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Sample records for strenuous exercise reduce

  1. Effects of Strenuous Exercise on Stallion Sperm Quality 

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Jennifer L.

    2012-10-19

    OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Clay A Cavinder Committee Members, Martha M. Vogelsang Charles C. Love Head of Department, H. Russell Cross August 2012 Major Subject: Animal Science iii ABSTRACT Effects of Strenuous Exercise...), implanted with subdermal thermosensory devices in the subcutaneous neck and scrotal tissue, were assigned to treatment group based on age and semen quality. Exercising stallions (EX; n = 3) were exercised 4 d/wk for 90 min for 12 wk, while non...

  2. Effect of Yoga Practice on Levels of Inflammatory Markers After Moderate and Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doreswamy, Venkatesh; Narasipur, Omkar Subbaramajois; Kunnavil, Radhika; Srinivasamurthy, Nandagudi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives To evaluate the effect of yoga practice and exercise challenge on Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-?), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and lipid profile. Materials and Methods Two hundred and eighteen subjects participated in the study. One hundred and nine volunteers (51 males and 58 females) in the age group of 20 to 60 years, who practiced yoga regularly for over five years for a period of one hour daily, performed a bout of moderate exercise and a bout of strenuous exercise as per Standardized Shuttle Walk test protocol. Anthropometrically matched, age matched and gender matched subjects, who did not practice yoga (non-yoga group) were chosen as controls (non-yoga, n=109). The non-yoga group also performed similar exercises. The blood samples of both the groups were collected before and after the exercises. TNF-? and IL-6 was analysed before and after the exercise by Sandwich ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Results Resting plasma TNF-? concentration was significantly higher in non-yoga group when compared to yoga group (p<0.05). There was an increase in TNF-? levels in both the groups in response to strenuous exercise. There was no gender difference in TNF-? and IL-6 levels before and after exercise in yoga and non-yoga groups. Conclusion Regular practice of yoga lowers basal TNF-? and IL-6 levels. It also reduces the extent of increase of TNF-? and IL-6 to a physical challenge of moderate exercise and strenuous exercise. There is no significant gender difference in the TNF-? and IL-6 levels. Regular practice of yoga can protect the individual against inflammatory diseases by favourably altering pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:26266115

  3. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  4. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  5. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study. PMID:26506374

  6. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study. PMID:26506374

  7. Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Haykowsky, Mark J; Mayne, Jonathan R; Jones, Richard L; Petersen, Stewart R

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate left-ventricular function during strenuous exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). With the use of two-dimensional echocardiography, images of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired during sustained exercise (3 x 10 min) under two conditions: 1) SCBA, or 2) low resistance breathing valve. Twenty healthy men volunteered for the study, and in each condition subjects wore fire protective equipment. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cavity areas during systole and diastole (ESCA and EDCA, respectively), esophageal pressure, ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, perceived physical, thermal and respiratory distress, and core temperature were measured at regular intervals. Urine specific gravity (<1.020 g/ml) and hematological variables were used to infer hydration status. All subjects began both trials in a euhydrated state. No differences were found between conditions for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, perceived distress, or any hematological variables. Peak expiratory esophageal pressure was always higher (P < 0.05), while EDCA and stroke area (SA) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) with the SCBA. ESCA, end-systolic transmural pressure (ESTMP), and LV contractility (ESTMP/ESCA) were similar between conditions. Sustained exercise with fire protective equipment resulted in significant reductions in EDCA, ESCA, and SA from the start of exercise, which was associated with a 6.3 +/- 0.8% reduction in plasma volume, an increase in core temperature (37.0 +/- 0.4 to 38.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C), and a significant increase in heart rate (146.9 +/- 2.1 to 181.7 +/- 2.4 beats/min) throughout exercise. The results from this study support research by others showing that increased intrathoracic pressure reduces LV preload (EDCA); however, the novelty of the present study is that when venous return is compromised by sustained exercise and heat stress, SA cannot be maintained. PMID:19008481

  8. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol. PMID:26157555

  9. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol. PMID:26157555

  10. Melatonin decreases muscular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise and stimulates growth factor synthesis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Leandro da Silva; Dermargos, Alexandre; da Silva Junior, Edenilson Pinto; Weimann, Eleine; Lambertucci, Rafael Herling; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Strenuous exercise is detrimental to athletes because of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Melatonin, a classic antioxidant, has been shown to exhibit beneficial effects regarding intense exercise and tissue repair. In this study, we evaluated the onset and resolution of inflammation in melatonin-treated and nontreated rats subjected to a strenuous exercise session. We also analyzed the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Control and treated rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise after a period of 10 days of melatonin treatment (20 mg/dL). Plasma and muscle levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2-alpha/beta (CINC-2?/?), l-selectin, macrophage inflammatory protein-3-alpha (MIP-3?), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured prior to, immediately after, and 2 hr after exercise. Our data revealed decreases in the muscle concentrations of IL-1? (35%), TNF-? (13%), IL-6 (48%), and TBARS (40%) in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We also observed decreases in the plasma concentrations of IL-1? (17%) in the melatonin-treated group. VEGF-? concentrations and SOD activity increased by 179% and 22%, respectively, in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We concluded that muscle inflammation and oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise were less severe in the muscles of melatonin-treated animals than in the muscles of control animals. Thus, melatonin treatment may reverse exercise-induced skeletal muscle inflammation and stimulate growth factor synthesis. PMID:25546615

  11. Metabolic stress-like condition can be induced by prolonged strenuous exercise in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hambraeus, Leif; Piehl-Aulin, Karin; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta; Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn; Olsson, Roger; Stridsberg, Mats; Ronquist, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined energy metabolism during prolonged, strenuous exercise. We wanted therefore to investigate energy metabolic consequences of a prolonged period of continuous strenuous work with very high energy expenditure. Twelve endurance-trained athletes (6 males and 6 females) were recruited. They performed a 7-h bike race on high work-load intensity. Physiological, biochemical, endocrinological, and anthropometric muscular compartment variables were monitored before, during, and after the race. The energy expenditure was high, being 5557 kcal. Work-load intensity (% of VO2 peak) was higher in females (77.7%) than in men (69.9%). Muscular glycogen utilization was pronounced, especially in type I fibres (>90%). Additionally, muscular triglyceride lipolysis was considerably accelerated. Plasma glucose levels were increased concomitantly with an unchanged serum insulin concentration which might reflect an insulin resistance state in addition to proteolytic glyconeogenesis. Increased reactive oxygen species (malondialdehyde (MDA)) were additional signs of metabolic stress. MDA levels correlated with glycogen utilization rate. A relative deficiency of energy substrate on a cellular level was indicated by increased intracellular water of the leg muscle concomitantly with increased extracellular levels of the osmoregulatory amino acid taurine. A kindred nature of a presumed insulin-resistant state with less intracellular availability of glucose for erythrocytes was also indicated by the findings of decreased MCV together with increased MCHC (haemoconcentration) after the race. This strenuous energy-demanding work created a metabolic stress-like condition including signs of insulin resistance and deteriorated intracellular glucose availability leading to compromised fuelling of ion pumps, culminating in a disturbed cellular osmoregulation indicated by taurine efflux and cellular swelling. PMID:19242868

  12. My patient wants to perform strenuous endurance exercise. What's the right advice?

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Joyner, Michael J; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-10-15

    Prolonged strenuous endurance exercise (SEE) such as marathon running has recently been associated with potential deleterious cardiac effects, particularly increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). This topic is medically important due to the increasing number of participants in SEE events lasting several hours, including older people. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a summary of the evidence available on SEE and related issues such as cardiovascular mortality, AF, potential cardiac remodeling, cardiovascular events during exertion, or the need for pre-participation screening (with a special focus on beginners). This type of information can help physicians giving advice to their patients and the general public regarding safe SEE practice. PMID:26142970

  13. Long-Lasting FDG Uptake in the Muscles After Strenuous Exercise.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xia; Wang, Xiangcheng; Zhuang, Hongming

    2015-12-01

    FDG PET/CT imaging guidelines require avoiding exercise 24 hours before FDG administration. We report here a case of intense skeletal muscle FDG activity in a 15-year-old adolescent boy who had vigorous exercise 4 days before undertaking FDG PET/CT scan. PMID:26284769

  14. Combined effects of sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive performances during The North Face® Ultra Trail du Mont Blanc® (UTMB®).

    PubMed

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Pezé, Thierry; Daugherty, Johanna; Girard, Julien; Poussel, Mathias; Poletti, Laurence; Basset, Patrick; Theunynck, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combined sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive and neurobehavioral performance among long-distance runners completing one of the most difficult ultramarathons in the world. Seventeen runners participated. Each had a wrist-worn actigraph throughout the race to record their sleep time. In addition, each individual's performance in 10-min response-time tests before and after the race was recorded and a questionnaire enabled participants to report any difficulties they experienced during the competition. During race completion times of 27 to 44 h, combined acute lack of sleep (12 ± 17 min of rest during the race) and strenuous exercise (168.0 km) had marked adverse effects on cognitive performances ranging from mere lengthening of response time to serious symptoms such as visual hallucinations. This study suggests that regardless of rest duration and time in race, cognitive performances of ultramarathoners are adversely affected. PMID:25333827

  15. VITAMIN E REDUCES MUSCLE DAMAGE AND BIOMARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER EXERCISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strenuous exercise can cause muscle injury resulting in inflammation and oxidative stress. We examined whether supplementation with vitamin E could reduce this muscle damage and whether there were age-related differences in this response. 16 young (YM, 26.4 ± 3.3 y) and 16 older (OM, 71.1 ± 4.0 y) m...

  16. Acute pulmonary effects from o-chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile "tear gas": a unique exposure outcome unmasked by strenuous exercise after a military training event.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard J; Smith, Philip A; Rascona, Dominic A; Louthan, James D; Gumpert, Bart

    2002-02-01

    o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile, more commonly called CS, is grouped with several other irritant agents referred to as "tear gas." It is a riot-control agent used frequently in military settings to test the ability and speed of personnel in donning their military gas masks. When personnel are exposed to CS without proper personal protective equipment, it has potent irritant effects. We report a unique cluster of hospitalizations of nine U.S. Marines who developed a transient pulmonary syndrome. All nine patients had symptoms of cough and shortness of breath. Five of the nine presented with hemoptysis, and four presented with hypoxia. Symptoms were associated with strenuous physical exercise from 36 to 84 hours after heavy exposure of CS in a field training setting. Four of the nine Marines required intensive care observation as a result of profound hypoxia. All signs and symptoms resolved within 72 hours of hospital admission. One week after CS exposure, all nine Marines demonstrated normal lung function during spirometry before and after exercise challenge using cycle ergometry. PMID:11873536

  17. Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression?

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Recent evidence suggests that antioxidant vitamin supplementation may also reduce exercise stress and impairment of leukocyte functions. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of other antioxidants and dietary immunostimulants such as probiotics and echinacea on exercise-induced immune impairment. PMID:16572599

  18. Exercise reduces angiotensin II responses in rat femoral veins.

    PubMed

    Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Rossignoli, Patrícia de Souza; Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; de Lábio, Roger William; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2013-06-01

    The control of blood flow during exercise involves different mechanisms, one of which is the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to exercise-induced blood flow redistribution. Moreover, although angiotensin II (Ang II) is considered a potent venoconstrictor agonist, little is known about its effects on the venous bed during exercise. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the Ang II responses in the femoral vein taken from sedentary and trained rats at rest or subjected to a single bout of exercise immediately before organ bath experiments. Isolated preparations of femoral veins taken from resting-sedentary, exercised-sedentary, resting-trained and exercised-trained animals were studied in an organ bath. In parallel, the mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 (ppET-1), as well as the ETA and ETB receptors, was quantified by real-time PCR in this tissue. The results show that, in the presence of L-NAME, Ang II responses in resting-sedentary animals were higher compared to the other groups. However, this difference disappeared after co-treatment with indomethacin, BQ-123 or BQ-788. Moreover, exercise reduced ppET-1 mRNA expression. These reductions in mRNA expression were more evident in resting-trained animals. In conclusion, either acute or repeated exercise adapts the rat femoral veins, thereby reducing the Ang II responses. This adaptation is masked by the action of locally produced nitric oxide and involves, at least partially, the ETB- mediated release of vasodilator prostanoids. Reductions in endothelin-1 production may also be involved in these exercise-induced modifications of Ang II responses in the femoral vein. PMID:23528515

  19. Exercise reduces persistent ductus arteriosus shunting in piglets.

    PubMed

    Seaberg, D; Lorenz, E; Lund, G; Rysavy, J; Pierpont, M E; Zhang, S L; Einzig, S

    1987-11-01

    To determine the effects of dynamic exercise on ductal left to right shunting and skeletal and myocardial blood flow distribution, a persistent ductus arteriosus was created by balloon catheters in neonatal piglets. At 8-10 weeks of age, aortic, pulmonary artery, and left atrial catheters were placed and radiolabelled microspheres injected for measuring left ventricular output, organ blood flows, and ductus left to right shunting at rest and during treadmill exercise (1.6 mph). At rest, effective left ventricular output and myocardial and skeletal muscle blood flows were similar in the study group and controls. Exercise increased skeletal muscle and left ventricular blood flows similarly in the control and study group and did not accentuate the exercise induced small reduction in the left ventricular subendocardial to subepicardial blood flow ratio. This was due to a significant reduction in the ductus left to right shunt during exercise (mean(SD) 34(15) vs 18(7)%, p less than 0.02) and maintenance of effective left ventricular output in the study group (447(144) vs 446(98) ml.min-1.kg-1 in controls). The reduction in ductus shunting during exercise was due to a significant decrease in systemic vascular resistance and a small increase in pulmonary vascular and ductus resistance. Thus, reduced persistent ductus arteriosus shunting and maintenance of effective left ventricular output prevents myocardial perfusion abnormalities during dynamic exercise in swine with a persistent ductus and small to moderate left to right shunts. PMID:3370667

  20. Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls

    PubMed Central

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Evin, Ruya; Irez, Salih Gokhan; Korkusuz, Feza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the exercise group when compared to the non-exercise group. In conclusion, Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women. Key points Pilates-based exercises improve dynamic balance, reaction time and muscle strength in the elderly. Pilates exercise may reduce the number of falls in elderly women by increasing these fitness parameters. PMID:24149302

  1. Milk consumption following exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate-vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V?O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V?O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

  2. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    PubMed Central

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V?O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V?O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

  3. Exercise training reduces insulin resistance in postmyocardial infarction rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhua; Tian, Zhenjun; Zang, Weijin; Jiang, Hongke; Li, Youyou; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Shengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) induces cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). This study examines the effects of MI-related IR on vasorelaxation and its underlying mechanisms, with a specific focus on the role of exercise in reversing the impaired vasorelaxation. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+Exercise. MI+Exercise rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill training. Cardiac contraction, myocardial and arterial structure, vasorelaxation, levels of inflammatory cytokines, expression of eNOS and TNF-?, and activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined in aortas. MI significantly impaired endothelial structure and vasodilation (P < 0.05–0.01), as indicated by decreased arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin. MI also attenuated the myocardial contractile response, decreased aortic PI3K/Akt/eNOS expression and phosphorylation by insulin, and increased IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? expression and p38 MAPK activity (P < 0.05–0.01). Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in aortas, facilitated myocardial contractile response and arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin, and increased arterial PI3K/Akt/eNOS activity. Moreover, exercise markedly reversed increased p38 MAPK activity and normalized inflammatory cytokines in post-MI arteries. Inhibition of PI3K with LY-294002, and eNOS with L-NAME significantly blocked arterial vasorelaxation and PI3K/Akt/eNOS phosphorylation in response to insulin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction in response to insulin plays an important role in MI-related IR. The reversal of IR by exercise is most likely associated with normalizing inflammatory cytokines, increasing the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS, and reducing the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:25907785

  4. How Do Humans Control Physiological Strain during Strenuous Endurance Exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Lucia, Alejandro; deKoning, Jos J.; Foster, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background Distance running performance is a viable model of human locomotion. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the physiologic strain during competitions ranging from 5–100 km, we evaluated heart rate (HR) records of competitive runners (n?=?211). We found evidence that: 1) physiologic strain (% of maximum HR (%HRmax)) increased in proportional manner relative to distance completed, and was regulated by variations in running pace; 2) the %HRmax achieved decreased with relative distance; 3) slower runners had similar %HRmax response within a racing distance compared to faster runners, and despite differences in pace, the profile of %HRmax during a race was very similar in runners of differing ability; and 4) in cases where there was a discontinuity in the running performance, there was evidence that physiologic effort was maintained for some time even after the pace had decreased. Conclusions/Significance The overall results suggest that athletes are actively regulating their relative physiologic strain during competition, although there is evidence of poor regulation in the case of competitive failures. PMID:18698405

  5. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Managing Activities and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... down into shorter, less strenuous pieces. While vigorous aerobic exercise is beneficial for many chronic illnesses, CFS ... traditional exercise routines. Exercise programs aimed at increasing aerobic capacity are not recommended early in therapy. The ...

  6. Prognosis: does exercise training reduce adverse events in heart failure?

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Haykowsky, Mark J F; Taylor, Rod S

    2015-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) were once discouraged from participating in exercise programs because of concerns regarding safety and the potential for harm to an already damaged myocardium. However, studies over the last 3 decades have provided extensive insights into both the health outcome benefits of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these benefits. Studies on the outcome benefits of exercise training, including mortality and hospitalization, have been convincing. This article reviews the physiologic benefits of exercise training in HF, studies on exercise training in women, results and implications of the HF-ACTION trial, and recent meta-analyses using the Cochrane data base. PMID:25432474

  7. Reducing cardiovascular arousal to psychological stress with brief physical exercise

    E-print Network

    Chafin, Sky

    2007-01-01

    running, it does make it possible for the subject to maintain the same posturerunning is a more likely form of exercise in the real world, this task enabled the subject to maintain an erect posture,running is a more likely form of exercise in the real world, this task enabled the subject to maintain an erect posture,

  8. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

  9. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  10. Chronic exercise training versus acute endurance exercise in reducing neurotoxicity in rats exposed to lead acetate?

    PubMed Central

    Shahandeh, Mohammad; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Sarkisian, Vaginak

    2013-01-01

    After intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lead acetate, rats received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (15–22 m/min, 25–64 minutes) and/or treadmill exercise at 1.6 km/h until exhaustion. The markers related to neurotoxicity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. 8 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.04) and plasma level of total antioxidant capacity of rats exposed to lead acetate (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.001). Acute exercise only decreased the hippocampal malondialdehyde level (P = 0.09) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.66). Acute exercise also enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in rats exposed to lead acetate, insignificantly (P = 0.99). These findings suggest that chronic treadmill exercise can significantly decrease neurotoxicity and alleviate oxidative stress in rats exposed to lead acetate. However, acute endurance exercise was not associated with these beneficial effects. PMID:25206718

  11. Clinical Utility of Exercise Training in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

  12. Reduced catecholamine response to exercise in amenorrheic athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found an array of endocrine disturbances related to energy deprivation in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Purpose: We examined the catecholamine response to exercise in five eumenorrheic (EU) and five amenorrheic (AM) athletes, matched by age (mean T SEM: EU = 29.8 T 2.5 ...

  13. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Junlai; Ma, Tao; Chai, Qiongxia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, i.e., one control group and three LBP treated groups. The animals received an oral administration of physiological saline or LBP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. On the day of the exercise test, rats were required to run to exhaustion on the treadmill. Body weight, endurance time, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) level of rats were measured. The results showed that the body weight of rats in LBP treated groups were not significantly different from that in the normal control group before and after the experiment (P > 0.05). After exhaustive exercise, the mean endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly prolonged compared with that in the normal control group. MDA levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly decreased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). SOD and GPX levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). Together, these results indicate that LBP was effective in preventing oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. PMID:21541044

  14. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bretland, Rachel Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

  15. Fatiguing exercise initiated later in life reduces incidence of fibrillation and improves sleep quality in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan; Feng, Yue; Wen, Deng Tai; Wang, Hui; Wu, Xiu Shan

    2015-08-01

    As the human body ages, the risk of heart disease and stroke greatly increases. While there is evidence that lifelong exercise is beneficial to the heart's health, the effects of beginning exercise later in life remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether exercise training started later in life is beneficial to cardiac aging in Drosophila. We examined 4-week-old wild-type virgin female flies that were exposed to exercise periods of either 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 h per day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. Using M-mode traces to analyze cardiac function by looking at parameters including heart rate, rhythmicity, systolic and diastolic diameter, and interval and fractional shortening, we found that cardiac function declined with age, shown by an increase in the number of fibrillation events and a decrease in fractional shortening. About 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise per day displayed a reduced incidence of fibrillation events, and only physical exercise lasting 2.5-h period increased fractional shortening and total sleep time in Drosophila. These data suggested that training exercise needs to be performed for longer duration to exert physiological benefits for the aging heart. Additionally, climbing ability to assess the exercise-induced muscle fatigue was also measured. We found that 2.0 and 2.5 h of exercise caused exercise-induced fatigue, and fatiguing exercise is beneficial for cardiac and healthy aging overall. This study provides a basis for further study in humans on the impact of beginning an exercise regimen later in life on cardiac health. PMID:26206392

  16. Possible beneficial effect of exercise, by reducing oxidative stress, on the incidence of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, S; Davidge, S T

    2001-12-01

    We hypothesize that regular exercise enhances antioxidative enzymes in pregnant women, which reduce oxidative stress and, thus, the incidence of preeclampsia. Oxidative stress with enhanced lipid peroxide formation could lead to endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia. Other conditions, such as increased transferrin saturation and decreased iron-binding capacity, directly and indirectly promote the process of oxidative stress and subsequent endothelial dysfunction. Exercise increases oxidative metabolism and produces a prooxidant environment. This acidic environment during exercise (at or beyond anaerobic threshold) promotes oxygen release from hemoglobin and increases in PO(2) in tissues, as well as releases iron from transferrin. When exercise is repeated regularly, the body promptly adjusts so that oxidative stress is eliminated or reduced. The body's adaptations to a regular exercise habit seem to have an antioxidant effect. In humans, training effects have been identified with an enhanced activity of antioxidative enzymes. Another concerted adaptation that regular exercise brings to women's bodies is resistance against production of prooxidants by increasing the number of mitochondria. Equally important is a training effect that decreases susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Evidence suggests that physically active women are less likely to develop preeclampsia. In theory, intracellular and extracellular conditions resulting from regular exercise should counteract the enhancement of oxidative stress, thus interfering with the process leading to endothelial dysfunction. This position paper describes a hypothesis and includes a brief review of exercise physiology and biochemical research in preeclampsia. Unlike other preventive treatments, such as aspirin or calcium supplements, a regular exercise habit leads to a positive and healthy lifestyle without concern of side effects. PMID:11788108

  17. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  18. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise.

