were evaluated. Activities of CK, ALD, LDH, GOT, GTP, and levels of CRP were increased in the Pl group after the competition as compared to basal values. CrS decreased plasma activities of CK, LDH, and ALD, and prevented the rise of GOT and GPT plasma activities. In rats, CrS delayed the fatigue, preserved the force, and prevented the rise of LDH and CK plasma activities and MVP in the gastrocnemius muscle. CrS presented a protective effect on muscle injury induced by strenuous contractile activities. PMID:19956970

  5. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P.; Torres-Durán, Patricia V.; Romero-Gonzalez, Jaime; Mascher, Dieter; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indirectly shows the muscle’s oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold), in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods: The RER, O2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml•kg−1•min−1), during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results: Endurance trained men presented higher O2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05) of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance. PMID:21157516

  6. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linkping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormone replacement therapy, who were not smoking and who had a physically light occupation more often took part in strenuous sports. Women who had been treated for malignancies or with back problems exercised to the same extent as women in the general population. CONCLUSION: About a third of the post-menopausal women exercised on a regular basis, if exercise involved in getting to and from work was not counted. Since regular physical exercise has many health benefits, more women should be encouraged to take part in regular physical exercise. Factors probably associated with level of education and general awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle positively influenced the likelihood of these women to be physically active on a regular basis. A previous malignant disease or current back problems did not prevent women from taking part in exercise on a regular basis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9298557

  7. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance ...

  8. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO).

    PubMed

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-04-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during strenuous exertion, surgical treatment (supraglottoplasty) has been suggested. The aims of this study were to evaluate outcome and patient satisfaction after supraglottoplasty for EILO and to compare our results with previously reported data. During the period December 2010 to October 2013, 17 patients diagnosed with moderate to severe supraglottic EILO were treated by supraglottoplasty with microlaryngoscopic laser technique at our institutions. The severity of patients symptoms (VAS score) and CLE scores was evaluated pre- and postoperatively. We found a decrease in patients symptoms from median 80 points VAS score preoperatively to 20 points postoperatively (p < 0.001) and a decrease in CLE sum score from median 4.0 points to 2.5 points (p < 0.05). Several previous studies have recommended surgery for selected patients with supraglottic involvement, but these have mainly been based on case reports or on very few patients. This study is the second larger-scale study that documents the positive effect of supraglottoplasty as treatment of EILO in terms of reduced respiratory symptoms and decreased laryngeal obstruction assessed by post-operative CLE test. We suggest that surgery is a well-tolerated and effective treatment option for selected EILO patients with moderate to severe supraglottic obstruction during exercise and a high level of physical activity. PMID:26541712

  9. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry) and dietary fat (14C-oleate) oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10), Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9), Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7) and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12) men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced. Results Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039), total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001) and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048) fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01) in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036) and negative energy balance (p = 0.003) conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass. Conclusion Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean adults. Both the acute and chronic effects of exercise were primarily observed at night suggesting an important role of sleep in the regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:24714529

  10. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons.

    PubMed

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Spence, Katie G; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2015-11-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory. PMID:26454156

  11. Etiology of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M; Sayers, S P

    1999-06-01

    Muscle damage is caused by strenuous and unaccustomed exercise, especially exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions, where muscles lengthen as they exert force. Damage can be observed both directly at the cellular level and indirectly from changes in various indices of muscle function. Several mechanisms have been offered to explain the etiology of the damage/repair process, including mechanical factors such as tension and strain, disturbances in calcium homeostasis, the inflammatory response, and the synthesis of stress proteins (heat shock proteins). Changes in muscle function following eccentric exercise have been observed at the cellular level as an impairment in the amount and action of transport proteins for glucose and lactate/H+, and at the systems level as an increase in muscle stiffness and a prolonged loss in the muscle's ability to generate force. This paper will briefly review factors involved in the damage/repair process and alterations in muscle function following eccentric exercise. PMID:10364418

  12. Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation.

    PubMed

    Urso, Maria L; Clarkson, Priscilla M

    2003-07-15

    Cells continuously produce free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of metabolic processes. These free radicals are neutralized by an elaborate antioxidant defense system consisting of enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and numerous non-enzymatic antioxidants, including vitamins A, E and C, glutathione, ubiquinone, and flavonoids. Exercise can produce an imbalance between ROS and antioxidants, which is referred to as oxidative stress. Dietary antioxidant supplements are marketed to and used by athletes as a means to counteract the oxidative stress of exercise. Whether strenuous exercise does, in fact, increase the need for additional antioxidants in the diet is not clear. This review examines the markers used to determine oxidative stress in blood and muscle samples (e.g. lipid peroxidation, expired pentane, malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes, congugated dienes, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG)), the changes in oxidative stress markers induced by exercise, and whether athletes require antioxidant supplements. PMID:12821281

  13. A spectrum of exercise training reduces soluble A? in a dose-dependent manner in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kaitlin M; Girens, Renee E; Larson, Sara K; Jones, Maria R; Restivo, Jessica L; Holtzman, David M; Cirrito, John R; Yuede, Carla M; Zimmerman, Scott D; Timson, Benjamin F

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has long been hypothesized to influence the risk and pathology of Alzheimer's disease. However, the amount of physical activity necessary for these benefits is unclear. We examined the effects of three months of low and high intensity exercise training on soluble A?40 and A?42 levels in extracellular enriched fractions from the cortex and hippocampus of young Tg2576 mice. Low (LOW) and high (HI) intensity exercise training animals ran at speeds of 15m/min on a level treadmill and 32m/min at a 10% grade, respectively for 60min per day, five days per week, from three to six months of age. Sedentary mice (SED) were placed on a level, non-moving, treadmill for the same duration. Soleus muscle citrate synthase activity increased by 39% in the LOW group relative to SED, and by 71% in the HI group relative to LOW, indicating an exercise training effect in these mice. Soluble A?40 concentrations decreased significantly in an exercise training dose-dependent manner in the cortex. In the hippocampus, concentrations were decreased significantly in the HI group relative to LOW and SED. Soluble A?42 levels also decreased significantly in an exercise training dose-dependent manner in both the cortex and hippocampus. Five proteins involved in A? clearance (neprilysin, IDE, MMP9, LRP1 and HSP70) were elevated by exercise training with its intensity playing a role in each case. Our data demonstrate that exercise training reduces extracellular soluble A? in the brains of Tg2576 mice in a dose-dependent manner through an up-regulation of A? clearance. PMID:26563933

  14. Moderate swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines without causing oxidative stress in tissues of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cechella, Jos L; Leite, Marlon R; Dobrachinski, Fernando; da Rocha, Juliana T; Carvalho, Nelson R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Soares, Flix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-05-01

    The levels of circulatory inflammatory markers, including interleukin (IL) IL-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interferon (INF-?), are known to increase associated to aging. Caffeine has been reported to produce many beneficial effects for health. Exercise is considered to be a safe medicine to attenuate inflammation and cellular senescence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate-intensity swimming exercise (3 % of body weight, 20 min per day, 4 weeks) and sub-chronic supplementation with caffeine (30 mg/kg, 4 weeks) on the serum cytokine levels in middle-aged (18 months) Wistar rats. The effects of swimming exercise and caffeine on oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats were also investigated. The two-way ANOVA of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels demonstrated a significant exercise x caffeine interaction for IL-1? (F (1, 16) = 9.5772; p = 0.0069), IL-6 (F (1, 16) = 8.0463; p = 0.0119) and INF-? (F (1, 16) = 15.078; p = 0.0013). The two-way ANOVA of TNF-? levels revealed a significant exercise caffeine interaction (F (1, 16) = 9.6881; p = 0.00670). Swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation increased the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the rat liver and gastrocnemius muscle. Hepatic and renal markers of damage were not modified. In conclusion, a moderate-intensity swimming exercise protocol and caffeine supplementation induced positive adaptations in modulating cytokine levels without causing oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats. PMID:24481487

  15. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Picklo, Matthew J.; Thyfault, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g α-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation. PMID:25761734

  16. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Thyfault, John P

    2015-04-01

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g ?-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation. PMID:25761734

  17. Supraspinal fatigue after normoxic and hypoxic exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Stuart; González-Alonso, José; Ali, Leena; Ross, Emma Z; Romer, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate cerebral O2 availability has been proposed to be an important contributing factor to the development of central fatigue during strenuous exercise. Here we tested the hypothesis that supraspinal processes of fatigue would be increased after locomotor exercise in acute hypoxia compared to normoxia, and that such change would be related to reductions in cerebral O2 delivery and tissue oxygenation. Nine endurance-trained cyclists completed three constant-load cycling exercise trials at ∼80% of maximal work rate: (1) to the limit of tolerance in acute hypoxia; (2) for the same duration but in normoxia (control); and (3) to the limit of tolerance in normoxia. Throughout each trial, prefrontal cortex tissue oxygenation and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAV) were assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler sonography, respectively. Cerebral O2 delivery was calculated as the product of arterial O2 content and MCAV. Before and immediately after each trial, twitch responses to supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation were obtained to assess neuromuscular and cortical function, respectively. Exercise time was reduced by 54% in hypoxia compared to normoxia (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 8.1 ± 2.9 min; P < 0.001). Cerebral O2 delivery, cerebral oxygenation and maximum O2 uptake were reduced whereas muscle electromyographic activity was increased in hypoxia compared to control (P < 0.05). Maximum voluntary force and potentiated quadriceps twitch force were decreased below baseline after exercise in each trial; the decreases were greater in hypoxia compared to control (P < 0.001), but were not different in the exhaustive trials (P > 0.05). Cortical voluntary activation was also decreased after exercise in all trials, but the decline in hypoxia (Δ18%) was greater than in the normoxic trials (Δ5–9%) (P < 0.05). The reductions in cortical voluntary activation were paralleled by reductions in cerebral O2 delivery. The results suggest that curtailment of exercise performance in acute severe hypoxia is due, in part, to failure of drive from the motor cortex, possibly as a consequence of diminished O2 availability in the brain. PMID:22473785

  18. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies

    PubMed Central

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodrguez; Estivill-Torrs, Guillermo; Santn, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

  19. Impaired myocardial function does not explain reduced left ventricular filling and stroke volume at rest or during exercise at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; Hughes, Michael G; Sthr, Eric J; Cotter, James D; Tymko, Michael M; Day, Trevor A; Bakker, Akke; Shave, Rob

    2015-11-15

    Impaired myocardial systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation have been suggested as possible mechanisms contributing to the decreased stroke volume (SV) observed at high altitude (HA). To determine whether intrinsic myocardial performance is a limiting factor in the generation of SV at HA, we assessed left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic mechanics and volumes in 10 healthy participants (aged 32 7; mean SD) at rest and during exercise at sea level (SL; 344 m) and after 10 days at 5,050 m. In contrast to SL, LV end-diastolic volume was ?19% lower at rest (P = 0.004) and did not increase during exercise despite a greater untwisting velocity. Furthermore, resting SV was lower at HA (?17%; 60 10 vs. 70 8 ml) despite higher LV twist (43%), apical rotation (115%), and circumferential strain (17%). With exercise at HA, the increase in SV was limited (12 vs. 22 ml at SL), and LV apical rotation failed to augment. For the first time, we have demonstrated that EDV does not increase upon exercise at high altitude despite enhanced in vivo diastolic relaxation. The increase in LV mechanics at rest may represent a mechanism by which SV is defended in the presence of a reduced EDV. However, likely because of the higher LV mechanics at rest, no further increase was observed up to 50% peak power. Consequently, although hypoxia does not suppress systolic function per se, the capacity to increase SV through greater deformation during submaximal exercise at HA is restricted. PMID:25749445

  20. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  1. Vasodepressor effects of exercise are accompanied by reduced circulating ouabainlike immunoreactivity and normalization of nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Y; Kimura, Y; Nishimura, N; Hara, K; Mori, T; Okuda, K; Munakata, M; Masuda, M; Murakami, T; Takahashi, H

    1997-04-01

    Our object was to evaluate the effects of regular mild exercise on blood pressure and on circulating level of ouabainlike factors (OLF) and of nitrate anion, an endproduct of nitric oxide (NO) in humans. We measured plasma ouabainlike immunoreactivity (OLI) and nitrate ions (NO3.) before and after mild exercise for 3 months' duration in 16 patients with essential hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, or hyperlipidemia. Plasma OLI was measured using an amplified ELISA system with anti-ouabain antibody and biotinyl-tyramide. Serum NO3. was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an anion-exchange column. With the reverse phase HPLC system with an octa decylsilyl silicagel column, the elution volume of plasma OLI of a healthy volunteer matched that of authentic ouabain in a gradient elution system of acetonitrile/H2O. Plasma OLI levels decreased significantly by about 34% after mild exercise, and NO3. levels tended to be within the reference interval in normal volunteers. Body weight, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, serum triglyceride and acetylcholine esterase (a marker of the fatty liver) were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) after 3 months of regular mild exercise. The plasma OLI level was significantly correlated with plasma NO3., there was a trend toward a correlation with diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.06) before and after regular exercise. Regular mild exercise led to a decrease in plasma levels of OLI, and acetylcholine esterase activity and blood pressure in adult patients. Results suggest that changes in OLF production contribute to the blood pressure regulation seen in patients who exercise regularly. PMID:9107442

  2. Acute Schmorl's Node during Strenuous Monofin Swimming: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Paterakis, Konstantinos N; Brotis, Alexandros G; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Karachalios, Theofilos; Fountas, Kostas N; Karantanas, Apostolos

    2012-09-01

    Study Design?This case report describes an acute Schmorl's node (SN) in an elite monofin athlete during exercise. The patient presented with severe back pain and leg numbness and was managed successfully with conservative treatment. Objective?The aim of our communication was to describe a rare presentation of a common pathological condition during an intense sport. Background?Swimming is not generally considered to be a sport activity that leads to spinal injuries. SNs are usually asymptomatic lesions, incidentally found on imaging studies. There is no correlation between swimming and symptomatic SN formation. Case Report?A 16-year-old monofin elite athlete suffered from an acute nonradiating back pain during extreme exercise. His back pain was associated with a fracture of the superior L5 end plate and an acute SN at the L5 vertebral body with perilesional bone marrow edema. The pain resolved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bed rest. The athlete had an excellent outcome and returned to his training activities 6 months after his incident. Conclusion?SN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe back pain, especially in sport-related injuries. SNs present with characteristic imaging findings. Due to the benign nature of these lesions, surveillance-only management may be the best course of action. PMID:24353963

  3. Reduced cortical BACE1 content with one bout of exercise is accompanied by declines in AMPK, Akt, and MAPK signaling in obese, glucose-intolerant mice.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, R E K; Baumeister, P; Peppler, W T; Wright, D C; Little, J P

    2015-11-15

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. A variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altered Akt and AMPK and increased inflammatory signaling, contribute to neurodegeneration. Exercise training can improve markers of neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single bout of exercise on markers of neurodegeneration and inflammation in brains from mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low (LFD; 10% kcal from lard)- or a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 7 wk. HFD mice underwent an acute bout of exercise (treadmill running: 15 m/min, 5% incline, 120 min) followed by a recovery period of 2 h. The HFD increased body mass and glucose intolerance (both P < 0.05). This was accompanied by an approximately twofold increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and GSK in the cortex (P < 0.05). Following exercise, there was a decrease in beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1; P < 0.05) and activity (P < 0.001). This was accompanied by a reduction in AMPK phosphorylation, indicative of a decline in cellular stress (P < 0.05). Akt and ERK phosphorylation were decreased following exercise in HFD mice to a level similar to that of the LFD mice (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that a single bout of exercise can reduce BACE1 content and activity independent of changes in adiposity. This effect is associated with reductions in Akt, ERK, and AMPK signaling in the cortex. PMID:26404616

  4. Exercise Eases Low Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_156634.html Exercise Eases Low Back Pain Review of studies shows exercise, with or without ... News) -- Exercise may reduce your risk of low back pain, Australian researchers report. They reviewed 23 studies that ...

  5. Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P < 0.001) were found for changes in plasma glucose during and after exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

  6. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS.A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0).A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.61 to -0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, -0.58; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.78) was not increased.Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with exercises and TNF inhibitors for this given population due to some limitations impaired the power of our study. PMID:26683943

  7. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking. PMID:14971437

  8. Metabolic Cost of Experimental Exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Although the type and duration of activity during decompression was well documented, the metabolic cost of 1665 subject-exposures with 8 activity profiles from 17 altitude decompression sickness (DCS) protocols at Brooks City-Base, TX from 1983-2005 was not determined. Female and male human volunteers (30 planned, 4 completed) performed activity profiles matching those 8 activity profiles at ground level with continuous monitoring of metabolic cost. A Cosmed K4b2 Cardio Pulmonary Exercise Testing device was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2) during the profiles. The results show levels of metabolic cost to the females for the profiles tested varied from 4.3 to 25.5 ml/kg/min and from 3.0 to 12.0 ml/kg/min to the males. The increase in VO2 from seated rest to the most strenuous of the 8 activity profiles was 3.6-fold for the females and 2.8-fold for the males. These preliminary data on 4 subjects indicate close agreement of oxygen uptake for activity performed during many subject-exposures as published earlier. The relatively low average oxygen uptake required to perform the most strenuous activity may imply the need for adjustment of modeling efforts using metabolic cost as a risk factor. Better definition of metabolic cost during exposure to altitude, a critical factor in DCS risk, may allow refinement of DCS prediction models.

  9. Exercise preconditioning reduces ischemia reperfusion-induced focal cerebral infarct volume through up-regulating the expression of HIF-1α.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Deng, Wenqian; Yuan, Qiongjia; Yang, Huijun

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect and mechanism of exercise preconditioning on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion induced cerebral infarction via rat model; Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups at random: ischemia reperfusion group (IR, n=24), sham group (sham, n=12) and exercise preconditioning group (EP, n=24). Group EP carried out moderate exercise preconditioning for 4 weeks (swimming with non-weight bearing, 60 minutes/day, 6 days/week), Rats in Group EP and IR were established cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury model by Zea Longa's thread method. The cerebral infarct volume in rat of different group was evaluated after 2%TTC staining, expression of HIF-1α in rats' brain was detected by real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochmeistry method and western blot. No cerebral infarction and significant expression of HIF-1α in Group sham. Compared with Group IR, there was smaller infarct volume and stronger HIF-1α expression in Group EP (P<0.05). Moderate exercise preconditioning reduces ischemia reperfusion induced focal cerebral infarct volume through up-regulating the expression of HIF-1α. PMID:25796156

  10. Reduced energy intake and moderate exercise reduce mammary tumor incidence in virgin female BALB/c mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Teer, Patricia; Keith, Robert E.; White, Marguerite T.; Strahan, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The concurrent effects of diet (standard AIN-76A, restricted AIN-76A and high-fat diet) and moderate rotating-drum treadmill exercise on the incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in virgin female BALB/cMed mice free of murine mammary tumor virus are evaluated. Analyses show that, although energy intake was related to mammary tumor incidence, neither body weight nor dietary fat predicted tumor incidence.

  11. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  12. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  13. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fbio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Cludia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

  14. The role of exercise in thermogenesis and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Richard, D; Rivest, S

    1989-04-01

    The role of exercise training in energy balance has been reviewed. Recent well-conducted studies showed that exercise may increase energy expenditure not only during the period of exercise itself but during the postexercise period as well. This notion of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), which has been a controversial issue for many years, is now becoming a generally well-accepted concept, the consensus being that EPOC takes place following prolonged and strenuous exercise bouts. Besides, the role of EPOC in long-term energy balance remains to be determined. Long-term energy balance studies carried out in rats show that exercise affects energy balance by altering food intake and promoting energy expenditure. In male rats exercise causes a marked decrease in energy intake which contributes, in association with the expenditure of exercise itself, to retard lean and fat tissue growth. From the suppressed deposition of lean body mass, decreases in basal metabolic rate can be predicted in males. In female rats, exercise does not affect food intake; the lower energy gain of exercise-trained females results from the elevated expenditure rate associated with exercise itself. In both male and female rats, there is no evidence that exercise training affects energy expenditure other than during exercise itself unless the habitual feeding pattern of the rats is radically modified. The interactive effects of diet and exercise, which have to be further investigated in long-term energy balance, emerge as a promising area of research. PMID:2667733

  15. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: Effects on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular response to exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Chandler, S.; Pears, D.; Perry, R.; Murray, R.G.; Shiu, M.F.

    1989-05-01

    Many patients with coronary artery disease treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) have a history of previous myocardial injury resulting in a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). The effects of successful PTCA on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function in these patients were compared to treatment in patients with normal left ventricular EF. There were 21 patients with a normal EF (mean EF 59 +/- 2%) (Group I) and 15 patients with reduced EF (mean EF 43 +/- 1%) (Group II). Before PTCA a similar degree of reversible myocardial ischemia was present on thallium scintigraphy. At peak exercise left ventricular EF in the Group I patients decreased by 4 +/- 1% compared to 8 +/- 1% in Group II. At one month following successful PTCA there was resolution of reversible myocardial ischemia in both groups. No changes in EF at rest were observed. At the same level of exercise as before PTCA the mean EF was 5 +/- 1% higher than the pretreatment value in Group I and 10 +/- 1% higher in Group II. Thus in this study reversible myocardial ischemia was associated with severe compromise in the left ventricular response to exercise which was substantially improved by PTCA.