    PubMed

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of 'natural' breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  19. Fasting and recovery from exercise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise

    2010-06-01

    Recovery after strenuous exercise involves processes that are dependent on fluid and food intake. Current sports nutrition guidelines provide recommendations for the quantity and timing of consumption of nutrients to optimise recovery issues such as refuelling, rehydration and protein synthesis for repair and adaptation. Recovery of immune and antioxidant systems is important but less well documented. In some cases, there is little effective recovery until nutrients are supplied, while in others, the stimulus for recovery is strongest in the period immediately after exercise. Lack of appropriate nutritional support will reduce adaption to exercise and impair preparation for future bouts. Ramadan represents a special case of intermittent fasting undertaken by many athletes during periods of training as well as important competitive events. The avoidance of fluid and food intake from sunrise to sundown involves prolonged periods without intake of nutrients, inflexibility with the timing of eating and drinking over the day and around an exercise session, and changes to usual dietary choices due to the special foods involved with various rituals. These outcomes will all challenge the athlete's ability to recover optimally between exercise sessions undertaken during the fast or from day to day. PMID:20460259

  20. The Efficacy of Exercise Therapy in Reducing Shoulder Pain Related to Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Barbara; Cheifetz, Oren; Gillespie, Jessica; Snowden, Katie; Temesy, Jessica; Vandenberk, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Recent research indicates that physiotherapy interventions, such as exercise and manual therapy, may be effective in decreasing the frequency of side effects linked with breast cancer treatment, including fatigue, pain, nausea, and decreased quality of life. This systematic review aims to determine the efficacy of exercise therapy in reducing shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment and to identify outcome measures that can be used to assess shoulder pain in this population. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using portals such as the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE (1996 to April 2011), and Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985 to April 2011). Databases were searched for relevant studies published up to April 2011. Participants in relevant studies were adults (?18 years of age) with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer at any point during the treatment of their disease. Results: Six articles were independently appraised by two blinded reviewers. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, each analyzing different types of exercise—shoulder/arm/scapular strengthening/stabilization, postural exercises, general exercises and conditioning, shoulder range-of-motion exercises, and lymphedema exercises—with respect to their efficacy in reducing shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment. Conclusions: Results suggest that exercise targeting shoulder pain related to breast cancer treatment may be effective. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the lack of methodological quality and homogeneity of the studies included. Clinicians should use valid outcome measures, such as the visual analogue scale and brief pain inventory, to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. PMID:24396158

  1. Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sack, MS, PT Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count COPD Program This program offers comprehensive, individualized care for ...

  2. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F.; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

  3. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-? (P < 0.05) and TGF-? (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  4. Exercise training enhances rat pancreatic islets anaplerotic enzymes content despite reduced insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zoppi, Claudio C; Calegari, Vivian C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C

    2011-09-01

    Endurance exercise has been shown to reduce pancreatic islets glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways are directly related to GSIS signaling. However, the effect of endurance training upon pancreatic islets anaplerotic enzymes is still unknown. In this sense, we tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise decreases GSIS by reducing anaplerotic/cataplerotic enzymes content. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups as follows: control sedentary group (CTL), trained 1 day per week (TRE1×), trained 3 days per week (TRE3×) and trained 5 days per week (TRE5x) and submitted to an 8 weeks endurance-training protocol. After the training protocol, pancreatic islets were isolated and incubated with basal (2.8 mM) and stimulating (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations for GSIS measurement by radioimmunoassay. In addition, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) content were quantified by western blotting. Our data showed that 8 weeks of chronic endurance exercise reduced GSIS by 50% in a dose-response manner according to weekly exercise frequency. PYC showed significant twofold increase in TRE3×. PYC enhancement was even higher in TRE5× (p < 0.0001). PDH and PDK4 reached significant 25 and 50% enhancement, respectively compared with CTL. ACL and GDH also reported significant 50 and 75% increase, respectively. The absence of exercise-induced correlations among GSIS and anaplerotic/cataplerotic enzymes suggests that exercise may control insulin release by activating other signaling pathways. The observed anaplerotic and cataplerotic enzymes enhancement might be related to ?-cell surviving rather than insulin secretion. PMID:21287194

  5. Exercise reduces arterial pressure augmentation through vasodilation of muscular arteries in humans.

    PubMed

    Munir, Shahzad; Jiang, Benyu; Guilcher, Antoine; Brett, Sally; Redwood, Simon; Marber, Michael; Chowienczyk, Philip

    2008-04-01

    Exercise markedly influences pulse wave morphology, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated whether effects of exercise on the arterial pulse result from alterations in stroke volume or pulse wave velocity (PWV)/large artery stiffness or reduction of pressure wave reflection. Healthy subjects (n = 25) performed bicycle ergometry. with workload increasing from 25 to 150 W for 12 min. Digital arterial pressure waveforms were recorded using a servo-controlled finger cuff. Radial arterial pressure waveforms and carotid-femoral PWV were determined by applanation tonometry. Stroke volume was measured by echocardiography, and brachial and femoral artery blood flows and diameters were measured by ultrasound. Digital waveforms were recorded continuously. Other measurements were made before and after exercise. Exercise markedly reduced late systolic and diastolic augmentation of the peripheral pressure pulse. At 15 min into recovery, stroke volume and PWV were similar to baseline values, but changes in pulse wave morphology persisted. Late systolic augmentation index (radial pulse) was reduced from 54 +/- 3.9% at baseline to 42 +/- 3.7% (P < 0.01), and diastolic augmentation index (radial pulse) was reduced from 37 +/- 1.8% to 25 +/- 2.9% (P < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by an increase in femoral blood flow (from 409 +/- 44 to 773 +/- 48 ml/min, P < 0.05) and an increase in femoral artery diameter (from 8.2 +/- 0.4 to 8.6 +/- 0.4 mm, P < 0.05). In conclusion, exercise dilates muscular arteries and reduces arterial pressure augmentation, an effect that will enhance ventricular-vascular coupling and reduce load on the left ventricle. PMID:18296568

  6. Dehydration reduces left ventricular filling at rest and during exercise independent of twist mechanics.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Eric J; González-Alonso, José; Pearson, James; Low, David A; Ali, Leena; Barker, Horace; Shave, Rob

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduction in stroke volume (SV), previously shown to occur with dehydration and increases in internal body temperatures during prolonged exercise, is caused by a reduction in left ventricular (LV) function, as indicated by LV volumes, strain, and twist ("LV mechanics"). Eight healthy men [age: 20 ± 2, maximal oxygen uptake (VO?max): 58 ± 7 ml·kg?¹·min?¹] completed two, 1-h bouts of cycling in the heat (35°C, 50% peak power) without fluid replacement, resulting in 2% and 3.5% dehydration, respectively. Conventional and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to determine LV volumes, strain, and twist at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise at baseline, both levels of dehydration, and following rehydration. Progressive dehydration caused a significant reduction in end-diastolic volume (EDV) and SV at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (rest: ?-33 ± 14 and ?-21 ± 14 ml, respectively; exercise: ?-30 ± 10 and ?-22 ± 9 ml, respectively, during 3.5% dehydration). In contrast to the marked decline in EDV and SV, systolic and diastolic LV mechanics were either maintained or even enhanced with dehydration at rest and during knee-extensor exercise. We conclude that dehydration-induced reductions in SV at rest and during exercise are the result of reduced LV filling, as reflected by the decline in EDV. The concomitant maintenance of LV mechanics suggests that the decrease in LV filling, and consequently ejection, is likely caused by the reduction in blood volume and/or diminished filling time rather than impaired LV function. PMID:21700893

  7. Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484

  8. Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis can help adults with mild to moderate disability, resulting from relapsing or ... Publication Exercise as Part of Everyday Life Physical activity can be a regular part of ...

  9. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB?4, 37±7 years, 34±4kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB?2, 32±6 years, 33±3kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  10. Reduced pulmonary function in children with the Fontan circulation affects their exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Iren Lindbak; Fredriksen, Per Morten; Bjørnstad, Per G; Thaulow, Erik; Gronn, Morten

    2006-06-01

    Most children with functionally univentricular hearts nowadays are treated surgically by creating a total cavopulmonary connection. In the resulting Fontan circulation, the venous return and the pulmonary arterial bed are coupled in series, bypassing the heart. This gives the potential for interaction between the abnormal circulation and function of the lungs. In this study, we investigated the pattern of impairment of pulmonary function, and its relation to decreased exercise capacity. We performed spirometry in 33 (85 percent) of 39 eligible Norwegian children, aged from 8 to 16, with a total cavopulmonary connection, along with whole body plethysmography, the carbon monoxide single breath test, and a peak treadmill exercise test. The single breath test showed a mean corrected diffusing capacity of 66.5 percent of predicted, giving a z score of minus 2.88. The mean residual volume measured by whole body plethysmography was 146.8 percent, equivalent to a z score of 2.46, whereas the mean residual volume measured by the single breath test was 102.4 percent of predicted, this being the same as a z score of 0.43. The mean peak treadmill exercise test was 70.0 percent of predicted, equivalent with a z score of minus 3.07. Mean forced vital capacity was 85.7 percent of predicted, the equivalent z score being minus 0.92. Lung function correlated with the peak treadmill exercise test. We have shown, therefore, that children with the Fontan circulation have reduced diffusing capacity, possibly caused by the abnormal circulation through the lungs. The difference between residual volume measured by plethysmography and the single breath test implies trapping of air. The correlation of parameters for lung function with peak consumption of oxygen during exercise indicates that the abnormalities of pulmonary function may affect physical capacity. PMID:16725065

  11. Sex-Role Orientation and the Responses of Men to Exercise Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigation of whether males' gender roles mediated their perception of strenuous physical exercise indicated that, in comparison to "feminine" males, "masculine" males reported lower physical strain, while "androgynous" males had more positive effect and greater endurance. (Author/CB)

  12. Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

  13. Exercise Training Reduces Peripheral Arterial Stiffness and Myocardial Oxygen Demand in Young Prehypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. METHODS Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120–139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80–89mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18–35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. RESULTS PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.05). PHRT and PHET decreased augmentation index (AIx) by 7.5% ± 2.8% and 8.1% ± 3.2% (P < 0.05), AIx@75 by 8.0% ± 3.2% and 9.2% ± 3.8% (P < 0.05), and left ventricular wasted pressure energy, an index of extra left ventricular myocardial oxygen requirement due to early systolic wave reflection, by 573±161 dynes s/cm2 and 612±167 dynes s/cm2 (P < 0.05), respectively. PHRT and PHET reduced carotid–radial PWV by 1.02±0.32 m/sec and 0.92±0.36 m/sec (P < 0.05) and femoral–distal PWV by 1.04±0.31 m/sec and 1.34±0.33 m/sec (P < 0.05), respectively. No significant changes were observed in the time-control groups. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that both resistance and endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects. PMID:23736111

  14. Exercise, muscle, and CHO metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, M

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrates (CHO) are a key source of energy for contracting skeletal muscle during strenuous exercise and fatigue during such exercise often coincides with CHO depletion. Our current understanding of the importance of CHO for exercise metabolism has its foundations in classic studies in the early 20th century by Scandinavian physiologists and Bengt Saltin contributed significantly to that tradition. This brief review summarizes our contemporary understanding of key aspects of muscle glycogen and glucose metabolism during exercise, through the lens of seminal studies by Bengt Saltin. PMID:26589114

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Exercise, Via Reduced Leptin Levels, in Obese Women with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Fornieles-Gonzalez, Gabriel; Rosety, Miguel Angel; Rosety, Ignacio; Diaz, Antonio; Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2012-11-19

    Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, our aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, eleven of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-week aerobic training programme. They attended 3 sessions/week, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30-40 min) at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate, and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex and BMI. Fat mass percentage and distribution were measured and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and post-intervention. This protocol was approved by an Institutional Ethics Committee. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants' VO2max (20.2±5.8vs.23.7±6.3ml/kg/min;p<0.001), and plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced in the intervention group (54.2±6.7vs.45.7±6.1ng/ml;p=0.026). Further significant correlations between plasma leptin and indices of obesity were found. In contrast, no significant changes were found in adiponectin levels (p>0.05). None of tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training programme reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome. PMID:23170751

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise, via reduced leptin levels, in obese women with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Francisco J; Fornieles-Gonzalez, Gabriel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Miguel A; Rosety, Ignacio; Diaz, Antonio J; Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, the authors' aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, 11 of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-wk aerobic-training program. They attended 3 sessions/wk, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30-40 min) at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. Fat-mass percentage and distribution were measured, and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and postintervention. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants' maximal oxygen uptake (20.2 ± 5.8 vs.23.7 ± 6.3 ml · kg-1 · min-1; p < .001), and plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced in the intervention group (54.2 ± 6.7 vs.45.7 ± 6.1 ng/ml; p = .026). Further significant correlations between plasma leptin and indices of obesity were found. In contrast, no significant changes were found in adiponectin levels (p > .05). None of the tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training program reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome. PMID:23307488

  17. Efficacy of Chinese Eye Exercises on Reducing Accommodative Lag in School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Ming; Kang, Meng-Tian; Peng, Xiao-xia; Li, Si-Yuan; Wang, Yang; Li, Lei; Yu, Jing; Qiu, Li-Xin; Sun, Yun-Yun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Sun, Xin; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial. Methods A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine); sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints); and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage). Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score. Results Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10D) than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03D) and eyes closed group (0.07D) (P = 0.04). The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0%) than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8%) and the eyes closed group (34.9%) (P = 0.03). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes. Conclusion Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the long-term. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01756287 PMID:25742161

  18. Haemorheology in exercise and training.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud S; Ali, Nagia; El-Sayed Ali, Zeinab

    2005-01-01

    Disruption of the normal rheological properties of blood is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and plays a significant role in the aetiology of atherothrombogenesis. The acute increase in whole blood viscosity may unfavourably affect the microcirculatory blood flow and oxygen delivery to the tissues. It is universally accepted that exercise and physical activity performed on a regular basis has health benefits. However, the effects of exercise on the rheological properties of blood have not received much research attention. Recent, limited evidence indicates that the viscosities of whole blood and plasma increase in response to a variety of exercise protocols. The increase in whole blood viscosity is mainly attributed to an increase in haematocrit and plasma viscosity, whereas the deformability and aggregability of red blood cells remain unaltered. The increases in plasma viscosity and haematocrit have been ascribed to exercise-induced haemoconcentration as a result of fluid transfer from the blood to the interstitial spaces. The haemorheological changes associated with strenuous exercise appear to be linked with enhanced oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidant capacity, and that may affect oxygen delivery and availability to the tissues. Although significant advances have been made in many areas of exercise haematology, the long-term effects of endurance training on blood rheology have been very briefly examined and the exact effect of training has not as yet been determined. Available cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that the blood of endurance athletes is more dilute and this has been attributed to an expansion of blood volume, particularly plasma volume as a result of training. The low haematocrit values in trained athletes represent a hydration condition rather than iron stores deficiency. It has been suggested that this hypervolaemia and blood dilutional effect of endurance training may be advantageous for heat dissipation and greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise. Enhanced blood fluidity also facilitates oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles because of a reduced resistance to blood flow within the microcirculation. Furthermore, the increase in plasma volume may contribute to the body water pool and help offset dehydration. The influence of strength and power training on blood rheology is not known. The physiological mechanisms responsible for and the functional consequences of the haemorheological changes associated with exercise to a large extent remain speculative. The paradox of haematocrit and blood rheology in exercise and training warrants additional studies. Likewise, further investigations are necessary to determine the possible link between overtraining and blood rheological profiles. PMID:16076228

  19. Exercise Programs for Citizens Sixty and Over--Why Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Frank; Anderson, Gene

    An outline is given of an exercise program for older adults which is designed to increase strength, endurance, and flexibility. Brief descriptions are provided of exercises progressing from modest tone-ups for flexibility to activities involving mildly strenuous physical efforts such as jogging, bicycling, and hiking. Suggestions are offered for…

  20. Adult scoliosis can be reduced through specific SEAS exercises: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Negrini, Alessandra; Parzini, Silvana; Negrini, Maria Gabriella; Romano, Michele; Atanasio, Salvatore; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been known since many years that scoliosis can continue to progress after skeletal maturity: the rate of progression has shown to be linear, and it can be used to establish an individual prognosis. Once there is progression there is an indication for treatment: usually it is proposed a surgical one. There are very few papers on an alternative rehabilitation approach; since many years we propose specific SEAS exercises and the aim of this study is to present one case report on this approach. Case presentation All radiographs have been measured blindly twice using the same protractor by one expert physician whose repeatability error proved to be < 3° Cobb; the average measurement has been used. In this case a 25 years old female scoliosis patient, previously treated from 14 (Risser 1) to 19 years of age with a decrease of the curve from 46° to 37°, showed a progression of 10° Cobb in 6 years. The patient has then been treated with SEAS exercises only, and in one year progression has been reverted from 47° to 28.5°. Conclusion A scoliosis curve is made of different components: the structural bony and ligamentous components, and a postural one that counts up to 9° in children, while it has not been quantified in adults. This case shows that when adult scoliosis aggravates it is possible to intervene with specific exercises (SEAS) not just to get stability, but to recover last years collapse. The reduction of scoliotic curve through rehabilitation presumably does not indicate a reduction of the bone deformity, but rely on a recovery of the upright postural collapse. This reduction can decrease the chronic asymmetric load on the spine and, in the long run, reduce the risks of progression. PMID:19087344

  1. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  2. Physical Exercise Reduces Circulating Lipopolysaccharide and TLR4 Activation and Improves Insulin Signaling in Tissues of DIO Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Alexandre G.; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Tobar, Natália; Ropelle, Eduardo R.; Pauli, José R.; Bagarolli, Renata A.; Guadagnini, Dioze; Carvalheira, José B.C.; Saad, Mario J.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with a chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, and Toll–like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in the link among insulin resistance, inflammation, and obesity. The current study aimed to analyze the effect of exercise on TLR4 expression and activation in obese rats and its consequences on insulin sensitivity and signaling. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The effect of chronic and acute exercise was investigated on insulin sensitivity, insulin signaling, TLR4 activation, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and I?B kinase (IKK?) activity, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serum levels in tissues of DIO rats. RESULTS The results showed that chronic exercise reduced TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. However, both acute and chronic exercise blunted TLR4 signaling in these tissues, including a reduction in JNK and IKK? phosphorylation and IRS-1 serine 307 phosphorylation, and, in parallel, improved insulin-induced IR, IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and Akt serine phosphorylation, and reduced LPS serum levels. CONCLUSIONS Our results show that physical exercise in DIO rats, both acute and chronic, induces an important suppression in the TLR4 signaling pathway in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, reduces LPS serum levels, and improves insulin signaling and sensitivity. These data provide considerable progress in our understanding of the molecular events that link physical exercise to an improvement in inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:21282367

  3. Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  4. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

  5. Erythropoietin does not reduce plasma lactate, H(+) , and K(+) during intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, N B; Robach, P; Boushel, R; Calbet, J A L; Lundby, C

    2015-12-01

    It is investigated if recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment for 15 weeks (n?=?8) reduces extracellular accumulation of metabolic stress markers such as lactate, H(+) , and K(+) during incremental exhaustive exercise. After rHuEPO treatment, normalization of blood volume and composition by hemodilution preceded an additional incremental test. Group averages were calculated for an exercise intensity ?80% of pre-rHuEPO peak power output. After rHuEPO treatment, leg lactate release to the plasma compartment was similar to before (4.3?±?1.6 vs 3.9?±?2.5?mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Venous lactate concentration was higher (P?reduce plasma accumulation of lactate, H(+) , and K(+) at work rates corresponding to ?80% of peak power output. PMID:25556620

  6. Capsiate Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Cost of Contraction in Exercising Mouse Skeletal Muscle In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health. PMID:26030806

  7. The effectiveness of a pram-walking exercise programme in reducing depressive symptomatology for postnatal women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Kylie; Edwards, Helen

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the research project was to examine the effects of exercise, social support and depression on postnatal women who reported experiencing postnatal depression. A 12-week randomized, controlled trial was conducted investigating the effects of an exercise intervention group (a pram-walking programme for mothers and their babies ) compared to a social support group (non-structured sessions, similar to a playgroup). Participants in both groups had given birth in the past 12 months. Pretest data of physical fitness and structured questionnaires were compared to post-test effects. The primary outcomes were to reduce the depressive symptomatology and improve fitness levels of participants in the pram-walking group. Secondary outcomes were to improve the social support levels of the participants in both groups and explore women's views about the programmes. It was hypothesized that the pram-walking group participants would improve their feelings of depression and fitness levels compared to the social support group, but that both groups would improve their perceived levels of social support. The results showed that mothers in the pram-walking intervention group improved their fitness levels and reduced their level of depressive symptomatology significantly more than the social support group. There were no significant changes to social support levels for both groups. Therefore, a direct association between improvement in fitness was related to improvement in depression for the pram-walking group. However, it is also suggested that other factors in combination with improvements in fitness influenced improvements in depression levels. It is recommended that pram-walking programmes for mothers with postnatal depression be implemented as pilot research into existing available services. PMID:15265228

  8. Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL-18, CRP, and IL-6 independent of beta-blockers, BMI, and psychosocial factors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohut, M L; McCann, D A; Russell, D W; Konopka, D N; Cunnick, J E; Franke, W D; Castillo, M C; Reighard, A E; Vanderah, E

    2006-05-01

    Increased serum levels of inflammatory mediators have been associated with numerous disease states including atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and overall mortality. We hypothesized that a long-term exercise intervention among older adults would reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, and this reduction would be mediated, in part, by improvements in psychosocial factors and/or by beta-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. Adults age 64 were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment (CARDIO) or a flexibility/strength exercise treatment (FLEX) 3 days/week, 45 min/day for 10 months. A subgroup of subjects treated with non-selective beta(1)beta(2) adrenergic antagonists were included to evaluate the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptor adaptations as mediators of an exercise-induced change in inflammation. The inflammatory mediators [C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-18] and the psychosocial factors (depression, perceived stress, optimism, sense of coherence, and social support) were measured pre- and post-intervention. The CARDIO treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 compared to the FLEX treatment (significant treatment x time interaction, p<.05), whereas TNFalpha declined in both groups (main effect of time, p=.001). However, several psychosocial factors (depression, optimism, and sense of coherence) improved in both groups suggesting that the reduction of CRP, IL-6, and IL-18 in the CARDIO group was not mediated by improvements in psychosocial scores. With respect to the potential role of beta-adrenergic receptors, both CARDIO subjects treated with beta-adrenergic antagonists and those who were not treated with those medications demonstrated similar reductions in serum CRP, IL-6, IL-18, and TNFalpha. In summary, we have observed that an aerobic exercise intervention can significantly reduce serum inflammatory mediators, but beta-adrenergic receptors and psychosocial factors do not appear to be involved. PMID:16504463

  9. Aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular changes of small mesenteric and coronary arteries in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Fernanda R; Briones, Ana M; García-Redondo, Ana B; Galán, María; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Avendaño, Maria S; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Fernandes, Tiago; Vassallo, Dalton V; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Salaices, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experimental Approach Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks were used to evaluate vascular structural, mechanical and functional properties. Key Results Exercise did not affect lumen diameter, wall thickness and wall/lumen ratio but reduced vascular stiffness of coronary and mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise also reduced collagen deposition and normalized altered internal elastic lamina organization and expression of MMP-9 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise did not affect contractile responses of coronary arteries but improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. In mesenteric arteries, training normalized the increased contractile responses induced by U46619 and by high concentrations of acetylcholine. In vessels from SHR, exercise normalized the effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in vasodilator or vasoconstrictor responses, normalized the increased O2? production and the reduced Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression and increased NO production. Conclusions and Implications Exercise training of SHR improves endothelial function and vascular stiffness in coronary and small mesenteric arteries. This might be related to the concomitant decrease of oxidative stress and increase of NO bioavailability. Such effects demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular system and could contribute to a reduction in blood pressure. PMID:22994554

  10. Development of Countermeasures and Exercise Protocols to Reduce the Effects of Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Pandurang M.