  16. Mitochondrial apoptotic signaling is elevated in cardiac but not skeletal muscle in the obese Zucker rat and is reduced with aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jonathan M; Bryner, Randall W; Sindler, Amy; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Alway, Stephen E

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondrial apoptosis and apoptotic signaling modulations by aerobic training were studied in cardiac and skeletal muscles of obese Zucker rats (OZR), a rodent model of metabolic syndrome. Comparisons were made between left ventricle, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles from OZR (n = 16) and aged-matched lean Zucker rats (LZR; n = 16) that were untrained (n = 8) or aerobically trained on a treadmill for 9 wk (n = 8). Cardiac Bcl-2 protein expression levels were approximately 50% lower in the OZR compared with the LZR, with no difference in either of the skeletal muscles. Bax protein expression levels were similar in skeletal muscles of the OZR compared with the LZR. Furthermore, mitochondrial apoptotic signaling was not different in skeletal muscles of OZR and LZR groups. However, there was an approximate sevenfold increase in the Bax protein accumulation in the myocardial mitochondrial-rich protein fraction of the OZR compared with the LZR. Additionally, there was an increase in cytosolic cytochrome c released from the mitochondria, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity, with a corresponding elevation in DNA fragmentation in the cardiac muscles of the OZR compared with the LZR. Exercise training reduced cardiac Bax protein levels, the mitochondrial localization of Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, caspase activity, and DNA fragmentation in cardiac muscles of the OZR after exercise, with no change in the skeletal muscles. These data show that mitochondrial apoptosis is elevated in the cardiac but not skeletal muscles of the OZR, but aerobic exercise training was effective in reducing cardiac mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. PMID:18832755

  17. Acute exercise reduces hepatic glucose production through inhibition of the Foxo1/HNF-4? pathway in insulin resistant mice

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Cludio T; Frederico, Marisa J S; da Luz, Gabrielle; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Pauli, Jos R; Velloso, Lcio A

    2010-01-01

    Protein hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF-4?) is atypically activated in the liver of diabetic rodents and contributes to hepatic glucose production. HNF-4? and Foxo1 can physically interact with each other and represent an important signal transduction pathway that regulates the synthesis of glucose in the liver. Foxo1 and HNF-4? interact with their own binding sites in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) promoters, and this binding is required for their effects on those promoters. However, the effect of physical activity on the HNF-4?/Foxo1 pathway is currently unknown. Here, we investigate the protein levels of HNF-4? and the HNF-4?/Foxo1 pathway in the liver of leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and diet-induced obese Swiss (DIO) mice after acute exercise. The ob/ob and DIO mice swam for four 30 min periods, with 5 min rest intervals for a total swimming time of 2 h. Eight hours after the acute exercise protocol, the mice were submitted to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) and determination of biochemical and molecular parameters. Acute exercise improved insulin signalling, increasing insulin-stimulated Akt and Foxo1 phosphorylation and decreasing HNF-4? protein levels in the liver of DIO and ob/ob mice under fasting conditions. These phenomena were accompanied by a reduction in the expression of gluconeogenesis genes, such as PEPCK and G6Pase. Importantly, the PI3K inhibitor LY292004 reversed the acute effect of exercise on fasting hyperglycaemia, confirming the involvement of the PI3K pathway. The present study shows that exercise acutely improves the action of insulin in the liver of animal models of obesity and diabetes, resulting in increased phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of Foxo1, and a reduction in the Foxo1/HNF-4? pathway. Since nuclear localization and the association of these proteins is involved in the activation of PEPCK and G6Pase, we believe that the regulation of Foxo1 and HNF-4? activities are important mechanisms involved in exercise-induced improvement of glucose homeostasis in insulin resistant states. PMID:20421289

  18. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

    PubMed Central

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; Gonzlez-Alonso, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterialvenous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 3 vs. 78.2 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 0.1 vs. 36.8 0.1C), impaired exercise capacity (269 11 vs. 336 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 1223% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension () (R2 ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

  19. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =−1.06 [−1.67 to −0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [−1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =−0.10 [−0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

  20. EXERCISE-INDUCED LOWERING OF CHEMERIN IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND GLUCOSE-STIMULATED INSULIN SECRETION IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    MALIN, S.K.; NAVANEETHAN, S.D.; MULYA, A.; HUANG, H.; KIRWAN, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of exercise on chemerin in relation to changes in fat loss, insulin action, and dyslipidemia in older adults. Participants Thirty older (65.9±0.9yr) obese adults (BMI:34.5±0.7kg/m2). Setting Single-center, Cleveland Clinic. Design Prospective clinical trial. Intervention Twelve-weeks of exercise training (60minutes/day, 5day/week at ~85% HRmax). Subjects were instructed to maintain habitual nutrient intake. Measurements Plasma chemerin was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was assessed using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinic clamp with glucose kinetics. First-phase and total glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was calculated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides), total/visceral fat (dual-x-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography) and cardiorespiratory fitness (treadmill test) were also tested pre and post intervention. Results Exercise increased fitness and reduced total/visceral fat, blood lipids, and first-phase GSIS (P<0.05). Training also increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and lowered basal/insulin-related hepatic glucose production (P<0.01). The intervention reduced chemerin (87.1±6.0 vs. 78.1±5.8ng/ml; P=0.02), and the reduction correlated with decreased visceral fat (r=0.50, P=0.009), total body fat (r=0.42, P=0.02), cholesterol (r=0.38, P=0.04), triglycerides (r=0.36, P=0.05), and first-phase and total GSIS (r=0.39, P=0.03 and r=0.43, P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions Lower chemerin appears to be an important hormone involved in cardiometabolic risk and GSIS reduction following exercise in older adults. PMID:24950152

  1. Aerobic Exercise Training Prevents the Onset of Endothelial Dysfunction via Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Reduced Reactive Oxygen Species in an Experimental Model of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Viviane A. V. N.; Couto, Gisele K.; Lazzarin, Mariana C.; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that estrogen deficiency, arising in postmenopause, promotes endothelial dysfunction. This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training on endothelial dependent vasodilation of aorta in ovariectomized rats, specifically investigating the role of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods Female Wistar rats ovariectomized (OVX n=20) or with intact ovary (SHAM n=20) remained sedentary (OVX and SHAM) or performed aerobic exercise training on a treadmill 5 times a week for a period of 8 weeks (OVX-TRA and SHAM-TRA). In the thoracic aorta the endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation was assessed by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively. Certain aortic rings were incubated with L-NAME to assess the NO modulation on the ACh-induced vasodilation. The fluorescence to dihydroethidium in aortic slices and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations were measured to evaluate ROS and NO bioavailability, respectively. Results ACh-induced vasodilation was reduced in OVX rats as compared SHAM (Rmax: SHAM: 863.3 vs. OVX: 573.0%, p<0.01). Training prevented this response in OVX-TRA (Rmax: OVX-TRA: 882.0%, p<0.01), while did not change it in SHAM-TRA (Rmax: SHAM-TRA: 802.2%, p<0.01). The L-NAME incubation abolished the differences in ACh-induced relaxation among groups. SNP-induced vasodilation was not different among groups. OVX reduced nitrite/nitrate plasma concentrations and increased ROS in aortic slices, training as effective to restore these parameters to the SHAM levels. Conclusions Exercise training, even in estrogen deficiency conditions, is able to improve endothelial dependent vasodilation in rat aorta via enhanced NO bioavailability and reduced ROS levels. PMID:25923465

  2. Reduced large elastic artery stiffness with regular aerobic exercise in middle-aged and older adults: potential role of suppressed nuclear factor ? B signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Donato, Anthony J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Walker, Ashley E.; Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Ballak, Dov B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV) increases with age and is a strong independent predictor of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. aPWV is lower in middle-aged and older adults who perform regular aerobic exercise than in their sedentary peers. As exercise is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that suppression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor ? B (NF?B) may mediate this process. Methods aPWV was measured in young sedentary [n =10, blood pressure (BP) 108 3/59 2 mmHg; mean SEM], middle-aged and older sedentary (n =9, 124 7/73 5 mmHg) and middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained (n =12, 110 4/67 2 mmHg) healthy, nonhypertensive men and women. Results Baseline aPWV increased with age [626 14 (young sedentary) vs. 859 49 (middle-aged and older sedentary) cm/s, P <0.001] but was 20% lower in middle-aged and older trained (686 30 cm/s) than in middle-aged and older sedentary (P <0.005). Short-term (4 days 25004500 mg) treatment with the NF?B inhibitor salsalate (randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design) reduced aPWV (to 783 44 cm/s, P <0.05) without changing BP (P =0.40) or heart rate (P =0.90) in middle-aged and older sedentary, but had no effect in young sedentary (623 19) or middle-aged and older trained (699 30). Following salsalate treatment, aPWV no longer was significantly different in middle-aged and older sedentary vs. middle-aged and older trained (P =0.29). The reduction in aPWV with salsalate administration was inversely related to baseline (placebo) aPWV (r = ?0.60, P <0.001). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that suppressed NF?B signalling may partially mediate the lower aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults who regularly perform aerobic exercise. Because aPWV predicts incident cardiovascular events in this population, this suggests that tonic suppression of NF?B signalling in middle-aged and older exercising adults may potentially lower cardiovascular risk. PMID:26378681

  3. A strenuous experimental journey searching for spectroscopic evidence of a bridging nickel-iron-hydride in [NiFe] hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Direct spectroscopic evidence for a hydride bridge in the Ni-R form of [NiFe] hydrogenase has been obtained using iron-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS). The Ni-H-Fe wag mode at 675 cm(-1) is the first spectroscopic evidence for a bridging hydride in Ni-R as well as the first iron-hydride-related NRVS feature observed for a biological system. Although density function theory (DFT) calculation assisted the determination of the Ni-R structure, it did not predict the Ni-H-Fe wag mode at ? 675 cm(-1) before NRVS. Instead, the observed Ni-H-Fe mode provided a critical reference for the DFT calculations. While the overall science about Ni-R is presented and discussed elsewhere, this article focuses on the long and strenuous experimental journey to search for and experimentally identify the Ni-H-Fe wag mode in a Ni-R sample. As a methodology, the results presented here will go beyond Ni-R and hydrogenase research and will also be of interest to other scientists who use synchrotron radiation for measuring dilute samples or weak spectroscopic features. PMID:26524296

  4. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy, untrained subjects: effects of different exercise intensities controlled by individual anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Kathleen; Hilberg, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The influence of different exercise intensities on haemostasis in healthy, untrained subjects has not been intensively studied. We investigated untrained subjects for alterations in coagulation and fibrinolysis induced by two exercise intensities, precisely controlled by individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Twenty-five healthy, untrained non-smokers (age 25 3 years; relative VO(2) peak 43.1 5.2 ml/kg/min) underwent exercise tests at 80% (moderate) and 100% (strenuous) of IAT for 60 min. Blood samples were taken after 30 min rest and immediately after exercise. The present results reveal that an exercise intensity at 100% IAT induces a more pronounced coagulation activity than exercises at 80% IAT. 100% IAT led to a significant higher increase in FVIII (80% IAT 85 33 to 114 30% vs. 100% IAT 81 20 to 132 29%) and TAT (80% IAT 2.5 1.4 to 2.9 1.0 ?g/l vs. 100% IAT 2.6 1.0 to 5.4 4.2 ?g/l). Furthermore, both exercises affected fibrinolysis, but it was significantly higher at 100% IAT (tPA activity; 80% IAT 0.44 0.17 to 4.65 2.67 U/ml vs. 100% IAT 0.43 0.19 to 6.47 3.97 U/ml). The data show that fibrinolytic activity is significantly elevated already after moderate exercise (80% IAT). After strenuous exercise (100% IAT), coagulation is more sharply enhanced together with a higher increase of fibrinolysis in comparison with 80% IAT. However, haemostasis seems to be in balance after moderate as well as after strenuous exercise intensity in healthy, untrained participants. Based on these data, exercise-induced changes of both haemostatic systems should also be tested in patients with cardiovascular diseases in order to be in a position to give recommendations for endurance training modalities in rehabilitation training. PMID:20859637

  5. Intra-Articular Corticosteroids in Addition to Exercise for Reducing Pain Sensitivity in Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Outcome from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie; Bandak, Elisabeth; Ellegaard, Karen; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of one intra-articular corticosteroid injection two weeks prior to an exercise-based intervention program for reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, masked, parallel, placebo-controlled trial involving 100 participants with clinical and radiographic knee OA that were randomized to one intra-articular injection on the knee with either 1 ml of 40 mg/ml methylprednisolone (corticosteroid) dissolved in 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml) or 1 ml isotonic saline (placebo) mixed with 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml). Two weeks after the injections all participants undertook a 12-week supervised exercise program. Main outcomes were changes from baseline in pressure-pain sensitivity (pressure-pain threshold [PPT] and temporal summation [TS]) assessed using cuff pressure algometry on the calf. These were exploratory outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Results A total of 100 patients were randomized to receive either corticosteroid (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50); 45 and 44, respectively, completed the trial. Four participants had missing values for PPT and one for TS at baseline; thus modified intention-to-treat populations were analyzed. The mean group difference in changes from baseline at week 14 was 0.6 kPa (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.8; P = 0.626) for PPT and 384 mmsec (95% CI: -2980 to 3750; P = 0.821) for TS. Conclusions These results suggest that adding intra-articular corticosteroid injection 2 weeks prior to an exercise program does not provide additional benefits compared to placebo in reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee OA. Trial Registration EU clinical trials (EudraCT): 2012-002607-18 PMID:26871954

  6. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). PMID:26867697

  7. Low-frequency vibratory exercise reduces the risk of bone fracture more than walking: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gusi, Narcs; Raimundo, Armando; Leal, Alejo

    2006-01-01

    Background Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new type of exercise that has been increasingly tested for the ability to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis in frail people. There are two currently marketed vibrating plates: a) the whole plate oscillates up and down; b) reciprocating vertical displacements on the left and right side of a fulcrum, increasing the lateral accelerations. A few studies have shown recently the effectiveness of the up-and-down plate for increasing Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and balance; but the effectiveness of the reciprocating plate technique remains mainly unknown. The aim was to compare the effects of WBV using a reciprocating platform at frequencies lower than 20 Hz and a walking-based exercise programme on BMD and balance in post-menopausal women. Methods Twenty-eight physically untrained post-menopausal women were assigned at random to a WBV group or a Walking group. Both experimental programmes consisted of 3 sessions per week for 8 months. Each vibratory session included 6 bouts of 1 min (12.6 Hz in frequency and 3 cm in amplitude with 60 of knee flexion) with 1 min rest between bouts. Each walking session was 55 minutes of walking and 5 minutes of stretching. Hip and lumbar BMD (gcm-2) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and balance was assessed by the blind flamingo test. ANOVA for repeated measurements was adjusted by baseline data, weight and age. Results After 8 months, BMD at the femoral neck in the WBV group was increased by 4.3% (P = 0.011) compared to the Walking group. In contrast, the BMD at the lumbar spine was unaltered in both groups. Balance was improved in the WBV group (29%) but not in the Walking group. Conclusion The 8-month course of vibratory exercise using a reciprocating plate is feasible and is more effective than walking to improve two major determinants of bone fractures: hip BMD and balance. PMID:17137514

  8. Aerobic Exercise and Weight Loss Reduce Vascular Markers of Inflammation and Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Alice S.; Ge, Shealinna; Blumenthal, Jacob B.; Serra, Monica C.; Prior, Steven J.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives To examine the relationships of plasma and tissue markers of systemic and vascular inflammation to obesity and insulin resistance and determine the effects of aerobic exercise training+weight loss (AEX+WL) and weight loss (WL) on these biomarkers. Design Prospective controlled study. Participants Seventy-seven overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women. Interventions Six months, 3d/wk AEX+WL (n=37) or WL (n=40). Measurements Total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, abdominal computed tomography scans, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, adipose tissue biopsies (n=28), and blood for Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, and soluble forms of intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA). Results Body weight, %fat, visceral fat, triglyceride levels and systolic blood pressure decreased comparably after WL and AEX+WL (P<0.05). VO2max increased 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001). Insulin resistance decreased in both groups (P<0.01). Glucose utilization increased 10% (P< 0.05) after AEX+WL and 8% with WL (P=0.07). AEX+WL and WL decreased CRP by 29% and 21%, (P<0.05). SAA levels decreased two-fold more after AEX+WL (?19%, P<0.05) than with WL (?9%, P=0.08). Plasma sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels did not change; however, women with the greatest reduction in plasma sICAM-1 levels had the greatest reductions in fasting glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (P<0.05). Gluteal ICAM mRNA levels decreased 27% after AEX+WL (P<0.05) and did not change after WL. Conclusion Obesity and insulin resistance worsen markers of systemic and vascular inflammation. A reduction in plasma sICAM-1 is important to improve insulin sensitivity. CRP and SAA and tissue ICAM decrease with exercise and weight loss, suggesting that exercise training is a necessary component of lifestyle modification in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:24635342

  9. Respiratory muscle training with normocapnic hyperpnea improves ventilatory pattern and thoracoabdominal coordination, and reduces oxygen desaturation during endurance exercise testing in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Eva; Pomidori, Luca; Bassal, Faisy; Contoli, Marco; Cogo, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Few data are available about the effects of respiratory muscle training with normocapnic hyperpnea (NH) in COPD. The aim is to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of NH (Spirotiger) on ventilatory pattern, exercise capacity, and quality of life (QoL) in COPD patients. Methods Twenty-six COPD patients (three females), ages 4982 years, were included in this study. Spirometry and maximal inspiratory pressure, St George Respiratory Questionnaire, 6-minute walk test, and symptom-limited endurance exercise test (endurance test to the limit of tolerance [tLim]) at 75%80% of peak work rate up to a Borg Score of 89/10 were performed before and after NH. Patients were equipped with ambulatory inductive plethysmography (LifeShirt) to evaluate ventilatory pattern and thoracoabdominal coordination (phase angle [PhA]) during tLim. After four supervised sessions, subjects trained at home for 4 weeks 10 minutes twice a day at 50% of maximal voluntary ventilation. The workload was adjusted during the training period to maintain a Borg Score of 56/10. Results Twenty subjects completed the study. After NH, maximal inspiratory pressure significantly increased (81.531.6 vs 91.830.6 cmH2O, P<0.01); exercise endurance time (+150 seconds, P=0.04), 6-minute walk test (+30 meters, P=0.03), and QoL (?8, P<0.01) all increased. During tLim, the ventilatory pattern changed significantly (lower ventilation, lower respiratory rate, higher tidal volume); oxygen desaturation, PhA, and dyspnea Borg Score were lower for the same work intensity (P<0.01, P=0.02, and P<0.01, respectively; one-way ANOVA). The improvement in tidal volume and oxygen saturation after NH were significantly related (R2=0.65, P<0.01). Conclusion As expected, NH improves inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, and QoL. New results are significant change in ventilatory pattern, which improves oxygen saturation, and an improvement in thoracoabdominal coordination (lower PhA). These two facts could explain the reduced dyspnea during the endurance test. All these results together may play a role in improving exercise capacity after NH training. PMID:26392764

  10. Exercise modulates synaptic acetylcholinesterase at neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Blotnick, E; Anglister, L

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase plays a major role in neuromuscular transmission and is regulated by neuromuscular activity. Since fast-twitch motor units are recruited with increased motor demand, we examined acetylcholinesterase regulation in rat leg muscles following treadmill training. Total acetylcholinesterase and specifically the membrane-bound tetramer increased in exercised fast-, but not slow-twitch muscles, while other isoforms remained unchanged. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase increased markedly in neuromuscular junctions of trained fibers, without concomitant changes in synaptic acetylcholine receptor, thus elevating synaptic acetylcholinesterase/receptor ratios. Electron microscopy showed that acetylcholinesterase increased in postjunctional folds and primary cleft, where it was added adjacent to the postsynaptic muscle membrane. Thus, although the primary acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junction is the collagen-tailed asymmetric isoform associated with synaptic basal lamina, physiological demands such as strenuous exercise, or potentially pathological conditions, can selectively recruit the membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase tetramer to the synapse for optimal synaptic transmission. PMID:26820598

  11. Biphasic response of cardiodynamic adaptations to swimming exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic Tosic, Jelica T; Jakovljevic, Vladimir Lj; Zivkovic, Vladimir V; Srejovic, Ivan M; Valdevit, Zoran J; Radovanovic, Dragan S; Djuric, Dragan M; Ahmetovic, Zlatko K; Peric, Dusan B; Cankovic, Marija B; Jovanovic, Maja S; Djordjevic, Dusica Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of research was to assess exercise-induced changes in mechanics of hearts isolated from rats, as well as time-course of those changes. Wistar rats (n = 42) were divided into control, moderately trained (swimming 1 hour, 5 days a week for 9 or 12 weeks) and strenuously trained (swimming 2, 3 and 4 times a day for an hour in weeks 10, 11 and 12, respectively) groups. After sacrificing, hearts (weight: 1480.82 145.38 mg) were isolated and perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was gradually increased (from 40 to 120 cm H(2)O) in order to establish coronary autoregulation. Parameters of cardiac contractility were recorded: maximum and minimum rate of change of pressure in the left ventricle (dp/dt max and dp/dt min), systolic and diastolic left ventricular pressure (SLVP and DLVP), heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF). Nine weeks of moderate exercise induced slight depression of coronary function (decrease of dp/dt max, dp/dt min, SLVP and DLVP), while 3 additional weeks of moderate training improved hearts function, but not to the extent that the strenuous training program did. The results of our study add evidence about beneficial effects of regular moderate exercise on heart, and furthermore, show that exercising frequently, if the intensity stays within moderate range, may not have detrimental effects on cardiodynamics. PMID:25816361

  12. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Exercise Compulsive exercise (also called obligatory exercise and anorexia athletica ) is best defined by an exercise addict's ... the two often go hand in hand. In anorexia nervosa, the excessive workouts usually begin as a ...

  13. Daily Oxygen/O3 Treatment Reduces Muscular Fatigue and Improves Cardiac Performance in Rats Subjected to Prolonged High Intensity Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, C.; Trotta, M. C.; Maisto, R.; Siniscalco, D.; Luongo, M.; Mascolo, L.; Alfano, R.; Accardo, M.; Rossi, C.; Ferraraccio, F.; D'Amico, M.

    2015-01-01

    Rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of O2 and running on a treadmill covered an average distance of 482.8 ± 21.8 m/week as calculated during 5-week observation. This distance was increased in rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of an oxygen/O3 mixture at a dose of 100; 150; and 300 μg/kg with the maximum increase being +34.5% at 300 μg/kg and still present after stopping the administration of oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (−13%), the heart rate (−6%), the gastrocnemius and cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis and reduced by 49% the left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness measurements. Systolic and diastolic functions were improved in exercised oxygen/O3 rats compared to O2 rats. Oxygen/O3 treatment led to higher MPI index starting from the dose of 150 μg/kg (p < 0.05) and more effective (+14%) at a dose of 300 μg/kg oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 dose-dependently increased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD and GPx1 and of eNOS compared to the exercised O2 rats. The same doses resulted in decrease of LDH levels, CPK, TnI, and nitrotyrosine concentration in the heart and gastrocnemius tissues, arguing a beneficial effect of the ozone molecule against the fatigue induced by a prolonged high intensity exercise. PMID:26265981

  14. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2013-12-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p < 0.001) and PPT (p < 0.05). Compared with control, both active exercise and massage significantly reduced the intensity of soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage. Coaches, therapists, and athletes can use either active warm-up or massage to reduce DOMS acutely, for example, to prepare for competition or strenuous work, but should be aware that the effect is temporary, that is, the greatest effects occurs during the first 20 minutes after treatment and diminishes within an hour. PMID:23524365

  15. Early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise reduces neuropathic pain by preventing nociceptor collateral sprouting and disruption of chloride cotransporters homeostasis after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    López-Álvarez, Víctor M; Modol, Laura; Navarro, Xavier; Cobianchi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Activity treatments, such as treadmill exercise, are used to improve functional recovery after nerve injury, parallel to an increase in neurotrophin levels. However, despite their role in neuronal survival and regeneration, neurotrophins may cause neuronal hyperexcitability that triggers neuropathic pain. In this work, we demonstrate that an early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise (iTR), performed during the first week (iTR1) or during the first 2 weeks (iTR2) after section and suture repair of the rat sciatic nerve, significantly reduced the hyperalgesia developing rapidly in the saphenous nerve territory and later in the sciatic nerve territory after regeneration. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in sensory neurons and spinal cord was reduced in parallel. iTR prevented the extension of collateral sprouts of saphenous nociceptive calcitonin gene-related peptide fibers within the adjacent denervated skin and reduced NGF expression in the same skin and in the L3 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Injury also induced Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) upregulation in DRG, and K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporter 2 (KCC2) downregulation in lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. iTR normalized NKCC1 and boosted KCC2 expression, together with a significant reduction of microgliosis in L3-L5 dorsal horn, and a reduction of BDNF expression in microglia at 1 to 2 weeks postinjury. These data demonstrate that specific activity protocols, such as iTR, can modulate neurotrophins expression after peripheral nerve injury and prevent neuropathic pain by blocking early mechanisms of sensitization such as collateral sprouting and NKCC1/KCC2 disregulation. PMID:26090759

  16. Acute high-intensity interval exercise reduces the postprandial glucose response and prevalence of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gillen, J B; Little, J P; Punthakee, Z; Tarnopolsky, M A; Riddell, M C; Gibala, M J

    2012-06-01

    High-volume endurance exercise (END) improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but many individuals cite 'lack of time' as a barrier to regular participation. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a time-efficient method to induce physiological adaptations similar to END, but little is known regarding the effect of HIT in T2D. Using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), we examined the 24-h blood glucose response to one session of HIT consisting of 10 60 s cycling efforts at ~90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 60 s rest. Seven adults with T2D underwent CGM for 24-h on two occasions under standard dietary conditions: following acute HIT and on a non-exercise control day (CTL). HIT reduced hyperglycaemia measured as proportion of time spent above 10 mmol/l (HIT: 4.5 4.4 vs. CTL: 15.2 12.3%, p = 0.04). Postprandial hyperglycaemia, measured as the sum of post-meal areas under the glucose curve, was also lower after HIT vs. CTL (728 331 vs. 1142 556 mmol/l9 h, p = 0.01). These findings highlight the potential for HIT to improve glycaemic control in T2D. PMID:22268455

  17. Transit of micro-bubbles through the pulmonary circulation of Thoroughbred horses during exercise.

    PubMed

    La Gerche, A; Daffy, J R; Mooney, D J; Forbes, G; Davie, A J

    2013-10-01

    It has been observed that microbubbles may pass through the pulmonary circulation of dogs and humans during exercise. In humans, this phenomenon has been associated with lower pulmonary artery pressures, enhanced right ventricular function and greater exercise capacity. In the exercising Thoroughbred horse, extraordinarily high cardiac outputs exert significant pulmonary vascular stresses. The aim of this study was to determine, using contrast echocardiography, whether Thoroughbred horses performing strenuous exercise developed pulmonary transit of agitated contrast microbubbles (PTAC). At rest, agitated contrast was observed in the right ventricle, but not in the left ventricle. However, post-exercise microbubbles were observed in the left ventricle, confirming the occurrence of PTAC with exercise but not at rest. Further investigation is warranted to investigate whether this phenomenon may be associated with superior physiology and performance measures as has been implicated in other species. PMID:23642486

  18. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences.

    PubMed

    Holloszy, J O; Coyle, E F

    1984-04-01

    Regularly performed endurance exercise induces major adaptations in skeletal muscle. These include increases in the mitochondrial content and respiratory capacity of the muscle fibers. As a consequence of the increase in mitochondria, exercise of the same intensity results in a disturbance in homeostasis that is smaller in trained than in untrained muscles. The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity. These adaptations play an important role in the large increase in the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise that occurs in response to endurance exercise training. PMID:6373687

  19. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jassil, Friedrich C.; Manning, Sean; Lewis, Neville; Steinmo, Siri; Kingett, Helen; Lough, Fiona; Pucci, Andrea B. F.; Cheung, W. H.; Finer, Nicholas; Walker, Judith; Doyle, Jaqueline; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p = 0.043), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, p = 0.043), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.034), reduced consumption of ready meals (p = 0.034), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p = 0.039). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p = 0.027). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. PMID:26199740

  20. Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,

  1. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine prevents exercise-induced intestinal lymphocyte apoptosis by maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and reducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization.