    2000-01-01

    I have helped scientists at NASA-JSC in analyzing data from many projects. Some of the major ones are: (1) cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) following bed rest, (2) the effects of dietary sodium, (3) in-flight cycle exercise mitigates reduced oxygen consumption at submaximal heart rates following space flight, (4) exercise thermoregulation after 13 days of head down bed rest, and (5) bed rest induced orthostatic intolerance. Many of the projects have now been completed and some of them are in the process of being published and others have been presented at national meetings. These projects have helped me be a true statistician and given me a real-life perspective of how interesting and complicated data can be. As a by-product of of these involvements I have been able to write and publish some methodological research that have applications in NASA and elsewhere. For instance, while I was at JSC, I happened to meet Dr. Al Feiveson and got into a discussion of the Space Shuttle Reliability. This led us to rethink about the way the data on the accelerated life testing of space shuttle pressure vessels had been analyzed. This has resulted in a major statistical paper and the paper has appeared in one of the top journals in the field of Statistics. A review of the paper by the editor of the journal was published in AmStatNews, a copy is attached with this report. I have presented these findings at the national/international statistics conference and at other places. I have also written another paper on reliability and a paper on calibration techniques that have applications in the engineering and the biomedical branches of NASA. Further, I am currently in the process of writing at least two more papers that have direct applications in NASA related studies.

  11. Preliminary study of an exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep among long-term haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Radha; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Singh, Surindar Kaur Surat; Lim, Soo Kun; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Fatigue and quality of sleep are the main factors that contribute to a poor quality of life among patients on long-term haemodialysis. Studies have also emphasised the importance of exercise for improving the wellbeing of dialysis patients. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a predialysis low-to-moderate-intensity exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep disorders among long-term haemodialysis patients. METHODS In this quasi-experimental study, an exercise programme was conducted three times a week for 12 weeks before long-term haemodialysis patients underwent dialysis at two centres. The patients were categorised into either the exercise group (n = 28) or control group (n = 27). The latter was asked to maintain their current lifestyles. Assessments of fatigue and sleep disorder levels were performed for both groups using self-reported questionnaires at baseline and after intervention. The patients’ perception of the exercise programme was also determined using self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS Paired sample t-test indicated improvements in fatigue level in the exercise group (mean fatigue score: post-treatment 40.5 ± 7.9 vs. pre-treatment 30.0 ± 10.9). Improvements in sleep disorders were also observed in the exercise group (mean score: post-treatment 7.6 ± 3.3 vs. pre-treatment 10.1 ± 3.8). However, sleep quality deteriorated in the control group (mean score: post-treatment 10.7 ± 2.9 vs. pre-treatment 9.3 ± 2.9). CONCLUSION Simple low-to-moderate-intensity exercise is effective for improving fatigue, sleep disorders and the overall quality of life among haemodialysis patients. PMID:25273932

  12. My gut feeling says rest: Increased intestinal permeability contributes to chronic diseases in high-intensity exercisers.

    PubMed

    Van Houten, Jason M; Wessells, Robert J; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2015-12-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and many of these conditions are linked to chronic inflammation. One potential cause of chronic inflammation is an increased intestinal epithelial permeability. Recent studies have demonstrated that parasympathetic stimulation via the efferent abdominal vagus nerve increases the expression and proper localization of tight junction proteins and decreases intestinal epithelial permeability. This finding may provide a novel approach for treating and preventing many chronic conditions. Importantly, physical activity is associated with increased resting parasympathetic (vagal) activity and lower risk of chronic diseases. However, high intensity long duration exercise can be harmful to overall health. Specifically, individuals who frequently exercise strenuously and for longer time intervals have the same mortality rates as sedentary individuals. This may be explained, in part, by longer periods of reduced vagal activity as vagal activity is markedly reduced both during and after intense exercise. We hypothesize that one mechanism by which exercise provides its health benefits is by increasing resting vagal activity and decreasing intestinal epithelial permeability, thus decreasing chronic inflammation. Additionally, we hypothesize that long periods of reduced vagal activity in individuals who exercise at high intensities and for longer durations, decrease the integrity of the intestinal barrier, putting them at greater risk of chronic inflammation and a host of chronic diseases. Thus, this hypothesis provides a conceptual link between the well-established benefits of frequent exercise and the paradoxical deleterious effects of prolonged, high-intensity exercise without adequate rest. PMID:26415977

  13. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y) performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial) and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation (omega-3 trial). Before and 48 h after eccentric exercise, signs of inflammation was assessed by measuring soreness ratings, swelling (arm circumference and arm volume), and temperature (infrared skin sensor). Arm soreness increased (p < 0.0001) in response to eccentric exercise; the magnitude of increase in soreness was 15% less in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.004). Arm circumference increased after eccentric exercise in the control trial (p = 0.01) but not in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.15). However, there was no difference between trials (p = 0.45). Arm volume and skin temperature did not change in response to eccentric exercise in either trial. These findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation decreases soreness, as a marker of inflammation, after eccentric exercise. Based on these findings, omega-3 supplementation could provide benefits by minimizing post-exercise soreness and thereby facilitate exercise training in individuals ranging from athletes undergoing heavy conditioning to sedentary subjects or patients who are starting exercise programs or medical treatments such as physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation. Key points Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to reduce inflammation in numerous inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Chrohn’s disease. Although strenuous exercise is known to cause acute increases in inflammation, it is not clear if omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates this adverse response to exercise. Our research demonstrates that 3000 mg·d-1 omega-3 fatty acid supplementation minimizes the severe, delayed-onset muscle soreness that results from strenuous eccentric strength exercise. This information, along with a plethora of information showing that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has other health benefits, demonstrates that a readily available over the counter nutritional supplement (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids) reduces delayed-onset soreness caused by strenuous strength exercise. This information has obvious relevance to athletic populations but also to other groups such as physical therapy patients and newly admitted cardiac rehabilitation patients, as muscle soreness, if left unchecked, can slow the progress in adapting to a new exercise program. Furthermore, as inflammation is known to be involved in the pathogenesis if numerous diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, it is likely prudent for individuals to use inflammation-attenuating interventions, such as omega-3 supplementation, to keep inflammatory responses to physical activity at a minimum. PMID:24150614

  14. High-intensity exercise and carbohydrate-reduced energy-restricted diet in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Francesco; de Morree, Helma M; Matschke, Verena; Marcora, Samuele M; Milousis, Athanasios; Thom, Jeanette M; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2010-11-01

    Continuous high glycemic load and inactivity challenge glucose homeostasis and fat oxidation. Hyperglycemia and high intramuscular glucose levels mediate insulin resistance, a precursor state of type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate whether a carbohydrate (CHO)-reduced diet combined with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) enhances the beneficial effects of the diet alone on insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation in obese individuals. Nineteen obese subjects underwent 14 days of CHO-reduced and energy-restricted diet. Ten of them combined the diet with HIIT (4 min bouts at 90% VO(2peak) up to 10 times, 3 times a week). Oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS) increased significantly in both groups; [diet-exercise (DE) group: pre 377 ± 70, post 396 ± 68 mL min(-1) m(-2); diet (D) group: pre 365 ± 91, post 404 ± 87 mL min(-1) m(-2); P < 0.001]. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio (RER) decreased significantly in both groups (DE group: pre 0.91 ± 0.06, post 0.88 ± 0.06; D group: pre 0.92 ± 0.07, post 0.86 ± 0.07; P = 0.002). VO(2peak) increased significantly in the DE group (pre 27 ± 5, post 32 ± 6 mL kg(-1) min(-1); P < 0.001), but not in the D group (pre 26 ± 9, post 26 ± 8 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). Lean mass and resistin were preserved only in the DE group (P < 0.05). Fourteen days of CHO-reduced diet improved OGIS and fat oxidation (RER) in obese subjects. The energy-balanced HIIT did not further enhance these parameters, but increased aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) and preserved lean mass and resistin. PMID:20628884

  15. Lack of Nrf2 reduces voluntary exercise in mice: influences of sex and diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise is generally accepted to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the adaptations occurring during exercise are not well understood. The Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway adapts cells to elevated ROS. We tested...

  16. Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent

    E-print Network

    Park, Sohee

    there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically­70% HR reserve) over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF). Findings: Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5

  17. Falls exercise interventions and reduced falls rate: always in the patient's interest?

    PubMed

    Laybourne, A H; Biggs, S; Martin, F C

    2008-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in older adults. Physical, psychological and social consequences include injury, fall-related fear and loss of self-efficacy. In turn, these may result in decreased physical activity, reduced functional capacity, and increased risk of institutionalisation. Falls prevention exercise programmes (FPEP) are now widespread within the National Health Service, often part of multifactorial interventions, and are designed to minimise impairments that impact physical function, such as strength and balance. Assessment of the clinical efficacy of FPEPs has therefore focused on the measurement of physical function and rate of falls. Whilst important, this approach may be too narrow to capture the highly variable and multidimensional responses that individuals make to a fall and to a FPEP. We argue that the current focus may miss a paradoxical lack of or even deleterious impact on quality of life, despite a reduction in physical performance-related falls risk. We draw upon the Selective Optimisation and Compensation (SOC) model, developed by Paul and Margret Baltes, to explore how this paradox may be a result of the coping strategies adopted by individuals in response to a fall. PMID:18194966

  18. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-01-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/?0 thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (?VO2/?WR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (?VO2/?HR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (?VE/?VO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (?VE/?VCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

  19. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-04-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/?(0) thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (?VO2/?WR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (?VO2/?HR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (?VE/?VO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (?VE/?VCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

  20. Load Variation Influences on Joint Work During Squat Exercise in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Logan, Rachel L.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercises that load the axial skeleton, such as the parallel squat, are incorporated as a critical component of a space exercise program designed to maximize the stimuli for bone remodeling and muscle loading. Astronauts on the International Space Station perform regular resistance exercise using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Squat exercises on Earth entail moving a portion of the body weight plus the added bar load, whereas in microgravity the body weight is 0, so all load must be applied via the bar. Crewmembers exercising in microgravity currently add approx.70% of their body weight to the bar load as compensation for the absence of the body weight. This level of body weight replacement (BWR) was determined by crewmember feedback and personal experience without any quantitative data. The purpose of this evaluation was to utilize computational simulation to determine the appropriate level of BWR in microgravity necessary to replicate lower extremity joint work during squat exercise in normal gravity based on joint work. We hypothesized that joint work would be positively related to BWR load.

  1. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  2. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  3. Cardiorespiratory responses and reduced apneic time to cold-water face immersion after high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Sylvia; Soultanakis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Apnea after exercise may evoke a neurally mediated conflict that may affect apneic time and create a cardiovascular strain. The physiological responses, induced by apnea with face immersion in cold water (10°C), after a 3-min exercise bout, at 85% of VO2max,were examined in 10 swimmers. A pre-selected 40-s apnea, completed after rest (AAR), could not be met after exercise (AAE), and was terminated with an agonal gasp reflex, and a reduction of apneic time, by 75%. Bradycardia was evident with immersion after both, 40-s of AAR and after AAE (P<0.05). The dramatic elevation of, systolic pressure and pulse pressure, after AAE, were indicative of cardiovascular stress. Blood pressure after exercise without apnea was not equally elevated. The activation of neurally opposing functions as those elicited by the diving reflex after high intensity exercise may create an autonomic conflict possibly related to oxygen-conserving reflexes stimulated by the trigeminal nerve, and those elicited by exercise. PMID:26343750

  4. Intense Exercise during the First Two Trimesters of Unapparent Pregnancy: Case Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Gloria C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report presents nonexperimental retrospective data on the weights, menstrual cycle intervals, pregnancy symptoms, and running programs of two women who exercised intensely during their first two trimesters. Although these two cases suggest that strenuous anaerobic exercise during pregnancy is not harmful, more studies are needed. (IAH)

  5. Exercise in heart failure patients supported with a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mette Holme; Gustafsson, Finn

    2015-04-01

    After implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD), exercise capacity in heart failure patients remains reduced with peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) values averaging from 11 to 20 ml/kg/min. Total cardiac output in CF-LVAD patients during exercise is predominantly determined by pump speed, the pressure difference across the pump, and in some cases ejection through the aortic valve. Fixed pump speed utilized in CF-LVADs may provide insufficient support, resulting in a moderate cardiac output increase during increased physical strain. Ongoing studies are evaluating whether pump speed changes in response to varied loading conditions may enable LVADs to provide sufficient support even during strenuous exercise. In the currently used devices, evidence suggests that focus on optimizing non-cardiac peripheral parameters is vital. Extra-cardiac potentially reversible factors are anemia with low oxygen-carrying capacity, obesity and general deconditioning with low muscle mass. In addition, exercise training in CF-LVAD patients can improve peak VO2. To design interventions to improve functional capacity in patients treated with modern durable LVADs, a detailed understanding of exercise physiology in a continuous-flow circulatory system is necessary. In this review we address the different components of exercise physiology in LVAD patients and point out potential solutions or areas of future research. PMID:25577562

  6. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible. PMID:25993596

  7. Antioxidants in exercise nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sen, C K

    2001-01-01

    Physical exercise may be associated with a 10- to 20-fold increase in whole body oxygen uptake. Oxygen flux in the active peripheral skeletal muscle fibres may increase by as much as 100- to 200-fold during exercise. Studies during the past 2 decades suggest that during strenuous exercise, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is elevated to a level that overwhelms tissue antioxidant defence systems. The result is oxidative stress. The magnitude of the stress depends on the ability of the tissues to detoxify ROS, that is, antioxidant defences. Antioxidants produced by the body act in concert with their exogenous, mainly dietary, counterparts to provide protection against the ravages of reactive oxygen as well as nitrogen species. Antioxidant supplementation is likely to provide beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative tissue damage. While universal recommendations specifying types and dosages of antioxidants are difficult to make, it would be prudent for competitive athletes routinely engaged in strenuous exercise to seek an estimate of individual requirement. A new dimension in oxidant biology has recently unfolded. Although excessive oxidants may cause damage to tissues, lower levels of oxidants in biological cells may act as messenger molecules enabling the function of numerous physiological processes. It is plausible that some exercise-induced beneficial effects are actually oxidant-mediated. Such developments call for an even more careful analysis of the overall significance of types and amounts of antioxidants in diet. While these complexities pose significant challenges, experts agree that if used prudently, oxidants and antioxidants may serve as potent therapeutic tools. Efforts to determine individual needs of athletes and a balanced diet rich in antioxidant supplements are highly recommended. PMID:11708399

  8. Are hormonal responses to exercise in young men with Down's syndrome related to reduced endurance performance?

    PubMed

    Bricout, V-A; Guinot, M; Faure, P; Flore, P; Eberhard, Y; Garnier, P; Juvin, A Favre

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse whether hormonal responses could explain an exercise limitation in Down's syndrome (DS). Fourteen young men with DS (mean age 22.5 +/- 0.7 years) and 15 controls (CONT, mean age 22.5 +/- 0.3 years) participated in the study. During a treadmill submaximal incremental test, blood samples were collected for determination of hormonal and metabolic variables. Compared to CONT, DS individuals showed lower VO(2max) (P < 0.05), and lower duration of submaximal incremental exercise (P < 0.001). At rest, DS individuals showed greater catecholamines, insulin and leptin values (P < 0.05), but lower testosteronemia and cortisolemia (P < 0.05), compared to CONT. During submaximal incremental tests, catecholamines and cortisol were not increased, whereas the insulin concentration of DS individuals was significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared to CONT. Glycaemia increased significantly at the end of submaximal incremental test for CONT but not for DS individuals (P < 0.01). Maximal fat oxidation was lower (P < 0.01), whereas non-esterified fatty acids concentrations rose significantly during submaximal exercise in DS individuals. These results indicate an altered hormonal response to exercise in DS individuals. This endocrine profile at rest and during exercise may limit endurance performance in DS individuals. PMID:18363810

  9. Enhancement of preoxygenation for decompression sickness protection: effect of exercise duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Fischer, Michele D.; Kannan, Nandini

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since strenuous exercise for 10 min during preoxygenation was shown to provide better protection from decompression sickness (DCS) incidence than resting preoxygenation, a logical question was: would a longer period of strenuous exercise improve protection even further? HYPOTHESIS: Increased strenuous exercise duration during preoxygenation increases DCS protection. METHODS: There were 60 subjects, 30 men and 30 women, who were exposed to 9,144 m (4.3 psia) for 4 h while performing mild, upper body exercise. Before the exposures, each subject performed three preoxygenation profiles on different days in balanced order: a 90-min resting preoxygenation control; a 240-min resting preoxygenation control; and a 90-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 15 min. The subjects were monitored at altitude for venous gas emboli (VGE) with an echo-imaging system and observed for signs and symptoms of DCS. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in occurrence of DCS following any of the three preoxygenation procedures. Results were also comparable to an earlier report of 42% DCS with a 60-min preoxygenation including a 10-min exercise. There was no difference between VGE incidence in the comparison of protection offered by a 90-min preoxygenation with or without 13 min of strenuous exercise. The DCS incidence following a 240-min resting preoxygenation, 40%, was higher than observed during NASA studies and nearly identical with the earlier 42% DCS after a 60-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 10 min. CONCLUSION: The protection offered by a 10 min exercise in a 60-min preoxygenation was not increased with extension of the preoxygenation exercise period to 15 min in a 90-min preoxygenation, indicating an upper time limit to the beneficial effects of strenuous exercise.

  10. Do exercise and weight loss reduce blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension?

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, J A; Thyrum, E T; Gullette, E D; Sherwood, A; Waugh, R

    1995-02-01

    We conclude from our review that exercise and weight loss offer some promise as non-pharmacologic treatments for hypertension. Unfortunately, most available studies are methodologically unsound, and the mechanisms by which exercise lowers blood pressure are not known. The use of randomized controlled designs, precise and comprehensive measurements of blood pressure and fitness, and clearly described interventions will be necessary if we are to decide whether exercise and diet lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension. We are now about to embark on such a study (see sidebar) in hopes that it will provide a clear answer to the question of whether these non-pharmacologic treatments can help the large numbers of Americans (and North Carolinians) with high blood pressure. PMID:7898595

  11. The Effects of Impromptu Speech Exercises on Reducing Trait and Situational Communication Apprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbough, Timothy B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how the impromptu speech exercise affects trait and situational communication apprehension (CA). Uses McCroskey's Personal Report of Communication Apprehension to study trait CA and Clevenger's Speaker Anxiety Scale to measure situational CA. Indicates that subjects who completed the impromptu speech significantly lowered their…

  12. A Comparison of Exercise and Meditation in Reducing Physiological Response to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Wesley E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of brief treadmill exercise and meditation with a placebo-control treatment for reduction in several physiological and psychological measures of stress, anxiety, and tension before and after a written final examination in 48 high-test anxiety subjects. The subjects, 24 men and 24 women,…

  13. Extrinsic Threshold PEEP Reduces Post-exercise Dyspnea in COPD Patients: A Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Cross-over Study

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Most patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complain of dyspnea during and following exercise, and the development of intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is thought to contribute to lung hyperinflation and dyspnea. Many people with COPD use pursed lip breathing (PLB) in an attempt to produce extrinsic PEEP to reduce lung hyperinflation and dyspnea during and following exertion. We hypothesized that the use of a threshold, extrinsic PEEP device would reduce post-exercise dyspnea in people with COPD. Methods: A double blind, crossover study was conducted on post-exercise dyspnea in 8 patients with COPD whose exercise tolerance was limited by dyspnea. Subjects performed two identical 6-minute treadmill bouts that led to a Borg dyspnea rating of at least 5/10. Dyspnea, heart rate, and oxygen-hemoglobin saturation (SpO2) were recorded at rest, every 2 minutes during exercise and at 2, 5, and 10 minutes post-exercise. Immediately following the exercise bouts, the subjects used either a threshold PEEP device for 6 breaths at 10 cm H2O or a Sham device. Results: Heart rate and SpO2 were not different between treatments any time point before, during, or after exercise. Dyspnea ratings were not different between devices at rest or during exercise, but were lower in the post-exercise period following use of PEEP (p < 0.05). When asked which device, if any, the subjects would prefer to use to relieve post-exercise dyspnea, 7 of 8 chose the PEEP device and one had no preference. Conclusions: We found that the use of a PEEP device can help reduce postexercise dyspnea in patients with COPD. PMID:21886475

  14. There are at least 40 Benefits of Exercise Reduce the risk of premature death

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    /or dying from heart disease Reduce high blood pressure or the risk of developing high blood pressure diabetes Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure. Helps build promotes better sleep. Reduces the risk of developing diabetes. Reduces the risk of developing high blood

  15. Regulation of Muscle Glycogen Repletion, Muscle Protein Synthesis and Repair Following Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, John L.