    PubMed

    Quadrilatero, J; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2004-07-01

    Intense exercise leads to post-exercise lymphocytopenia and immunosuppression, possibly by triggering lymphocyte apoptosis. To test the role of oxidative stress on exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis, we administered the antioxidant N-acetyl--cysteine (NAC) and measured apoptosis in intestinal lymphocytes (IL) from exhaustively exercised animals. Eighty-seven female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive NAC (1 g/kg) or saline 30 min prior to treadmill exercise for 90 min at 2degrees slope (30 min at 22 m min(-1), 30 min at 25 m min(-1), and 30 min at 28 m min(-1)) and sacrificed immediately (Imm) or 24 hours (24 h) after cessation of exercise. Control mice (nonexercised) were exposed to treadmill noise and vibration without running. Exercise increased IL phosphatidylserine externalization (p<0.001), mitochondrial membrane depolarization (p<0.05), and decreased intracellular glutathione concentrations (p<0.05) immediately following exercise in saline relative to nonexercised mice. At 24 h post-exercise, saline injected mice had fewer total (p<0.001) and CD3+ (p<0.005) IL compared to nonexercised animals. NAC injection in mice maintained intracellular glutathione levels, prevented phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and loss of IL immediately and 24 h after exercise. These data suggest that lymphocyte apoptosis precedes post-exercise lymphocytopenia and may be due to oxidative stress. PMID:15184067

  2. The regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Holloszy, J O; Kohrt, W M; Hansen, P A

    1998-09-15

    The rate of carbohydrate utilization during prolonged, strenuous exercise is closely geared to the energy needs of the working muscles. In contrast, fat utilization during exercise is not tightly regulated, as there are no mechanisms for closely matching availability and metabolism of fatty acids to the rate of energy expenditure. As a result, the rate of fat oxidation during exercise is determined by the availability of fatty acids and the rate of carbohydrate utilization. Blood glucose and muscle glycogen are essential for prolonged strenuous exercise, and exhaustion can result either from development of hypoglycemia or depletion of muscle glycogen. Both absolute and relative (i.e. % of maximal O2 uptake) exercise intensities play important roles in the regulation of substrate metabolism. The absolute work rate determines the total quantity of fuel required, while relative exercise intensity plays a major role in determining the proportions of carbohydrate and fat oxidized by the working muscles. As relative exercise intensity is increased, there is a decrease in the proportion of the energy requirement derived from fat oxidation and an increase in that provided by carbohydrate oxidation. During moderately strenuous exercise of an intensity that can be maintained for 90 minutes or longer ( approximately 55-75% of VO2max), there is a progressive decline in the proportion of energy derived from muscle glycogen and a progressive increase in plasma fatty acid oxidation. The adaptations induced by endurance exercise training result in a marked sparing of carbohydrate during exercise, with an increased proportion of the energy being provided by fat oxidation. The mechanisms by which training decreases utilization of blood glucose are not well understood. However, the slower rate of glycogenolysis can be explained on the basis of lower concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in trained, as compared to untrained, muscles during exercise of the same intensity. The lower Pi level is a consequence of the increase in muscle mitochondria induced by endurance exercise training. A large increase in muscle glycogen concentration, far above the level found in the well-fed sedentary state, occurs in response to carbohydrate feeding following glycogen depleting exercise. It was recently found that this muscle "glycogen supercompensation" is markedly enhanced by endurance exercise training that induces an increase in the GLUT4 isoform of the glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. PMID:9740552

  3. HIGHER MODIFIED BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY SCORES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH BODY, EATING, AND EXERCISE COMPARISONS BUT DECREASED EXERCISE AMOUNTS.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Michael M; Yoza, Jeffrey J; Quandt, Emily A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that exercise can lead to decreased depression symptoms. The relationship of depression with right frontal lobe activity and self-image (body, eating, and exercise) were investigated as reasons why depressive symptoms might lead to decreased exercise. 120 college students (79 women) completed design fluency tasks followed by a set of questionnaires on depression and exercise. High (M = 23.03, SD = 5.92) and low quartiles (M = 3.11, SD = 1.59) were created using the Modified Beck Depression Inventory (mBDI) for primary analyses. The group with higher mBDI scores produced fewer unique designs (suggesting lower right frontal activity) and was more likely to make comparisons based on body shape, eating, and exercise. The group with higher mBDI scores reported significantly less strenuous and moderate exercise. These findings indicate that the relationship between exercise and depression could work in both directions. While exercise can be used as a potential treatment to decrease depression, increased depressive symptoms could be a hindrance to exercise. PMID:25938448

  4. Acute hypervolaemia improves arterial oxygen pressure in athletes with exercise-induced hypoxaemia.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Walley, Keith R; Hunte, Garth S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sexsmith, George P; Russell, James A

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute plasma volume expansion on arterial blood-gas status during 6.5 min strenuous cycling exercise comparing six athletes with and six athletes without exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH). We hypothesized that plasma volume expansion could improve arterial oxygen pressure in a homogeneous sample of athletes - those with EIAH. In this paper we have extended the analysis and results of our recently published surprising findings that lengthening cardiopulmonary transit time did not improve arterial blood-gas status in a heterogeneous sample of endurance cyclists. One 500 ml bag of 10 % Pentastarch (infusion condition) or 60 ml 0.9 % saline (placebo) was infused prior to exercise in a randomized, double-blind fashion on two different days. Power output, cardiac output, oxygen consumption and arterial blood gases were measured during strenuous exercise. Cardiac output and oxygen consumption were not affected by acute hypervolaemia. There were group x condition interaction effects for arterial oxygen pressure and alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference, suggesting that those with hypoxaemia experienced improved arterial oxygen pressure (+4 mmHg) and lower alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (-2 mmHg) with infusion. In conclusion, acute hypervolaemia improves blood-gas status in athletes with EIAH. The impairment of gas exchange occurs within the first minute of exercise, and is not impaired further throughout the remaining duration of exercise. This suggests that arterial oxygen pressure is only minimally mediated by cardiac output. PMID:12861344

  5. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; Gonzlez-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, Jos; Prez-Surez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, Jos A L

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the recovery of EMGRMS and performance. The reduction of surface electromyogram MPF, MdPF and burst duration due to fatigue is associated but not caused by muscle acidification and lactate accumulation. Despite metaboreflex stimulation, muscle activation and power output recovers partly in ischemia indicating that metaboreflex activation has a minor impact on sprint performance. PMID:26793117

  6. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (−24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the recovery of EMGRMS and performance. The reduction of surface electromyogram MPF, MdPF and burst duration due to fatigue is associated but not caused by muscle acidification and lactate accumulation. Despite metaboreflex stimulation, muscle activation and power output recovers partly in ischemia indicating that metaboreflex activation has a minor impact on sprint performance. PMID:26793117

  7. Exercise training performed simultaneously to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of concurrent exercise in the degree of the insulin resistance in mice fed with a high-fat diet, and assess adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) and endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 in different tissues. Methods Twenty-four mice were randomized into four groups (n?=?6): chow standard diet and sedentary (C); chow standard diet and simultaneous exercise training (C-T); fed on a high-fat diet and sedentary (DIO); and fed on a high-fat diet and simultaneous exercise training (DIO-T). Simultaneously to starting high-fat diet feeding, the mice were submitted to a swimming exercise training protocol (2 x 30 minutes, with 5 minutes of interval/day), five days per week, for twelve weeks (90 days). Animals were then euthanized 48 hours after the last exercise training session, and adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue were extracted for an immunoblotting analysis. Results IR, IRs, and Akt phosphorylation decreased in the DIO group in the three analyzed tissues. In addition, the DIO group exhibited ADIPOR1 (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue), ADIPOR2 (liver), and APPL1 reduced when compared with the C group. However, it was reverted when exercise training was simultaneously performed. In parallel, ADIPOR1 and 2 and APPL1 protein levels significantly increase in exercised mice. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that exercise training performed concomitantly to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in the hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle tissue. PMID:23046739

  8. Tailored exercise program reduces symptoms of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders in a group of metalworkers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rasotto, Chiara; Bergamin, Marco; Simonetti, Alberto; Maso, Stefano; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Ermolao, Andrea; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) are a leading cause of work-related disability and loss of productivity in the developed countries; these disorders may concur with the indirect costs of an illness or injury included losses of potential output. Literature on workplace physical activity program provided a mixed but positive impact on health and important worksite outcomes. Therefore, programs of physical activity organized and performed in the workplace could reveal as essential tool to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. This investigation aimed to assess the effectiveness of a tailored physical activity program, performed in a work-environment, to reduce the symptoms in upper extremities and neck with the novelty in personalizing the approach applied to the exercise protocol, basing on pain and disability levels, to reduce the onset and symptoms in upper extremity and neck WRMDs increasing upper-limb strength and flexibility. 68 metalworkers were recruited, 34 were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG), while the other 34 to a control group. Primary outcomes concerned pain symptoms measured with visual analog scales while disability was measured by DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and NPDS-I (Neck Pain and Disability Scale) questionnaires. Grip strength, upper-limb mobility, neck and shoulder range of motion were also assessed. After the 9-month intervention, IG reduced pain symptoms on neck, shoulders, elbows and on wrists. Grip strength and upper-limb mobility improved as well as scores on questionnaires. This protocol suggests that performing a tailored physical activity program is beneficial to reduce pain and disability on upper-limb WRMDs. PMID:25027479

  9. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer

  10. Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Areta, José L.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Hawley, John A.; Coffey, Vernon G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO) or protein ingestion. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum) followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO)) and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO) cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass−1, 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO), or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO). Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass−1) 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. Results Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05). Phosphorylation of mTORSer2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05), while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05). Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29–109%, P<0.05). However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05) and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05). Conclusion We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation to training and/or subsequent performance. PMID:24533082

  11. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Improve Exercise Capacity and Reduce Dyspnea During Functional Activities in People with Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population. PMID:20467532

  12. Posture Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search You are here Home » Posture Exercises Posture Exercises When a person develops kyphosis, the posture becomes ... and strengthen the back. Try the following two exercises to keep your spine more limber and flexible. ...

  13. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Sub; Jang, Gook-Chan; Moon, Kyung-Rye

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE) to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health. Methods Twenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI). Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated. Results Weight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes. Conclusion These findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. PMID:24904847

  14. Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, and Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Severely obese men and women (body mass index ≥ 35 ≤ 55 kg/m(2); M(age) = 44.8 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a 6-month physical activity support treatment paired with either nutrition education (n = 83) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 82) methods for weight loss. Both groups had significant improvements in physical activity, fatigue, self-regulation for eating, and fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to those in the nutrition education group, participants in the behavioral group demonstrated greater overall increases in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. These group differences were associated with changes that occurred after Month 3. Increased physical activity predicted reduced fatigue, β = -.19, p =.01. A reciprocal relationship between the mediators of that relationship, which were changes in self-regulation and fruit and vegetable intake, was identified. There was significantly greater weight loss over six months in the behavioral nutrition group when contrasted with the nutrition education group. Self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake were significant predictors of weight loss over both three and six months. Findings enabled a better understanding of psychosocial effects on temporal aspects of weight loss and may lead to more effective behavioral treatments for weight loss. PMID:26047256

  15. PGC-1? mediates a rapid, exercise-induced downregulation of glycogenolysis in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jin Ho; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Jung, Su Ryun; Holloszy, John O; Han, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise. The major adaptation responsible for this increase in endurance is an increase in muscle mitochondria. This adaptation occurs too slowly to provide a survival advantage when there is a sudden change in environment that necessitates prolonged exercise. In the present study, we discovered another, more rapid adaptation, a downregulation of expression of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzymes in muscle that mediates a slowing of muscle glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation. This adaptation, which appears to be mediated by PGC-1?, occurs in response to a single exercise bout and is further enhanced by two additional daily exercise bouts. It is biologically significant, because glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation are two of the major causes of muscle fatigue and exhaustion. PMID:25416622

  16. Water Exercise Causes Ripples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Water exercise provides benefits independently of participants' skill levels, and reduces the likelihood of injury from overuse syndromes and heat-related problems. The advantages of water resistance exercises for athletes and for elderly, overweight, or physically disabled people are discussed. (MT)

  17. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-01

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. PMID:25450369

  18. A lowglycemic index diet combined with exercise reduces insulin resistance, postprandial hyperinsulinemia, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide responses in obese, prediabetic humans1234

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Thomas PJ; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R; Cook, Marc D; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Watanabe, Richard M; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

    2010-01-01

    Background: The optimal lifestyle intervention that reverses diabetes risk factors is not known. Objective: We examined the effect of a lowglycemic index (GI) diet and exercise intervention on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in obese, prediabetic individuals. Design: Twenty-two participants [mean SEM age: 66 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 34.4 0.8] underwent a 12-wk exercise-training intervention (1 h/d for 5 d/wk at ?85% of maximum heart rate) while randomly assigned to receive either a low-GI diet (LoGIX; 40 0.3 units) or a high-GI diet (HiGIX; 80 0.6 units). Body composition (measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography), insulin sensitivity (measured with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with [6,6-2H2]-glucose), and oral glucoseinduced insulin and incretin hormone secretion were examined. Results: Both groups lost equal amounts of body weight (?8.8 0.9%) and adiposity and showed similar improvements in peripheral tissue (+76.2 14.9%) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (+27.1 7.1%) (all P < 0.05). However, oral glucoseinduced insulin secretion was reduced only in the LoGIX group (6.59 0.86 nmol in the prestudy compared with 4.70 0.67 nmol in the poststudy, P < 0.05), which was a change related to the suppressed postprandial response of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. When corrected for changes in ? cell glucose exposure, changes in insulin secretion were attenuated in the LoGIX group but became significantly elevated in the HiGIX group. Conclusions: Although lifestyle-induced weight loss improves insulin resistance in prediabetic individuals, postprandial hyperinsulinemia is reduced only when a low-GI diet is consumed. In contrast, a high-GI diet impairs pancreatic ? cell and intestinal K cell function despite significant weight loss. These findings highlight the important role of the gut in mediating the effects of a low-GI diet on type 2 diabetes risk reduction. PMID:20980494

  19. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  20. Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. ); Rowland, R.A. . Chemical Preparedness Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

  1. Exercising with Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... l Preserve joint mobility l Maintain range of motion l Improve sleep l Reduce pain l Keep a positive attitude l Maintain a healthy body weight Three types of exercise are best if you have osteoarthritis: ...

  2. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mental function. Physical activity may also help: Improve functional health for older adults Reduce waistline size Lower ... on Exercise Phone: (888) 825-3636 Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, NCCDPHP, CDC, HHS Phone: ...

  3. Usefulness of tissue Doppler imaging to evaluate pulmonary capillary wedge pressure during exercise in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Sbastien; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; D'Hondt, Anne Marie; Gurne, Olivier; Vancraeynest, David; Gerber, Berhnard; Pasquet, Agns

    2014-06-15

    The early diastolic transmitral velocity/tissue Doppler imaging mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') ratio is used to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressures at rest. However, there are only limited data that validate its use during exercise. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test the ability of E/e' to estimate pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) during symptom-limited exercise in patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Forty patients with severe LV dysfunction and heart failure symptoms (54 12 years, 28 men) underwent simultaneous Doppler assessment of E/e' and right-sided cardiac catheterization at rest and during a symptom-limited exercise test, at steady state levels of 30%, 60%, and 90% of their maximal exercise capacity. During exercise, all 40 patients successfully completed stage 1, yielding 40 pairs of data for comparison. Eighteen patients also successfully completed stage 2, and 5 patients also made it through stage 3, yielding 23 additional data pairs. In total, there were thus 63 pairs of data available during exercise. With exercise, heart rate increased from 77 14 to 112 21 beats/min. Septal E/e' at rest correlated well with PCWP at rest (r = 0.75, p <0.01). PCWP at rest also correlated with resting mitral deceleration time (r = 0.32, p <0.01) and with the transmitral E/A ratio (r = 0.74, p <0.01). During exercise, the correlation between septal E/e' and PCWP was weaker (r = 0.57, p <0.01) and was shifted to the right. This rightward shift was observed in patients with both separated or merged E and A velocities. In conclusion, in patients with severe LV dysfunction, although E/e' allows accurate estimation of PCWP at rest, it appears less reliable for estimating LV filing pressure during exercise. PMID:24786358

  4. Effects of liquid cooling garments on recovery and performance time in individuals performing strenuous work wearing a firefighter ensemble.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages of 15 min exercise at 75% VO2max, and 10 min rest following each exercise stage. During each session, one of the following six conditions was administered in a randomized order: control (no cooling, CON); air ventilation of exhaust SCBA gases rerouted into the PFE (AV); top cooling garment (TCG); TCG combined with AV (TCG+AV); a shortened whole body cooling garment (SCG), and SCG combined with AV (SCG+AV). Results showed that total PT completed was longer under SCG and SCG+AV compared with CON, AV, TCG, and TCG+AV (p<0.01). Magnitude of core temperature (Tc) elevation was significantly decreased when SCG was utilized (p<0.01), and heart rate recovery rate (10 min) was enhanced under SCG, SCG+AV, TCG, and TCG+AV compared with CON (p<0.05). Estimated Esw rate (kgh(-1)) was the greatest in CON, 1.62 (0.37), and the least in SCG+AV 0.98 (0.44): (descending order: CON>AV>TCG=TCG+AV>SCG>SCG+AV) without a statistical difference between the conditions (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggest that the application of LCG underneath the PFE significantly improves the recovery during a short period of rest and prolongs performance time in subsequent bouts of exercise. LCG also appears to be an effective method for body cooling that promotes heat dissipation during uncompensable heat stress. PMID:21660834

  5. Exercise in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajarajeswaran, P.; Vishnupriya, R.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med), Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription. PMID:20596305

  6. The effectiveness of Kayaking exercises as compared to general mobility exercises in reducing axial rigidity and improve bed mobility in early to mid stage of Parkinsons disease

    PubMed Central

    Shujaat, Faiza; Soomro, Nabila; Khan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of kayaking exercises in the management of axial rigidity, improve bed mobility by improving trunk rotation in Parkinsons patients. Methods: Experimental randomized controlled trail conducted at Physiotherapy department of IPM&R, DUHS and neurology Outpatient Department of Civil Hospital Karachi. Sample size of 48 was calculated with the use of openEpi. After baseline assessment 24 participants were assigned to each Kayaking exercise and general mobility exercise groups. Both groups received treatment for 75 minutes, 6 days a week for 4 weeks. Pre and post treatment measurements were determined by goniometer that assessed the cervical and thoracolumbar rotations whereas bed mobility was assessed by Modified Parkinsons Activity Scale (MPAS). Results: In Kayaking group mean cervical spine left rotation increased from 32.95+ 9.66 to 47.25 + 10.58, right side cervical spine rotation increased from 34.00 + 10.32 to 47.58 + 11.96, left side thoracolumbar rotation increased from 23.67 + 4.70 to 28.16 + 3.44, right side thoracolumbar rotation increased from 20.79 + 5.34 to 26.45 + 4.62. In control group mean cervical spine left rotation increased from 34.66+ 9.26 to 43.08 + 8.70, right side cervical spine rotation increased from 35.37 + 9.77 to 43.83 + 9.59 , left side thoracolumbar rotation increased from 23.70 + 4.77 to 26.87 + 3.73, right side thoracicolumbar rotation increased from 21.16 + 5.29 to 24.95 + 4.53 (P value <0.001).. Bed mobility on MPAS scale also showed significant improvements (P value <0.001). Conclusion: Both Kayaking and general exercises resulted in significant improvements after 4 weeks of treatment. However, Kayaking exercises were slightly more beneficial than general exercises. PMID:25225533

  7. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise. PMID:25794236

  8. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation. PMID:24688170

  9. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete’s anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation. PMID:24688170

  10. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients. PMID:26341655

  11. Work of breathing in exercising ponies.

    PubMed

    Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1989-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the changes in the mechanical work of breathing induced by the increase of ventilation in ponies exercising on a treadmill. Airflow, tidal volume (VT) and oesophageal pressure were simultaneously recorded in eight ponies (four to six years old and weighing 258 +/- 11 kg) before, during and after standardised exercise. Respiratory frequency, VT and minute volume (Ve) for each phase of the experimental protocol were calculated from the collected data. The pressure-volume diagrams were traced and the work per cycle (Wrm) was estimated by measuring the area enclosed in the loop. The work per minute (Wrm) and the work per litre of ventilation (Wrm litre-1) were also calculated. From rest to fast trot Wrm litre-1, Wrm and Wrm had increased 8.1, 13.0 and 55.6 times, respectively. The relationships between Ve and Wrm litre-1 was linear and that between Ve and Wrm curvilinear. Results suggested that the mechanical cost of the work of breathing could be a limiting or at least a constraining factor of the increase of ventilation during strenuous exercise in ponies. PMID:2922505

  12. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Exercise Sports and Exercise Safety Female Athlete Triad Body Image and Self-Esteem How Can I Lose Weight Safely? Eating Disorders A Guy's Guide to Body Image Contact Us Print Resources Send to a ...

  13. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.

  14. Prior maximal exercise decreases pulmonary diffusing capacity during subsequent exercise.

    PubMed

    Baldi, J C; Dacey, M J; Lee, M J; Coast, J R

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary diffusion (DLCO) increases during exercise due to greater pulmonary capillary volume (Vc) and membrane diffusing capacity (DM). However, after heavy exercise there is a reduction in resting DLCO. It is unclear whether this post-exercise effect will attenuate the normal increase in DLCO, Vc and DM during subsequent exercise and whether this affects SpO2 (pulse oximeter). DLCO, Vc, DM, cardiac output and SpO2 were measured at rest, moderate (~70% VO2peak) and heavy (~90 VO2peak) exercise in 9 subjects during 2 sessions separated by ~90?min. DLCO, Vc and DM increased during exercise (P<0.05). DLCO (P<0.05) and Vc (P<0.10), but not DM or SpO2 were lower in session 2 compared to the first. Reductions in DLCO and Vc appeared to be smallest during rest (1-4%) and greatest at high-intensity exercise (8-20%), but the interaction was not significant. SpO2 decreased by 4.9% and 5.1% from rest to high-intensity exercise during the first and second exercise bout, but these changes were not different. These data confirm that a bout of high-intensity exercise reduces DLCO and Vc, and may indicate that these changes are exacerbated during subsequent high-intensity exercise. Despite these changes, SpO2 was not affected by previous exercise. PMID:24838265

  15. Back Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Thirty patients with low back pain were referred for examination by their doctors after 3 or more weeks of treatment. Whether back exercise instruction had been given, who had given it, what it was, and whether the patients actually followed the instruction was noted. Some type of back exercise had been taught to 22 patients, but only three out of the 30 patients had persisted with all the back exercises taught. The back exercises patients actually do and the role of exercise in low back pain should be evaluated further. PMID:21221344

  16. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64years of age should accumulate at least 150minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10minutes or more, also expressed as 30minutes per day distributed over 5days per week, would be a good start. PMID:23329605

  17. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year

  18. A 12 WEEKS EXERCISE PROGRAM RESULTED IN REDUCED VISCERAL FAT AND FASTING INSULIN BUT NOT TOTAL AND INTRAMYOCELLULAR FAT IN HISPANIC OBESE ADOLESCENTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Weight loss is known to improve insulin sensitivity but is difficult to achieve. The independent effects of exercise on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in the absence of overall w...