    2004-01-01

    Recovery from prolonged strenuous exercise requires that depleted fuel stores be replenished, that damaged tissue be repaired and that training adaptations be initiated. Critical to these processes are the type, amount and timing of nutrient intake. Muscle glycogen is an essential fuel for intense exercise, whether the exercise is of an aerobic or anaerobic nature. Glycogen synthesis is a relatively slow process, and therefore the restoration of muscle glycogen requires special considerations when there is limited time between training sessions or competition. To maximize the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis it is important to consume a carbohydrate supplement immediately post exercise, to continue to supplement at frequent intervals and to consume approximately 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg-1 body wt·h-1. Maximizing glycogen synthesis with less frequent supplementation and less carbohydrate can be achieved with the addition of protein to the carbohydrate supplement. This will also promote protein synthesis and reduce protein degradation, thus having the added benefit of stimulating muscle tissue repair and adaptation. Moreover, recent research suggests that consuming a carbohydrate/protein supplement post exercise will have a more positive influence on subsequent exercise performance than a carbohydrate supplement. Key Points For rapid recovery from prolonged exercise, it is important to replenish muscle glycogen stores and initiate muscle tissue repair and adaptation. To maximize muscle glycogen replenishment, it is important to consume a carbohydrate supplement as soon after exercise as possible. Consume the carbohydrate frequently, such as every 30 minutes, and provide about 1.2 to 1.5 g of carbohydrate·kg-1 body wt·h-1. Efficiency of muscle glycogen storage can be increased significantly with the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement (~4 to 1 carbohydrate to protein ratio). The addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement also has the added advantage of limiting post exercise muscle damage and promoting muscle protein accretion. PMID:24482590

  16. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (?10.83 ± 2.13 vs. ?2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (?11.26 ± 2.13 vs. ?3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (?10.87 ± 2.39 vs. ?0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

  17. Voluntary Exercise Can Ameliorate Insulin Resistance by Reducing iNOS-Mediated S-Nitrosylation of Akt in the Liver in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Hideko; Kaneki, Masao; Goto, Sataro; Shimokado, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise can ameliorate insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism, however, remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver plays an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. In this study, we tried to verify our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance by reducing the expression of iNOS and subsequent S-nitrosylation of key molecules of glucose metabolism in the liver. Twenty-one Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 18 non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or exercise group subjected to voluntary wheel running for 20 weeks. The voluntary exercise significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR in the OLETF rats. In addition, the exercise decreased the amount of iNOS mRNA in the liver in the OLETF rats. Moreover, exercise reduced the levels of S-nitrosylated Akt in the liver, which were increased in the OLETF rats, to those observed in the LETO rats. These findings support our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance, at least partly, by suppressing the iNOS expression and subsequent S-nitrosylation of Akt, a key molecule of the signal transduction pathways in glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:26172834

  18. Diastolic function is associated with quality of life and exercise capacity in stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Bussoni, M.F.; Guirado, G.N.; Roscani, M.G.; Polegato, B.F.; Matsubara, L.S.; Bazan, S.G.Z.; Matsubara, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise capacity and quality of life (QOL) are important outcome predictors in patients with systolic heart failure (HF), independent of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF). LV diastolic function has been shown to be a better predictor of aerobic exercise capacity in patients with systolic dysfunction and a New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification ?II. We hypothesized that the currently used index of diastolic function E/e' is associated with exercise capacity and QOL, even in optimally treated HF patients with reduced LVEF. This prospective study included 44 consecutive patients aged 55±11 years (27 men and 17 women), with LVEF<0.50 and NYHA functional class I-III, receiving optimal pharmacological treatment and in a stable clinical condition, as shown by the absence of dyspnea exacerbation for at least 3 months. All patients had conventional transthoracic echocardiography and answered the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire, followed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT). In a multivariable model with 6MWT as the dependent variable, age and E/e' explained 27% of the walked distance in 6MWT (P=0.002; multivariate regression analysis). No association was found between walk distance and LVEF or mitral annulus systolic velocity. Only normalized left atrium volume, a sensitive index of diastolic function, was associated with decreased QOL. Despite the small number of patients included, this study offers evidence that diastolic function is associated with physical capacity and QOL and should be considered along with ejection fraction in patients with compensated systolic HF. PMID:24036912

  19. Exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Tan, R A; Spector, S L

    1998-01-01

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is characterised by transient airway obstruction occurring after strenuous exertion. A fall of 10% or more in the FEV1 after exercise is diagnostic. Inhalation of large volumes of dry, cold air during exercise leads to loss of heat and water from the bronchial mucosa and airway cooling and drying. Proposed mechanisms for bronchoconstriction include: (i) mucosal drying and increased osmolarity stimulating mast cell degranulation; and (ii) rapid airway rewarming after exercise causing vascular congestion, increased permeability and oedema leading to obstruction. EIA symptoms start after exercise, peak 8 to 15 minutes after exercise and spontaneously resolve in about 60 minutes. A refractory period of up to 3 hours after recovery, during which repeat exercise causes less bronchospasm, has been observed. The amount of ventilation and the temperature of inspired air are important factors in determining the severity of EIA. Greater ventilation and cold, dry air increase the risk for EIA. Education regarding the nature and management of EIA is important not only for asthmatics but also for their families and coaches. With the proper precautions and workout techniques, there is no limit to what individuals with asthma can achieve in sports. Prevention is the main objective in managing EIA. Nonpharmacological measures include warming up before vigorous exertion, covering the mouth and nose in cold weather, exercising in warm, humidified environments if possible and warming down after exercise. Aerobic fitness and good control of baseline bronchial reactivity also help to diminish the effects of EIA. Inhaled beta-agonists are the medications of choice in EIA prophylaxis. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate (cromolyn sodium) or nedocromil may also be used. Agents that may be added if inhaled beta-agonists or sodium cromoglycate are not adequate include anticholinergic agents (such as ipratropium bromide), theophylline, calcium channel blockers, alpha-agonists, antihistamines and oral beta-agonists. Newer agents include antileukotriene agents, inhaled heparin and inhaled furosemide (frusemide). PMID:9458523

  20. Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

  1. Exploring effects of a natural combination medicine on exercise-induced inflammatory immune response: A double-blind RCT.

    PubMed

    Pilat, C; Frech, T; Wagner, A; Krüger, K; Hillebrecht, A; Pons-Kühnemann, J; Scheibelhut, C; Bödeker, R-H; Mooren, F-C

    2015-08-01

    Traumeel (Tr14) is a natural, combination drug, which has been shown to modulate inflammation at the cytokine level. This study aimed to investigate potential effects of Tr14 on the exercise-induced immune response. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, healthy, untrained male subjects received either Tr14 (n?=?40) or placebo (n?=?40) for 24?h after a strenuous experimental exercise trial on a bicycle (60?min at 80%VO2 max). A range of antigen-stimulated cytokines (in vitro), white blood cell count, lymphocyte activation and apoptosis markers, and indicators of muscle damage were assessed up to 24?h following exercise. The area under the curve with respect to the increase (AUCI ) was compared between both groups. The Tr14 group showed a reduced exercise-induced leukocytosis and neutrocytosis (P?exercise-induced immune response by (a) decreasing the inflammatory response of the innate immune system; and (b) augmenting the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. PMID:24924232

  2. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found. PMID:8100371

  3. Fasted Exercise and Increased Dietary Protein Reduces Body Fat and Improves Strength in Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G; Pritchard, P P; Papageorgiou, C; Phillips, S; Kumar, P; Langan-Evans, C; Routledge, H; Owens, D J; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a diet and exercise intervention in jockeys on body composition, metabolism, bone and mental health. 10 jockeys followed an individually prescribed 6-wk diet (Carbohydrate=2.5-3.5?g/kg, Protein=2.5?g/kg, Fat=1.0?g/kg). Body mass (59.2±4.6 vs. 57.6±4.5?kg), fat mass (7.5±3.5 vs. 6.2±2.6) and body fat (13.1±5.9 vs. 11.5±4.9%) all decreased (P<0.05) from pre to post-intervention whilst lean mass (47.1±5.3 vs. 47.0±5.5?kg) was maintained (P=0.80). RMR (1703±329 vs. 1975±313?kcal.d(-1)), VO2max (3.8±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.7?L/min(-?1)) chest strength (65±11 vs. 71±13?kg), leg strength (160±28 vs. 175±29?kg) and jumping height (40±6 vs. 48±5?cm) significantly increased (P<0.05). Bone health (DXA) did not change (P>0.05) at hip (-1.04±1.29 vs. -?0.76±0.71) or lumbar sites (-1.32±0.76 vs. -?1.31±0.77). Psychometrics (GHQ-12 and EAT-26) remained unchanged (10.3±4.3 vs. 8.9±3.8 and 14.8±9.6 vs. 11.0±5.6, P>0.05, respectively). This approach represents a marked difference from jockeys' habitual weight-making that largely involves dehydration and food deprivation. PMID:26212241

  4. Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept) study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. Methods Eight, healthy men (27.1?±?6.9 yrs old) who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising <150 minutes per week) were randomly assigned to ingest MSM at either 1.5 grams per day or 3.0 grams per day for 30 days (28 days before and 2 days following exercise). Before and after the 28 day intervention period, subjects performed 18 sets of knee extension exercise in an attempt to induce muscle damage (and to be used partly as a measure of exercise performance). Sets 1–15 were performed at a predetermined weight for 10 repetitions each, while sets 16–18 were performed to muscular failure. Muscle soreness (using a 5-point Likert scale), fatigue (using the fatigue-inertia subset of the Profile of Mood States), blood antioxidant status (glutathione and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity [TEAC]), and blood homocysteine were measured before and after exercise, pre and post intervention. Exercise performance (total work performed during sets 16–18 of knee extension testing) was also measured pre and post intervention. Results Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p?=?0.080), with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p?=?0.073 with 3.0 grams; p?=?0.087 for both dosages combined). TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p?=?0.035), while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p?=?0.007). No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p?>?0.05). Conclusion MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance. PMID:23013531

  5. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Hervé; Horton, Kenneth; Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen J; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572 PMID:19545359

  6. Exercise behaviour and attitudes among fourth-year medical students at the University of British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Kaila A.; Kokotilo, Kristen J.; Fitzgerald, Barbara E.; Frank, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the physical activity (PA) levels and counseling attitudes of Canadian undergraduate medical students. Design Online or paper survey. Setting The University of British Columbia (UBC). Participants Fourth-year medical students at UBC from 2007 to 2010. Main outcome measures Physical activity levels, relationship between exercise behaviour and attitudes toward counseling, and student perception of training in the area of exercise prescription. Results A total of 546 out of 883 students participated in the survey (62% response rate). Sixty-four percent of students met the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology 2011 recommendations for PA. Attitudes toward healthy living were related to PA levels, but the rate of counseling patients about exercise was not; however, students who engaged in more strenuous PA were more likely to perceive exercise counseling as being highly relevant to future clinical practice (P = .018). Overall, 69% of students perceived exercise counseling to be highly relevant to clinical practice, but 86% thought that their training in this area was less than extensive. Conclusion Fourth-year UBC medical students engage in more strenuous PA than average age-matched Canadians, which affects their attitudes toward perceived future counseling practices. Encouraging more student participation in strenuous PA and encouraging academic training in the area of exercise counseling might be important next steps in preparing future physicians to effectively prescribe exercise to their patients. PMID:23341676

  7. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p?exercise in both treatment groups. During the 60 hour recovery period, a significant (p?=?0.047) interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p?exercise and interestingly coincided with a gradual increase in plasma antioxidant capacity, whereas biomarkers for inflammation were still elevated after 60 hours recovery. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise and blueberry consumption. These findings may benefit the sporting community who should consider dietary interventions that specifically target health and performance adaptation. PMID:22564864

  8. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control Usual care. Measurements Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies. PMID:24591821

  9. The Feasibility of Reducing and Measuring Sedentary Time among Overweight, Non-Exercising Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Libertine, Amanda; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of reducing free-living sedentary time (ST) and the convergent validity of various tools to measure ST. Twenty overweight/obese participants wore the activPAL (AP) (criterion measure) and ActiGraph (AG; 100 and 150 count/minute cut-points) for a 7-day baseline period. Next, they received a simple intervention targeting free-living ST reductions (7-day intervention period). ST was measured using two questionnaires following each period. ST significantly decreased from 67% of wear time (baseline period) to 62.7% of wear time (intervention period) according to AP (n = 14, P < 0.01). No other measurement tool detected a reduction in ST. The AG measures were more accurate (lower bias) and more precise (smaller confidence intervals) than the questionnaires. Participants reduced ST by ~5%, which is equivalent to a 48_min reduction over a 16-hour waking day. These data describe ST measurement properties from wearable monitors and self-report tools to inform sample-size estimates for future ST interventions. PMID:22175004

  10. Exercise by lifelong voluntary wheel running reduces subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production in the heart.

    PubMed

    Judge, Sharon; Jang, Young Mok; Smith, Anthony; Selman, Colin; Phillips, Tracey; Speakman, John R; Hagen, Tory; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2005-12-01

    Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant production, in association with an accumulation of oxidative damage, contribute to the aging process. Regular physical activity can delay the onset of morbidity, increase mean lifespan, and reduce the risk of developing several pathological states. No studies have examined age-related changes in oxidant production and oxidative stress in both subsarcolemmal (SSM) and interfibrillar (IFM) mitochondria in combination with lifelong exercise. Therefore, we investigated whether long-term voluntary wheel running in Fischer 344 rats altered hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, antioxidant defenses, and oxidative damage in cardiac SSM and IFM. At 10-11 wk of age, rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary and 8% food restriction (sedentary; n = 20) or wheel running and 8% food restriction (runners; n = 20); rats were killed at 24 mo of age. After the age of 6 mo, running activity was maintained at an average of 1,145 +/- 248 m/day. Daily energy expenditure determined by doubly labeled water technique showed that runners expended on average approximately 70% more energy per day than the sedentary rats. Long-term voluntary wheel running significantly reduced H2O2 production from both SSM (-10.0%) and IFM (-9.6%) and increased daily energy expenditure (kJ/day) significantly in runners compared with sedentary controls. Additionally, MnSOD activity was significantly lowered in SSM and IFM from wheel runners, which may reflect a reduction in mitochondrial superoxide production. Activities of the other major antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and glutathione levels were not altered by wheel running. Despite the reduction in mitochondrial oxidant production, no significant differences in oxidative stress levels (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins, protein carbonyls, and malondialdehyde) were detected between the two groups. The health benefits of chronic exercise may be, at least partially, due to a reduction in mitochondrial oxidant production; however, we could not detect a significant reduction in several selected parameters of oxidative stress. PMID:16051717

  11. Abdominal exercise intensities on firm and compliant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chong, Raymond; Barber, Shelly; Martin, Laurie Howell; Steele, Kimberly; White, Rebecca

    2008-06-01

    Muscle activities at 15 sites were compared within a group of healthy young adults to evaluate their relative intensities during six abdominal exercises: partial and full sit-ups on a firm surface (floor) and on an exercise ball that was either stabilized or unstabilized. The most strenuous abdominal exercise overall (i.e., whole body workout) was the full sit-up on a firm surface which included significant muscle activities in the lower extremities. Exercise intensity was also high in the full and partial sit-ups when performed on a ball. The partial sit-up on the floor was the least strenuous of the six exercises. The greatest effect on the abdominal muscles was observed in the partial sit-up on a ball (stabilized and unstabilized). Results suggest that, although abdominal exercises on a ball may be gentler on the hip and lower back, overall exercise intensity is not necessarily lower than that on the floor. Moreover, partial sit-ups, both on the floor and on a ball, also required greater neck muscle activities than full sit-ups. In deciding what type of sit-up to do, exercise surface and different muscular activities between the partial and full sit-ups should be considered. PMID:18712215

  12. Voluntary exercise during extinction of auditory fear conditioning reduces the relapse of fear associated with potentiated activity of striatal direct pathway neurons.

    PubMed

    Mika, Agnieszka; Bouchet, Courtney A; Bunker, Preston; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Spence, Katie G; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2015-11-01

    Relapse of previously extinguished fear presents a significant, pervasive obstacle to the successful long-term treatment of anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Thus, identification of a novel means to enhance fear extinction to stand the passage of time and generalize across contexts is of the utmost importance. Acute bouts of exercise can be used as inexpensive, noninvasive treatment strategies to reduce anxiety, and have been shown to enhance memory for extinction when performed in close temporal proximity to the extinction session. However, it is unclear whether acute exercise can be used to prevent relapse of fear, and the neural mechanisms underlying this potential effect are unknown. The current study therefore examined whether acute exercise during extinction of auditory fear can protect against the later relapse of fear. Male F344 rats lacking an extended history of wheel running were conditioned to fear a tone CS and subsequently extinguished within either a freely mobile running wheel, a locked wheel, or a control context lacking a wheel. Rats exposed to fear extinction within a freely mobile wheel ran during fear extinction, and demonstrated reduced fear as well as attenuated corticosterone levels during re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test in a novel context 1week later. Examination of cfos mRNA patterns elicited by re-exposure to the extinguished CS during the relapse test revealed that acute exercise during extinction decreased activation of brain circuits classically involved in driving fear expression and interestingly, increased activity within neurons of the direct striatal pathway involved in reward signaling. These data suggest that exercise during extinction reduces relapse through a mechanism involving the direct pathway of the striatum. It is suggested that a positive affective state could become associated with the CS during exercise during extinction, thus resulting in a relapse-resistant extinction memory. PMID:26454156

  13. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance ...

  14. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  15. A spectrum of exercise training reduces soluble A? in a dose-dependent manner in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kaitlin M; Girens, Renee E; Larson, Sara K; Jones, Maria R; Restivo, Jessica L; Holtzman, David M; Cirrito, John R; Yuede, Carla M; Zimmerman, Scott D; Timson, Benjamin F

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has long been hypothesized to influence the risk and pathology of Alzheimer's disease. However, the amount of physical activity necessary for these benefits is unclear. We examined the effects of three months of low and high intensity exercise training on soluble A?40 and A?42 levels in extracellular enriched fractions from the cortex and hippocampus of young Tg2576 mice. Low (LOW) and high (HI) intensity exercise training animals ran at speeds of 15m/min on a level treadmill and 32m/min at a 10% grade, respectively for 60min per day, five days per week, from three to six months of age. Sedentary mice (SED) were placed on a level, non-moving, treadmill for the same duration. Soleus muscle citrate synthase activity increased by 39% in the LOW group relative to SED, and by 71% in the HI group relative to LOW, indicating an exercise training effect in these mice. Soluble A?40 concentrations decreased significantly in an exercise training dose-dependent manner in the cortex. In the hippocampus, concentrations were decreased significantly in the HI group relative to LOW and SED. Soluble A?42 levels also decreased significantly in an exercise training dose-dependent manner in both the cortex and hippocampus. Five proteins involved in A? clearance (neprilysin, IDE, MMP9, LRP1 and HSP70) were elevated by exercise training with its intensity playing a role in each case. Our data demonstrate that exercise training reduces extracellular soluble A? in the brains of Tg2576 mice in a dose-dependent manner through an up-regulation of A? clearance. PMID:26563933

  16. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves exercise economy and reduces perceived exertion during submaximal steady-state exercise in normal healthy untrained men.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Neya, Mitsuo; Hamazaki, Kei; Watanabe, Yuya; Kobayashi, Satoru; Tsuji, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Based on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on reduction of blood viscosity, we theorized that PUFA could improve aerobic performance by increasing oxygen supply to tissues. Twenty male subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): a fish oil group (FG) and a control (CG). Maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise were measured using a cycle ergometer. For 8 weeks, the FG then ingested capsules containing 3.6 g/day of EPA-rich fish oil, while the CG took 3.6 g/day of a medium-chain triglyceride. After supplementation, erythrocyte EPA and DHA in the FG were significantly increased. In the FG, a negative linear correlation was detected in the change between erythrocyte EPA and whole oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise pre- and post-supplementation. The present study showed that EPA-rich fish oil supplementation improves exercise economy in humans. PMID:25144572

  17. Impaired myocardial function does not explain reduced left ventricular filling and stroke volume at rest or during exercise at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; Hughes, Michael G; Stöhr, Eric J; Cotter, James D; Tymko, Michael M; Day, Trevor A; Bakker, Akke; Shave, Rob

    2015-11-15

    Impaired myocardial systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation have been suggested as possible mechanisms contributing to the decreased stroke volume (SV) observed at high altitude (HA). To determine whether intrinsic myocardial performance is a limiting factor in the generation of SV at HA, we assessed left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic mechanics and volumes in 10 healthy participants (aged 32 ± 7; mean ± SD) at rest and during exercise at sea level (SL; 344 m) and after 10 days at 5,050 m. In contrast to SL, LV end-diastolic volume was ?19% lower at rest (P = 0.004) and did not increase during exercise despite a greater untwisting velocity. Furthermore, resting SV was lower at HA (?17%; 60 ± 10 vs. 70 ± 8 ml) despite higher LV twist (43%), apical rotation (115%), and circumferential strain (17%). With exercise at HA, the increase in SV was limited (12 vs. 22 ml at SL), and LV apical rotation failed to augment. For the first time, we have demonstrated that EDV does not increase upon exercise at high altitude despite enhanced in vivo diastolic relaxation. The increase in LV mechanics at rest may represent a mechanism by which SV is defended in the presence of a reduced EDV. However, likely because of the higher LV mechanics at rest, no further increase was observed up to 50% peak power. Consequently, although hypoxia does not suppress systolic function per se, the capacity to increase SV through greater deformation during submaximal exercise at HA is restricted. PMID:25749445

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contents Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Exercises Related Articles Exercise for People with Multiple Sclerosis - Series II Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Walking Program to Reduce Secondary Conditions in Adolescents with Autism Volkssport: The Foundations for a Lifetime ...

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  20. Reduced cortical BACE1 content with one bout of exercise is accompanied by declines in AMPK, Akt, and MAPK signaling in obese, glucose-intolerant mice.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, R E K; Baumeister, P; Peppler, W T; Wright, D C; Little, J P

    2015-11-15

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. A variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altered Akt and AMPK and increased inflammatory signaling, contribute to neurodegeneration. Exercise training can improve markers of neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single bout of exercise on markers of neurodegeneration and inflammation in brains from mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low (LFD; 10% kcal from lard)- or a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 7 wk. HFD mice underwent an acute bout of exercise (treadmill running: 15 m/min, 5% incline, 120 min) followed by a recovery period of 2 h. The HFD increased body mass and glucose intolerance (both P < 0.05). This was accompanied by an approximately twofold increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and GSK in the cortex (P < 0.05). Following exercise, there was a decrease in beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1; P < 0.05) and activity (P < 0.001). This was accompanied by a reduction in AMPK phosphorylation, indicative of a decline in cellular stress (P < 0.05). Akt and ERK phosphorylation were decreased following exercise in HFD mice to a level similar to that of the LFD mice (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that a single bout of exercise can reduce BACE1 content and activity independent of changes in adiposity. This effect is associated with reductions in Akt, ERK, and AMPK signaling in the cortex. PMID:26404616

  1. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS.A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0).A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.61 to -0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, -0.58; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.78) was not increased.Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with exercises and TNF inhibitors for this given population due to some limitations impaired the power of our study. PMID:26683943

  2. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking. PMID:14971437

  3. Metabolic Cost of Experimental Exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Although the type and duration of activity during decompression was well documented, the metabolic cost of 1665 subject-exposures with 8 activity profiles from 17 altitude decompression sickness (DCS) protocols at Brooks City-Base, TX from 1983-2005 was not determined. Female and male human volunteers (30 planned, 4 completed) performed activity profiles matching those 8 activity profiles at ground level with continuous monitoring of metabolic cost. A Cosmed K4b2 Cardio Pulmonary Exercise Testing device was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2) during the profiles. The results show levels of metabolic cost to the females for the profiles tested varied from 4.3 to 25.5 ml/kg/min and from 3.0 to 12.0 ml/kg/min to the males. The increase in VO2 from seated rest to the most strenuous of the 8 activity profiles was 3.6-fold for the females and 2.8-fold for the males. These preliminary data on 4 subjects indicate close agreement of oxygen uptake for activity performed during many subject-exposures as published earlier. The relatively low average oxygen uptake required to perform the most strenuous activity may imply the need for adjustment of modeling efforts using metabolic cost as a risk factor. Better definition of metabolic cost during exposure to altitude, a critical factor in DCS risk, may allow refinement of DCS prediction models.

  4. Locomotor muscle fatigue increases cardiorespiratory responses and reduces performance during intense cycling exercise independently from metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Marcora, Samuele M; Bosio, Andrea; de Morree, Helma M

    2008-03-01

    Locomotor muscle fatigue, defined as an exercise-induced reduction in maximal voluntary force, occurs during prolonged exercise, but its effects on cardiorespiratory responses and exercise performance are unknown. In this investigation, a significant reduction in locomotor muscle force (-18%, P < 0.05) was isolated from the metabolic stress usually associated with fatiguing exercise using a 100-drop-jumps protocol consisting of one jump every 20 s from a 40-cm-high platform. The effect of this treatment on time to exhaustion during high-intensity constant-power cycling was measured in study 1 (n = 10). In study 2 (n = 14), test duration (871 +/- 280 s) was matched between fatigue and control condition (rest). In study 1, locomotor muscle fatigue caused a significant curtailment in time to exhaustion (636 +/- 278 s) compared with control (750 +/- 281 s) (P = 0.003) and increased cardiac output. Breathing frequency was significantly higher in the fatigue condition in both studies despite similar oxygen consumption and blood lactate accumulation. In study 2, high-intensity cycling did not induce further fatigue to eccentrically-fatigued locomotor muscles. In both studies, there was a significant increase in heart rate in the fatigue condition, and perceived exertion was significantly increased in study 2 compared with control. These results suggest that locomotor muscle fatigue has a significant influence on cardiorespiratory responses and exercise performance during high-intensity cycling independently from metabolic stress. These effects seem to be mediated by the increased central motor command and perception of effort required to exercise with weaker locomotor muscles. PMID:18184760

  5. Acute Schmorl's Node during Strenuous Monofin Swimming: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Paterakis, Konstantinos N.; Brotis, Alexandros G.; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Karachalios, Theofilos; Fountas, Kostas N.; Karantanas, Apostolos

    2012-01-01

    Study Design?This case report describes an acute Schmorl's node (SN) in an elite monofin athlete during exercise. The patient presented with severe back pain and leg numbness and was managed successfully with conservative treatment. Objective?The aim of our communication was to describe a rare presentation of a common pathological condition during an intense sport. Background?Swimming is not generally considered to be a sport activity that leads to spinal injuries. SNs are usually asymptomatic lesions, incidentally found on imaging studies. There is no correlation between swimming and symptomatic SN formation. Case Report?A 16-year-old monofin elite athlete suffered from an acute nonradiating back pain during extreme exercise. His back pain was associated with a fracture of the superior L5 end plate and an acute SN at the L5 vertebral body with perilesional bone marrow edema. The pain resolved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bed rest. The athlete had an excellent outcome and returned to his training activities 6 months after his incident. Conclusion?SN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe back pain, especially in sport-related injuries. SNs present with characteristic imaging findings. Due to the benign nature of these lesions, surveillance-only management may be the best course of action. PMID:24353963

  6. Acute Schmorl's Node during Strenuous Monofin Swimming: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Paterakis, Konstantinos N; Brotis, Alexandros G; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Karachalios, Theofilos; Fountas, Kostas N; Karantanas, Apostolos

    2012-09-01

    Study Design?This case report describes an acute Schmorl's node (SN) in an elite monofin athlete during exercise. The patient presented with severe back pain and leg numbness and was managed successfully with conservative treatment. Objective?The aim of our communication was to describe a rare presentation of a common pathological condition during an intense sport. Background?Swimming is not generally considered to be a sport activity that leads to spinal injuries. SNs are usually asymptomatic lesions, incidentally found on imaging studies. There is no correlation between swimming and symptomatic SN formation. Case Report?A 16-year-old monofin elite athlete suffered from an acute nonradiating back pain during extreme exercise. His back pain was associated with a fracture of the superior L5 end plate and an acute SN at the L5 vertebral body with perilesional bone marrow edema. The pain resolved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bed rest. The athlete had an excellent outcome and returned to his training activities 6 months after his incident. Conclusion?SN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe back pain, especially in sport-related injuries. SNs present with characteristic imaging findings. Due to the benign nature of these lesions, surveillance-only management may be the best course of action. PMID:24353963

  7. Reduced energy intake and moderate exercise reduce mammary tumor incidence in virgin female BALB/c mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Teer, Patricia; Keith, Robert E.; White, Marguerite T.; Strahan, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The concurrent effects of diet (standard AIN-76A, restricted AIN-76A and high-fat diet) and moderate rotating-drum treadmill exercise on the incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in virgin female BALB/cMed mice free of murine mammary tumor virus are evaluated. Analyses show that, although energy intake was related to mammary tumor incidence, neither body weight nor dietary fat predicted tumor incidence.

  8. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  9. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  10. A controlled intervention to promote a healthy body image, reduce eating disorder risk and prevent excessive exercise among trainee health education and physical education teachers.

    PubMed

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum. PMID:20656796

  11. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fábio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

  12. EXERCISE-INDUCED LOWERING OF CHEMERIN IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND GLUCOSE-STIMULATED INSULIN SECRETION IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    MALIN, S.K.; NAVANEETHAN, S.D.; MULYA, A.; HUANG, H.; KIRWAN, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of exercise on chemerin in relation to changes in fat loss, insulin action, and dyslipidemia in older adults. Participants Thirty older (65.9±0.9yr) obese adults (BMI:34.5±0.7kg/m2). Setting Single-center, Cleveland Clinic. Design Prospective clinical trial. Intervention Twelve-weeks of exercise training (60minutes/day, 5day/week at ~85% HRmax). Subjects were instructed to maintain habitual nutrient intake. Measurements Plasma chemerin was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was assessed using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinic clamp with glucose kinetics. First-phase and total glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was calculated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides), total/visceral fat (dual-x-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography) and cardiorespiratory fitness (treadmill test) were also tested pre and post intervention. Results Exercise increased fitness and reduced total/visceral fat, blood lipids, and first-phase GSIS (P<0.05). Training also increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and lowered basal/insulin-related hepatic glucose production (P<0.01). The intervention reduced chemerin (87.1±6.0 vs. 78.1±5.8ng/ml; P=0.02), and the reduction correlated with decreased visceral fat (r=0.50, P=0.009), total body fat (r=0.42, P=0.02), cholesterol (r=0.38, P=0.04), triglycerides (r=0.36, P=0.05), and first-phase and total GSIS (r=0.39, P=0.03 and r=0.43, P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions Lower chemerin appears to be an important hormone involved in cardiometabolic risk and GSIS reduction following exercise in older adults. PMID:24950152

  13. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =?1.06 [?1.67 to ?0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [?1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =?0.10 [?0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

  14. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    PubMed Central

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary. PMID:25068141

  15. Aerobic Exercise Training Prevents the Onset of Endothelial Dysfunction via Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Reduced Reactive Oxygen Species in an Experimental Model of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Viviane A. V. N.; Couto, Gisele K.; Lazzarin, Mariana C.; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that estrogen deficiency, arising in postmenopause, promotes endothelial dysfunction. This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training on endothelial dependent vasodilation of aorta in ovariectomized rats, specifically investigating the role of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods Female Wistar rats ovariectomized (OVX – n=20) or with intact ovary (SHAM – n=20) remained sedentary (OVX and SHAM) or performed aerobic exercise training on a treadmill 5 times a week for a period of 8 weeks (OVX-TRA and SHAM-TRA). In the thoracic aorta the endothelium-dependent and –independent vasodilation was assessed by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively. Certain aortic rings were incubated with L-NAME to assess the NO modulation on the ACh-induced vasodilation. The fluorescence to dihydroethidium in aortic slices and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations were measured to evaluate ROS and NO bioavailability, respectively. Results ACh-induced vasodilation was reduced in OVX rats as compared SHAM (Rmax: SHAM: 86±3.3 vs. OVX: 57±3.0%, p<0.01). Training prevented this response in OVX-TRA (Rmax: OVX-TRA: 88±2.0%, p<0.01), while did not change it in SHAM-TRA (Rmax: SHAM-TRA: 80±2.2%, p<0.01). The L-NAME incubation abolished the differences in ACh-induced relaxation among groups. SNP-induced vasodilation was not different among groups. OVX reduced nitrite/nitrate plasma concentrations and increased ROS in aortic slices, training as effective to restore these parameters to the SHAM levels. Conclusions Exercise training, even in estrogen deficiency conditions, is able to improve endothelial dependent vasodilation in rat aorta via enhanced NO bioavailability and reduced ROS levels. PMID:25923465

  16. Reduced large elastic artery stiffness with regular aerobic exercise in middle-aged and older adults: potential role of suppressed nuclear factor ? B signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Donato, Anthony J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Walker, Ashley E.; Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Ballak, Dov B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV) increases with age and is a strong independent predictor of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. aPWV is lower in middle-aged and older adults who perform regular aerobic exercise than in their sedentary peers. As exercise is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that suppression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor ? B (NF?B) may mediate this process. Methods aPWV was measured in young sedentary [n =10, blood pressure (BP) 108 ± 3/59 ± 2 mmHg; mean ± SEM], middle-aged and older sedentary (n =9, 124 ± 7/73 ± 5 mmHg) and middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained (n =12, 110 ± 4/67 ± 2 mmHg) healthy, nonhypertensive men and women. Results Baseline aPWV increased with age [626 ± 14 (young sedentary) vs. 859 ± 49 (middle-aged and older sedentary) cm/s, P <0.001] but was 20% lower in middle-aged and older trained (686 ± 30 cm/s) than in middle-aged and older sedentary (P <0.005). Short-term (4 days × 2500–4500 mg) treatment with the NF?B inhibitor salsalate (randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design) reduced aPWV (to 783 ± 44 cm/s, P <0.05) without changing BP (P =0.40) or heart rate (P =0.90) in middle-aged and older sedentary, but had no effect in young sedentary (623 ± 19) or middle-aged and older trained (699 ± 30). Following salsalate treatment, aPWV no longer was significantly different in middle-aged and older sedentary vs. middle-aged and older trained (P =0.29). The reduction in aPWV with salsalate administration was inversely related to baseline (placebo) aPWV (r = ?0.60, P <0.001). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that suppressed NF?B signalling may partially mediate the lower aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults who regularly perform aerobic exercise. Because aPWV predicts incident cardiovascular events in this population, this suggests that tonic suppression of NF?B signalling in middle-aged and older exercising adults may potentially lower cardiovascular risk. PMID:26378681

  17. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Phinney, S D; Bistrian, B R; Evans, W J; Gervino, E; Blackburn, G L

    1983-08-01

    To study the effect of chronic ketosis on exercise performance in endurance-trained humans, five well-trained cyclists were fed a eucaloric balanced diet (EBD) for one week providing 35-50 kcal/kg/d, 1.75 g protein/kg/d and the remainder of kilocalories as two-thirds carbohydrate (CHO) and one-third fat. This was followed by four weeks of a eucaloric ketogenic diet (EKD), isocaloric and isonitrogenous with the EBD but providing less than 20 g CHO daily. Both diets were appropriately supplemented to meet the recommended daily allowances for vitamins and minerals. Pedal ergometer testing of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was unchanged between the control week (EBD-1) and week 3 of the ketogenic diet (EKD-3). The mean ergometer endurance time for continuous exercise to exhaustion (ENDUR) at 62%-64% of VO2max was 147 minutes at EBD-1 and 151 minutes at EKD-4. The ENDUR steady-state RQ dropped from 0.83 to 0.72 (P less than 0.01) from EBD-1 to EKD-4. In agreement with this were a three-fold drop in glucose oxidation (from 15.1 to 5.1 mg/kg/min, P less than 0.05) and a four-fold reduction in muscle glycogen use (0.61 to 0.13 mmol/kg/min, P less than 0.01). Neither clinical nor biochemical evidence of hypoglycemia was observed during ENDUR at EKD-4. These results indicate that aerobic endurance exercise by well-trained cyclists was not compromised by four weeks of ketosis. This was accomplished by a dramatic physiologic adaptation that conserved limited carbohydrate stores (both glucose and muscle glycogen) and made fat the predominant muscle substrate at this submaximal power level. PMID:6865776

  18. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy, untrained subjects: effects of different exercise intensities controlled by individual anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Kathleen; Hilberg, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The influence of different exercise intensities on haemostasis in healthy, untrained subjects has not been intensively studied. We investigated untrained subjects for alterations in coagulation and fibrinolysis induced by two exercise intensities, precisely controlled by individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Twenty-five healthy, untrained non-smokers (age 25 ± 3 years; relative VO(2) peak 43.1 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min) underwent exercise tests at 80% (moderate) and 100% (strenuous) of IAT for 60 min. Blood samples were taken after 30 min rest and immediately after exercise. The present results reveal that an exercise intensity at 100% IAT induces a more pronounced coagulation activity than exercises at 80% IAT. 100% IAT led to a significant higher increase in FVIII (80% IAT 85 ± 33 to 114 ± 30% vs. 100% IAT 81 ± 20 to 132 ± 29%) and TAT (80% IAT 2.5 ± 1.4 to 2.9 ± 1.0 ?g/l vs. 100% IAT 2.6 ± 1.0 to 5.4 ± 4.2 ?g/l). Furthermore, both exercises affected fibrinolysis, but it was significantly higher at 100% IAT (tPA activity; 80% IAT 0.44 ± 0.17 to 4.65 ± 2.67 U/ml vs. 100% IAT 0.43 ± 0.19 to 6.47 ± 3.97 U/ml). The data show that fibrinolytic activity is significantly elevated already after moderate exercise (80% IAT). After strenuous exercise (100% IAT), coagulation is more sharply enhanced together with a higher increase of fibrinolysis in comparison with 80% IAT. However, haemostasis seems to be in balance after moderate as well as after strenuous exercise intensity in healthy, untrained participants. Based on these data, exercise-induced changes of both haemostatic systems should also be tested in patients with cardiovascular diseases in order to be in a position to give recommendations for endurance training modalities in rehabilitation training. PMID:20859637

  19. Respiratory muscle training with normocapnic hyperpnea improves ventilatory pattern and thoracoabdominal coordination, and reduces oxygen desaturation during endurance exercise testing in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Eva; Pomidori, Luca; Bassal, Faisy; Contoli, Marco; Cogo, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Few data are available about the effects of respiratory muscle training with normocapnic hyperpnea (NH) in COPD. The aim is to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of NH (Spirotiger®) on ventilatory pattern, exercise capacity, and quality of life (QoL) in COPD patients. Methods Twenty-six COPD patients (three females), ages 49–82 years, were included in this study. Spirometry and maximal inspiratory pressure, St George Respiratory Questionnaire, 6-minute walk test, and symptom-limited endurance exercise test (endurance test to the limit of tolerance [tLim]) at 75%–80% of peak work rate up to a Borg Score of 8–9/10 were performed before and after NH. Patients were equipped with ambulatory inductive plethysmography (LifeShirt®) to evaluate ventilatory pattern and thoracoabdominal coordination (phase angle [PhA]) during tLim. After four supervised sessions, subjects trained at home for 4 weeks – 10 minutes twice a day at 50% of maximal voluntary ventilation. The workload was adjusted during the training period to maintain a Borg Score of 5–6/10. Results Twenty subjects completed the study. After NH, maximal inspiratory pressure significantly increased (81.5±31.6 vs 91.8±30.6 cmH2O, P<0.01); exercise endurance time (+150 seconds, P=0.04), 6-minute walk test (+30 meters, P=0.03), and QoL (?8, P<0.01) all increased. During tLim, the ventilatory pattern changed significantly (lower ventilation, lower respiratory rate, higher tidal volume); oxygen desaturation, PhA, and dyspnea Borg Score were lower for the same work intensity (P<0.01, P=0.02, and P<0.01, respectively; one-way ANOVA). The improvement in tidal volume and oxygen saturation after NH were significantly related (R2=0.65, P<0.01). Conclusion As expected, NH improves inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, and QoL. New results are significant change in ventilatory pattern, which improves oxygen saturation, and an improvement in thoracoabdominal coordination (lower PhA). These two facts could explain the reduced dyspnea during the endurance test. All these results together may play a role in improving exercise capacity after NH training. PMID:26392764

  20. Biphasic response of cardiodynamic adaptations to swimming exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic Tosic, Jelica T; Jakovljevic, Vladimir Lj; Zivkovic, Vladimir V; Srejovic, Ivan M; Valdevit, Zoran J; Radovanovic, Dragan S; Djuric, Dragan M; Ahmetovic, Zlatko K; Peric, Dusan B; Cankovic, Marija B; Jovanovic, Maja S; Djordjevic, Dusica Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of research was to assess exercise-induced changes in mechanics of hearts isolated from rats, as well as time-course of those changes. Wistar rats (n = 42) were divided into control, moderately trained (swimming 1 hour, 5 days a week for 9 or 12 weeks) and strenuously trained (swimming 2, 3 and 4 times a day for an hour in weeks 10, 11 and 12, respectively) groups. After sacrificing, hearts (weight: 1480.82 ± 145.38 mg) were isolated and perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was gradually increased (from 40 to 120 cm H(2)O) in order to establish coronary autoregulation. Parameters of cardiac contractility were recorded: maximum and minimum rate of change of pressure in the left ventricle (dp/dt max and dp/dt min), systolic and diastolic left ventricular pressure (SLVP and DLVP), heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF). Nine weeks of moderate exercise induced slight depression of coronary function (decrease of dp/dt max, dp/dt min, SLVP and DLVP), while 3 additional weeks of moderate training improved hearts function, but not to the extent that the strenuous training program did. The results of our study add evidence about beneficial effects of regular moderate exercise on heart, and furthermore, show that exercising frequently, if the intensity stays within moderate range, may not have detrimental effects on cardiodynamics. PMID:25816361

  1. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2013-12-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p < 0.001) and PPT (p < 0.05). Compared with control, both active exercise and massage significantly reduced the intensity of soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage. Coaches, therapists, and athletes can use either active warm-up or massage to reduce DOMS acutely, for example, to prepare for competition or strenuous work, but should be aware that the effect is temporary, that is, the greatest effects occurs during the first 20 minutes after treatment and diminishes within an hour. PMID:23524365

  2. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jassil, Friedrich C.; Manning, Sean; Lewis, Neville; Steinmo, Siri; Kingett, Helen; Lough, Fiona; Pucci, Andrea B. F.; Cheung, W. H.; Finer, Nicholas; Walker, Judith; Doyle, Jaqueline; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2?kgm?2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p = 0.043), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49?min/week, p = 0.043), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.034), reduced consumption of ready meals (p = 0.034), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p = 0.039). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p = 0.027). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. PMID:26199740

  3. Acute high-intensity interval exercise reduces the postprandial glucose response and prevalence of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gillen, J B; Little, J P; Punthakee, Z; Tarnopolsky, M A; Riddell, M C; Gibala, M J

    2012-06-01

    High-volume endurance exercise (END) improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but many individuals cite 'lack of time' as a barrier to regular participation. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a time-efficient method to induce physiological adaptations similar to END, but little is known regarding the effect of HIT in T2D. Using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), we examined the 24-h blood glucose response to one session of HIT consisting of 10 × 60 s cycling efforts at ~90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 60 s rest. Seven adults with T2D underwent CGM for 24-h on two occasions under standard dietary conditions: following acute HIT and on a non-exercise control day (CTL). HIT reduced hyperglycaemia measured as proportion of time spent above 10 mmol/l (HIT: 4.5 ± 4.4 vs. CTL: 15.2 ± 12.3%, p = 0.04). Postprandial hyperglycaemia, measured as the sum of post-meal areas under the glucose curve, was also lower after HIT vs. CTL (728 ± 331 vs. 1142 ± 556 mmol/l·9 h, p = 0.01). These findings highlight the potential for HIT to improve glycaemic control in T2D. PMID:22268455

  4. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences.