  19. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  20. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through reducing Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyo-Soon; Park, Mi-Sook; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of cognition. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum of the ADHD rat. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYR) weighing 210 10 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n= 15): control group, ADHD group, ADHD and methylphenidate (MPH)-treated group, ADHD and treadmill exercise group. The rats in the MPH-treated group as a positive control received 1 mg/kg MPH orally once a day for 28 consecutive days. The rats in the treadmill exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 28 days. Motor coordination and balance were determined by vertical pole test. Immunohistochemistry for the expression of calbindinD-28 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the cerebellar vermis and Western blot for GFAP, Bax, and Bcl-2 were conducted. In the present results, ADHD significantly decreased balance and the number of calbindin-positive cells, while GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum were significantly increased in the ADHD group compared to the control group (P< 0.05, respectively). In contrast, treadmill exercise and MPH alleviated the ADHD-induced the decrease of balance and the number of calbindine-positive cells, and the increase of GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum (P< 0.05, respectively). Therefore, the present results suggested that treadmill exercise might exert ameliorating effect on ADHD through reduction of Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum. PMID:24678501

  1. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through reducing Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyo-Soon; Park, Mi-Sook; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of cognition. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum of the ADHD rat. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYR) weighing 210 10 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n= 15): control group, ADHD group, ADHD and methylphenidate (MPH)-treated group, ADHD and treadmill exercise group. The rats in the MPH-treated group as a positive control received 1 mg/kg MPH orally once a day for 28 consecutive days. The rats in the treadmill exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 28 days. Motor coordination and balance were determined by vertical pole test. Immunohistochemistry for the expression of calbindinD-28 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the cerebellar vermis and Western blot for GFAP, Bax, and Bcl-2 were conducted. In the present results, ADHD significantly decreased balance and the number of calbindin-positive cells, while GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum were significantly increased in the ADHD group compared to the control group (P< 0.05, respectively). In contrast, treadmill exercise and MPH alleviated the ADHD-induced the decrease of balance and the number of calbindine-positive cells, and the increase of GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum (P< 0.05, respectively). Therefore, the present results suggested that treadmill exercise might exert ameliorating effect on ADHD through reduction of Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum. PMID:24678501

  2. Aging Reduces the Activation of the mTORC1 Pathway after Resistance Exercise and Protein Intake in Human Skeletal Muscle: Potential Role of REDD1 and Impaired Anabolic Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Francaux, Marc; Demeulder, Bndicte; Naslain, Damien; Fortin, Raphael; Lutz, Olivier; Caty, Gilles; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the anabolic resistance observed in elderly people. Nine young (22 0.1 years) and 10 older (69 1.7 years) volunteers performed a one-leg extension exercise consisting of 10 10 repetitions at 70% of their 3-RM, immediately after which they ingested 30 g of whey protein. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at rest in the fasted state and 30 min after protein ingestion in the non-exercised (Pro) and exercised (Pro+ex) legs. Plasma insulin levels were determined at the same time points. No age difference was measured in fasting insulin levels but the older subjects had a 50% higher concentration than the young subjects in the fed state (p < 0.05). While no difference was observed in the fasted state, in response to exercise and protein ingestion, the phosphorylation state of PKB (p < 0.05 in Pro and Pro+ex) and S6K1 (p = 0.059 in Pro; p = 0.066 in Pro+ex) was lower in the older subjects compared with the young subjects. After Pro+ex, REDD1 expression tended to be higher (p = 0.087) in the older group while AMPK phosphorylation was not modified by any condition. In conclusion, we show that the activation of the mTORC1 pathway is reduced in skeletal muscle of older subjects after resistance exercise and protein ingestion compared with young subjects, which could be partially due to an increased expression of REDD1 and an impaired anabolic sensitivity. PMID:26784225

  3. Aging Reduces the Activation of the mTORC1 Pathway after Resistance Exercise and Protein Intake in Human Skeletal Muscle: Potential Role of REDD1 and Impaired Anabolic Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Francaux, Marc; Demeulder, Bénédicte; Naslain, Damien; Fortin, Raphael; Lutz, Olivier; Caty, Gilles; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the anabolic resistance observed in elderly people. Nine young (22 ± 0.1 years) and 10 older (69 ± 1.7 years) volunteers performed a one-leg extension exercise consisting of 10 × 10 repetitions at 70% of their 3-RM, immediately after which they ingested 30 g of whey protein. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at rest in the fasted state and 30 min after protein ingestion in the non-exercised (Pro) and exercised (Pro+ex) legs. Plasma insulin levels were determined at the same time points. No age difference was measured in fasting insulin levels but the older subjects had a 50% higher concentration than the young subjects in the fed state (p < 0.05). While no difference was observed in the fasted state, in response to exercise and protein ingestion, the phosphorylation state of PKB (p < 0.05 in Pro and Pro+ex) and S6K1 (p = 0.059 in Pro; p = 0.066 in Pro+ex) was lower in the older subjects compared with the young subjects. After Pro+ex, REDD1 expression tended to be higher (p = 0.087) in the older group while AMPK phosphorylation was not modified by any condition. In conclusion, we show that the activation of the mTORC1 pathway is reduced in skeletal muscle of older subjects after resistance exercise and protein ingestion compared with young subjects, which could be partially due to an increased expression of REDD1 and an impaired anabolic sensitivity. PMID:26784225

  4. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise. PMID:22701195

  5. Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Video Back Purchase Video Struggling with Low Back Pain? Many people are surprised to learn that carefully selected exercise can actually reduce back pain. Some exercises can even provide quick and significant ...

  6. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  7. Exercise May Prevent Harmful Falls in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 157087.html Exercise May Prevent Harmful Falls in Men Males made greater gains than women, study says ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise reduces older men's risk of serious injuries from falls, a new ...

  8. Exercise Induced Transient Neurological Deficit in a Patient with Cerebellar Developmental Venous Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Omar; Khan, Asif A.; Herial, Nabeel A.; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of venous angiomas or developmental venous anomalies (DVA) with transient neurological deficit is rare. We present a rare case of a cerebellar developmental venous anomaly resulting in transient neurological deficits. CASE DESCRIPTION A 58-year-old man with recurrent left sided facial dysesthesia, hemiparesis, and mild difficulty ambulating after exercise. A similar episode was experienced six months earlier under the same circumstances. Computed tomographic (CT) scan demonstrated an ill-defined hyperdensity in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a venous angioma that dilated with valsalva maneuver. CONCLUSION We report the first case of a cerebellar venous angioma causing exercise induced transient neurologically deficits. Limiting strenuous exercise may be needed to avoid symptom recurrence. Further research is warranted on the hemodynamic effects of intracranial DVA's. PMID:26301026

  9. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Phse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

  10. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Exercise for Reducing Trapezius Muscle Dysfunction in Survivors of Head and Neck Cancer: A Case-Series Report

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Evan R.L.; Baldwin, Terri D.; Lancaster, Josh S.; McNeely, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Damage to the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) can result in denervation of the trapezius muscle in patients undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Trapezius denervation leads to muscle weakness and dysfunction that, for some patients, persists despite the return of conduction along the SAN. This prospective case series describes an intervention involving a combination of a novel type of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with bilateral exercise. Methods: Three survivors of head and neck cancer participated in the 6-week program. NMES was applied over the region of the SAN on the affected side while subjects performed bilateral voluntary scapular retraction and elevation exercises against resistance. The NMES was delivered using relatively wide pulse widths and high frequencies to enhance the electrically evoked sensory volley and was triggered by the onset of trapezius muscle activity on the non-affected side. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) assessments and patient-rated outcomes were administered at baseline and 6 weeks. Results: All patients showed improvements in shoulder flexion and abduction ROM and reported reductions in pain and disability. Conclusions: This combination of NMES and bilateral exercise may prove to be an effective component of a comprehensive shoulder rehabilitation program for patients with persistent trapezius muscle dysfunction as a result of SAN damage. PMID:23729969

  11. Can Lifestyle Interventions Do More than Reduce Diabetes Risk? Treating Depression in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes with Exercise and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Doyle, Todd; Kushnick, Michael; Shubrook, Jay; Merrill, Jennifer; Rabideau, Erin; Schwartz, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes is global in scope and comprehensive in its impact on individuals, health care systems, and societies. One in four patients with diabetes will experience depression in their lifetime. Comorbid depression is associated with poorer outcomes, greater functional disability, and early mortality. Prior studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise as an efficacious form of treatment for depression in the general population. Few studies have evaluated this strategy in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Program ACTIVE (Appalachians Coming Together to Increase Vital Exercise) was designed to treat depression among adults with type 2 diabetes by pairing aerobic activity with individual cognitive behavioral therapy. This combination treatment approach has been shown to be feasible to implement in a rural environment and promising in terms of depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular outcomes. Data from this study suggest that exercise can be used to achieve multiple benefits for adults with type 2 diabetes. Future work to compare this approach to singular treatment strategies for adults at risk for type 2 diabetes is needed. PMID:22350739

  12. [Asthma and exercise].

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J

    2002-09-01

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is defined as the clinical occurrence of shortness of breath, cough or wheeze that occurs typically 5-15 minutes after the cessation of the exercise. In most patients with EIA, bronchoconstriction is followed by a refractory period, during which repeated exertion causes less bronchoconstriction. The occurrence of this type of asthma is influenced by the intensity and the duration of exercise. It is now generally believed that EIA affects all patients with asthma if challenged with exercise of sufficient intensity. The estimate prevalence varies from 7 to 15% in the general population. EIA appears also to affect 3-14% of athletes. It is now clear that hyperventilation and hypertonicity of airway-lining fluid provide the stimulus for EIA with release of constrictor mediators. Recently, incidence of new diagnoses of asthma is associated with heavy exercise in communities with high concentrations of ozone, thus, air pollution and outdoor exercise could contribute to the development of asthma in children. Beta-agonists and/or disodium cromoglycate remain the preferred first-line therapy for EIA but now antileukotrienes provide an attractive therapeutic alternative. General recommendations can help reduce its severity: warm-up; breath through mask when exercising in cold, dry conditions; in recent years some reports have suggested that training and conditioning may help athletes and non-athletes with asthma have fewer symptoms after exercise, increase the threshold of exercise necessary to induce airway obstruction and finally improve their well-being. Scuba diving stays an absolute contra-indication if asthma. PMID:12422436

  13. Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P < 0.01) more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and FM (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively). Only P + RT (0.1 ± 0.04 kg) and PRISE (0.21 ± 0.07 kg) lost VAT mass (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P + RT (5.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl) and PRISE (15.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), with the greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P < 0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (0.6 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.4 units), and leptin decreased (4.7 ± 2.2, 4.7 ± 3.1 ng/dl), and adiponectin increased (3.8 ± 1.1, 2.4 ± 1.1 μg/ml) only in P + RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines. PMID:24833780

  14. Cardiovascular exercise in the U.S. space program: Past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-04-01

    Exercise deconditioning during space flight may impact a crewmember's ability to perform strenuous or prolonged tasks during and after a spaceflight mission. In this paper, we review the cardiovascular exercise data from U.S. spaceflights from the Mercury Project through International Space Station (ISS) expeditions and potential implications upon current and future missions. During shorter spaceflights (<16 days), the heart rate (HR) response to exercise testing and maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) are not changed. The submaximal exercise HR responses during longer duration flights are less consistent, and VO 2 max has not been measured. Skylab data demonstrated no change in the exercise HR response during flight which would be consistent with no change in VO 2 max; however, during ISS flight exercise HR is elevated early in the mission, but approaches preflight levels later during the missions, perhaps due to performance of exercise countermeasures. An elevated exercise HR is consistently observed after both short and long duration spaceflight, and crewmembers appear to recover at rates which are affected by the length of the mission.

  15. Circulating cell-free DNA: an up-coming molecular marker in exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Breitbach, Sarah; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles

    2012-07-01

    The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations is of importance for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise physiology. Increases of cfDNA due to exercise are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome and might be related to, or trigger adaptations of, immune function induced by strenuous exercise. At the same time, exercise provides a practicable model for studying the phenomenon of cfDNA that is described to be of pathophysiological relevance for different topics in clinical medicine like autoimmune diseases and cancer. In this review, we are summarizing the current knowledge of exercise-based acute and chronic alterations in cfDNA levels and their physiological significance. The effects of acute exercise on cfDNA concentrations have been investigated in resistance exercises and in continuous, stepwise and interval endurance exercises of different durations. cfDNA concentrations peaked immediately after acute exercise and showed a rapid return to baseline levels. Typical markers of skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase, uric acid, C-reactive protein) show delayed kinetics compared with the cfDNA peak response. Exercise parameters such as intensity, duration or average energy expenditure do not explain the extent of increasing cfDNA concentrations after strenuous exercise. This could be due to complex processes inside the human organism during and after physical activity. Therefore, we hypothesize composite effects of different physiological stress parameters that come along with exercise to be responsible for increasing cfDNA concentrations. We suggest that due to acute stress, cfDNA levels increase rapidly by a spontaneous active or passive release mechanism that is not yet known. As a result of the rapid and parallel increase of cfDNA and lactate in an incremental treadmill test leading to exhaustion within 15-20 minutes, it is unlikely that cfDNA is released into the plasma by typical necrosis or apoptosis of cells in acute exercise settings. Recently, rapid DNA release mechanisms of activated immune-competent cells like NETosis (pathogen-induced cell death including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) have been discovered. cfDNA accumulations might comprise a similar kind of cell death including trap formation or an active release of cfDNA. Just like chronic diseases, chronic high-intensity resistance training protocols induced persistent increases of cfDNA levels. Chronic, strenuous exercise protocols, either long-duration endurance exercise or regular high-intensity workouts, induce chronic inflammation that might lead to a slow, constant release of DNA. This could be due to mechanisms of cell death like apoptosis or necrosis. Yet, it has neither been implicated nor proven sufficiently whether cfDNA can serve as a marker for overtraining. The relevance of cfDNA with regard to overtraining status, performance level, and the degree of physical exhaustion still remains unclear. Longitudinal studies are required that take into account standardized and controlled exercise, serial blood sampling, and large and homogeneous cohorts of different athletic achievement. Furthermore, it is important to establish standardized laboratory procedures for the measurement of genomic cfDNA concentrations by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We introduce a new hypothesis based on acute exercise and chronic exposure to stress, and rapid active and passive chronic release of cfDNA fragments into the circulation. PMID:22694348

  16. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...

  17. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Information > Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  18. Exercise and age

    MedlinePLUS

    Age and exercise ... to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you have never exercised, ... things you enjoy and stay independent as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also ...

  19. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise. PMID:26229538

  20. High altitude, prolonged exercise, and the athlete biological passport.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck O; Garvican, Laura A; Christian, Ryan; Lobigs, Louisa M; Qi, Jiliang; Fan, Rongyun; He, Yingying; Wang, Hailing; Gore, Christopher J; Ma, Fuhai

    2015-01-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) detects blood doping in athletes through longitudinal monitoring of erythropoietic markers. Mathematical algorithms are used to define individual reference ranges for these markers for each athlete. It is unclear if altitude and exercise can affect the variables included in these calculations in a way that the changes might be mistaken for blood manipulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the simultaneous strenuous exercise and low to high altitude exposure on the calculation algorithms of the ABP. 14 sea level (SL) and 11 altitude native (ALT) highly trained athletes participated in a 14-day cycling stage race taking place at an average altitude of 2496?m above sea level (min. 1014?m, max. 4120?m), race distances ranged between 96 and 227?km per day. ABP blood measures were taken on days -1,3,6,10,14 (SL) and -1,9,15 (ALT) of the race. Four results from three samples of two different SL athletes exceeded the individual limits at the 99% specificity threshold and one value at 99.9%. In ALT, three results from three samples of three different athletes were beyond the individual limits at 99%, one at 99.9%. The variations could be explained by the expected physiological reaction to exercise and altitude. In summary, the abnormalities observed in the haematological ABPs of well-trained athletes during extensive exercise at altitude are limited and in line with expected physiological changes. PMID:25252093

  1. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise. PMID:26229538

  2. Exercise counteracts the effects of short-term overfeeding and reduced physical activity independent of energy imbalance in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Richardson, Judith D; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men age 25 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned either to consume 50% more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps day−1 to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n= 14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n= 12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended by exercise, thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (Δ17 ± 16 nmol (120 min) l−1; P= 0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (Δ1 ± 6 nmol (120 min) l−1). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP-1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and visfatin was significantly down-regulated (P≤ 0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose tissue was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P= 0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects of short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus. PMID:24167223

  3. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 4.1 seconds (11 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers. PMID:26506188

  4. Exercise Physiologists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trainers) or athletic trainers . <- Summary Work Environment -> Work Environment About this section Exercise physiologists perform fitness and ... also covers different types of occupational specialties. Work Environment The Work Environment tab includes the number of ...

  5. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diseases. Many teens who play sports have higher self-esteem than their less active pals, and exercise can ... may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  6. Exercise, Sports and Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that a particular form of exercise will reduce tics or improve TS-related symptoms for everyone, although ... a wide variety of physical pursuits. For some, tic reduction is among these. Many people find that ...

  7. Cigarette Smoking does not Induce Plasma or Pulmonary Oxidative Stress after Moderate-intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Taito, Shunsuke; Domen, Sayaka; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Kamikawa, Norimichi; Oura, Keisuke; Kimura, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Makoto; Hamada, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Cigarette smoking increases oxidative stress, which is a risk factor for several diseases. Moreover, strenuous exercise has been shown to induce plasma and pulmonary oxidative stress in young cigarette smokers. However, no previous reports have demonstrated whether plasma and pulmonary oxidative stress occur after moderate-intensity exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify whether moderate-intensity exercise induces pulmonary and plasma oxidative stress in smokers. [Subjects] Ten young male smokers and 10 young male nonsmokers participated in this study. [Methods] Plasma hydroperoxide concentrations were measured at baseline and then immediately and 15?min after moderate-intensity exercise. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations in exhaled breath condensate were measured at baseline and after exercise. [Results] No significant interactions were found between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of hydroperoxide or hydrogen peroxide concentrations following moderate-intensity exercise at any time point. [Conclusion] These findings suggested that moderate-intensity exercise did not induce plasma or pulmonary oxidative stress in young cigarette smokers. PMID:24707095

  8. Exercise-induced lactate accumulation regulates intramuscular triglyceride metabolism via transforming growth factor-?1 mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Nikooie, Rohollah; Samaneh, Sajadian

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism regulating the utilization of intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and post-exercise recovery period remains elusive. In this study, the acute and long-term effects of HIIT on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) abundance in rat skeletal muscle and role of lactate and TGF-?1 in IMTG lipolysis during post-exercise recovery period were examined. TGF-?1 and Adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) abundance as well as total lipase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased to a maximum value 10h after acute bout of HIIT. Inhibition of TGF-?1 signaling by intramuscular injection of SB431542 30min prior to the acute exercise attenuated ATGL abundance and total lipase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle in response to acute exercise. Intramuscular acute injection of lactate increased TGF-?1 and ATGL abundance in the gastrocnemius muscle and there were a significant increase in Muscle TGF-?1 and ATGL abundance after 5 weeks of HIIT/lactate treatment. These results indicate that exercise-induced lactate accumulation regulates intramuscular triglyceride metabolism via transforming growth factor-?1 mediated pathways during post-exercise recovery from strenuous exercise. PMID:26522131

  9. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  10. Exercise after heart transplantation: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Nytrøen, Kari; Gullestad, Lars

    2013-01-01

    While life expectancy is greatly improved after a heart transplant, survival is still limited, and compared to the general population, the exercise capacity and health-related quality of life of heart transplant recipients are reduced. Increased exercise capacity is associated with a better prognosis. However, although several studies have documented positive effects of exercise after heart transplantation (HTx), little is known about the type, frequency and intensity of exercise that provides the greatest health benefits. Moreover, the long-term effects of exercise on co-morbidities and survival are also unclear. Exercise restrictions apply to patients with a denervated heart, and for decades, it was believed that the transplanted heart remained denervated. This has since been largely disproved, but despite the new knowledge, the exercise restrictions have largely remained, and up-to-date guidelines on exercise prescription after HTx do not exist. High-intensity, interval based aerobic exercise has repeatedly been documented to have superior positive effects and health benefits compared to moderate exercise. This applies to both healthy subjects as well as in several patient groups, such as patients with metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease or heart failure. However, whether the effects of this type of exercise are also applicable to heart transplant populations has not yet been fully established. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current knowledge about the exercise capacity and effect of exercise among heart transplant recipients and to discuss future exercise strategies. PMID:24392312

  11. Locomotor exercise in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

  12. [Lipid metabolism and exercise].

    PubMed

    Lacour, J R

    2001-06-30

    A high level of physical activity is associated with a lower cardiovascular risk in adult and elderly subjects. Several mechanisms are involved. Physical activity induces an increase in energy output. The contribution of fats to muscle energy metabolism increases with exercise duration. It decreases with exercise intensity. EPOC contributes by about 10% to the total energy cost of exercise. This supplementary energy expenditure is principally covered with fat oxidation, this being related to GH release. Part of energy expended during intermittent exercise is supplied by fat oxidation. The used lipids are taken from the muscular triacylglycerol stores and from the circulating FFA and lipoprotein triacylglycerols. Hydrolysis of triacylglycerols is achieved by LPL. Endurance training induces an increased contribution from fat to the exercise energy need. This results from increased muscle capillary density, enhanced activity of LPL and of the enzymes controlling beta-oxydation. The increased energy expenditure results in a reduced fat mass, which accounts for a decreased plasma triacylglycerol level. Endurance activity requiring approximately an expenditure of 60 kJ.kg-1 per week usually produces favourable lipoprotein changes. Level of post-prandial lipemia is lowered. These alterations disappear within the first two days of recovery. PMID:11505866

  13. Visual system effects of exercise on Mauna Kea at 2,200 and 4,200 meters altitude.

    PubMed

    Schmeisser, E T; Gagliano, D L; Santiago-Marini, J

    1997-03-01

    Field exercise studies were performed at two altitudes (2,200 and 4,200 m) in 2 successive years using different sets of young male volunteers. Visual function indices were measured both at sea level and during a strenuous exercise regime at altitude. Volunteers were grouped in the first study by initial rest period (2 days vs. no rest) and in the second by diet (supplemental carbohydrates vs. Meals Ready to Eat rations only). Overall results showed no effect according to grouping, a decrease in average visual acuity at the higher altitude overall, and a decrease in electroretinographic (ERG) photopic flicker responses at moderate altitude. It is concluded that heavy exercise at these altitudes may not have operationally significant effects on ground troops in night vision or target recognition, although the change in ERG parameters does indicate a shift in retinal cone physiology that may have subtler effects. PMID:9121665

  14. Short-Term Bone Biochemical Response to a Single Bout of High-Impact Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rantalainen, Timo; Heinonen, Ari; Linnamo, Vesa; Komi, Paavo V.; Takala, Timo E. S.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2009-01-01

    Bone response to a single bout of exercise can be observed with biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of bone biochemical markers to a single bout of exhaustive high-impact exercise. 15 physically active young subjects volunteered to participate. The subjects performed continuous bilateral jumping with the ankle plantarflexors at 65 % of maximal ground reaction force (GRF) until exhaustion. Loading was characterized by analyzing the GRF recorded for the duration of the exercise. Venous blood samples were taken at baseline, immediately after, 2h and on day 1 and day 2 after the exercise. Procollagen type I amino terminal propeptide (P1NP, marker of bone formation) and carboxyterminal crosslinked telopeptide (CTx, marker of bone resorption) were analyzed from the blood samples. CTx increased significantly (32 %, p = 0.015) two days after the exercise and there was a tendensy towards increase seen in P1NP (p = 0.053) one day after the exercise. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.49 to 0.69, p ? 0.038) was observed between change in P1NP from baseline to day 1 and exercise variables (maximal slope of acceleration, body weight (BW) adjusted maximal GRF, BW adjusted GRF exercise intensity and osteogenic index). Based on the two biochemical bone turnover markers, it can be concluded that bone turnover is increased in response to a very strenuous single bout of exhaustive high-impact exercise. Key points Studies on bone acute biochemical response to loading have yielded unequivocal results. There is a paucity of research on the biochemical bone response to high impact exercise. An increase in bone turnover was observed one to two days post exercise. PMID:24149597

  15. Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence with Weight Loss, a Vanguard Trial: The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Cheryl L.; Byers, Tim E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ganz, Patricia A.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Elias, Anthony; Krontiras, Helen; Liu, Jingxia; Naughton, Michael; Pakiz, Bilgé; Parker, Barbara A.; Sedjo, Rebecca L.; Wyatt, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer among women in developed countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and mortality in both pre-and postmenopausal women. Co-morbid medical conditions are common among breast cancer survivors. The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) study is a 4-year randomized clinical trial of 693 overweight/obese women aged ≥21 years diagnosed with any early stage breast cancer (stages I[≥1 cm]-III) within the previous five years, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving sustained weight loss and to examine the impact of weight loss on quality of life and co-morbidities, and to enable future exploration of biochemical mechanisms linking obesity to lower likelihood of disease-free survival. This trial is strategically designed as a vanguard for a fully-powered trial of women who will be evaluated for breast cancer recurrence and disease-free survival. Participants were recruited between 2010 and 2012 at four sites, had completed initial therapies, and had a body mass index between 25 and 45 kg/m2. The intervention featured a group-based cognitive-behavioral weight loss program with telephone counseling and tailored newsletters to support initial weight loss and subsequent maintenance, with the goal of 7% weight loss at two years. This study has high potential to have a major impact on clinical management and outcomes after a breast cancer diagnosis. This trial initiates the effort to establish weight loss support for overweight or obese breast cancer survivors as a new standard of clinical care. PMID:23266440

  16. Validation of a stages of exercise change questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Dannecker, Erin A; Hausenblas, Heather A; Connaughton, Daniel P; Lovins, Timm R

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine evidence for the validity of a stages of change measure of the Transtheoretical Model for exercise behavior. Participants were 152 university students (53.3% women, 71.6% Caucasian, M age = 19.18 years) who completed processes of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance, stages of change, and exercise behavior questionnaires as well as a maximal treadmill test. Participants in the action and maintenance stages had the highest strenuous (PC/C/P < A/M) and moderate (PC/C < A/M) self-reported exercise behavior. Those in the maintenance stage had the highest estimated aerobic fitness (PC/P < MA). The differences between the early stages (PC, C, and P) and the later stages (A and M) as described by the first function were primarily due to the behavioral process of change. The differences between the extreme stages (PC and M) and the middle stages (C, P, and A) were due to the experiential processes of change and the pros of decisional balance. The hypothesized patterns of stage differences were partially supported. Failure to obtain full support may have been due to methodological issues or inherent difficulties in detecting evidence for the validity of stages of change measures. PMID:14510288

  17. Exercise with prebreathe appears to increase protection from decompression sickness: Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Fischer, Michele D.; Heaps, Cristine L.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1994-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle involves one hour of prebreath with 100% oxygen, decompression of the entire Shuttle to 10.2 psia for at least 12 hours, and another prebreath for 40 minutes before decompression to the 4.3 psia suit pressure. We are investigating the use of a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen beginning with a ten-minute strenuous exercise period as an alternative for the staged decompression schedule described above. The 10-minute exercise consists of dual-cycle ergometry performed at 75% of the subject's peak oxygen uptake to increase denitrogenation efficiency by increasing ventilation and perfusion. The control exposures were preceded by a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen while resting in a supine position. The twenty-two male subjects were exposed to 4.3 psia for 4 hours while performing light to moderate exercise. Preliminary results from 22 of the planned 26 subjects indicate 76% DCS following supine, resting prebreathe and 38% following prebreathe with exercise. The staged decompression schedule has been shown to result in 23% DCS which is not significantly different from the exercise-enhanced prebreathe results. Prebreathe including exercise appears to be comparable to the protection afforded by the more lengthy staged decompression schedule. Completion of the study later this year will enable planned statistical analysis of the results.