    PubMed

    Holloszy, J O; Coyle, E F

    1984-04-01

    Regularly performed endurance exercise induces major adaptations in skeletal muscle. These include increases in the mitochondrial content and respiratory capacity of the muscle fibers. As a consequence of the increase in mitochondria, exercise of the same intensity results in a disturbance in homeostasis that is smaller in trained than in untrained muscles. The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity. These adaptations play an important role in the large increase in the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise that occurs in response to endurance exercise training. PMID:6373687

  5. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L

    2011-10-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being. PMID:21725900

  6. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  7. Acute hypervolaemia improves arterial oxygen pressure in athletes with exercise-induced hypoxaemia.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Walley, Keith R; Hunte, Garth S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sexsmith, George P; Russell, James A

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute plasma volume expansion on arterial blood-gas status during 6.5 min strenuous cycling exercise comparing six athletes with and six athletes without exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH). We hypothesized that plasma volume expansion could improve arterial oxygen pressure in a homogeneous sample of athletes - those with EIAH. In this paper we have extended the analysis and results of our recently published surprising findings that lengthening cardiopulmonary transit time did not improve arterial blood-gas status in a heterogeneous sample of endurance cyclists. One 500 ml bag of 10 % Pentastarch (infusion condition) or 60 ml 0.9 % saline (placebo) was infused prior to exercise in a randomized, double-blind fashion on two different days. Power output, cardiac output, oxygen consumption and arterial blood gases were measured during strenuous exercise. Cardiac output and oxygen consumption were not affected by acute hypervolaemia. There were group x condition interaction effects for arterial oxygen pressure and alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference, suggesting that those with hypoxaemia experienced improved arterial oxygen pressure (+4 mmHg) and lower alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (-2 mmHg) with infusion. In conclusion, acute hypervolaemia improves blood-gas status in athletes with EIAH. The impairment of gas exchange occurs within the first minute of exercise, and is not impaired further throughout the remaining duration of exercise. This suggests that arterial oxygen pressure is only minimally mediated by cardiac output. PMID:12861344

  8. Exercise Physiologists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... personal trainers) or athletic trainers . <- Summary Work Environment -> Work Environment About this section Exercise physiologists perform fitness ... of exercise physiologists were self-employed in 2014. Work Schedules Most exercise physiologists work full time. <- What ...

  9. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Leyk, D, Witzki, A, Willi, G, Rohde, U, and Rüther, T. Even one is too much: Sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, lack of exercise, and smoking reduces physical fitness of young soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S199-S203, 2015-Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers. PMID:26506188

  10. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Sub; Jang, Gook-Chan; Moon, Kyung-Rye

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE) to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health. Methods Twenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI). Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated. Results Weight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes. Conclusion These findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. PMID:24904847

  11. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ?5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ?5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ?5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ?5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ?5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), ?-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ?5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy. PMID:26447559

  12. Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, and Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-09-01

    Severely obese men and women (body mass index ? 35 ? 55 kg/m(2); Mage = 44.8 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a 6-month physical activity support treatment paired with either nutrition education (n = 83) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 82) methods for weight loss. Both groups had significant improvements in physical activity, fatigue, self-regulation for eating, and fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to those in the nutrition education group, participants in the behavioral group demonstrated greater overall increases in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. These group differences were associated with changes that occurred after Month 3. Increased physical activity predicted reduced fatigue, ? = -.19, p =.01. A reciprocal relationship between the mediators of that relationship, which were changes in self-regulation and fruit and vegetable intake, was identified. There was significantly greater weight loss over six months in the behavioral nutrition group when contrasted with the nutrition education group. Self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake were significant predictors of weight loss over both three and six months. Findings enabled a better understanding of psychosocial effects on temporal aspects of weight loss and may lead to more effective behavioral treatments for weight loss. PMID:26047256

  13. Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. ); Rowland, R.A. . Chemical Preparedness Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

  14. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing screening and pre-operative pulmonary rehabilitation reduce postoperative complications and improve fast-track recovery after lung cancer surgery: A study for 342 cases

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ke; Yu, Peng-ming; Su, Jian-hua; He, Cheng-qi; Liu, Lun-xu; Zhou, Yu-bin; Pu, Qiang; Che, Guo-wei

    2015-01-01

    Background An evaluation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) screening and pre-operative pulmonary rehabilitation in reducing postoperative complications and improving fast-track recovery in high-risk patients who undergo resection for lung cancer. Methods Of 342 potential lung cancer cases, 142 high-risk patients were finally divided into two groups: group R (n = 71) underwent an intensive pre-operative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP), followed by lobectomy; group S (n = 71) underwent only lobectomy with conventional management. Postoperative complications, average days in hospital, postoperative days in hospital, and cost were analyzed. Results The 142 high-risk patients were screened by smoking history and CPET. Sixty-eight patients had bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and 47 patients had peak expiratory flow <250?L/minute by CPET. The rate of postoperative total complications in group R (16.90%) was significantly lower than in group S (83.31%) (P = 0.00), as was the rate of postoperative pulmonary complications PPC: group R (12.81%) versus?S (13.55%) (P = 0.009); the PPC in the left lung (17.9%) was higher than in the right lung (2.3%) (P = 0.00). The average days in hospital in group S was significantly higher than in group R (P = 0.03). There was no difference between groups in average hospital cost (P = 0.304). Conclusion Pre-operative screening using CPET is conducive to identifying high-risk patients for lung resection. Pre-operative pulmonary rehabilitation is helpful to reduce postoperative complications and improve fast-track recovery. PMID:26273399

  15. Usefulness of tissue Doppler imaging to evaluate pulmonary capillary wedge pressure during exercise in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Sébastien; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; D'Hondt, Anne Marie; Gurne, Olivier; Vancraeynest, David; Gerber, Berhnard; Pasquet, Agnès

    2014-06-15

    The early diastolic transmitral velocity/tissue Doppler imaging mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') ratio is used to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressures at rest. However, there are only limited data that validate its use during exercise. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test the ability of E/e' to estimate pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) during symptom-limited exercise in patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Forty patients with severe LV dysfunction and heart failure symptoms (54 ± 12 years, 28 men) underwent simultaneous Doppler assessment of E/e' and right-sided cardiac catheterization at rest and during a symptom-limited exercise test, at steady state levels of 30%, 60%, and 90% of their maximal exercise capacity. During exercise, all 40 patients successfully completed stage 1, yielding 40 pairs of data for comparison. Eighteen patients also successfully completed stage 2, and 5 patients also made it through stage 3, yielding 23 additional data pairs. In total, there were thus 63 pairs of data available during exercise. With exercise, heart rate increased from 77 ± 14 to 112 ± 21 beats/min. Septal E/e' at rest correlated well with PCWP at rest (r = 0.75, p <0.01). PCWP at rest also correlated with resting mitral deceleration time (r = 0.32, p <0.01) and with the transmitral E/A ratio (r = 0.74, p <0.01). During exercise, the correlation between septal E/e' and PCWP was weaker (r = 0.57, p <0.01) and was shifted to the right. This rightward shift was observed in patients with both separated or merged E and A velocities. In conclusion, in patients with severe LV dysfunction, although E/e' allows accurate estimation of PCWP at rest, it appears less reliable for estimating LV filing pressure during exercise. PMID:24786358

  16. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients. PMID:26341655

  17. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise. PMID:25794236

  18. Randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    E-print Network

    Finucane, Francis M.; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R.; Savage, David B.; Brage, Søren; Besson, Herve; Horton, Kenneth; De Lucia Rolfe, Ema; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J.; Martin, Helen; Ahie Sayer, Avan; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2009-06-19

    . Gauthier MS, Couturier K, Latour JG, Lavoie JM: Concurrent exer- 42. Devries MC, Samjoo IA, Hamadeh MJ, Tarnopolsky MA: Effect of endurance exercise on hepatic lipid content, enzymes, and adiposity in men and women. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md) 2008, 16...

  19. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Pregnant? What to Expect Compulsive Exercise KidsHealth > Parents > Emotions & Behavior > Behavior > Compulsive Exercise Print A A A ...

  20. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aim for the lower end of your target heart rate range. As your exercise program progresses, you can gradually build up to ... family doctor to find out what your target heart rate should be. What is aerobic exercise? Aerobic exercise is the type that moves large ...

  1. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  2. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise. PMID:22701195

  3. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  4. A 12 WEEKS EXERCISE PROGRAM RESULTED IN REDUCED VISCERAL FAT AND FASTING INSULIN BUT NOT TOTAL AND INTRAMYOCELLULAR FAT IN HISPANIC OBESE ADOLESCENTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Weight loss is known to improve insulin sensitivity but is difficult to achieve. The independent effects of exercise on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in the absence of overall w...

  5. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through reducing Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyo-Soon; Park, Mi-Sook; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of cognition. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum of the ADHD rat. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYR) weighing 210± 10 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n= 15): control group, ADHD group, ADHD and methylphenidate (MPH)-treated group, ADHD and treadmill exercise group. The rats in the MPH-treated group as a positive control received 1 mg/kg MPH orally once a day for 28 consecutive days. The rats in the treadmill exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 28 days. Motor coordination and balance were determined by vertical pole test. Immunohistochemistry for the expression of calbindinD-28 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the cerebellar vermis and Western blot for GFAP, Bax, and Bcl-2 were conducted. In the present results, ADHD significantly decreased balance and the number of calbindin-positive cells, while GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum were significantly increased in the ADHD group compared to the control group (P< 0.05, respectively). In contrast, treadmill exercise and MPH alleviated the ADHD-induced the decrease of balance and the number of calbindine-positive cells, and the increase of GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum (P< 0.05, respectively). Therefore, the present results suggested that treadmill exercise might exert ameliorating effect on ADHD through reduction of Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum. PMID:24678501

  6. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through reducing Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyo-Soon; Park, Mi-Sook; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of cognition. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum of the ADHD rat. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYR) weighing 210± 10 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n= 15): control group, ADHD group, ADHD and methylphenidate (MPH)-treated group, ADHD and treadmill exercise group. The rats in the MPH-treated group as a positive control received 1 mg/kg MPH orally once a day for 28 consecutive days. The rats in the treadmill exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 28 days. Motor coordination and balance were determined by vertical pole test. Immunohistochemistry for the expression of calbindinD-28 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the cerebellar vermis and Western blot for GFAP, Bax, and Bcl-2 were conducted. In the present results, ADHD significantly decreased balance and the number of calbindin-positive cells, while GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum were significantly increased in the ADHD group compared to the control group (P< 0.05, respectively). In contrast, treadmill exercise and MPH alleviated the ADHD-induced the decrease of balance and the number of calbindine-positive cells, and the increase of GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum (P< 0.05, respectively). Therefore, the present results suggested that treadmill exercise might exert ameliorating effect on ADHD through reduction of Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum. PMID:24678501

  7. Nutritional strategies to minimise exercise-induced immunosuppression in athletes.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M; Lancaster, G I; Bishop, N C

    2001-01-01

    Strenuous prolonged exertion and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function. Furthermore, improper nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important but excess intakes can also impair immune function. Immune system impairment has also been associated with excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming carbohydrate during exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immunosuppression, at least for non-fatiguing bouts of exercise. Strong evidence that high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine supplementation or echinacea extracts can prevent exercise-induced immunosuppression is lacking. PMID:11897880

  8. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

  9. Cardiovascular exercise in the U.S. space program: Past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-04-01

    Exercise deconditioning during space flight may impact a crewmember's ability to perform strenuous or prolonged tasks during and after a spaceflight mission. In this paper, we review the cardiovascular exercise data from U.S. spaceflights from the Mercury Project through International Space Station (ISS) expeditions and potential implications upon current and future missions. During shorter spaceflights (<16 days), the heart rate (HR) response to exercise testing and maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) are not changed. The submaximal exercise HR responses during longer duration flights are less consistent, and VO 2 max has not been measured. Skylab data demonstrated no change in the exercise HR response during flight which would be consistent with no change in VO 2 max; however, during ISS flight exercise HR is elevated early in the mission, but approaches preflight levels later during the missions, perhaps due to performance of exercise countermeasures. An elevated exercise HR is consistently observed after both short and long duration spaceflight, and crewmembers appear to recover at rates which are affected by the length of the mission.

  10. Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P < 0.01) more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and FM (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively). Only P + RT (0.1 ± 0.04 kg) and PRISE (0.21 ± 0.07 kg) lost VAT mass (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P + RT (5.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl) and PRISE (15.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), with the greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P < 0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (0.6 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.4 units), and leptin decreased (4.7 ± 2.2, 4.7 ± 3.1 ng/dl), and adiponectin increased (3.8 ± 1.1, 2.4 ± 1.1 ?g/ml) only in P + RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines. PMID:24833780

  11. Circulating cell-free DNA: an up-coming molecular marker in exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Breitbach, Sarah; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles

    2012-07-01

    The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations is of importance for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise physiology. Increases of cfDNA due to exercise are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome and might be related to, or trigger adaptations of, immune function induced by strenuous exercise. At the same time, exercise provides a practicable model for studying the phenomenon of cfDNA that is described to be of pathophysiological relevance for different topics in clinical medicine like autoimmune diseases and cancer. In this review, we are summarizing the current knowledge of exercise-based acute and chronic alterations in cfDNA levels and their physiological significance. The effects of acute exercise on cfDNA concentrations have been investigated in resistance exercises and in continuous, stepwise and interval endurance exercises of different durations. cfDNA concentrations peaked immediately after acute exercise and showed a rapid return to baseline levels. Typical markers of skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase, uric acid, C-reactive protein) show delayed kinetics compared with the cfDNA peak response. Exercise parameters such as intensity, duration or average energy expenditure do not explain the extent of increasing cfDNA concentrations after strenuous exercise. This could be due to complex processes inside the human organism during and after physical activity. Therefore, we hypothesize composite effects of different physiological stress parameters that come along with exercise to be responsible for increasing cfDNA concentrations. We suggest that due to acute stress, cfDNA levels increase rapidly by a spontaneous active or passive release mechanism that is not yet known. As a result of the rapid and parallel increase of cfDNA and lactate in an incremental treadmill test leading to exhaustion within 15-20 minutes, it is unlikely that cfDNA is released into the plasma by typical necrosis or apoptosis of cells in acute exercise settings. Recently, rapid DNA release mechanisms of activated immune-competent cells like NETosis (pathogen-induced cell death including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) have been discovered. cfDNA accumulations might comprise a similar kind of cell death including trap formation or an active release of cfDNA. Just like chronic diseases, chronic high-intensity resistance training protocols induced persistent increases of cfDNA levels. Chronic, strenuous exercise protocols, either long-duration endurance exercise or regular high-intensity workouts, induce chronic inflammation that might lead to a slow, constant release of DNA. This could be due to mechanisms of cell death like apoptosis or necrosis. Yet, it has neither been implicated nor proven sufficiently whether cfDNA can serve as a marker for overtraining. The relevance of cfDNA with regard to overtraining status, performance level, and the degree of physical exhaustion still remains unclear. Longitudinal studies are required that take into account standardized and controlled exercise, serial blood sampling, and large and homogeneous cohorts of different athletic achievement. Furthermore, it is important to establish standardized laboratory procedures for the measurement of genomic cfDNA concentrations by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We introduce a new hypothesis based on acute exercise and chronic exposure to stress, and rapid active and passive chronic release of cfDNA fragments into the circulation. PMID:22694348

  12. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...

  13. Exercise, Sports and Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that a particular form of exercise will reduce tics or improve TS-related symptoms for everyone, although ... a wide variety of physical pursuits. For some, tic reduction is among these. Many people find that ...

  14. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise. PMID:26229538

  15. A strenuous experimental journey searching for spectroscopic evidence of a bridging nickel-iron-hydride in [NiFe] hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Direct spectroscopic evidence for a hydride bridge in the Ni-R form of [NiFe] hydrogenase has been obtained using iron-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS). The Ni-H-Fe wag mode at 675?cm(-1) is the first spectroscopic evidence for a bridging hydride in Ni-R as well as the first iron-hydride-related NRVS feature observed for a biological system. Although density function theory (DFT) calculation assisted the determination of the Ni-R structure, it did not predict the Ni-H-Fe wag mode at ?675?cm(-1) before NRVS. Instead, the observed Ni-H-Fe mode provided a critical reference for the DFT calculations. While the overall science about Ni-R is presented and discussed elsewhere, this article focuses on the long and strenuous experimental journey to search for and experimentally identify the Ni-H-Fe wag mode in a Ni-R sample. As a methodology, the results presented here will go beyond Ni-R and hydrogenase research and will also be of interest to other scientists who use synchrotron radiation for measuring dilute samples or weak spectroscopic features. PMID:26524296

  16. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...

  17. Morning Exercise 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    Evidence revealing the importance of chronic exercise for improving general physical health and maintaining long?term successful cognitive function is widely available but less information addressing the potential efficacy of an acute bout...

  18. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  19. Exercise-induced lactate accumulation regulates intramuscular triglyceride metabolism via transforming growth factor-?1 mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Nikooie, Rohollah; Samaneh, Sajadian

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism regulating the utilization of intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and post-exercise recovery period remains elusive. In this study, the acute and long-term effects of HIIT on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) abundance in rat skeletal muscle and role of lactate and TGF-?1 in IMTG lipolysis during post-exercise recovery period were examined. TGF-?1 and Adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) abundance as well as total lipase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased to a maximum value 10 h after acute bout of HIIT. Inhibition of TGF-?1 signaling by intramuscular injection of SB431542 30 min prior to the acute exercise attenuated ATGL abundance and total lipase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle in response to acute exercise. Intramuscular acute injection of lactate increased TGF-?1 and ATGL abundance in the gastrocnemius muscle and there were a significant increase in Muscle TGF-?1 and ATGL abundance after 5 weeks of HIIT/lactate treatment. These results indicate that exercise-induced lactate accumulation regulates intramuscular triglyceride metabolism via transforming growth factor-?1 mediated pathways during post-exercise recovery from strenuous exercise. PMID:26522131

  20. Cigarette Smoking does not Induce Plasma or Pulmonary Oxidative Stress after Moderate-intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Taito, Shunsuke; Domen, Sayaka; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Kamikawa, Norimichi; Oura, Keisuke; Kimura, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Makoto; Hamada, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Cigarette smoking increases oxidative stress, which is a risk factor for several diseases. Moreover, strenuous exercise has been shown to induce plasma and pulmonary oxidative stress in young cigarette smokers. However, no previous reports have demonstrated whether plasma and pulmonary oxidative stress occur after moderate-intensity exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify whether moderate-intensity exercise induces pulmonary and plasma oxidative stress in smokers. [Subjects] Ten young male smokers and 10 young male nonsmokers participated in this study. [Methods] Plasma hydroperoxide concentrations were measured at baseline and then immediately and 15?min after moderate-intensity exercise. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations in exhaled breath condensate were measured at baseline and after exercise. [Results] No significant interactions were found between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of hydroperoxide or hydrogen peroxide concentrations following moderate-intensity exercise at any time point. [Conclusion] These findings suggested that moderate-intensity exercise did not induce plasma or pulmonary oxidative stress in young cigarette smokers. PMID:24707095

  1. Brugada syndrome, exercise, and exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Masrur, Shihab; Memon, Sarfaraz; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    There are few data on the risk of exercise and the role of exercise stress testing in Brugada syndrome. We sought to address this deficiency using a systematic literature review. We identified 98 English-language articles possibly addressing exercise in Brugada syndrome by searching PubMed and Google Scholar from January 1990 through November 2013 using the keywords "Brugada syndrome," "exercise," "exercise testing," and "syncope" alone and in combinations. Abstracts were reviewed, and those articles pertaining to Brugada syndrome and exercise were reviewed in full. We identified 18 articles reporting on Brugada syndrome and exercise. This pool included 2 large studies of 93 and 50 Brugada subjects undergoing exercise testing, plus 16 case reports. There were no reports of exercise-related sudden death, but there were 4 cases of syncope after exercise. We identified 166 Brugada patients who underwent exercise testing. During exercise testing, there were 2 reports of ventricular tachycardia and 1 report of multiple ventricular extrasystoles. ST-segment elevation increased (ST augmentation) during the early recovery phase of exercise in 57% of patients. Exercise unmasked a Brugada electrocardiographic pattern in 5 patients. Exercise is associated with syncope and ST augmentation after exercise and may be helpful in unmasking Brugada syndrome. There are insufficient data on the risks of exercise in Brugada syndrome to make recommendations for exercise, but the observations that exercise can worsen the ST abnormalities in Brugada and produce ventricular arrhythmias suggest that patients with Brugada syndrome should be restricted from vigorous exercise. PMID:25955277

  2. Visual system effects of exercise on Mauna Kea at 2,200 and 4,200 meters altitude.

    PubMed

    Schmeisser, E T; Gagliano, D L; Santiago-Marini, J

    1997-03-01

    Field exercise studies were performed at two altitudes (2,200 and 4,200 m) in 2 successive years using different sets of young male volunteers. Visual function indices were measured both at sea level and during a strenuous exercise regime at altitude. Volunteers were grouped in the first study by initial rest period (2 days vs. no rest) and in the second by diet (supplemental carbohydrates vs. Meals Ready to Eat rations only). Overall results showed no effect according to grouping, a decrease in average visual acuity at the higher altitude overall, and a decrease in electroretinographic (ERG) photopic flicker responses at moderate altitude. It is concluded that heavy exercise at these altitudes may not have operationally significant effects on ground troops in night vision or target recognition, although the change in ERG parameters does indicate a shift in retinal cone physiology that may have subtler effects. PMID:9121665