  18. Effect of Acute Exercise on Upper-Limb Volume in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Strenuous upper-extremity activity and/or exercise have traditionally been prescribed for breast cancer survivors with or at risk of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an acute bout of exercise on upper-limb volume and symptoms in breast cancer survivors, with the intent to provide pilot data to guide a subsequent larger study. Methods: Twenty-three women who regularly participated in dragon-boat racing took part in the study. A single exercise bout was performed at a moderate intensity (rating of perceived exertion: 1314) for 20 continuous minutes on an arm ergometer. The difference between affected and unaffected limb volume was assessed pre- and post-exercise via measurements of limb circumference at five time points. Results: Although limb volume increased following exercise in both limbs, the difference between the limbs remained stable at each measurement point. Only one participant was found to have an increase in arm-volume difference of >100 ml post intervention, and only four participants reported symptoms of tension and/or heaviness in the affected limb. Conclusion: The results suggest that limb volume in breast cancer survivors increases after an acute bout of upper-limb exercise but that, for the majority of women, the response is not different between affected and unaffected limbs. Future research using a larger sample and more sensitive measurement methods are recommended. PMID:20808486

  19. Exercise and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 802 Exercise and HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES ... http://positivelyaware.com/2009/09_05/exercise.shtml HIV and Exercise : http://www.thebody.com/tpan/julaug_ ...

  20. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  1. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... asthma? How does exercise-induced bronchospasm differ from asthma? Is it safe for me to exercise? What kind of exercise can I do? What other ... Recognition and Management of Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm by T Sinha, MD; ...

  2. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  3. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise Print A ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who ...

  4. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Why Exercise Is Wise KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Exercise Is ... exercise, strength training, and flexibility training. continue Aerobic Exercise Like other muscles, the heart enjoys a good ...

  5. Exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Mahler, D A

    1993-05-01

    Bronchoconstriction associated with exercise can occur in nearly all individuals with asthma and in 35-40% of those with allergic rhinitis/hay fever symptoms. This represents approximately 12-15% of the population. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by transient airflow obstruction typically 5-15 min after cessation of physical exertion. Symptoms may include chest tightness, breathlessness, coughing, and/or wheezing. Some individuals may experience delayed bronchoconstriction (late phase response) 6-10 h after completing exercise. Approximately 40-50% of those with asthma exhibit a "refractory period", i.e., diminished bronchoconstriction to exercise performed within 2 h. The pathophysiology of EIA is related to thermal events within the intrathoracic airways. Alterations in the temperature of the airways and/or osmolarity in the epithelial lining fluid cause release of mediators in the airways and the development of bronchoconstriction. Although EIA can be strongly suspected by an appropriate history, pulmonary function testing is necessary to make a specific diagnosis. Measurement of lung function is an important first diagnostic test. If there is no evidence of airflow obstruction at rest, then either bronchoprovocation testing or exercise challenge testing is indicated. Nonpharmacologic therapy includes "warm-up" exercise prior to training or competition to induce a "refractory period" and to prevent/reduce bronchoconstriction. An inhaled beta 2-adrenergic agonist, e.g., albuterol, is usually effective for preventing/treating EIA. Cromolyn sodium is an alternative class of medication that inhibits both the early and late phase responses. Other bronchodilator agents are available if combination therapy with an inhaled beta 2-adrenergic agonist and cromolyn sodium is not effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8492682

  6. [Exercise addiction].

    PubMed

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

  7. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  8. Exercise Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Martin G.; Sharman, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of apparent ‘normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a ‘hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory ‘masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE. PMID:26587435

  9. Exercise Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ?210 mm Hg in men or ?190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ?110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE. PMID:26587435

  10. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism. PMID:24384982

  11. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Christine A; Duan, Minjing; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Dietary supplements (DS) promoted to enhance athletic performance often contain herbal sympathomimetics such as Citrus aurantium (synephrine) and caffeine. We aimed to characterize the pharmacology of a performance-enhancing DS in the setting of exercise. METHODS Ten healthy adults (three women) aged 20–31 years participated in a three-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects ingested one dose of DS (Ripped Fuel Extreme Cut® with 21 mg synephrine and 304 mg caffeine by analysis) under resting conditions and 1 h prior to moderately intense exercise (30 min on cycle ergometer at 75–80% HRmax), with a placebo (PLC)/exercise control. Plasma synephrine and caffeine concentrations were measured over 12 h, and vital signs, serum electrolytes, oxygen consumption and perceived exercise exertion were monitored. RESULTS No significant adverse events occurred. Synephrine and caffeine pharmacokinetics were unaffected by exercise. Post-exercise diastolic blood pressure was higher after DS (peak mean 71.7 ± 8.7 mmHg) than PLC (63.0 ± 4.9 mmHg) (p = 0.007). There were no substantial treatment-related differences in post-exercise HR, systolic blood pressure, or temperature. Postprandial plasma glucose increased to 121.0 ± 31.6 mg dl−1 with DS and exercise vs. 103.7 ± 25.5 mg dl−1 with PLC and exercise (P = 0.004). No treatment differences in exercise-related oxygen consumption, serum lactate, or insulin were observed. Exercise was rated less difficult with DS than PLC (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Blood pressure and plasma glucose increased post-exercise with DS use, which could be detrimental in some people. Exercise was perceived as less strenuous after DS, presumably due to the stimulant effects of caffeine. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Performance-enhancing dietary supplements have not been clinically tested for safety or efficacy. In clinical trials performed under resting conditions, performance-enhancing supplements raise blood pressure and affect glucose homeostasis. The effect of exercise on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of stimulant herbals is unknown. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Supplement-induced effects on blood pressure and glucose levels are not ameliorated by exercise.Exercise does not affect the kinetics of stimulant ingredients, caffeine and synephrine.Performance-enhancing supplement use modestly improves exercise tolerance. PMID:18341680

  12. Acute Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Stress Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Myocardium via NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury. PMID:26770647

  13. Effects of Pulse Current on Endurance Exercise and Its Anti-Fatigue Properties in the Hepatic Tissue of Trained Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Xiaowei; Zhu, Lvgang; Huang, Changlin; Huang, Tao; Zuo, Xincheng; Gao, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is synonymous with a wide spectrum of familiar physiological conditions, from pathology and general health, to sport and physical exercise. Strenuous, prolonged exercise training causes fatigue. Although several studies have investigated the effects of electrical stimulation frequency on muscle fatigue, the effects of percutaneous pulse current stimulation on fatigue in the hepatic tissue of trained rats is still unclear. In order to find an effective strategy to prevent fatigue or enhance recovery, the effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in exercised rats were studied. Rats were subjected to one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise training. After exercise training, rats in the treated group received daily applications of pulse current. All rats were sacrificed after one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise, and the major biochemical indexes were measured in serum and liver. The results demonstrate that pulse current could prolong the exhaustion swimming time, as well as decrease serum ALT, AST and LD levels and liver MDA content. It also elevated serum LDH activity, liver SOD activity and glycogen content. Furthermore, pulse current increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. Taken together, these results show that pulse current can elevate endurance capacity and facilitate recovery from fatigue. PMID:24116026

  14. Acute Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Stress Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Myocardium via NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with Mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Bo, Hai; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury. PMID:26770647

  15. Assessment of protein synthesis in highly aerobic canine species at the onset and during exercise training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin F; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Drake, Joshua C; Peelor, Frederick F; Biela, Laurie M; Pratt-Phillips, Shannon; Davis, Michael; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2015-04-01

    Canis lupus familiaris, the domesticated dog, is capable of extreme endurance performance. The ability to perform sustained aerobic exercise is dependent on a well-developed mitochondrial reticulum. In this study we examined the cumulative muscle protein and DNA synthesis in groups of athletic dogs at the onset of an exercise training program and following a strenuous exercise training program. We hypothesized that both at the onset and during an exercise training program there would be greater mitochondrial protein synthesis rates compared with sedentary control with no difference in mixed or cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates. Protein synthetic rates of three protein fractions and DNA synthesis were determined over 1 wk using (2)H2O in competitive Alaskan Huskies and Labrador Retrievers trained for explosive device detection. Both groups of dogs had very high rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the sedentary state [Alaskan Huskies: Mixed = 2.28 ± 0.12, cytoplasmic (Cyto) = 2.91 ± 0.10, and mitochondrial (Mito) = 2.62 ± 0.07; Labrador Retrievers: Mixed = 3.88 ± 0.37, Cyto = 3.85 ± 0.06, and Mito = 2.92 ± 0.20%/day]. Mitochondrial (Mito) protein synthesis rates did not increase at the onset of an exercise training program. Exercise-trained dogs maintained Mito protein synthesis during exercise training when mixed (Mixed) and cytosolic (Cyto) fractions decreased, and this coincided with a decrease in p-RpS6 but also a decrease in p-ACC signaling. Contrary to our hypothesis, canines did not have large increases in mitochondrial protein synthesis at the onset or during an exercise training program. However, dogs have a high rate of protein synthesis compared with humans that perhaps does not necessitate an extra increase in protein synthesis at the onset of aerobic exercise training. PMID:25614602

  16. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy. PMID:26447559

  17. Relationship Between Serum IGF-1 and Skeletal Muscle IGF-1 mRNA Expression to Phosphocreatine Recovery After Exercise in Obese Men With Reduced GH

    PubMed Central

    Hamarneh, Sulaiman R.; Murphy, Caitlin A.; Shih, Cynthia W.; Frontera, Walter; Torriani, Martin; Irazoqui, Javier E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: GH and IGF-1 are believed to be physiological regulators of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between GH/IGF-1 and skeletal muscle mitochondria in obese subjects with reduced GH secretion in more detail. Design: Fifteen abdominally obese men with reduced GH secretion were treated for 12 weeks with recombinant human GH. Subjects underwent 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery as an in vivo measure of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and percutaneous muscle biopsies to assess mRNA expression of IGF-1 and mitochondrial-related genes at baseline and 12 weeks. Results: At baseline, skeletal muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly associated with PCr recovery (r = 0.79; P = .01) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (r = 0.87; P = .001), mitochondrial transcription factor A (r = 0.86; P = .001), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? (r = 0.72; P = .02), and PPAR? (r = 0.75; P = .01) mRNA expression, and trended to an association with PPAR? coactivator 1-? (r = 0.59; P = .07) mRNA expression. However, serum IGF-1 concentration was not associated with PCr recovery or any mitochondrial gene expression (all P > .10). Administration of recombinant human GH increased both serum IGF-1 (change, 218 29 ?g/L; P < .0001) and IGF-1 mRNA in muscle (fold change, 2.1 0.3; P = .002). Increases in serum IGF-1 were associated with improvements in total body fat (r = ?0.53; P = .04), trunk fat (r = ?0.55; P = .03), and lean mass (r = 0.58; P = .02), but not with PCr recovery (P > .10). Conversely, increase in muscle IGF-1 mRNA was associated with improvements in PCr recovery (r = 0.74; P = .02), but not with body composition parameters (P > .10). Conclusion: These data demonstrate a novel association of skeletal muscle mitochondria with muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression, but independent of serum IGF-1 concentrations. PMID:25375982

  18. Serum cardiac troponin I analysis to determine the excessiveness of exercise intensity: A novel equation.

    PubMed

    Voets, Philip J G M; Maas, Roderick P P W M

    2016-03-01

    Physical exertion is often promoted because of its beneficial health effects. This only holds true, however, as long as the optimal exercise intensity is not exceeded. If physical exertion becomes too strenuous or prolonged, cardiac injury or dysfunction may occur. Consequently, a significant elevation of the serum concentration of the sensitive and specific cardiac biomarker troponin I can be observed. In this article, we present the derivation of a novel equation that can be used to evaluate to what extent the intensity of conducted endurance exercise was excessive, based on a post-exercise assessment of serum cardiac troponin I. This is convenient, as exercise intensity is difficult for an athlete to quantify accurately and the currently used heart rate indices can be affected by various physiological and environmental factors. Serum cardiac troponin I, on the other hand, is a post-hoc parameter that directly reflects the actual effects on the myocardium and may therefore be a promising alternative. To our knowledge, this is the first method to determine relative exercise intensity in retrospect. We therefore believe that this equation can serve as a potentially valuable tool to objectively evaluate the benefits or harmful effects of physical exertion. PMID:26724711

  19. Plasma oxidative stress is induced by single-sprint anaerobic exercise in young cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Taito, Shunsuke; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Oura, Keisuke; Kamikawa, Norimichi; Matsuki, Ryosuke; Kimura, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Makoto; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette smoking increases oxidative stress, which is a risk factor for several diseases. Smoking has also been reported to enhance plasma oxidative stress during strenuous exercise. However, no prior study has examined the changes in plasma oxidative stress after single-sprint anaerobic exercise in cigarette smokers. The purpose of this study was to investigate these changes in young cigarette smokers by measuring reactive oxygen species generation and total antioxidant content. Participants were 15 male smokers (mean age: 25929years) and 18 male non-smokers (mean age: 24243years). Hydroperoxide concentration and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) in plasma were measured at baseline and after the Wingate anaerobic test. A significant interaction between group and time was observed for plasma hydroperoxide concentration (P=0037). Plasma hydroperoxide concentration was significantly increased after exercise in both smokers and non-smokers (P=0001 and <0001, respectively). However, no significant interaction was observed between groups by time on plasma BAP (P=0574), and a main effect of time was observed (P<0001). Plasma BAP was significantly increased after exercise in both groups (both, P<0001). These findings indicate that plasma oxidative stress is higher in cigarette smokers than in non-smokers after single-sprint anaerobic exercise, which may increase the risk of oxidative damage. PMID:23522019

  20. Proposed new mechanism for food and exercise induced anaphylaxis based on case studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We present two cases of food and exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FEIA) in patients with a diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to the implicated foods. Patient A had FEIA attributed to fresh coriander and tomato and Patient B to fresh celery. These food allergens have been implicated in OAS and have structural antigenic similarity to that of birch and/or grass. Both patients allergies were confirmed by fresh skin prick tests. In both cases, strenuous exercise was antecedent to the systemic anaphylaxis reaction and subsequent ingestion without exercise produced only local symptoms of perioral pruritus. We review the current proposed mechanisms for food and exercise induced anaphylaxis to oral allergens and propose a novel and more biologically plausible mechanism. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of exercise on gastric acid secretion decreases the digestion of oral allergens and preserves structural integrity, thereby allowing continued systemic absorption of the allergen whether it be profilins, lipid transfer proteins, or other antigenic determinants. PMID:23509907

  1. Exercise and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Neeraj; Fedorak, Richard N

    2008-01-01

    Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis are both idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that affect 0.5% of Canadians. As yet, there is no known cure for either disease, and symptoms are treated with an array of medicines. The objective of the present review was to present the role of exercise and its impact on all facets of IBD. Exercise has been speculated to be protective against the onset of IBD, but the literature is inconsistent and weak. Preliminary studies reveal that exercise training may be beneficial to reduce stress and symptoms of IBD. Current research also recommends exercise to help counteract some IBD-specific complications by improving bone mineral density, immunological response, psychological health, weight loss and stress management ability. However, the literature advises that some patients with IBD may have limitations to the amount and intensity of exercise that they can perform. In summary, exercise may be beneficial to IBD patients, but further research is required to make a convincing conclusion regarding its role in the management of IBD and to help establish exercise regimens that can account for each IBD patients unique presentation. PMID:18478136

  2. Exercise haemodynamics and maximal exercise capacity during beta-adrenoceptor blockade in normotensive and hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed Central

    van Baak, M A; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of atenolol administration on maximal exercise capacity and exercise haemodynamics have been compared in eight normotensive and eight mildly hypertensive subjects, matched for sex, age, body weight, and maximal oxygen uptake, and familiar with maximal exercise testing. 2. Supine and exercise blood pressure, and exercise total peripheral resistance were significantly higher, and exercise cardiac output was significantly lower in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects. 3. Administration of atenolol (1 X 100 mg day-1) for 3 days reduced supine and exercise systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output, and increased exercise stroke volume. Supine and exercise diastolic blood pressure and exercise total peripheral resistance were unaffected by atenolol. The effects of atenolol did not differ in the normotensive and the hypertensive subjects. 4. Maximal work load, maximal oxygen uptake, and maximal heart rate were reduced to a similar extent in normotensive and hypertensive subjects during atenolol treatment. 5. It is concluded that there is no difference in the effects of short-term atenolol administration on exercise haemodynamics and maximal exercise capacity in normotensive and mildly hypertensive subjects. PMID:2896013

  3. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  4. Caffeine and exercise.

    PubMed

    Paluska, Scott A

    2003-08-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes. PMID:12834577

  5. Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Among athletes strenuous exercise, dehydration and gastric emptying (GE) delay are the main causes of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, whereas gut ischemia is the main cause of their nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and (blood) diarrhea. Additionally any factor that limits sweat evaporation, such as a hot and humid environment and/or body dehydration, has profound effects on muscle glycogen depletion and risk for heat illness. A serious underperfusion of the gut often leads to mucosal damage and enhanced permeability so as to hide blood loss, microbiota invasion (or endotoxemia) and food-born allergen absorption (with anaphylaxis). The goal of exercise rehydration is to intake more fluid orally than what is being lost in sweat. Sports drinks provide the addition of sodium and carbohydrates to assist with intestinal absorption of water and muscle-glycogen replenishment, respectively. However GE is proportionally slowed by carbohydrate-rich (hyperosmolar) solutions. On the other hand, in order to prevent hyponatremia, avoiding overhydration is recommended. Caregiver's responsibility would be to inform athletes about potential dangers of drinking too much water and also advise them to refrain from using hypertonic fluid replacements. PMID:21955383

  6. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  7. Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exercise videos/DVDs made for older people. • Add music to the exercises if it helps the person with Alzheimer’s disease. Dance to the music if possible. • Break exercises into simple, easy-to- ...

  8. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...

  9. Exercise-Induced Urticaria

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Exercise-induced Urticaria Overview What is exercise-induced urticaria? Exercise-induced urticaria is a condition that causes hives and other allergic symptoms. It can occur during ...

  10. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using a resistance band can build strength. Balance exercises help prevent falls Flexibility exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber NIH: National Institute on Aging

  11. The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, J C; van Doornen, L J; Kemper, H C

    1996-03-01

    A growing amount of evidence indicates that free radicals play an important role as mediators of skeletal muscle damage and inflammation after strenuous exercise. It has been postulated that the generation of oxygen free radicals is increased during exercise as a result of increases in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and electron transport flux, inducing lipid peroxidation. The literature suggests that dietary antioxidants are able to detoxify the peroxides produced during exercise, which could otherwise result in lipid peroxidation, and that they are capable of scavenging peroxyl radicals and therefore may prevent muscle damage. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes also play a protective role in the process of lipid peroxidation. The studies reviewed (rodent and human) show significant increases of malondialdehyde (a product of lipid peroxidation) after exercise to exhaustion, and also favourable changes in plasma antioxidant levels and in antioxidant enzyme activity. In trained individuals and trained rats, the antioxidant enzyme activity increases markedly. In this way, the increased oxidative stress induced by exercise is compromised by increased antioxidant activity, preventing lipid peroxidation. Human studies have shown that dietary supplementation with antioxidant vitamins has favourable effects on lipid peroxidation after exercise. Although several points of discussion still exist, the question whether antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant enzymes play a protective role in exercise-induced muscle damage can be answered affirmatively. The human studies reviewed indicate that antioxidant vitamin supplementation can be recommended to individuals performing regular heavy exercise. Moreover, trained individuals have an advantage compared with untrained individuals, as training results in increased activity of several major antioxidant enzymes and overall antioxidant status. However, future studies are needed in order to be able to give more specific information and recommendations on this topic. PMID:8776010

  12. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  13. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women

    PubMed Central

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg−1·day−1) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg−1·day−1 if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis. PMID:21505147

  14. Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2014-01-01

    Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); and (3) exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1) or (4) 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5). Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training. PMID:24595275

  15. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  16. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  17. Exercise, free radicals and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C E; Vollaard, N B; Choueiri, T; Wilson, M T

    2002-04-01

    This article reviews the role of free radicals in causing oxidative stress during exercise. High intensity exercise induces oxidative stress and although there is no evidence that this affects sporting performance in the short term, it may have longer term health consequences. The mechanisms of exercise-induced oxidative stress are not well understood. Mitochondria are sometimes considered to be the main source of free radicals, but in vitro studies suggest they may play a more minor role than was first thought. There is a growing acceptance of the importance of haem proteins in inducing oxidative stress. The release of metmyoglobin from damaged muscle is known to cause renal failure in exercise rhabdomyolysis. Furthermore, levels of methaemoglobin increase during high intensity exercise, while levels of antioxidants, such as reduced glutathione, decrease. We suggest that the free-radical-mediated damage caused by the interaction of metmyoglobin and methaemoglobin with peroxides may be an important source of oxidative stress during exercise. PMID:12023865

  18. Exercise in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-03-01

    Patients with the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) have orthostatic intolerance, as well as exercise intolerance. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is generally lower in these patients compared with healthy sedentary individuals, suggesting a lower physical fitness level. During acute exercise, POTS patients have an excessive increase in heart rate and reduced stroke volume for each level of absolute workload; however, when expressed at relative workload (%VO2peak), there is no difference in the heart rate response between patients and healthy individuals. The relationship between cardiac output and VO2 is similar between POTS patients and healthy individuals. Short-term (i.e., 3 months) exercise training increases cardiac size and mass, blood volume, and VO2peak in POTS patients. Exercise performance is improved after training. Specifically, stroke volume is greater and heart rate is lower at any given VO2 during exercise after training versus before training. Peak heart rate is the same but peak stroke volume and cardiac output are greater after training. Heart rate recovery from peak exercise is significantly faster after training, indicating an improvement in autonomic circulatory control. These results suggest that patients with POTS have no intrinsic abnormality of heart rate regulation during exercise. The tachycardia in POTS is due to a reduced stroke volume. Cardiac remodeling and blood volume expansion associated with exercise training increase physical fitness and improve exercise performance in these patients. PMID:25487551

  19. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training. PMID:23614691

  20. Ammonia and IMP in different skeletal muscle fibers after exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R A; Dudley, G A; Terjung, R L

    1980-12-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) deamination, estimated from inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) accumulation, was studied in the different skeletal muscle fiber types of untrained rats anesthetized with ether immediately after 4 min of treadmill running at 45 or 60 m/min. The adenylosuccinate synthetase-inhibitor hadacidin was administered (200 mg/kg ip) before exercise to block IMP reamination and, therefore, to provide a better assessment of IMP formation. The increases in blood ammonia after exercise (2.5- and 5-fold, respectively) were highly correlated (r = 0.93) with the increases in blood lactate levels (6- and 11-fold). At both speeds, IMP increased in fast-twitch but not in slow-twitch (soleus) muscle. Of the fast muscles, the increase in IMP was greatest (up to 4 mumol/g wet wt) in the white vastus lateralis (fast twitch, glycolytic), intermediate in the plantaris (mixed fibers), and lowest in the red vastus lateralis (fast twitch, oxidative glycolytic). The increases in IMP were coincident with nearly equivalent decreases in ATP. Hadacidin treatment resulted in a greater IMP accumulation after exercise in both fast-twitch types but not in the soleus. The results indicate that fast-twitch muscle fibers, particularly the fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, are the source of the ammonia produced during strenuous exercise. PMID:7440292

  1. Scaling laws for capillary vessels of mammals at rest and in exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Thomas H

    2003-01-01

    A general derivation is presented for the scaling laws governing the size and number of capillary blood vessels in mammals. The derivation is based on the assumption of three idealized similarity principles known to apply, at least approximately, to resting mammals: (i) size-invariant blood pressure; (ii) size-invariant fraction of blood in the capillaries; and (iii) size-invariant oxygen consumption and uptake, per unit of body mass, during each heart cycle. Results indicate that the radius and length of capillaries, and the number that are open and active in the resting state, should scale with mammal mass to the powers 1/12, 5/24 and 5/8, respectively, consistent with earlier work by the author. Measurements are presented supporting the results. Physiological changes accompanying strenuous exercise are accounted for by a change in the scaling law for capillary number, from scaling exponent 5/8 to 3/4. PMID:12713751

  2. Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular variables. Plasma volume (% delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P < 0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training for all regimens indicating no effect of these training regimens on the level of vascular fluid shifts.