  3. No effect of a 30-h period of sleep deprivation on leukocyte trafficking, neutrophil degranulation and saliva IgA responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, J S Costa; Cartner, Louise; Oliver, Samuel J; Laing, Stewart J; Walters, Robert; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil P

    2009-02-01

    A one night period without sleep is not uncommon amongst athletes travelling across time zones and military personnel during training and operations. However, the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to strenuous exercise remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to subsequent strenuous exercise. Using a repeated measures cross-over design, on one occasion eleven male participants slept normally (CON) and on another they were sleep deprived for 30 h (SDEP). After 30 h participants performed 30 min steady state (SS) treadmill exercise at 60% VO2max followed by a 30 min treadmill time trial (TT). Blood and saliva samples were collected at 0 h, 30 h, post-SS, post-TT, 2 h post-TT and 18 h post-TT. Circulating leukocyte and T-lymphocyte subset counts, bacterially-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, saliva secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) and plasma cortisol were determined. No trial x time interactions were observed for immune indices and plasma cortisol. A leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and lymphocytosis was observed post-TT compared with 30 h (P < 0.01). Also, at post-TT compared with 30 h an increase in circulating T-lymphocyte CD3 + (55%) and CD8 + (67%) counts (P < 0.05), a decrease in neutrophil degranulation (20%; P < 0.05) and an increase in S-IgA concentration (83%) was observed (P < 0.01). Plasma cortisol concentration increased post-TT (62%) compared with post-SS (P < 0.01). In conclusion, a 30 h period of sleep deprivation does not alter leukocyte trafficking, neutrophil degranulation or S-IgA responses either at rest or after submaximal and strenuous exercise. PMID:19018559

  4. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  5. Effect of Acute Exercise on Upper-Limb Volume in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Strenuous upper-extremity activity and/or exercise have traditionally been prescribed for breast cancer survivors with or at risk of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an acute bout of exercise on upper-limb volume and symptoms in breast cancer survivors, with the intent to provide pilot data to guide a subsequent larger study. Methods: Twenty-three women who regularly participated in dragon-boat racing took part in the study. A single exercise bout was performed at a moderate intensity (rating of perceived exertion: 13–14) for 20 continuous minutes on an arm ergometer. The difference between affected and unaffected limb volume was assessed pre- and post-exercise via measurements of limb circumference at five time points. Results: Although limb volume increased following exercise in both limbs, the difference between the limbs remained stable at each measurement point. Only one participant was found to have an increase in arm-volume difference of >100 ml post intervention, and only four participants reported symptoms of tension and/or heaviness in the affected limb. Conclusion: The results suggest that limb volume in breast cancer survivors increases after an acute bout of upper-limb exercise but that, for the majority of women, the response is not different between affected and unaffected limbs. Future research using a larger sample and more sensitive measurement methods are recommended. PMID:20808486

  6. Exercise with prebreathe appears to increase protection from decompression sickness: Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Fischer, Michele D.; Heaps, Cristine L.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1994-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle involves one hour of prebreath with 100% oxygen, decompression of the entire Shuttle to 10.2 psia for at least 12 hours, and another prebreath for 40 minutes before decompression to the 4.3 psia suit pressure. We are investigating the use of a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen beginning with a ten-minute strenuous exercise period as an alternative for the staged decompression schedule described above. The 10-minute exercise consists of dual-cycle ergometry performed at 75% of the subject's peak oxygen uptake to increase denitrogenation efficiency by increasing ventilation and perfusion. The control exposures were preceded by a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen while resting in a supine position. The twenty-two male subjects were exposed to 4.3 psia for 4 hours while performing light to moderate exercise. Preliminary results from 22 of the planned 26 subjects indicate 76% DCS following supine, resting prebreathe and 38% following prebreathe with exercise. The staged decompression schedule has been shown to result in 23% DCS which is not significantly different from the exercise-enhanced prebreathe results. Prebreathe including exercise appears to be comparable to the protection afforded by the more lengthy staged decompression schedule. Completion of the study later this year will enable planned statistical analysis of the results.

  7. Internationalism and Our "Strenuous Family."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Mary

    1991-01-01

    Explores the concept of internationalism within the context of teaching English as a Second Language, arguing that, in spite of diverse perspectives, instructors can unite internationally to advocate literacy and language education, protect multiculturalism, and support international goals. (16 references) (CB)

  8. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  9. Exercise Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Martin G.; Sharman, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of apparent ‘normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ?210 mm Hg in men or ?190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ?110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a ‘hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory ‘masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  10. Exercise haemodynamics and maximal exercise capacity during beta-adrenoceptor blockade in normotensive and hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed Central

    van Baak, M A; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of atenolol administration on maximal exercise capacity and exercise haemodynamics have been compared in eight normotensive and eight mildly hypertensive subjects, matched for sex, age, body weight, and maximal oxygen uptake, and familiar with maximal exercise testing. 2. Supine and exercise blood pressure, and exercise total peripheral resistance were significantly higher, and exercise cardiac output was significantly lower in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects. 3. Administration of atenolol (1 X 100 mg day-1) for 3 days reduced supine and exercise systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output, and increased exercise stroke volume. Supine and exercise diastolic blood pressure and exercise total peripheral resistance were unaffected by atenolol. The effects of atenolol did not differ in the normotensive and the hypertensive subjects. 4. Maximal work load, maximal oxygen uptake, and maximal heart rate were reduced to a similar extent in normotensive and hypertensive subjects during atenolol treatment. 5. It is concluded that there is no difference in the effects of short-term atenolol administration on exercise haemodynamics and maximal exercise capacity in normotensive and mildly hypertensive subjects. PMID:2896013

  11. Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C B

    2001-07-01

    Endurance exercise training (EXT) is singly the most important aspect of rehabilitation for patients with chronic pulmonary disease. When effective, this modality of physical reconditioning leads to improved functional exercise capacity and reduced breathlessness. Early implementation is desirable to obtain more meaningful responses (e.g., when FEV1 falls below 50% of the predicted value in patients with chronic obstructive disease). Preparation for effective EXT requires optimization of respiratory system mechanics (e.g., using bronchodilator therapy), prevention of gas exchange failure (i.e., using supplemental oxygen), nutritional guidance, and psychological support (e.g., to overcome stigmata of disability, fear, and inclination to panic). EXT should be applied using a rigorous, scientifically based aerobic exercise prescription (AXRx) that recognizes basic principles of the human response to exercise prescription while considering individual pathophysiological limitations and identifying safety thresholds for exercise participation. The mode of aerobic exercise should use large muscle groups of the legs (e.g., treadmill or cycle ergometer). The recommended duration is an accumulation of 30 min of exercise per session at the target intensity, achieved by continuous or interval training. EXT should be supervised with a recommended frequency of at least three times per week for 6--8 wk. Target exercise intensity can be monitored by oxygen uptake, work rate, heart rate, or perceived exertion. Target intensity can be determined initially on the basis of 40% of a reference value for maximum oxygen uptake and linked to other variables through predictable interrelationships. All aspects of the AXRx must be reviewed with regard to progression during training. Pulmonary rehabilitation must recognize the importance of achieving clinically meaningful responses (e.g., increased 6-min walking distance of 54 m) as well as the need for maintenance exercise program to sustain the benefits. PMID:11462076

  12. Expectations of Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... reduce the pressure in your nose. Avoid strenuous exercise for the first 2 weeks after surgery. Also ...

  13. Assessment of protein synthesis in highly aerobic canine species at the onset and during exercise training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin F; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Drake, Joshua C; Peelor, Frederick F; Biela, Laurie M; Pratt-Phillips, Shannon; Davis, Michael; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2015-04-01

    Canis lupus familiaris, the domesticated dog, is capable of extreme endurance performance. The ability to perform sustained aerobic exercise is dependent on a well-developed mitochondrial reticulum. In this study we examined the cumulative muscle protein and DNA synthesis in groups of athletic dogs at the onset of an exercise training program and following a strenuous exercise training program. We hypothesized that both at the onset and during an exercise training program there would be greater mitochondrial protein synthesis rates compared with sedentary control with no difference in mixed or cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates. Protein synthetic rates of three protein fractions and DNA synthesis were determined over 1 wk using (2)H2O in competitive Alaskan Huskies and Labrador Retrievers trained for explosive device detection. Both groups of dogs had very high rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the sedentary state [Alaskan Huskies: Mixed = 2.28 ± 0.12, cytoplasmic (Cyto) = 2.91 ± 0.10, and mitochondrial (Mito) = 2.62 ± 0.07; Labrador Retrievers: Mixed = 3.88 ± 0.37, Cyto = 3.85 ± 0.06, and Mito = 2.92 ± 0.20%/day]. Mitochondrial (Mito) protein synthesis rates did not increase at the onset of an exercise training program. Exercise-trained dogs maintained Mito protein synthesis during exercise training when mixed (Mixed) and cytosolic (Cyto) fractions decreased, and this coincided with a decrease in p-RpS6 but also a decrease in p-ACC signaling. Contrary to our hypothesis, canines did not have large increases in mitochondrial protein synthesis at the onset or during an exercise training program. However, dogs have a high rate of protein synthesis compared with humans that perhaps does not necessitate an extra increase in protein synthesis at the onset of aerobic exercise training. PMID:25614602

  14. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  15. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  16. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know exactly if or how exercise increases your immunity to certain illnesses, but there are several theories ( ... not exercise more intensely just to increase their immunity. Heavy, long-term exercise (such as marathon running ...

  17. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill ... This test is done at a medical center or health care provider's office. The technician will place 10 flat, ...

  18. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePLUS

    ... help this important muscle get stronger by doing aerobic (say: air-OH-bik) exercise. Exercise is good ... your lungs. Which of these is your favorite? Aerobic means "with air," so aerobic exercise is a ...

  19. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  20. Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise)

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise) Model quality, validation exercise. You will need:_____________________________ Model quality, validation exercise (cont'd). Part 2: local comparison of 2Å and 1.25Å structures. One

  1. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  2. Exercise in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-03-01

    Patients with the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) have orthostatic intolerance, as well as exercise intolerance. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is generally lower in these patients compared with healthy sedentary individuals, suggesting a lower physical fitness level. During acute exercise, POTS patients have an excessive increase in heart rate and reduced stroke volume for each level of absolute workload; however, when expressed at relative workload (%VO2peak), there is no difference in the heart rate response between patients and healthy individuals. The relationship between cardiac output and VO2 is similar between POTS patients and healthy individuals. Short-term (i.e., 3 months) exercise training increases cardiac size and mass, blood volume, and VO2peak in POTS patients. Exercise performance is improved after training. Specifically, stroke volume is greater and heart rate is lower at any given VO2 during exercise after training versus before training. Peak heart rate is the same but peak stroke volume and cardiac output are greater after training. Heart rate recovery from peak exercise is significantly faster after training, indicating an improvement in autonomic circulatory control. These results suggest that patients with POTS have no intrinsic abnormality of heart rate regulation during exercise. The tachycardia in POTS is due to a reduced stroke volume. Cardiac remodeling and blood volume expansion associated with exercise training increase physical fitness and improve exercise performance in these patients. PMID:25487551

  3. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  4. Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

  5. Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular variables. Plasma volume (% delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P < 0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training for all regimens indicating no effect of these training regimens on the level of vascular fluid shifts.

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Exercise: No More Excuses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cost exercise programs in your area. Increasing your energy Regular, moderate physical activity can help reduce fatigue ... become active, you’re likely to have more energy than before. As you do more, you also ...

  7. Influence of physical exercise on the pharmacokinetics of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Arends, B G; Böhm, R O; van Kemenade, J E; Rahn, K H; van Baak, M A

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of propranolol after oral and intravenous administration was studied at rest and on an exercise day in 8 healthy subjects. On the exercise day the subjects performed physical exercise for 7 h, consisting of bicycle ergometer exercise at 50% of maximal work capacity and outdoor walking. Propranolol (80 mg p.o., or 0.2 mg/kg body weight i.v.) was administered 30 min before the start of the exercise. After oral administration the terminal phase halflife, (t1/2 beta) and area under the curve (AUC) were both significantly reduced on the exercise day compared to the rest day. The bioavailability of propranolol was reduced by prolonged physical exercise and plasma levels of propranolol were about 30% lower at the end of the exercise day than at the end of the rest day. After intravenous administration, t1/2 beta was also reduced on the exercise day as compared to the rest day. AUC, clearance and volume of distribution did not differ on the two days. On the other hand, indocyanine green (ICG) clearance was significantly reduced during the bicycle ergometry periods on the exercise day. The combination of reduced ICG clearance, suggesting a reduction in hepatic blood flow, and a decreased t1/2 beta and unchanged clearance of propranolol on the exercise day was unexpected. PMID:3792439

  8. Free radicals, exercise and antioxidant supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kanter, M

    1998-02-01

    Although conflicting data exist, the preponderance of available information suggests that physical exercise promotes an increase in free-radical generation. However, few studies have actually measured exercise-induced free radicals directly, primarily because of a lack of sophisticated methodologies to measure this phenomenon. Instead, researchers have relied heavily on the measurement of lipid peroxidation as the principal indicator of exercise-induced free radicals. It should be noted that free radicals can also alter and inactivate enzyme complexes, damage DNA and RNA, and promote mutations and cancer, among other activities. However, there have been few reported studies dealing with exercise and oxidant stress which have measured these outcomes. It should also be noted that free-radical species are continuously produced in the human body, and that some have beneficial effects (Arouma, 1994), notably as a part of the body's natural immune system. It is not presently known if long-term ingestion of antioxidant compounds will affect these positive aspects of free-radical generation. The preponderance of available evidence suggests that antioxidant supplementation, particularly with the vitamins C and E, has favourable effects on markers of lipid peroxidation following exercise. Although the physiological implications of these effects remain to be elucidated, the prudent use of an antioxidant supplement can provide insurance against a suboptimal diet and/or the elevated demands of physical activity. Future research may uncover additional nutritional antioxidants that can benefit the physically-active individual. Numerous additional questions regarding the antioxidant needs for physical activity remain to be answered. Little is known about the needs of physically-active women, particularly those who habitually consume an energy-restricted diet, or the effects of monthly menstrual blood loss (coupled with exercise) on antioxidant requirements. The needs of the 'weekend warrior' (an individual who participates in strenuous activity sporadically) v. those of the habitual exerciser have not been addressed adequately. The needs of the ageing athlete are largely unknown; a study by Meydani et al. (1993) suggested that elderly, physically-active people can benefit from antioxidant supplementation more than their younger counterparts, but follow-up studies have not been reported to-date. Dietary issues also need to be addressed. How much supplementation is too much, and can chronically-elevated antioxidant intakes have an adverse impact on the positive effects of free radicals in living systems? Does a high-carbohydrate diet raise antioxidant needs, particularly of the fat-soluble vitamin E? Does a high polyunsaturated fat intake, or increased Fe intake affect needs? Obviously, there are a number of issues regarding the antioxidant needs of the physically-active individual that need to be elucidated. Future research utilizing newer, more sophisticated methodologies should provide answers to many of these questions. PMID:9571703

  9. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  10. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  11. Scaling laws for capillary vessels of mammals at rest and in exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Thomas H

    2003-01-01

    A general derivation is presented for the scaling laws governing the size and number of capillary blood vessels in mammals. The derivation is based on the assumption of three idealized similarity principles known to apply, at least approximately, to resting mammals: (i) size-invariant blood pressure; (ii) size-invariant fraction of blood in the capillaries; and (iii) size-invariant oxygen consumption and uptake, per unit of body mass, during each heart cycle. Results indicate that the radius and length of capillaries, and the number that are open and active in the resting state, should scale with mammal mass to the powers 1/12, 5/24 and 5/8, respectively, consistent with earlier work by the author. Measurements are presented supporting the results. Physiological changes accompanying strenuous exercise are accounted for by a change in the scaling law for capillary number, from scaling exponent 5/8 to 3/4. PMID:12713751

  12. Astronauts Exercising in Space Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

  13. Left ventricular mechanics and arterial-ventricular coupling following high-intensity interval exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Anita T.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Phillips, Aaron A.; Koehle, Michael S.; Glier, Melissa B.; Devlin, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    High-intensity exercise induces marked physiological stress affecting the secretion of catecholamines. Sustained elevations in catecholamines are thought to desensitize cardiac beta receptors and may be a possible mechanism in impaired cardiac function following strenuous exercise. In addition, attenuated arterial-ventricular coupling may identify vascular mechanisms in connection with postexercise attenuations in ventricular function. Thirty-nine normally active (NA) and endurance-trained (ET) men and women completed an echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function before and after an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (15 bouts of 1:2 min work:recovery cycling: 100% peak power output and 50 W, respectively). Following exercise, time to peak twist and peak untwisting velocity were delayed (P < 0.01) but did not differ by sex or training status. Interactions for sex and condition (rest vs. exercise) were found for longitudinal diastolic strain rate (men, 1.46 ± 0.19 to 1.28 ± 0.23 s?1 vs. women, 1.62 ± 0.25 to 1.63 ± 0.26 s?1; P = 0.01) and arterial elastance (men 2.20 ± 0.65 to 3.24 ± 1.02 mmHg·ml?1·m?2 vs. women 2.51 ± 0.61 to 2.93 ± 0.68 mmHg·ml?1·m?2; P = 0.04). No cardiac variables were found associated with catecholamine levels. The change in twist mechanics was associated with baseline aortic pulse-wave velocity (r2 = 0.27, P = 0.001). We conclude that males display greater reductions in contractility in response to high-intensity interval exercise, independent of catecholamine concentrations. Furthermore, a novel association of arterial stiffness and twist mechanics following high-intensity acute exercise illustrates the influence of vascular integrity on cardiac mechanics. PMID:24052036

  14. Postpartum Exercise and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Bane, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Many women who are breastfeeding also want to participate in exercise, but have concerns about the safety of their newborn. The following chapter reviews issues related to postpartum exercise and lactation. The goals of the chapter are to help clinicians understand the benefits of exercise, examine the impact of postpartum exercise on breastfeeding, and provide practical recommendations for exercise during the postpartum period in women who are breastfeeding. PMID:26398298

  15. The search for exercise factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Catoire, Milène; Kersten, Sander

    2015-05-01

    Regular exercise reduces the risk for numerous chronic diseases. Exercise not only impacts the contracting skeletal muscle but also elicits systemic changes. The exact mechanisms driving the more systemic changes have yet to be resolved, but exercise factors are thought to be an important missing link. Exercise factors are proteins that are released from skeletal muscle into the circulation during exercise. They represent a subclass of myokines, which are classified as proteins secreted from skeletal muscle serving a signaling role. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature on myokines. Many studies have focused on the identification of new myokines using a variety of approaches. These studies have generated an extensive list of myokines, but so far, the functional relevance of many of these novel myokines remains unclear. Few of these myokines represent putative exercise factors. Currently, IL-6, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, angiopoietin-like 4, chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 have the highest potential to serve as exercise factors because for all these factors, there is clear evidence that plasma levels increase during exercise. In our view, the future focus should be on characterizing the functional role of myokines in the acute and chronic response to exercise and explore their potential as a target for metabolic diseases. PMID:25593123

  16. An Ultra-High Field Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Post Exercise Lactate, Glutamate and Glutamine Change in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Andrea; Thomas, Adam G.; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Near, Jamie; Nichols, Thomas E.; Clare, Stuart; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    During strenuous exercise there is a progressive increase in lactate uptake and metabolism into the brain as workload and plasma lactate levels increase. Although it is now widely accepted that the brain can metabolize lactate, few studies have directly measured brain lactate following vigorous exercise. Here, we used ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to obtain static measures of brain lactate, as well as brain glutamate and glutamine after vigorous exercise. The aims of our experiment were to (a) track the changes in brain lactate following recovery from exercise, and (b) to simultaneously measure the signals from brain glutamate and glutamine. The results of our experiment showed that vigorous exercise resulted in a significant increase in brain lactate. Furthermore, both glutamate and glutamine were successfully resolved, and as expected, although contrary to some previous reports, we did not observe any significant change in either amino acid after exercise. We did however observe a negative correlation between glutamate and a measure of fitness. These results support the hypothesis that peripherally derived lactate is taken up by the brain when available. Our data additionally highlight the potential of ultra-high field MRS as a non-invasive way of measuring multiple brain metabolite changes with exercise.