  3. Exercise testing in asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Magne, Julien; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Pirard, Luc A

    2014-02-01

    The management and the clinical decision making in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis are challenging. An "aggressive" management, including early aortic valve replacement, is debated in these patients. However, the optimal timing for surgery remains controversial due to the lack of prospective data on the determinants of aortic stenosis progression, multicenter studies on risk stratification, and randomized studies on patient management. Exercise stress testing with or without imaging is strictly contraindicated in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis. Exercise stress test is now recommended by current guidelines in asymptomatic patients and may provide incremental prognostic value. Indeed, the development of symptoms during exercise or an abnormal blood pressure response are associated with poor outcome and should be considered as an indication for surgery, as suggested by the most recently updated European Society of Cardiology 2012 guidelines. Exercise stress echocardiography may also improve the risk stratification and identify asymptomatic patients at higher risk of a cardiac event. When the test is combined with imaging, echocardiography during exercise should be recommended rather than post-exercise echocardiography. During exercise, an increase >18 to 20 mm Hg in mean pressure gradient, absence of improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (i.e., absence of contractile reserve), and/or a systolic pulmonary arterial pressure >60 mm Hg (i.e., exercise pulmonary hypertension) are suggestive signs of advanced stages of the disease and impaired prognosis. Hence, exercise stress test may identify resting asymptomatic patients who develop exercise abnormalities and in whom surgery is recommended according to current guidelines. Exercise stress echocardiography may further unmask a subset of asymptomatic patients (i.e., without exercise stress test abnormalities) who are at high risk of reduced cardiac event free survival. In these patients, early surgery could be beneficial, whereas regular follow-up seems more appropriate in patients without echocardiographic abnormalities during exercise. PMID:24524744

  4. Exercise for Asthma Patients. Little Risk, Big Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disabella, Vincent; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Asthma patients can benefit from 20 to 30 minutes of exercise at 60 to 85% of maximum heart rate several times a week. Improved fitness can reduce airway reactivity and medication use. The capacity to exercise requires good general control of asthma. Patients must learn to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by using inhaled medications

  5. Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

  6. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  7. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  8. The effect of exercise and training status on platelet activation: do cocoa polyphenols play a role?

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Quinn, H; Mok, M; Southgate, R J; Turner, A H; Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Hawley, J A

    2006-09-01

    Sedentary and trained men respond differently to the same intensity of exercise, this is probably related to their platelet reactivity and antioxidant capacity. There is growing interest in the utilization of antioxidant-rich plant extracts as dietary food supplements. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of sub maximal exercise on platelet count and differential response of platelet activation in trained and sedentary subjects and to observe if cocoa polyphenols reverse the effect of exercise on platelet function. The practical significance of this study was that many sedentary people engage in occasional strenuous exercise that may predispose them to risk of heart disease. Fasting blood samples were collected from 16 male subjects, pre and post 1-h cycling exercise at 70% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) before and after consumption of cocoa or placebo. Agonist stimulated citrated whole blood was utilized for measuring platelet aggregation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and platelet activation. Baseline platelet count (221 +/- 33 x 10(9)/L) and ATP release (1.4 +/- 0.6 nmol) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after exercise in all subjects. Baseline platelet numbers in the trained were higher (P < 0.05) than in the sedentary (235 +/- 37 vs. 208 +/- 34 x 10(9)/L), where as platelet activation in trained was lower (P < 0.05) than sedentary (51 +/- 6 vs. 59 +/- 5%). Seven days of cocoa polyphenol supplementation had little effect on any of the parameters measured. We conclude that trained subjects show decreased activation of stimulated platelets when compared to the sedentary subjects and short-term cocoa polyphenol supplementation did not decrease platelet activity in response to exercise independent of prior training status. PMID:16973496

  9. Left ventricular mechanics and arterial-ventricular coupling following high-intensity interval exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Anita T.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Phillips, Aaron A.; Koehle, Michael S.; Glier, Melissa B.; Devlin, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    High-intensity exercise induces marked physiological stress affecting the secretion of catecholamines. Sustained elevations in catecholamines are thought to desensitize cardiac beta receptors and may be a possible mechanism in impaired cardiac function following strenuous exercise. In addition, attenuated arterial-ventricular coupling may identify vascular mechanisms in connection with postexercise attenuations in ventricular function. Thirty-nine normally active (NA) and endurance-trained (ET) men and women completed an echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function before and after an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (15 bouts of 1:2 min work:recovery cycling: 100% peak power output and 50 W, respectively). Following exercise, time to peak twist and peak untwisting velocity were delayed (P < 0.01) but did not differ by sex or training status. Interactions for sex and condition (rest vs. exercise) were found for longitudinal diastolic strain rate (men, 1.46 0.19 to 1.28 0.23 s?1 vs. women, 1.62 0.25 to 1.63 0.26 s?1; P = 0.01) and arterial elastance (men 2.20 0.65 to 3.24 1.02 mmHgml?1m?2 vs. women 2.51 0.61 to 2.93 0.68 mmHgml?1m?2; P = 0.04). No cardiac variables were found associated with catecholamine levels. The change in twist mechanics was associated with baseline aortic pulse-wave velocity (r2 = 0.27, P = 0.001). We conclude that males display greater reductions in contractility in response to high-intensity interval exercise, independent of catecholamine concentrations. Furthermore, a novel association of arterial stiffness and twist mechanics following high-intensity acute exercise illustrates the influence of vascular integrity on cardiac mechanics. PMID:24052036

  10. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    PubMed Central

    Vu?i? Lovren?i?, Marijana; Pibernik-Okanovi?, Mirjana; ekerija, Mario; Praek, Manja; Ajdukovi?, Dea; Kos, Jadranka; Hermanns, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A), physical exercise (B), and enhanced treatment as usual (C) was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome) and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F = 12.51, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.07). Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG) decreased (F = 10.66, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.06), as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F = 84.57, ?2 = 0.32 and F = 12.61, ?2 = 0.07, resp.; p < 0.0001), while uric acid increased (F = 12.53, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.07) in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (? = 0.15, p = 0.044). Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017. PMID:26347775

  11. Overcoming Barriers to Exercise: No More Excuses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cost exercise programs in your area. Increasing your energy Regular, moderate physical activity can help reduce fatigue ... become active, you’re likely to have more energy than before. As you do more, you also ...

  12. An Ultra-High Field Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Post Exercise Lactate, Glutamate and Glutamine Change in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Andrea; Thomas, Adam G.; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Near, Jamie; Nichols, Thomas E.; Clare, Stuart; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    During strenuous exercise there is a progressive increase in lactate uptake and metabolism into the brain as workload and plasma lactate levels increase. Although it is now widely accepted that the brain can metabolize lactate, few studies have directly measured brain lactate following vigorous exercise. Here, we used ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to obtain static measures of brain lactate, as well as brain glutamate and glutamine after vigorous exercise. The aims of our experiment were to (a) track the changes in brain lactate following recovery from exercise, and (b) to simultaneously measure the signals from brain glutamate and glutamine. The results of our experiment showed that vigorous exercise resulted in a significant increase in brain lactate. Furthermore, both glutamate and glutamine were successfully resolved, and as expected, although contrary to some previous reports, we did not observe any significant change in either amino acid after exercise. We did however observe a negative correlation between glutamate and a measure of fitness. These results support the hypothesis that peripherally derived lactate is taken up by the brain when available. Our data additionally highlight the potential of ultra-high field MRS as a non-invasive way of measuring multiple brain metabolite changes with exercise. PMID:26732236

  13. Postpartum Exercise and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Bane, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Many women who are breastfeeding also want to participate in exercise, but have concerns about the safety of their newborn. The following chapter reviews issues related to postpartum exercise and lactation. The goals of the chapter are to help clinicians understand the benefits of exercise, examine the impact of postpartum exercise on breastfeeding, and provide practical recommendations for exercise during the postpartum period in women who are breastfeeding. PMID:26398298

  14. Astronauts Exercising in Space Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

  15. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p < .01). Results of a subgroup analysis indicated that either long-term exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (1.39 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.89, p < .01) or short-term exercise of high intensity (0.83 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.19 to 1.40, p < .01) elevated homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative results of the seven studies with a total of 230 participants in exercise training analysis did not demonstrate a significant impact on homocysteine levels in the blood (-0.56 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to 0.50, p = .23). Conclusions Current evidence demonstrates that acute exercise increases homocysteine levels in the blood independent of exercise duration and intensity. Resistance, but not aerobic training decreases plasma homocysteine levels. PMID:26986570

  16. Physical Exercise as Therapy for Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Lina E.; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies demonstrate that regular physical exercise extends longevity and reduces the risk of physical disability. Decline in physical activity with aging is associated with a decrease in exercise capacity that predisposes to frailty. Frailty syndrome includes lowered activity level, poor exercise tolerance, and loss of lean body and muscle mass. Poor exercise tolerance is related to aerobic endurance. Aerobic endurance training can significantly improve peak oxygen consumption by ~10–15%. Resistance training is the best way to increase muscle strength and mass. Although the increase in muscle mass in response to resistance training may be attenuated in frail older adults, resistance training can significantly improve muscle strength, particularly in institutionalized patients by ~110%. Because both aerobic and resistance training target specific components of frailty, studies combining aerobic and resistance training provide the most promising evidence with respect to successfully treating frailty. At the molecular level, exercise reduces frailty by decreasing muscle inflammation, increasing anabolism, and increasing muscle protein synthesis. More studies are needed to determine which exercises are best suited, most effective, and safe for this population. Based on the available studies, an individualized multicomponent exercise program that includes aerobic activity, strength exercises, and flexibility is recommended to treat frailty. PMID:26524568

  17. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    PubMed

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. PMID:26851493

  18. [Physical exercise training for cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Wienbergen, H; Hambrecht, R

    2012-08-01

    Clinical application of physical exercise has developed into an evidence-based therapeutic option for cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). In CAD regular physical exercise training partially corrects endothelial dysfunction and leads to an economization of left ventricular function. Meta-analyses have shown a reduction of angina pectoris symptoms and a decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality by regular aerobic exercise training. Endurance training for CHF reduces cardiac afterload by correcting peripheral endothelial dysfunction und leads to a better left ventricular function. In addition exercise training reduces the adrenergic tone and the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in CHF. Exercise training provides positive effects on the metabolism and function of skeletal muscle (e.g. reduced inflammation and oxidative stress). Supervised regular physical exercise training in CHF is safe and has improved the morbidity in clinical studies. Thus aerobic exercise training is an important component of therapeutic management of stable CAD and CHF with a class 1a recommendation in the current guidelines. PMID:22760599

  19. Exercise, natural immunity, and tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman-Goetz, L

    1994-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce the growth of primary tumors and to enhance certain aspects of host natural immunity. The question of whether these are independent phenomena or are casually related has not been systematically evaluated. This paper presents information concerning the methodological difficulties in studying proposed relationships between exercise and cancer, focusing specifically on tumor metastasis, the process by which malignant cells disseminate to distant organs and establish new colonies. This paper also focuses on how natural immune processes and tumor cells exert bidirectional influences on each other. It is suggested that the direction of the impact of exercise on the control of metastatic spread of neoplastic cells will reflect, in part, the sensitivity of the specific tumor to cytolysis by natural immune mechanisms, the route of dissemination, the timing of exercise relative to tumor exposure, and whether exercise acts as a distress or eustress state. PMID:8164532

  20. Exercise detraining: Applicability to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    Physical training exposes the various systems of the body to potent physiologic stimuli. These stimuli induce specific adaptations that enhance an individual's tolerance for the type of exercise encountered in training. The level of adaptation and the magnitude of improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the potency of the physical training stimuli. Likewise, our bodies are stimulated by gravity, which promotes adaptations of both the cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. Exposure to microgravity removes normal stimuli to these systems, and the body adapts to these reduced demands. In many respects the cessation of physical training in athletes and the transition from normal gravity to microgravity represent similar paradigms. Inherent to these situations is the concept of the reversibility of the adaptations induced by training or by exposure to normal gravity. The reversibility concept holds that when physical training is stopped (i.e., detraining) or reduced, or a person goes from normal gravity to microgravity, the bodily systems readjust in accordance with the diminished physiologic stimuli. The focus of this chapter is on the time course of loss of the adaptations to endurance training as well as on the possibility that certain adaptations persist, to some extent, when training is stopped. Because endurance exercise training generally improves cardiovascular function and promotes metabolic adaptations within the exercising skeletal musculature, the reversibility of these specific adaptations is considered. These observations have some applicability to the transition from normal to microgravity.

  1. Cell-derived microparticles after exercise in individuals with G6PD Viangchan.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Makamas; Nantakomol, Duangdao; Suksom, Daroonwan; Palasuwan, Attakorn

    2015-07-16

    Glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient cells are sensitive to oxidative damage leading to the formation of microparticles (MPs). Therefore, we examined the concentration of MPs and changes in the antioxidant balance after an acute strenuous exercise (SEx) and moderate-intensity exercise (MEx). Eighteen healthy females (18-24 years) with G6PD normal and eighteen age-matched females with G6PD Viangchan (871G>A) were tested by running on a treadmill at their maximal oxygen uptake for SEx and at 75% of their maximal heart rate for MEx. It was found that SEx triggered the release of total microparticles (TTMPs) above baseline levels and remained significantly higher 45 minutes after the exercise in G6PD normal individuals. However, SEx-induced increase in TTMPs was significantly higher in G6PD Viangchan as compared to G6PD normal. In contrast, MEx did not to alter the release of TTMPs in both G6PD normal and Viangchan. Moreover, TTMPs concentrations were inversely correlated with G6PD activity (r =-0.82, P <  0.05) but positively correlated with MDA concentrations (r = 0.74, P <  0.05). Using cell specific antibodies, we determined that MPs were mainly derived from platelets and erythrocytes. Altogether, the present study indicates that G6PD Viangchan may participate in MEx without higher MPs concentration and oxidative stress compared with G6PD normal. PMID:25171589

  2. Assessment of the allergenic potential of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins, the major sensitizing allergen in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-5 gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which omega-5 gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interfe...

  3. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  4. How Exercise Can Help

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen the effects of arthritis, but ... We know that if a physician or a health care provider encourages someone to exercise, that's very ...

  5. Aerobic exercise (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  6. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can join. Choose your sweet spot. Do you love being outdoors? Choose activities that get you outside, ... Council on Exercise. 5 Tips for Learning to Love Exercise (or at Least Develop a Crush on ...

  7. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  8. Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Cynthia L.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the need for exercise intensity to become physically fit, concluding that intensity is not important for improving health, only for improving performance. What is important is routinely performing some sort of exercise. (GLR)

  9. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hint: This is like the backhand swing in tennis.) Lower the arm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ... Hint: This is like the forehand swing in tennis.) Lower the forearm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ...

  10. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  11. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  12. Exercise for the heart: signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise, a potent functional intervention in protecting against cardiovascular diseases, is a hot topic in recent years. Exercise has been shown to reduce cardiac risk factors, protect against myocardial damage, and increase cardiac function. This improves quality of life and decreases mortality and morbidity in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac aging, and pulmonary hypertension. The cellular adaptation to exercise can be associated with both endogenous and exogenous factors: 1) exercise induces cardiac growth via hypertrophy and renewal of cardiomyocytes, and 2) exercise induces endothelial progenitor cells to proliferate, migrate and differentiate into mature endothelial cells, giving rise to endothelial regeneration and angiogenesis. The cellular adaptations associated with exercise are due to the activation of several signaling pathways, in particular, the growth factor neuregulin1 (NRG1)-ErbB4-C/EBPβ and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-PI3k-Akt signaling pathways. Of interest, microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) such as miR-222 also play a major role in the beneficial effects of exercise. Thus, exploring the mechanisms mediating exercise-induced benefits will be instrumental for devising new effective therapies against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26318584

  13. Exercise oscillatory ventilation: Mechanisms and prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Bishnu P; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Alteration in breathing patterns characterized by cyclic variation of ventilation during rest and during exercise has been recognized in patients with advanced heart failure (HF) for nearly two centuries. Periodic breathing (PB) during exercise is known as exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) and is characterized by the periods of hyperpnea and hypopnea without interposed apnea. EOV is a non-invasive parameter detected during submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Presence of EOV during exercise in HF patients indicates significant impairment in resting and exercise hemodynamic parameters. EOV is also an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in HF patients both with reduced and preserved ejection fraction irrespective of other gas exchange variables. Circulatory delay, increased chemosensitivity, pulmonary congestion and increased ergoreflex signaling have been proposed as the mechanisms underlying the generation of EOV in HF patients. There is no proven treatment of EOV but its reversal has been noted with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, exercise training and acetazolamide in relatively small studies. In this review, we discuss the mechanistic basis of PB during exercise and the clinical implications of recognizing PB patterns in patients with HF.

  14. Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Muoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression. PMID:21394856

  15. Exercise, Aging and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Cundiff, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether or not a lifelong program of exercise actually has a bearing on longevity is discussed. The effects of exercise on the aging process, and the longevity-exercise relationship are reviewed. The conflicting evidence on the subject is presented. (JL)

  16. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  17. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers

  18. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  19. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  20. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  1. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Getting Exercise in College KidsHealth > For Teens > Getting Exercise in College Print A A A Text Size ... energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. But with high ...

  2. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,

  3. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  4. Regular physical activity and reduced occurrence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Calle-Pascual, A L; Martin-Alvarez, P J; Reyes, C; Calle, J R

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of regular non-strenuous physical exercise on the appearance of microalbuminuria in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, we have studied a cohort of 372 Type 2 diabetic patients (152 males and 220 females, mean age: 63.59 +/- 0.70 years, evolution time: 10.31 +/- 0.4 years, M +/- SEM). One hundred and ninety seven (52.9%) presented normo-albuminuria, 124 (33.3%) microalbuminuria and 51 (13.7%) proteinuria. These three groups were different with regard to evolution time, weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio, Hb1Ac value, prevalence of hypertension and physical activity level. 132 (35.4%) patients had a regular exercise-induced caloric expenditure under 500 kcal/wk whereas 122 (32.7%) were between 500 and 1.000 kcal/wk and 118 (31.7%) over 1.000 kcal/wk. Prevalence of normo-albuminuric patients was 40.1%, 52.4% and 67.7% respectively (p < 0.01). Prevalence of normo-albuminuric patients remained significatively higher in the patient with the greater physical activity level when adjusted to systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, evolution time and HbA1c value. Our results stress the fact that regular non-strenuous physical activity may have a protective effect on the appearance of microalbuminuria in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Whether the cardiovascular protective influence of exercise in these patients depends on such an effect remains unknown. On the basis of this cross-sectional evidence, a longitudinal study is now under way. PMID:8405621

  5. Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the pre-workout supplement Assault™ (MusclePharm, Denver, CO, USA) on upper and lower body muscular endurance, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, and choice reaction time in recreationally-trained males. Subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness, and focus were measured to examine associations between psychological factors and human performance. Methods Twelve recreationally-trained males participated in a 3-week investigation (mean +/- SD, age: 28 +/- 5 y, height: 178 +/- 9 cm, weight: 79.2 +/- 15.7 kg, VO2max: 45.7 +/- 7.6 ml/kg/min). Subjects reported to the human performance laboratory on three separate occasions. All participants completed a baseline/familiarization day of testing that included a maximal graded exercise test for the determination of aerobic capacity (VO2max), one-rep maximum (1-RM) for bench and leg press to determine 75% of 1-RM, choice reaction tests, and intermittent critical velocity familiarization. Choice reaction tests included the following: single-step audio and visual, one-tower stationary protocol, two-tower lateral protocol, three-tower multi-directional protocol, and three-tower multi-directional protocol with martial arts sticks. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest either the supplement (SUP) or the placebo (PL) during Visit 2. Subjects were provided with the cross-over treatment on the last testing visit. Testing occurred 20 min following ingestion of both treatments. Results Significant (p < 0.05) main effects for the SUP were observed for leg press (SUP: 13 ± 6 reps, PL: 11 ± 3 reps), perceived energy (SUP: 3.4 ± 0.9, PL: 3.1 ± 0.8), alertness (SUP: 4.0 ± 0.7, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), focus (SUP: 4.1 ± 0.6, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), choice reaction audio single-step (SUP: 0.92 ± 0.10 s, PL: 0.97 ± 0.11 s), choice reaction multi-direction 15 s (SUP: 1.07 ± 0.12 s, PL: 1.13 ± 0.14 s), and multi-direction for 30 s (SUP: 1.10 ± 0.11 s, PL: 1.14 ± 0.13 s). Conclusions Ingesting the SUP before exercise significantly improved agility choice reaction performance and lower body muscular endurance, while increasing perceived energy and reducing subjective fatigue. These findings suggest that the SUP may delay fatigue during strenuous exercise. PMID:22463603

  6. Exercise Prescription: Principles and Current Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions must be both safe and effective, while maximizing patient compliance. Safety can be threatened by physical injury, cardiac emergencies and environmental hazards. Risk can be reduced by individualizing the prescription, although the stress ECG contributes little to the prevention of the exercise catastrophe. Effectiveness of a prescription must be gauged by development of aerobic power and muscular strength, reduction of obesity, improvement of flexibility and control of coronary risk factors. The variability of patient response limits the potential for accurate laboratory prescription of exercise; fine tuning must depend upon the patient's immediate reactions. PMID:21283273

  7. The parasympathetic system in exercise-induced rhinorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Harris, W E; Giebaly, K; Adair, C; Alsuwaidan, S; Nicholls, D P; Stanford, C F

    1992-03-01

    The present study demonstrates that ipratropium bromide significantly reduces normal resting nasal secretion (p less than 0.05) and also significantly reduces exercise induced rhinorrhoea compared with a placebo (p less than 0.01). It also demonstrates that there may be another non-parasympathetic cause for the increase in nasal secretion with exercise. PMID:1533728

  8. Effect of breathing frequency and airflow on pulmonary function in high-intensity equine exercise.

    PubMed

    Bayly, W M; Redman, M J; Sides, R H

    1999-07-01

    It has been postulated that the hypoxaemia and hypercapnoea that characterize strenuous equine exercise are partly due to flow limitations imposed by high breathing frequencies (fb), and that gas exchange would be improved if fb could be lowered. To evaluate this possibility, 6 Thoroughbred horses underwent 4 incremental treadmill exercise tests at inclines of 0, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively. In the test, horses were given a warm-up for 2 min, then ran sequentially for 1 min each at 60, 100 and 115% VO2max. Oxygen consumption (VO2), blood gas tensions (PaO2, PaCO2), fb, tidal volume (VT), minute ventilation (Ve), transpulmonary pressure (Ptp), peak inspiratory and expiratory airflows (VI, VE) and work of breathing (Wrm) were determined during the last 15 s of exercise at each intensity. The only effect of fb on PaO2 was seen at 60% VO2max. Also, maximal transpulmonary pressure difference (delta Ptpmax), and peak VI, and VE on a 25% slope were lower than those recorded at the other 3 inclines at 60% VO2max. At 100 and 115% VO2max, the effect of fb was less clear. While fb still differed, the only effects of fb at 100% VO2max were on delta Ptpmax. At 115% VO2max, fb on a 25% incline was lower than that for 0 and 5% slopes. The only other difference noted at this intensity was in VT on 10% slope. However, there was no difference between VTS recorded at inclines of 0, 5 or 25% at 115% VO2max. There was no effect of fb or exercise intensity on Ve at 100 or 115% VO2max. There was no change in PaO2, fb, VT, delta Ptpmax or VI and VE as exercise intensity increased from 60-115% VO2max on slopes of 0, 5 or 10%. However, for exercise on the 25% incline (i.e. with lower fb), each of these parameters increased (or decreased for PaO2) from 60-100%, but not from 100-115% VO2max. Failure of peak airflow and VT to increase when intensity increased was associated with the development of hypoxaemia and hypercapnoea, regardless of slope or fb. It is concluded that while a low fb may have some beneficial effect on gas exchange during submaximal exercise at approximately 60% VO2max, this effect disappears as exercise intensity increases. There appear to be limits to the peak airflows that can be generated by horses during strenuous exercise, and these limits may be reached regardless of fb. Flow limitation per se may play a greater role in the development of exercise-induced hypoxaemia and hypercapnoea in horses than dose fb. PMID:10659215

  9. Circulating inflammatory miRNA signature in response to different doses of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Dvalos, Alberto; Montero, Ana; Garca-Gonzlez, ngela; Tyshkovska, Iryna; Gonzlez-Medina, Antonio; Soares, Sara M A; Martnez-Camblor, Pablo; Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Rabadn, Manuel; Daz-Martnez, ngel E; beda, Natalia; Iglesias-Gutirrez, Eduardo

    2015-07-15

    While moderate acute exercise has been associated with strong anti-inflammatory mechanisms, strenuous exercise has been linked to deleterious inflammatory perturbations. It is therefore fundamental to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade. Information on novel regulators such as circulating inflammatory microRNAs (c-inflammamiRs) is incomplete. In this study, we evaluated the response of a panel of c-inflammamiRs to different doses of acute aerobic exercise. We first studied the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade in serum samples of nine active middle-aged males immediately before and after (0 h, 24 h, 72 h) 10-km, half-marathon, and marathon races. Next, we analyzed the circulating profile of 106 specific c-inflammamiRs immediately before) and after (0 h, 24 h) 10-km (low inflammatory response) and marathon (high inflammatory response) races. Analysis of classical inflammatory parameters revealed a dose-dependent effect of aerobic exercise on systemic inflammation, with higher levels detected after marathon. We observed an increase in miR-150-5p immediately after the 10-km race. Levels of 12 c-inflammamiRs were increased immediately after the marathon (let-7d-3p, let-7f-2-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-132-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-223-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-424-3p, and miR-424-5p). c-inflammamiRs returned to basal levels after 24 h. Correlation and in silico analyses supported a close association between the observed c-inflammamiR pattern and regulation of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, we found that different doses of acute aerobic exercise induced a distinct and specific c-inflammamiR response, which may be associated with control of the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade. Our findings point to c-inflammamiRs as potential biomarkers of exercise-induced inflammation, and hence, exercise dose. PMID:25997943

  10. Exercise in neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Abresch, R Ted; Carter, Gregory T; Han, Jay J; McDonald, Craig M

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the benefits and contraindications of exercise on individuals with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). Specific exercise prescriptions for individuals with NMDs do not exist because the evidence base is limited. Understanding the effect of exercise on individuals with NMDs requires the implementation of a series of multicenter, randomized controlled trials that are sufficiently powered and use reliable and valid outcome measures to assess the effect of exercise interventions-a major effort for each NMD. In addition to traditional measures of exercise efficacy, outcome variables should include measures of functional status and health-related quality of life. PMID:22938880

  11. Exercise, Stress Resistance, and Central Serotonergic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in humans and prevents serotonin-dependent behavioral consequences of stress in rodents. Evidence reviewed herein is consistent with the hypothesis that exercise increases stress resistance by producing neuroplasticity at multiple sites of the central serotonergic system, which all help to limit the behavioral impact of acute increases in serotonin during stressor exposure. PMID:21508844

  12. Exercise and the microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Orla; Cronin, Owen; Clarke, Siobhan F; Murphy, Eileen F; Molloy, Micheal G; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is linked with poor health, most commonly obesity and associated disorders, the corollary being that exercise offers a preventive strategy. However, the scope of exercise biology extends well beyond energy expenditure and has emerged as a great ‘polypill’, which is safe, reliable and cost-effective not only in disease prevention but also treatment. Biological mechanisms by which exercise influences homeostasis are becoming clearer and involve multi-organ systemic adaptations. Most of the elements of a modern lifestyle influence the indigenous microbiota but few studies have explored the effect of increased physical activity. While dietary responses to exercise obscure the influence of exercise alone on gut microbiota, professional athletes operating at the extremes of performance provide informative data. We assessed the relationship between extreme levels of exercise, associated dietary habits and gut microbiota composition, and discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise may exert a direct or indirect influence on gut microbiota. PMID:25800089

  13. Daily Supine LBNP Treadmill Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, Andy C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Fortney, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ballard, R. E.; William, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity or bed rest reduces upright exercise capacity. Exercise modes, durations, and intensities which will effectively and efficiently counteract such deconditioning are presently unresolved. We that daily supine treadmill interval training with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would prevent reduction in upright exercise capacity during 14 days of 6 deg. head-down bed rest (BR). Eight healthy male subjects underwent two 14 day BR protocols separated by 3 months. In a crossover design, subjects either remained at strict BR or performed 40 min of daily exercise consisting of supine walking and running at intensities varying from 40-80% of pre-BR upright peak oxygen uptake (VO2). LBNP during supine exercise was used to provide 1.0 to 1.2 times body weight of footward force. An incremental upright treadmill test to measure submaximal and peak exercise responses was given pre- and post-BR. In the non-exercise condition, peak VO2 and time to exhaustion were reduced 16 +/- 4% and 10 +/- 1% (p less than 0.05), respectively, from pre-BR. With LBNP exercise these variables were not significantly different (NS) from pre-BR. During submaximal treadmill speeds after BR, heart rate was higher (11 +/- 11 bpm, p less than 0.05) and respiratory exchange ratio was elevated (p less than 0.05) in the no exercise condition. Both were maintained at pre-BR levels in the LBNP exercise condition (NS from pre-BR). Since this supine treadmill interval training with addition of LBNP maintained upright exercise responses and capacity during BR, this countermeasure may also be effective during space flight.

  14. Intention to Exercise in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Simon S.; Doyle, Geoffrey; Pascoe, Thomas; Douglas, James A; Jorgensen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and serious health issue that is strongly associated with excess weight. Exercise may be an effective mechanism for reducing the severity of OSA both in association with, and independent of, reduction in body weight. As such, increased exercise has been suggested as a potential intervention for OSA, particularly for patients with mild to moderate clinical severity. However, it is unknown how ready to engage in exercise patients with OSA are. Self-reported exercise intention was assessed in 206 consecutive patients attending a large tertiary sleep disorders service in Australia. Classification of the patients by Stage of Change, a construct of the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change, was supported by differences between the groups in level of habitual self-reported exercise. Cluster analysis identified 4 potential patient types, with differing profiles in perceived costs and benefits of exercise, and exercise-related self-efficacy. The validity of these patient clusters was also supported by differences between the groups in current self-reported exercise levels. The results may help to identify patients who are more likely to engage in increased exercise, and to identify barriers to exercise in patients less inclined to increase their exercise. Citation: Smith SS; Doyle G; Pascoe T et al. Intention to exercise in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):689694. PMID:18198801

  15. Physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Sculley, Dean V; Hodson, Jacob A; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether different levels of hypoxia affect physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise or subsequent cardiovascular and perceptual responses. Twelve resistance-trained young men (age, 25.3 4.3 years; height, 179.0 4.5 cm; body mass, 83.4 9.1 kg) were tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the back squat and deadlift. Following this, participants completed 3 separate randomized trials of 5 5 repetitions at 80% 1RM, with 3 minutes rest between sets, in normoxia (NORM; fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 0.21), moderate-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.16), or high-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.13) by a portable hypoxic unit. Peak and mean force and power variables were monitored during exercise. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed immediately following each set. No differences in force or power variables were evident between conditions. Similar trends were evident in these variables across each set and across the exercise session in each condition. SpO2 was lower in hypoxic conditions than in NORM, whereas HR was higher following sets performed in hypoxia. There were no differences between conditions in RPE. These results indicate that a hypoxic stimulus during high-intensity resistance exercise does not alter physical performance during repetitions and sets or affect how strenuous exercise is perceived to be. This novel training strategy can be used without adversely affecting the physical training dose experienced and may provide benefits over the equivalent training in NORM. PMID:25226332

  16. Diencephalic efflux of calcium ions in the monkey during exercise, thermal stress and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Gisolfi, C. V.; Mora, F.; Myers, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    1. The diencephalon of the unanaesthetized macaque monkey was radio-labelled with calcium by a microinjection of 6-8 ?C 45Ca2+ into the third cerebral ventricle through a permanently implanted cannula. Successive 5 min pushpull perfusions of the mid-line hypothalamic region with an artificial C.S.F. were carried out at a rate of 28 ?l./min every 20 min. A washout curve of declining 45Ca2+ radioactivity was thus generated. 2. When the monkey exercised strenuously on a special `rowing machine' to obtain highly palatable banana pellets, its body temperature rose sharply. As the monkey exercised, during a sequence of pushpull perfusions, the concurrent efflux of 45Ca2+ ions increased markedly in the corresponding samples of diencephalic perfusate. This enhanced activity of calcium ions continued throughout a 30 min work period and persisted as long as the monkey's temperature was elevated in the interval immediately following exercise. 3. Exposure of the monkey's trunk, between neck and thigh to cold air of 5 C likewise augmented the amount of 45Ca2+ ions in the diencephalic pushpull perfusates; however, a similar exposure to air warmed to 35 C failed to alter the pattern of 45Ca2+ efflux from the animal's diencephalon. If a fasted monkey consumed only the banana pellets but was not exercised, the level of 45Ca2+ in the perfusate also increased transiently, just at the onset of feeding. 4. We conclude that a local change in calcium transport, binding or other cellular activity of the cation within the diencephalon could play an important role in the central mechanism underlying the set-point rise in a primate's temperature which accompanies vigorous exercise. Further, the results support the idea that this cation functions in the diencephalic control of metabolic heat production as well as in the overall processes of energy metabolism, particularly in relation to feeding. PMID:415131

  17. Combined carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Andrew J; Murgatroyd, Scott R; McNab, Alison; Whyte, Laura J; Easton, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that adding protein (PRO) to a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement can improve thermoregulatory capacity, exercise performance and recovery. However, no study has investigated these effects in a competitive sporting context. This study assessed the effects of combined CHO-PRO supplementation on physiological responses and exercise performance during 8 days of strenuous competition in a hot environment. Twenty-eight cyclists participating in the TransAlp mountain bike race were randomly assigned to fitness-matched placebo (PLA 76 g L(-1) CHO) or CHO-PRO (18 g L(-1) PRO, 72 g L(-1) CHO) groups. Participants were given enough supplements to allow ad libitum consumption. Physiological and anthropometric variables were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Body mass decreased significantly from race stage 1 to 8 in the PLA group (-0.75 0.22 kg, P = 0.01) but did not change in the CHO-PRO group (0.42 0.42 kg, P = 0.35). Creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were substantially elevated during the race, but were not different between groups (P = 0.82, P = 0.44, respectively). Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the CHO-PRO versus the PLA group (P = 0.04) and the rise in tympanic temperature from pre- to post-exercise was significantly less in CHO-PRO versus PLA (P = 0.01). The CHO-PRO group also completed the 8 stages significantly quicker than the PLA group (2,277 127 vs. 2,592 68 min, respectively, P = 0.02). CHO-PRO supplementation therefore appears to prevent body mass loss, enhance thermoregulatory capacity and improve competitive exercise performance despite no effect on muscle damage. PMID:21259024

  18. PTH Signaling During Exercise Contributes to Bone Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gardinier, Joseph D.; Mohamed, Fatma; Kohn, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Improving the structural integrity of bone reduces fracture risk and development of osteoporosis later in life. Exercise can increase the mechanical properties of bone, and this increase is often attributed to the dynamic loading created during exercise. However, the increase in systemic PTH levels during exercise gives reason to hypothesize that PTH signaling also regulates bone adaptation in response to exercise. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to establish the impact PTH signaling has on bone adaptation during exercise by inhibiting PTH signaling with PTH(7-34) and the second aim was to determine if increasing PTH levels during exercise with PTH(1-34) can augment bone adaptation. Thirty minutes after a single bout of running on a treadmill, mice exhibited a two-fold increase in systemic PTH levels. Under the same exercise regimen, the influence of PTH signaling on bone adaptation during exercise was then evaluated in mice after 21 consecutive days of exercise and treatment with PTH(7-34), PTH(1-34), or vehicle. Exercise alone caused a significant increase in trabecular bone volume with adaptation to a more plate-like structure, which was inhibited with PTH(7-34) during exercise. Changes in structural and tissue-level mechanical properties during exercise occurred in the absence of significant changes to cortical bone geometry. Inhibition of PTH signaling during exercise attenuated the changes in structural-level mechanical properties, but not tissue-level properties. Enhanced PTH signaling during exercise with PTH(1-34) increased trabecular and cortical bone volume, but had little effect on the structural and tissue-level mechanical properties compared to exercise alone. Our study is the first to demonstrate that bone adaptation during exercise is not only a function of the dynamic loading, but also PTH release, and that PTH signaling contributes differently at the structural and tissue-levels. PMID:25529455

  19. Understanding Exercise, Diet and Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Warm-up Endurance (Cardiopulmonary) Exercise Resistance (Strengthening) Exercise Flexibility (Stretching) Exercise Cool-down If you are over ... household items initially while forming the exercise habit. Flexibility (Stretching) Exercise Gentle stretching exercises can be used ...

  20. Exercise, Immunity, and Susceptibility to Infection: A J-Shaped Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; Shek, Pang N.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that regular moderate exercise boosts immunity, but intense training may reduce it. Objective data do not clearly show a J-shaped relationship between exercise and immune function. Nutritional, hygienic, exercise, environmental, and pharmacologic strategies can minimize risks of infection. Practical measures to reduce

  1. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  2. Resistance exercise training and the orthostatic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.

  3. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on mood.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Cox, S

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two female students participated in a single-session experiment during which they carried out two 8-min trials of high-intensity exercise and two 8-min trials of low-intensity exercise. One high- and one low-exercise trial were accompanied by music; the other two trials were accompanied by metronome. Mood was assessed with a modification of the Profile of Mood States before and immediately after each trial. The purpose of the experiment was disguised to reduce the influence of subject expectations on mood responses. Participants were divided into fit and unfit groups based on heart rate responses during high-exercise trials. Overall, high-intensity exercise led to increases in tension/anxiety and fatigue, whereas positive mood changes (vigor and exhilaration) were seen following low-intensity exercise only. No group differences in mood responses were observed. Explanations of these results are considered in light of other literature concerning the acute effects of exercise on mood. PMID:3168978

  4. Do physical exercise and reading reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease? a cross-sectional study on factors associated with Parkinson’s disease in elderly Chinese veterans

    PubMed Central

    Zou, YM; Tan, JP; Li, N; Yang, JS; Yu, BC; Yu, JM; Zhao, YM; Wang, LN

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for and factors protecting against Parkinson’s disease (PD) in elderly Chinese veterans. Methods Using a database containing detailed information on the health status of the nervous system in elderly Chinese veterans, univariate and multivariate analyses of factors that may be associated with PD were performed. Univariate analysis of qualitative data was done using the Pearson Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, and the Mann–Whitney U nonparametric test was used for univariate analysis of quantitative data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for and factors protecting against PD in elderly Chinese veterans. Results A total of 9,676 elderly Chinese veterans were enrolled, including 228 cases with PD and 183 cases with Parkinson’s syndrome, with 9,265 non-PD subjects serving as controls. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.343, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.028–1.755) and medical history of essential tremor (OR 1.228, 95% CI 1.081–1.396) were identified as independent risk factors for PD, with age being the most important risk factor. Physical exercise (OR 0.478, 95% CI 0.355–0.643) and reading (OR 0.513, 95% CI 0.357–0.735) were identified as independent factors protecting against PD, and physical exercise showed better protection against PD relative to reading. Smoking, alcohol use, anemia, cerebral trauma, education level, and electromagnetic field exposure showed no association with PD. Conclusion Physical exercise and reading may be independent factors that protect against PD among elderly Chinese veterans, while advancing age and medical history of essential tremor may be independent risk factors for PD. This study was cross-sectional, so further research is needed to confirm its results. PMID:25834444

  5. Exercise compliance and the gym ball: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Larry G

    2001-01-01

    Manipulation and exercise are recommended by chiropractors for treatment and prevention of low back problems. Many patients stop their exercise program with improvement in their symptoms. The success of exercises for the prevention of low back pain is dependent on several factors, one being continued compliance to the program. Only a small percentage of the general population do regular exercise; therefore, it is essential that patients recognize the importance of regular exercise in reducing the recurrence of their low back pain. This case study shows how the use of a gym ball appears to have improved compliance and reduced the incidence of low back pain for one patient with a history of re-occurring low back pain and a poor record of exercise compliance. The question must be asked, is this an case incident or is use of the gym ball an appropriate treatment for low back pain?

  6. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. PMID:26377556

  7. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscles ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  8. Exercise for the Overweight Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

  9. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  10. Exercise in the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Mesdaghinia, Azam; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension that is occurring in increasing frequency across the global population. Although there is some controversy about its diagnostic criteria, oxidative stress, which is defined as imbalance between the production and inactivation of reactive oxygen species, has a major pathophysiological role in all the components of this disease. Oxidative stress and consequent inflammation induce insulin resistance, which likely links the various components of this disease. We briefly review the role of oxidative stress as a major component of the metabolic syndrome and then discuss the impact of exercise on these pathophysiological pathways. Included in this paper is the effect of exercise in reducing fat-induced inflammation, blood pressure, and improving muscular metabolism. PMID:22829955

  11. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  12. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

  13. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

  14. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-01-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward ‘central command’ mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal ‘tonic’ activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O2 transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes – probably acting in concert with feedforward central command – contribute significantly to preserving O2 transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development. PMID:22826128

  15. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70% of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50min after exercise (uncorrected p<0.005, cluster size ?10). Regional CBF was increased 1817% and reduced 812% following moderate- and low-intensity cycling, respectively. In contrast, CBF changes were similar between sessions in the right lentiform nucleus and mid-frontal gyrus, as well as the left temporal and parietal gyri. Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2)?0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation. PMID:26003127

  16. The response of the novel pro-inflammatory molecules S100A8/A9 to exercise.

    PubMed

    Mooren, F C; Lechtermann, A; Fobker, M; Brandt, B; Sorg, C; Vlker, K; Nacken, W

    2006-09-01

    Exercise shares many similarities with the acute phase response of inflammatory diseases. Recently, elevated serum levels of the novel pro-inflammatory molecules of the S100 protein family, S100A8 and S100A9, have been associated with various inflammatory diseases. The present study was conducted to assess their potential roles as inflammatory markers in monitoring the exercise-induced immune response. Seventeen male subjects of different training status performed a marathon run. Furthermore 13 subjects (10 male, 3 female) performed three different treadmill tests: strenuous (STE), moderate (MTE), and downhill (DTE). S100A8/A9 complexes were measured by ELISA, while white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as markers of the inflammatory response. Serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration was determined as a marker for muscle damage. After marathon S100A8/A9 increased dramatically during the early post-exercise period and returned to resting levels one day after the run. A similar pattern was found for WBC, while CK and CRP reached their maximum on the day after the run. Moreover, S100A8/A9 release was higher in the subgroup of well-trained athletes. The kinetic of the S100A8/A9 release after the treadmill tests depended on exercise intensity and was prolonged after eccentric exercise. In summary, the present results indicate that the novel pro-inflammatory molecules S100A8/A9 are very early and sensitive markers of the exercise-induced inflammatory response. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the applicability of S100A8/A9 for monitoring the training process and to elucidate the dependence on training status. PMID:16944403

  17. Lipid metabolism during exercise.

    PubMed

    Ranallo, R F; Rhodes, E C

    1998-07-01

    Fat is an extremely important substrate for muscle contraction, both at rest and during exercise. Triglycerides (TGs), stored in adipose tissue and within muscle fibres, are considered to be the main source of the free fatty acids (FFAs) oxidised during exercise. It is still unclear, however, how the use of these substrates is regulated during exercise. The regulation seems to be multifactorial and includes: (i) dietary and nutritional status; (ii) hormonal milieu; (iii) exercise mode, intensity and duration; and (iv) training status. On the other hand, the mechanism for FFA transport from its storage as triglycerides in adipose tissue and muscle to its place of utilisation in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and liver is more clearly understood. It has been determined that the plasma FFA turnover rate is sufficiently rapid to account for most of the fat metabolised during low intensity exercise (25 to 40% VO2max). However, an exercise intensity of 65% VO2max results in a slight decrease in the amount of plasma FFA uptake by muscle tissue. Other studies have found that during prolonged exercise, muscle TGs become the predominant source of energy obtained from fat. Furthermore, it is widely documented that endurance activities increase the energy utilisation from fat while sparing carbohydrate sources. For example, during exercise on a cycle ergometer, nonplasma FFAs and plasma FFAs contribute 40%, and carbohydrates 60%, of the total calculated amount of energy expenditure before exercise and vice versa after exercise (60% nonplasma and plasma FFAs and 40% carbohydrates). Although it was many years before it was fully demonstrated, fat is now known to be transported in the blood as FFA bound to the protein carrier albumin. The mobilisation of FFA is primarily a function of sympathetic nervous activity directed towards the adipocytes, or the 'fat pad'. This nervous activity can be direct or may be an effect of circulating catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine). This article summarises the role of fat metabolism during exercise. PMID:9739539

  18. Exercise Helps Ease Psychosis Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has shown that exercise can benefit people with schizophrenia. The study was published recently in the journal ... News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise ...

  19. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  20. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can be active You can do the following exercises anytime and almost anywhere. As you get stronger, ... your ankles. This will increase how effective the exercise is. Try to exercise 2 or more days ...

  1. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (53 KB) Español ... who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis. The Best Bone Building Exercise The best exercise for your bones ...

  2. Mouse thymocyte apoptosis and cell loss in response to exercise and antioxidant administration.

    PubMed

    Quadrilatero, Joe; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2005-09-01

    Various physical and psychological stressors can cause thymocyte apoptosis and cell loss in rodents. Although glucocorticoids (GC) are commonly implicated, oxidative stress may also play a role. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of strenuous treadmill running, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on thymocyte loss and apoptosis. Eighty-eight female C57BL/6 mice were given NAC (1 g/kg, i.p.) or saline (SAL) 30 min before 90 min of treadmill exercise at a 2 degrees slope (EX; 30 min at 22 m/min; 30 min at 25 m/min; and 30 min at 28 m/min) and sacrificed immediately (Imm) or 24 h following EX. Control mice (NonEX) were exposed to treadmill noise and vibration without running. Thymocytes were isolated and analyzed for phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (Annexin V), loss of membrane integrity, mitochondria membrane depolarization, intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, and intracellular glutathione (GSH) as well as protein levels of caspase 3, Bcl-2, and cytosolic cytochrome c. Blood was analyzed for corticosterone (CORT) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. Exercise stress caused a significant increase in plasma CORT concentrations in EX + SAL + Imm and EX + NAC + Imm groups compared to NonEX mice. Relative to NonEX mice, thymocytes isolated from EX + SAL + Imm mice showed signs of an early apoptotic profile as indicated by decreased GSH stores and increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization. These effects were followed by a 50% reduction in thymocyte numbers 24 h post-exercise (EX + SAL + 24 h). Alterations in GSH levels, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and thymocyte loss were not observed in mice receiving NAC. These results suggest that exercise-induced thymocyte apoptosis and cell loss may be mediated via an oxidative stress pathway. PMID:16061151

  3. Mitochondria in exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Di Meo, S; Venditti, P

    2001-01-01

    In recent years it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the damage to muscle and other tissues induced by acute exercise. Despite the small availability of direct evidence for ROS production during exercise, there is an abundance of literature providing indirect support that oxidative stress occurs during exercise. The electron transport associated with the mitochondrial respiratory chain is considered the major process leading to ROS production at rest and during exercise. It is widely assumed that during exercise the increased electron flow through the mitochondrial electron transport chain leads to an increased rate of ROS production. On the other hand, results obtained by in vitro experiments indicate that mitochondrial ROS production is lower in state 3 (ADP-stimulated) than in state 4 (basal) respiration. It is possible, however, that factors, such as temperature, that are modified in vivo during intense physical activity induce changes (uncoupling associated with loss of cytochrome oxidase activity) leading to increased ROS production. The mitochondrial respiratory chain could also be a potential source of ROS in tissues, such as liver, kidney and nonworking muscles, that during exercise undergo partial ischemia because of reduced blood supply. Sufficient oxygen is available to interact with the increasingly reduced respiratory chain and enhance the ROS generation. At the cessation of exercise, blood flow to hypoxic tissues resumes leading to their reoxygenation. This mimics the ischemia-reperfusion phenomenon, which is known to cause excessive production of free radicals. Apart from a theoretical rise in ROS, there is little evidence that exercise-induced oxidative stress is due to its increased mitochondrial generation. On the other hand, if mitochondrial production of ROS supplies a remarkable contribution to exercise-induced oxidative stress, mitochondria should be a primary target of oxidative damage. Unfortunately, there are controversial reports concerning the exercise effects on structural and functional characteristics of mitochondria. However, the isolation of mitochondrial fractions by differential centrifugation has shown that the amount of damaged mitochondria, recovered in the lightest fraction, is remarkably increased by long-lasting exercise. PMID:11223645

  4. Saliva composition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Luca, A; Prez, M; Vaquero, A F; Urea, R

    1998-07-01

    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities. PMID:9739538

  5. Exercise Against Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for

  6. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens Print A A A Text Size en espaol ... not enough.) What more should we do? First, teens should do 60 minutes or more of physical ...

  7. Exercise and Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you can exercise. Examples of cardiovascular exercise are: • Swimming • Running • Bicycling • Walking • Cross-country skiing • Aerobic activities ... means doing different activities, such as tennis and swimming. Water-based activities, such as swimming or water ...

  8. Exercise Against Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

  9. Exercise through Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should

  10. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  11. Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharman, James E; La Gerche, Andre; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Evidence for the benefits of regular exercise is irrefutable and increasing physical activity levels should be a major goal at all levels of health care. People with hypertension are less physically active than those without hypertension and there is strong evidence supporting the blood pressure-lowering ability of regular exercise, especially in hypertensive individuals. This narrative review discusses evidence relating to exercise and cardiovascular (CV) risk in people with hypertension. Comparisons between aerobic, dynamic resistance, and static resistance exercise have been made along with the merit of different exercise volumes. High-intensity interval training and isometric resistance training appear to have strong CV protective effects, but with limited data in hypertensive people, more work is needed in this area. Screening recommendations, exercise prescriptions, and special considerations are provided as a guide to decrease CV risk among hypertensive people who exercise or wish to begin. It is recommended that hypertensive individuals should aim to perform moderate intensity aerobic exercise activity for at least 30 minutes on most (preferably all) days of the week in addition to resistance exercises on 2-3 days/week. Professionals with expertise in exercise prescription may provide additional benefit to patients with high CV risk or in whom more intense exercise training is planned. Despite lay and media perceptions, CV events associated with exercise are rare and the benefits of regular exercise far outweigh the risks. In summary, current evidence supports the assertion of exercise being a cornerstone therapy in reducing CV risk and in the prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:25305061

  12. Updating ACSM's Recommendations for Exercise Preparticipation Health Screening.

    PubMed

    Riebe, Deborah; Franklin, Barry A; Thompson, Paul D; Garber, Carol Ewing; Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Magal, Meir; Pescatello, Linda S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) exercise preparticipation health screening process is to identify individuals who may be at elevated risk for exercise-related sudden cardiac death and/or acute myocardial infarction. Recent studies have suggested that using the current ACSM exercise preparticipation health screening guidelines can result in excessive physician referrals, possibly creating a barrier to exercise participation. In addition, there is considerable evidence that exercise is safe for most people and has many associated health and fitness benefits; exercise-related cardiovascular events are often preceded by warning signs/symptoms; and the cardiovascular risks associated with exercise lessen as individuals become more physically active/fit. Consequently, a scientific roundtable was convened by the ACSM in June 2014 to evaluate the current exercise preparticipation health screening recommendations. The roundtable proposed a new evidence-informed model for exercise preparticipation health screening on the basis of three factors: 1) the individual's current level of physical activity, 2) presence of signs or symptoms and/or known cardiovascular, metabolic, or renal disease, and 3) desired exercise intensity, as these variables have been identified as risk modulators of exercise-related cardiovascular events. Identifying cardiovascular disease risk factors remains an important objective of overall disease prevention and management, but risk factor profiling is no longer included in the exercise preparticipation health screening process. The new ACSM exercise preparticipation health screening recommendations reduce possible unnecessary barriers to adopting and maintaining a regular exercise program, a lifestyle of habitual physical activity, or both, and thereby emphasize the important public health message that regular physical activity is important for all individuals. PMID:26473759

  13. Exercise and cancer recovery.

    PubMed

    Visovsky, Constance; Dvorak, Colleen

    2005-05-01

    Disease and cancer treatment-related side effects such as decreased energy level, muscle weakness, and declines in functional status and body mass have been well documented. There is evidence that exercise, such as low intensity aerobics walking, Tai Chi, or cycling, results in an overall decrease in fatigue levels over the course of cancer treatment. Additionally, there is evidence that regular physical activity or exercise can decrease emotional stress, blood pressure, the duration of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pain. Exercise also has been shown to increase quality of life and improve the maximal oxygen uptake during exertion, sleep patterns, and cognition. However, the majority of studies of exercise and cancer have been conducted with women with early stage breast cancer, limiting the generalizability of these studies to other cancer populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of the extant research evidence about th e benefits of exercise related to cancer recovery. PMID:15977980

  14. Exercise and functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944

  15. [Exercise and redox signaling regulation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Long, Jian-Gang; Liu, Jian-Kang

    2014-08-01

    ROS, identified as signaling molecules, are responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis in vivo. Appropriate exercise promotes the generation of physiological ROS, enhances the antioxidative potential, promotes exercise performance, and improves metabolism, as well as retards aging and related diseases; whereas overload exercise causes excess ROS, resulting in exercise-induced fatigue or even exercise-induced injury. Mitochondria are the main pool of ROS production and act as the key organelles in modulating intracellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial nutrients not only maintain physiological redox homeostasis, but also ameliorate oxidative stress and fatigue induced by overload exercise, eventually improving exercise performance and preventing/ameliorating exercise-induced injury. PMID:25507845

  16. [Exercise and redox signaling regulation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Long, Jian-Gang; Liu, Jian-Kang

    2014-08-01

    ROS, identified as signaling molecules, are responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis in vivo. Appropriate exercise promotes the generation of physiological ROS, enhances the antioxidative potential, promotes exercise performance, and improves metabolism, as well as retards aging and related diseases; whereas overload exercise causes excess ROS, resulting in exercise-induced fatigue or even exercise-induced injury. Mitochondria are the main pool of ROS production and act as the key organelles in modulating intracellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial nutrients not only maintain physiological redox homeostasis, but also ameliorate oxidative stress and fatigue induced by overload exercise, eventually improving exercise performance and preventing/ameliorating exercise-induced injury. PMID:25434247

  17. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,

  18. Exercise physiology in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) suggest that noncardiac peripheral factors contribute to the reduced peak V(o2) (peak exercise oxygen uptake) and to its improvement after endurance exercise training. A greater understanding of the peripheral skeletal muscle vascular adaptations that occur with physical conditioning may allow for tailored exercise rehabilitation programs. The identification of specific mechanisms that improve whole body and peripheral skeletal muscle oxygen uptake could establish potential therapeutic targets for medical therapies and a means to follow therapeutic response. PMID:24975908

  19. Motivators for Treadmill Exercise After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Barbara; Michael, Kathleen; Shaughnessy, Marianne; Kopunek, Susan; Nahm, Eun Shim; Macko, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore factors that motivated older adults with ischemic stroke to engage in a task-oriented treadmill aerobic exercise (T-AEX) intervention study. Method Participants included community-dwelling individuals post stroke with mild-to-moderate hemiparetic gait deficits who completed a 6-month T-AEX study. A total of 29 participants attended focus groups or individual telephone interviews. Results Thirty-nine codes were identified and were reduced to 8 themes: personal goals supported by 7 codes, psychological benefits supported by 8 codes, physical benefits supported by 10 codes, research-associated supervised treadmill exercise benefits supported by 5 codes, objective and verbal encouragement received supported by 4 codes, social support related to exercise supported by 2 codes, improvement in instrumental activities of daily living supported by 2 codes, and self-determination supported by 1 code. All themes reflected factors that influenced subjects’ willingness to participate in the study and adhere to the exercise intervention. Of the themes identified, personal goals, physical benefits, and psychological benefits occurred most frequently. Conclusion This qualitative study provides information that may be used to enhance motivation to exercise in individuals with stroke and promote carryover and integration of exercise behaviors into everyday life. PMID:19008208

  20. Can Exercise Positively Influence the Intervertebral Disc?

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel L; Albracht, Kirsten; Bruggemann, Gert-Peter; Vergroesen, Pieter-Paul A; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2016-04-01

    To better understand what kinds of sports and exercise could be beneficial for the intervertebral disc (IVD), we performed a review to synthesise the literature on IVD adaptation with loading and exercise. The state of the literature did not permit a systematic review; therefore, we performed a narrative review. The majority of the available data come from cell or whole-disc loading models and animal exercise models. However, some studies have examined the impact of specific sports on IVD degeneration in humans and acute exercise on disc size. Based on the data available in the literature, loading types that are likely beneficial to the IVD are dynamic, axial, at slow to moderate movement speeds, and of a magnitude experienced in walking and jogging. Static loading, torsional loading, flexion with compression, rapid loading, high-impact loading and explosive tasks are likely detrimental for the IVD. Reduced physical activity and disuse appear to be detrimental for the IVD. We also consider the impact of genetics and the likelihood of a 'critical period' for the effect of exercise in IVD development. The current review summarises the literature to increase awareness amongst exercise, rehabilitation and ergonomic professionals regarding IVD health and provides recommendations on future directions in research. PMID:26666742

  1. Estimating the Energy Costs of Intermittent Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B.; Fountaine, Charles

    2013-01-01

    To date, steady state models represent the only acceptable methodology for the estimation of exercise energy costs. Conversely, comparisons made between continuous and intermittent exercise generally reveal major physiological discrepancies, leading to speculation as to why steady state energy expenditure models should be applied to intermittent exercise. Under intermittent conditions, skeletal muscle invokes varying aerobic and anaerobic metabolic responses, each with the potential to make significant contributions to overall energy costs. We hypothesize that if the aerobic-only energetic profile of steady state exercise can be used to estimate the energetics of non-steady state and intermittent exercise, then the converse also must be true. In fact, reasonable estimates of energy costs to work volumes or work rates can be demonstrated under steady state, non-steady state and intermittent conditions; the problem with the latter two is metabolic variability. Using resistance training as a model, estimates of both aerobic and anaerobic energy cost components, as opposed to one or the other, have reduced the overall energetic variability that appears inherent to brief, intense, intermittent exercise models. PMID:24235988

  2. Exercise for falls prevention in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen R.; Close, Jacqueline C.T.; Heritier, Stephane; Heller, Gillian Z.; Howard, Kirsten; Allen, Natalie E.; Latt, Mark D.; Murray, Susan M.; O'Rourke, Sandra D.; Paul, Serene S.; Song, Jooeun; Fung, Victor S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease. Methods: Two hundred thirty-one people with Parkinson disease were randomized into exercise or usual-care control groups. Exercises were practiced for 40 to 60 minutes, 3 times weekly for 6 months. Primary outcomes were fall rates and proportion of fallers during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes were physical (balance, mobility, freezing of gait, habitual physical activity), psychological (fear of falling, affect), and quality-of-life measures. Results: There was no significant difference between groups in the rate of falls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–1.17, p = 0.18) or proportion of fallers (p = 0.45). Preplanned subgroup analysis revealed a significant interaction for disease severity (p < 0.001). In the lower disease severity subgroup, there were fewer falls in the exercise group compared with controls (IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.62, p < 0.001), while in the higher disease severity subgroup, there was a trend toward more falls in the exercise group (IRR = 1.61, 95% CI 0.86–3.03, p = 0.13). Postintervention, the exercise group scored significantly (p < 0.05) better than controls on the Short Physical Performance Battery, sit-to-stand, fear of falling, affect, and quality of life, after adjusting for baseline performance. Conclusions: An exercise program targeting balance, leg strength, and freezing of gait did not reduce falls but improved physical and psychological health. Falls were reduced in people with milder disease but not in those with more severe Parkinson disease. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with Parkinson disease, a minimally supervised exercise program does not reduce fall risk. This study lacked the precision to exclude a moderate reduction or modest increase in fall risk from exercise. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000303347). PMID:25552576

  3. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, J A; Wagner, P D

    1999-12-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) at or near sea level is now recognized to occur in a significant number of fit, healthy subjects of both genders and of varying ages. Our review aims to define EIAH and to critically analyze what we currently understand, and do not understand, about its underlying mechanisms and its consequences to exercise performance. Based on the effects on maximal O(2) uptake of preventing EIAH, we suggest that mild EIAH be defined as an arterial O(2) saturation of 93-95% (or 3-4% 25-30 Torr) and inadequate compensatory hyperventilation (arterial PCO(2) >35 Torr) commonly contribute to EIAH, as do acid- and temperature-induced shifts in O(2) dissociation at any given arterial PO(2). In turn, expiratory flow limitation presents a significant mechanical constraint to exercise hyperpnea, whereas ventilation-perfusion ratio maldistribution and diffusion limitation contribute about equally to the excessive A-a DO(2). Exactly how diffusion limitation is incurred or how ventilation-perfusion ratio becomes maldistributed with heavy exercise remains unknown and controversial. Hypotheses linked to extravascular lung water accumulation or inflammatory changes in the "silent" zone of the lung's peripheral airways are in the early stages of exploration. Indirect evidence suggests that an inadequate hyperventilatory response is attributable to feedback inhibition triggered by mechanical constraints and/or reduced sensitivity to existing stimuli; but these mechanisms cannot be verified without a sensitive measure of central neural respiratory motor output. Finally, EIAH has detrimental effects on maximal O(2) uptake, but we have not yet determined the cause or even precisely identified which organ system, involved directly or indirectly with O(2) transport to muscle, is responsible for this limitation. PMID:10601141

  4. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia: consequences for locomotor muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Romer, Lee M; Dempsey, Jerome A; Lovering, Andrew; Eldridge, Marlowe

    2006-01-01

    Reductions in arterial O2 saturation (-5 to -10% SaO2 < rest) occur over time during sustained heavy intensity exercise in a normoxic environment, due primarily to the effects of acid pH and increased temperature on the position of the HbO2 dissociation curve. We prevented the desaturation via increased F1O2 (.23 to .29) and showed that exercise time to exhaustion was increased. We used supramaximal magnetic stimulation (1 - 100 Hz) of the femoral nerve to test for quadriceps fatigue. We used mildly hyperoxic inspirates (F1O2 .23 to .29) to prevent O2 desaturation. We then compared the amount of quadriceps fatigue incurred following cycling exercise at SaO2 98% vs. 91% with each trial carried out at equal exercise intensities (90% Max) and for equal durations. Preventing the normal exercise-induced O2 desaturation prevented about one-half the amount of exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue; plasma lactate and effort perception were also reduced. We conclude that the normal exercise-induced O2 desaturation during heavy intensity endurance exercise contributes significantly to exercise performance limitation in part because of its effect on locomotor muscle fatigue. These effects of EIAH were confirmed in mild environmental hypoxia (FIO2 .17, SaO2 88%) which significantly augmented the magnitude of exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue observed in normoxia. PMID:17089878

  5. Modulation of cardiovascular response to exercise by yoga training.

    PubMed

    Madanmohan; Udupa, Kaviraja; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Shatapathy, Chetan Chinmaya; Sahai, Ajit

    2004-10-01

    This study reports the effects of yoga training on cardiovascular response to exercise and the time course of recovery after the exercise. Cardiovascular response to exercise was determined by Harvard step test using a platform of 45 cm height. The subjects were asked to step up and down the platform at a rate of 30/min for a total duration of 5 min or until fatigue, whichever was earlier. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure response to exercise were measured in supine position before exercise and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10 minutes after the exercise. Rate-pressure product [RPP = (HR x SP)/100] and double product (Do P = HR x MP), which are indices of work done by the heart were also calculated. Exercise produced a significant increase in HR, systolic pressure, RPP & DoP and a significant decrease in diastolic pressure. After two months of yoga training, exercise-induced changes in these parameters were significantly reduced. It is concluded that after yoga training a given level of exercise leads to a milder cardiovascular response, suggesting better exercise tolerance. PMID:15907055

  6. Hypertension risk: exercise is medicine* for most but not all.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Abe, Takashi; Rossow, Lindy M; Ozaki, Hayao; Pujol, Thomas J; Bemben, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for heart disease, and chronic exercise is recognized as a method for reducing resting blood pressure. Recent studies report that while exercise may benefit the majority of the population, the blood pressure adaptation is not always uniform; some individuals have an adverse blood pressure response to chronic aerobic exercise programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual changes in resting blood pressure in response to exercise training regimens aimed at increasing muscle mass and strength. We have also included exercise (resistance and aerobic) in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR). Of 74 individuals, 11% had an increased risk, 16% had a decreased risk and 73% had no change in risk classification following exercise. The statistical analysis found that the group that decreased risk with exercise tended to have higher baseline levels of blood pressure. However, there were little baseline differences between the group that increased risk or the group that had no change in risk, suggesting that starting values may not necessarily determine who will see a beneficial response. In conclusion, the blood pressure adaptation to resistance training and exercise with BFR is not homogeneous with some participants increasing, decreasing or staying in the same risk category following an exercise intervention. These are important findings as they would not have been noted or discussed when looking only at the group means. Future research may identify molecular predictors so that individuals at risk for adverse events can be identified prior to exercise. PMID:23742035

  7. Can exercise change the stereotypes associated with individuals with cancer?

    PubMed

    Clément-Guillotin, C; Falzon, C; d'Arripe-Longueville, F

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercising can positively influence the stereotypes associated with individuals with cancer and, more specifically, have an effect on the impression formation related to warmth and competence. A total of 193 French college students (Mage  = 21.08, SD = 1.44 years; 88 females and 105 males) were randomly assigned to one of the conditions of a 2 (participant sex) × 2 (target health status: cancer vs no information) × 3 (target exercise status: exerciser vs non-exerciser vs no information) experimental design. Results indicated that exercising target with cancer was perceived as the most competent compared with targets with cancer and those without information about cancer. These results suggest that exercising could be an effective way to undermine cancer stereotypes and reduce discrimination against people with cancer. PMID:24979050

  8. Exercise performance during captopril and atenolol treatment in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Van Baak, M A; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T; Tan, E S

    1991-01-01

    1. Maximal aerobic exercise capacity, submaximal endurance exercise performance, and exercise haemodynamics have been studied in sixteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension during treatment with captopril and atenolol. 2. Administration of atenolol (1 x 100 mg day-1) or captopril (1 x 100 mg day-1) for 6 weeks resulted in similar supine and erect systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Heart rate was significantly lower during atenolol treatment. 3. Exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment, exercise diastolic blood pressure (at 100W) did not differ significantly. With atenolol exercise cardiac output was significantly lower and exercise stroke volume significantly higher than with captopril. 4. Maximal work rate, maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment (respectively 6%, 8% and 25%). Maximal respiratory exchange ratio and lactate concentration did not differ. 5. No statistically significant difference in submaximal endurance time between atenolol and captopril was found. Endurance time was reduced by 19% during atenolol and by 13% during captopril as compared with placebo. No difference in rating of perceived exertion between atenolol and captopril was present. 6. The results indicate that atenolol will reduce blood pressure during exercise more effectively than captopril in patients with hypertension. The limitation of submaximal endurance exercise performance by both agents is of similar magnitude. This may be regarded as an unwanted side effect in certain physically active patients with hypertension. PMID:1768565

  9. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; McGough, Ellen L

    2014-01-01

    In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults. PMID:24379659

  10. Exercise and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

  11. Part 1: potential dangers of extreme endurance exercise: how much is too much? Part 2: screening of school-age athletes.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The question is not whether exercise is or isn't one of the very best strategies for improving quality of life, cardiovascular (CV) health and longevity-it is. And there is no debate as to whether or not strenuous high-intensity endurance training produces an amazingly efficient, compliant, and powerful pump-it does. The essence of the controversy centers on what exactly is the ideal pattern of long-term physical activity (PA) for conferring robust and enduring CV health, while also optimizing life expectancy. With that goal in mind, this review will focus on the question: "Is more always better when it comes to exercise?" And if a dose-response curve exists for the therapeutic effects of PA, where is the upper threshold at which point further training begins to detract from the health and longevity benefits noted with moderate exercise? The emerging picture from the cumulative data on this hotly debated topic is that moderate exercise appears to be the sweet spot for bestowing lasting CV health and longevity. However, the specific definition of moderate in this context is not clear yet. PMID:25460846

  12. Creatine kinase MM TaqI and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms influence exercise-induced C-reactive protein levels.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Akimoto, Arthur K; Lordelo, Graciana S; Pereira, Luiz C S; Grisolia, Cesar K; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré

    2012-03-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptations, but exhausting exercise increases reactive oxygen species, which can cause muscular injuries with consequent inflammatory processes, implying jeopardized performance and possibly overtraining. Acute strenuous exercise almost certainly exceeds the benefits of physical activity; it can compromise performance and may contribute to increased future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in athletes. Polymorphisms in the muscle-type creatine kinase (CK-MM) gene may influence performance and adaptation to training, while many potentially significant genetic variants are reported as risk factors for CVD. Therefore, we investigated the influence of polymorphisms in CK-MM TaqI and NcoI, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) and C-reactive protein (CRP G1059C) genes on exercise-induced damage and inflammation markers. Blood samples were taken immediately after a race (of at least 4 km) that took place outdoors on flat tracks, and were submitted to genotyping and biochemical evaluation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CK, CRP and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). CK-MM TaqI polymorphism significantly influenced results of AST, CK and hs-CRP, and an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with CRP level was found, although these levels did not exceed reference values. The results indicate that these polymorphisms can indirectly influence performance, contribute to higher susceptibility to exercise-induced inflammation or protection against it, and perhaps affect future risks of CVD in athletes. PMID:21706313

  13. Creatine kinase MM TaqI and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms influence exercise-induced C-reactive protein levels.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Akimoto, Arthur K; Lordelo, Graciana S; Pereira, Luiz C S; Grisolia, Cesar K; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré

    2012-01-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptations, but exhausting exercise increases reactive oxygen species, which can cause muscular injuries with consequent inflammatory processes, implying jeopardized performance and possibly overtraining. Acute strenuous exercise almost certainly exceeds the benefits of physical activity; it can compromise performance and may contribute to increased future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in athletes. Polymorphisms in the muscle-type creatine kinase (CK-MM) gene may influence performance and adaptation to training, while many potentially significant genetic variants are reported as risk factors for CVD. Therefore, we investigated the influence of polymorphisms in CK-MM TaqI and NcoI, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) and C-reactive protein (CRP G1059C) genes on exercise-induced damage and inflammation markers. Blood samples were taken immediately after a race (of at least 4 km) that took place outdoors on flat tracks, and were submitted to genotyping and biochemical evaluation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CK, CRP and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). CK-MM TaqI polymorphism significantly influenced results of AST, CK and hs-CRP, and an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with CRP level was found, although these levels did not exceed reference values. Results indicate that these polymorphisms can indirectly influence performance, contribute to higher susceptibility to exercise-induced inflammation or protection against it, and perhaps affect future risks of CVD in athletes. PMID:21516340

  14. A study on the relationship between compulsive exercise, depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Aviv; Maayan, Gavriel; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise and physical activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but a few individuals use exercise excessively resulting in physical and even psychological damage. There is evidence for bi-directional relationship between exercise with depression and anxiety showing that exercise can reduce anxiety and depression, whereas a lack of exercise is associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Methods This study used questionnaires assessing compulsive exercise, anxiety and depression among 20 professional regular exercisers and 51 recreational regular exercisers. Results Results showed that ratings of compulsive exercise were associated with ratings of anxiety and depression among individuals who exercise for professional and recreational purpose. Secondly, individuals who exercise for professional purpose were more depressed than individuals who exercise for recreational purpose, but did not exhibit higher trait anxiety ratings. Thirdly, individuals who exercise for recreational purpose showed an association between ratings of compulsive exercise and depression but not with ratings of trait anxiety. Discussion Individuals who exercise for professional and recreational purpose may use it as a means for alleviating depression and anxiety although this small sample of recreational and professional sportsmen showed clinical levels of anxiety and depression that may require further clinical treatment. PMID:26690627

  15. Exercise effects on erythrocyte deformability in exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia.

    PubMed

    Alis, R; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Ferioli, D; La Torre, A; Blesa, J R; Romagnoli, M

    2015-04-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is often found in endurance-trained subjects at high exercise intensity. The role of erythrocyte deformability (ED) in EIAH has been scarcely explored. We aimed to explore the role of erythrocyte properties and lactate accumulation in the response of ED in EIAH. ED was determined in 10 sedentary and in 16 trained subjects, both before and after a maximal incremental test, and after recovery, along with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell lactate concentrations. EIAH was found in 6 trained subjects (∆SaO2=-8.25±4.03%). Sedentary and non-EIAH trained subjects showed reduced ED after exercise, while no effect on ED was found in EIAH trained subjects. After exercise, lactate concentrations rose and MCV increased equally in all groups. ED is strongly driven by cell volume, but the different ED response to exercise in EIAH shows that other cellular mechanisms may be implicated. Interactions between membrane and cytoskeleton, which have been found to be O2-regulated, play a role in ED. The drop in SaO2 in EIAH subjects can improve ED response to exercise. This can be an adaptive mechanism that enhances muscular and pulmonary perfusion, and allows the achievement of high exercise intensity in EIAH despite lower O2 arterial transport. PMID:25429547

  16. High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Postprandial Triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen F; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David J

    2015-07-01

    This review examined if high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) reduces postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Fifteen studies were identified, in which the effect of interval exercise conducted at an intensity of >65% of maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated on postprandial TAG levels. Analysis was divided between studies that included supramaximal exercise and those that included submaximal interval exercise. Ten studies examined the effect of a single session of low-volume HIIE including supramaximal sprints on postprandial TAG. Seven of these studies noted reductions in the postprandial total TAG area under the curve the morning after exercise of between ~10 and 21% compared with rest, but three investigations found no significant difference in TAG levels. Variations in the HIIE protocol used, inter-individual variation or insufficient time post-exercise for an increase in lipoprotein lipase activity are proposed reasons for the divergent results among studies. Five studies examined the effect of high-volume submaximal interval exercise on postprandial TAG. Four of these studies were characterised by high exercise energy expenditure and effectively attenuated total postprandial TAG levels by ~15-30%, but one study with a lower energy expenditure found no effect on TAG. The evidence suggests that supramaximal HIIE can induce large reductions in postprandial TAG levels but findings are inconsistent. Submaximal interval exercise offers no TAG metabolic or time advantage over continuous aerobic exercise but could be appealing in nature to some individuals. Future research should examine if submaximal interval exercise can reduce TAG levels in line with more realistic and achievable exercise durations of 30 min per day. PMID:25851583