  17. An Ultra-High Field Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Post Exercise Lactate, Glutamate and Glutamine Change in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Andrea; Thomas, Adam G; Rawlings, Nancy B; Near, Jamie; Nichols, Thomas E; Clare, Stuart; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2015-01-01

    During strenuous exercise there is a progressive increase in lactate uptake and metabolism into the brain as workload and plasma lactate levels increase. Although it is now widely accepted that the brain can metabolize lactate, few studies have directly measured brain lactate following vigorous exercise. Here, we used ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to obtain static measures of brain lactate, as well as brain glutamate and glutamine after vigorous exercise. The aims of our experiment were to (a) track the changes in brain lactate following recovery from exercise, and (b) to simultaneously measure the signals from brain glutamate and glutamine. The results of our experiment showed that vigorous exercise resulted in a significant increase in brain lactate. Furthermore, both glutamate and glutamine were successfully resolved, and as expected, although contrary to some previous reports, we did not observe any significant change in either amino acid after exercise. We did however observe a negative correlation between glutamate and a measure of fitness. These results support the hypothesis that peripherally derived lactate is taken up by the brain when available. Our data additionally highlight the potential of ultra-high field MRS as a non-invasive way of measuring multiple brain metabolite changes with exercise. PMID:26732236

  18. The Heart and Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, G. R.

    1963-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy and extreme bradycardia occur in the highly trained endurance athlete, but not in those with lesser degrees of training. Several longevity studies in athletes fail to show any beneficial effects of athletic training confined to the college years. The invaluable British studies relating physical activity of various occupations to coronary disease show that while exercise does not prevent coronary atherosclerosis, it may reduce the incidence of large and fatal infarctions and of complete coronary obstructions. Various American studies have not confirmed this beneficial effect of exercise. To be of any value in the prevention of coronary disease, exercise must be continued on into middle age. The sedentary life characteristic of western civilization is probably not a major factor in the high incidence of coronary disease. PMID:14024232

  19. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    PubMed Central

    Vu?i? Lovren?i?, Marijana; Pibernik-Okanovi?, Mirjana; Šekerija, Mario; Prašek, Manja; Ajdukovi?, Dea; Kos, Jadranka; Hermanns, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A), physical exercise (B), and enhanced treatment as usual (C) was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome) and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F = 12.51, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.07). Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG) decreased (F = 10.66, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.06), as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F = 84.57, ?2 = 0.32 and F = 12.61, ?2 = 0.07, resp.; p < 0.0001), while uric acid increased (F = 12.53, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.07) in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (? = 0.15, p = 0.044). Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017. PMID:26347775

  20. The protective effects of a polyphenol-enriched protein powder on exercise-induced susceptibility to virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maryam; Henson, Dru A; Sanderson, Matthew C; Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged and intensive exercise induces transient immunosuppression and is associated with an increased risk and severity of infections. The goal of this study was to characterize the antiviral and antibacterial properties of the bioactive metabolites of a blueberry-green tea-polyphenol soy protein complex (PSPC) in the serum of supplemented subjects during a 3-day intensified training period. Long-distance runners, randomly divided into two groups, ingested 40?g/day PSPC or placebo (soy protein and colorings) for 17?days, with a 3-day running period inserted at day 14. Blood serum samples were collected pre-14?days and post-14?days supplementation, and immediately and 14?h after the third day of running. The post-exercise serum from both groups significantly promoted the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in culture by 20-70%, but returned to normal levels following recovery. Furthermore, the serum from subjects ingesting PSPC did not display antibacterial properties at any time point. In contrast, there was a significant difference in the ability of serum from PSPC-supplemented versus placebo-supplemented athletes to protect cells in culture from killing by vesicular stomatitis virus following strenuous exercise. In addition, the serum of subjects who ingested PSPC significantly delayed an exercise-induced increase in virus replication. These results indicate that polyphenol complexes containing blueberry and green tea have the potential to protect athletes from virus infections following rigorous exercise. PMID:25088029

  1. Exercise detraining: Applicability to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    Physical training exposes the various systems of the body to potent physiologic stimuli. These stimuli induce specific adaptations that enhance an individual's tolerance for the type of exercise encountered in training. The level of adaptation and the magnitude of improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the potency of the physical training stimuli. Likewise, our bodies are stimulated by gravity, which promotes adaptations of both the cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. Exposure to microgravity removes normal stimuli to these systems, and the body adapts to these reduced demands. In many respects the cessation of physical training in athletes and the transition from normal gravity to microgravity represent similar paradigms. Inherent to these situations is the concept of the reversibility of the adaptations induced by training or by exposure to normal gravity. The reversibility concept holds that when physical training is stopped (i.e., detraining) or reduced, or a person goes from normal gravity to microgravity, the bodily systems readjust in accordance with the diminished physiologic stimuli. The focus of this chapter is on the time course of loss of the adaptations to endurance training as well as on the possibility that certain adaptations persist, to some extent, when training is stopped. Because endurance exercise training generally improves cardiovascular function and promotes metabolic adaptations within the exercising skeletal musculature, the reversibility of these specific adaptations is considered. These observations have some applicability to the transition from normal to microgravity.

  2. Extraversion and exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Mathers, S; Walker, M B

    1999-01-01

    Extraversion has been suggested as a factor associated with addiction. This claim was tested in relation to exercise addiction. Twelve exercise addicts were compared with 12 nonaddicted individuals who were committed to regular exercise and with 12 nonexercising individuals drawn from the same student population. Addicted exercisers did not differ from nonaddicted exercisers in extraversion, although exercisers as a group were more extraverted than nonexercisers. The results are interpreted as evidence against the claim that extraversion is a component of the addictive personality profile. PMID:10022080

  3. Exercise for the heart: signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise, a potent functional intervention in protecting against cardiovascular diseases, is a hot topic in recent years. Exercise has been shown to reduce cardiac risk factors, protect against myocardial damage, and increase cardiac function. This improves quality of life and decreases mortality and morbidity in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac aging, and pulmonary hypertension. The cellular adaptation to exercise can be associated with both endogenous and exogenous factors: 1) exercise induces cardiac growth via hypertrophy and renewal of cardiomyocytes, and 2) exercise induces endothelial progenitor cells to proliferate, migrate and differentiate into mature endothelial cells, giving rise to endothelial regeneration and angiogenesis. The cellular adaptations associated with exercise are due to the activation of several signaling pathways, in particular, the growth factor neuregulin1 (NRG1)-ErbB4-C/EBP? and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-PI3k-Akt signaling pathways. Of interest, microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) such as miR-222 also play a major role in the beneficial effects of exercise. Thus, exploring the mechanisms mediating exercise-induced benefits will be instrumental for devising new effective therapies against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26318584

  4. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  5. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  6. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production ...

  7. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... running. Then take a few minutes for some strength training. Exercises like the ones below help build muscle ... What's A Good Workout for a Busy Schedule? Strength Training Weight Management: Strength Training Exercises (Video) Sports and ...

  8. Exercising on a budget

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find deals on used fitness equipment at yard sales and thrift shops. Invest in cheaper fitness items. ... sure you use proper form, go to the online exercise library at the American Council on Exercise. ...

  9. Aerobic exercise (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  10. Exercise and age

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many exercises fit into more than one category: Aerobic exercises increase your breathing and heart rate. These ... diabetes, colon and breast cancers, and heart disease. Aerobic sports activities include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, biking, ...

  11. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  12. Exercise and Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ045 WOMEN’S HEALTH Exercise and Fitness • What are the benefits of exercise? • What are ... heart and lungs to work harder to build fitness. Improving the fitness of your heart and lungs ...

  13. High-intensity exercise performance is not impaired by low intramuscular glycogen.

    PubMed

    Symons, J D; Jacobs, I

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of glycogen availability on short-term, high-intensity exercise performance. Eight males completed performance evaluation tasks (PET) consisting of maximum isokinetic strength and endurance, isometric strength, and electrically evoked force of the leg extensors, twice during each of two conditions. On day 1 (D1) of the control condition (C) subjects performed the PET, followed by strenuous exercise designed to deplete glycogen stores of the leg extensors. After consuming a mixed diet for 48h (days 2 and 3) they performed the PET again on day 4 (D4). The experimental condition (E) was identical to C, except that a strictly controlled low carbohydrate diet was consumed during Days 2 and 3. Biopsies from the vastus lateralis before the PET on D4 confirmed differences between conditions in intramuscular glycogen (426 +/- 43 vs 153 +/- 60 mmol glucose units.kg-1 d.w. for C and E respectively, P less than 0.001). Results obtained from the PET were not different between conditions on D4, nor within conditions when D1 and D4 were compared. Resting blood glucose, hematological variables indicative of hydration and acid-base status, and post PET blood lactate were similar for all trials. It is concluded that short-term, high-intensity exercise performance of glycogen depleted leg extensors is not impaired. PMID:2691816

  14. Cell-derived microparticles after exercise in individuals with G6PD Viangchan.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Makamas; Nantakomol, Duangdao; Suksom, Daroonwan; Palasuwan, Attakorn

    2015-07-16

    Glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient cells are sensitive to oxidative damage leading to the formation of microparticles (MPs). Therefore, we examined the concentration of MPs and changes in the antioxidant balance after an acute strenuous exercise (SEx) and moderate-intensity exercise (MEx). Eighteen healthy females (18-24 years) with G6PD normal and eighteen age-matched females with G6PD Viangchan (871G>A) were tested by running on a treadmill at their maximal oxygen uptake for SEx and at 75% of their maximal heart rate for MEx. It was found that SEx triggered the release of total microparticles (TTMPs) above baseline levels and remained significantly higher 45 minutes after the exercise in G6PD normal individuals. However, SEx-induced increase in TTMPs was significantly higher in G6PD Viangchan as compared to G6PD normal. In contrast, MEx did not to alter the release of TTMPs in both G6PD normal and Viangchan. Moreover, TTMPs concentrations were inversely correlated with G6PD activity (r?=-0.82, P?< ?0.05) but positively correlated with MDA concentrations (r?=?0.74, P?< ?0.05). Using cell specific antibodies, we determined that MPs were mainly derived from platelets and erythrocytes. Altogether, the present study indicates that G6PD Viangchan may participate in MEx without higher MPs concentration and oxidative stress compared with G6PD normal. PMID:25171589

  15. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  16. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  17. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  18. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  19. Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Make sure he or she drinks water or juice after exercise. For more information about exercise and physical activity for older adults, visit www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life . National Institute on Aging National Institutes of Health NIH...Turning Discovery into Health Gentle Exercise Some ...

  20. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  1. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  2. Exercising with Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keep a positive attitude l Maintain a healthy body weight Three types of exercise are best if you ... Examples of flexibility exercises include upper- and lower-body stretching, yoga, and tai ... support and protect joints. Weight-bearing exercises, such as weight lifting, fall into ...

  3. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  4. Exercise, Stress Resistance, and Central Serotonergic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in humans and prevents serotonin-dependent behavioral consequences of stress in rodents. Evidence reviewed herein is consistent with the hypothesis that exercise increases stress resistance by producing neuroplasticity at multiple sites of the central serotonergic system, which all help to limit the behavioral impact of acute increases in serotonin during stressor exposure. PMID:21508844

  5. Exercise, Immunity, and Susceptibility to Infection: A J-Shaped Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; Shek, Pang N.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that regular moderate exercise boosts immunity, but intense training may reduce it. Objective data do not clearly show a J-shaped relationship between exercise and immune function. Nutritional, hygienic, exercise, environmental, and pharmacologic strategies can minimize risks of infection. Practical measures to reduce

  6. Daily Supine LBNP Treadmill Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, Andy C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Fortney, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ballard, R. E.; William, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity or bed rest reduces upright exercise capacity. Exercise modes, durations, and intensities which will effectively and efficiently counteract such deconditioning are presently unresolved. We that daily supine treadmill interval training with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would prevent reduction in upright exercise capacity during 14 days of 6 deg. head-down bed rest (BR). Eight healthy male subjects underwent two 14 day BR protocols separated by 3 months. In a crossover design, subjects either remained at strict BR or performed 40 min of daily exercise consisting of supine walking and running at intensities varying from 40-80% of pre-BR upright peak oxygen uptake (VO2). LBNP during supine exercise was used to provide 1.0 to 1.2 times body weight of footward force. An incremental upright treadmill test to measure submaximal and peak exercise responses was given pre- and post-BR. In the non-exercise condition, peak VO2 and time to exhaustion were reduced 16 +/- 4% and 10 +/- 1% (p less than 0.05), respectively, from pre-BR. With LBNP exercise these variables were not significantly different (NS) from pre-BR. During submaximal treadmill speeds after BR, heart rate was higher (11 +/- 11 bpm, p less than 0.05) and respiratory exchange ratio was elevated (p less than 0.05) in the no exercise condition. Both were maintained at pre-BR levels in the LBNP exercise condition (NS from pre-BR). Since this supine treadmill interval training with addition of LBNP maintained upright exercise responses and capacity during BR, this countermeasure may also be effective during space flight.

  7. Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Jeremy; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Wallman, Karen; Beilby, John

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of hot/cold contrast water immersion (CWI), cold-water immersion (COLD) and no recovery treatment (control) as post-exercise recovery methods following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise. Repeated sprint ability, strength, muscle soreness and inflammatory markers were measured across the 48-h post-exercise period. Eleven male team-sport athletes completed three 3-day testing trials, each separated by 2 weeks. On day 1, baseline measures of performance (10 m x 20 m sprints and isometric strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and hip flexors) were recorded. Participants then performed 80 min of simulated team sports exercise followed by a 20-m shuttle run test to exhaustion. Upon completion of the exercise, and 24h later, participants performed one of the post-exercise recovery procedures for 15 min. At 48 h post-exercise, the performance tests were repeated. Blood samples and muscle soreness ratings were taken before and immediately after post-exercise, and at 24h and 48 h post-exercise. In comparison to the control and CWI treatments, COLD resulted in significantly lower (p<0.05) muscle soreness ratings, as well as in reduced decrements to isometric leg extension and flexion strength in the 48-h post-exercise period. COLD also facilitated a more rapid return to baseline repeated sprint performances. The only benefit of CWI over control was a significant reduction in muscle soreness 24h post-exercise. This study demonstrated that COLD following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise offers greater recovery benefits than CWI or control treatments. PMID:18547863

  8. THE ECONOMICS OF INTENSE EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, David O.; Jena, Anupam B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests that the intensity of exercise should increase relative to time spent exercising as wages increase, holding other determinants of exercise constant. Our empirical results identify an association between income and exercise intensity that is consistent with the hypothesis that people respond to increased time costs of exercise by increasing intensity. More generally, our results suggest that time costs may be an important determinant of exercise patterns and that factors that can influence the time costs of exercise, such as intensity, may be important concerns in designing interventions to promote exercise. PMID:20371127

  9. Diencephalic efflux of calcium ions in the monkey during exercise, thermal stress and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Gisolfi, C. V.; Mora, F.; Myers, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    1. The diencephalon of the unanaesthetized macaque monkey was radio-labelled with calcium by a microinjection of 6-8 ?C 45Ca2+ into the third cerebral ventricle through a permanently implanted cannula. Successive 5 min push—pull perfusions of the mid-line hypothalamic region with an artificial C.S.F. were carried out at a rate of 28 ?l./min every 20 min. A washout curve of declining 45Ca2+ radioactivity was thus generated. 2. When the monkey exercised strenuously on a special `rowing machine' to obtain highly palatable banana pellets, its body temperature rose sharply. As the monkey exercised, during a sequence of push—pull perfusions, the concurrent efflux of 45Ca2+ ions increased markedly in the corresponding samples of diencephalic perfusate. This enhanced activity of calcium ions continued throughout a 30 min work period and persisted as long as the monkey's temperature was elevated in the interval immediately following exercise. 3. Exposure of the monkey's trunk, between neck and thigh to cold air of 5 °C likewise augmented the amount of 45Ca2+ ions in the diencephalic push—pull perfusates; however, a similar exposure to air warmed to 35 °C failed to alter the pattern of 45Ca2+ efflux from the animal's diencephalon. If a fasted monkey consumed only the banana pellets but was not exercised, the level of 45Ca2+ in the perfusate also increased transiently, just at the onset of feeding. 4. We conclude that a local change in calcium transport, binding or other cellular activity of the cation within the diencephalon could play an important role in the central mechanism underlying the set-point rise in a primate's temperature which accompanies vigorous exercise. Further, the results support the idea that this cation functions in the diencephalic control of metabolic heat production as well as in the overall processes of energy metabolism, particularly in relation to feeding. PMID:415131

  10. Delta Opioid Receptors: The Link between Exercise and Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliana P.; Verdoorn, Karine S.; Daliry, Anissa; Powers, Scott K.; Ortenzi, Victor H.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of opioid receptor (OR) subtypes as a mechanism by which endurance exercise promotes cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Wistar rats were randomly divided into one of seven experimental groups: 1) control; 2) exercise-trained; 3) exercise-trained plus a non-selective OR antagonist; 4) control sham; 5) exercise-trained plus a kappa OR antagonist; 6) exercise-trained plus a delta OR antagonist; and 7) exercise-trained plus a mu OR antagonist. The exercised animals underwent 4 consecutive days of treadmill training (60 min/day at ?70% of maximal oxygen consumption). All groups except the sham group were exposed to an in vivo myocardial IR insult, and the myocardial infarct size (IS) was determined histologically. Myocardial capillary density, OR subtype expression, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured in the hearts of both the exercised and control groups. Exercise training significantly reduced the myocardial IS by approximately 34%. Pharmacological blockade of the kappa or mu OR subtypes did not blunt exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR-mediated infarction, whereas treatment of animals with a non-selective OR antagonist or a delta OR antagonist abolished exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exercise training enhanced the activities of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase but did not increase the left ventricular capillary density or the mRNA levels of HSP72, SOD, and catalase. In addition, exercise significantly reduced the protein expression of kappa and delta ORs in the heart by 44% and 37%, respectively. Together, these results indicate that ORs contribute to the cardioprotection conferred by endurance exercise, with the delta OR subtype playing a key role in this response. PMID:25415192

  11. Resistance exercise training and the orthostatic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.

  12. Fuelling cerebral activity in exercising man.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Mads K

    2006-06-01

    The metabolic response to brain activation in exercise might be expressed as the cerebral metabolic ratio (MR; uptake O2/glucose + 1/2 lactate). At rest, brain energy is provided by a balanced oxidation of glucose as MR is close to 6, but activation provokes a 'surplus' uptake of glucose relative to that of O2. Whereas MR remains stable during light exercise, it is reduced by 30% to 40% when exercise becomes demanding. The MR integrates metabolism in brain areas stimulated by sensory input from skeletal muscle, the mental effort to exercise and control of exercising limbs. The MR decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise where blood lactate remains low, but when vigorous exercise raises blood lactate, the brain takes up lactate in an amount similar to that of glucose. This lactate taken up by the brain is oxidised as it does not accumulate within the brain and such pronounced brain uptake of substrate occurs independently of plasma hormones. The 'surplus' of glucose equivalents taken up by the activated brain may reach approximately 10 mmol, that is, an amount compatible with the global glycogen level. It is suggested that a low MR predicts shortage of energy that ultimately limits motor activation and reflects a biologic background for 'central fatigue'. PMID:16395281

  13. "Exercise is Medicine": curbing the burden of chronic disease and physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Jeff S; Law, Jen; Lancashire, Bill; Fassett, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    An exercise program designed to improve fitness is essential for most adults. Exercise decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, depression, and anxiety. Most fail to achieve recommended exercise levels. Only 1.3% of Australian general practice (GP) consultations provide exercise counseling and advice. Australia provides Medicare reimbursement for consultations with Accredited Exercise Physiologists through allied health care plans initiated through primary care. Exercise Is Medicine is an initiative to equip primary care providers with resources, education, and strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. The objective of Exercise Is Medicine is to improve the health and well-being of our nation. We describe Exercise Is Medicine and encourage primary care providers to discuss physical activity and exercise with their patients and provide them with resources to encourage this activity and referral pathways to train exercise professionals. This will assist primary care providers in treating their patients. PMID:23572372

  14. Interval exercise, but not endurance exercise, prevents endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Joost P H; Lenting, Charlotte J; Schreuder, Tim H A; Landman, Thijs R J; Cable, N Timothy; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2015-02-15

    Endothelial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury importantly contributes to the poor prognosis during ischemic (myocardial) events. Preconditioning, i.e., repeated exposure to short periods of ischemia, effectively reduces endothelial I/R injury. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that exercise has preconditioning effects on endothelial I/R injury. Therefore, we studied whether an acute bout of endurance or interval exercise is able to protect against endothelial I/R injury. In 17 healthy young subjects, we examined changes in brachial artery endothelial function using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after a bout of high-intensity interval exercise, moderate-intensity endurance exercise, or a control intervention. Subsequently, I/R injury was induced by inflation of a blood pressure cuff around the upper arm to 220 mmHg for 20 min and 20 min of reperfusion followed by another FMD measurement. Near-infrared spectrometry was used to examine local tissue oxygenation during exercise. No differences in brachial artery FMD were found at baseline for the three conditions. I/R induced a significant decline in FMD (7.1±2.3 to 4.3±2.3, P<0.001). When preceded by the interval exercise bout, no change in FMD was present after I/R (7.7±3.1 to 7.2±3.1, P=0.56), whereas the decrease in FMD after I/R could not be prevented by the endurance exercise bout (7.8±3.1 to 3.8±1.7, P<0.001). In conclusion, a single bout of lower limb interval exercise, but not moderate-intensity endurance exercise, effectively prevents brachial artery endothelial I/R injury. This indicates the presence of a remote preconditioning effect of exercise, which is selectively present after short-term interval but not continuous exercise in healthy young subjects. PMID:25416193

  15. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. PMID:26377556

  16. Overview of diabetes mellitus and exercise.

    PubMed

    Ekoé, J M

    1989-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disorder the primary therapeutic principles of which have long been based on the combination of physical activity with appropriate diet. Although exercise in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) may be associated with metabolic deterioration in the case of lack of adequate provision of insulin and carbohydrate in balanced amounts, the beneficial effects of exercise in diabetes are numerous. Exercise facilitates the utilization of glucose as the main source of energy for contracting muscles and decreases peripheral insulin resistance. Limited epidemiological studies have demonstrated that lack of physical activity may be involved in the epidemic outburst of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in some unusual populations. Long-term studies are still needed to show that lifelong physical training and exercise reduce morbidity and mortality in diabetes. PMID:2674585

  17. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

  18. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  19. Exercise for the Overweight Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

  20. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  1. Do physical exercise and reading reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease? a cross-sectional study on factors associated with Parkinson’s disease in elderly Chinese veterans

    PubMed Central

    Zou, YM; Tan, JP; Li, N; Yang, JS; Yu, BC; Yu, JM; Zhao, YM; Wang, LN

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for and factors protecting against Parkinson’s disease (PD) in elderly Chinese veterans. Methods Using a database containing detailed information on the health status of the nervous system in elderly Chinese veterans, univariate and multivariate analyses of factors that may be associated with PD were performed. Univariate analysis of qualitative data was done using the Pearson Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, and the Mann–Whitney U nonparametric test was used for univariate analysis of quantitative data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for and factors protecting against PD in elderly Chinese veterans. Results A total of 9,676 elderly Chinese veterans were enrolled, including 228 cases with PD and 183 cases with Parkinson’s syndrome, with 9,265 non-PD subjects serving as controls. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.343, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.028–1.755) and medical history of essential tremor (OR 1.228, 95% CI 1.081–1.396) were identified as independent risk factors for PD, with age being the most important risk factor. Physical exercise (OR 0.478, 95% CI 0.355–0.643) and reading (OR 0.513, 95% CI 0.357–0.735) were identified as independent factors protecting against PD, and physical exercise showed better protection against PD relative to reading. Smoking, alcohol use, anemia, cerebral trauma, education level, and electromagnetic field exposure showed no association with PD. Conclusion Physical exercise and reading may be independent factors that protect against PD among elderly Chinese veterans, while advancing age and medical history of essential tremor may be independent risk factors for PD. This study was cross-sectional, so further research is needed to confirm its results. PMID:25834444

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

  3. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…

  4. Exercise training modulates apoptotic signaling in the aging rat heart 

    E-print Network

    Kwak, Hyo Bum

    2005-11-01

    in the rate of apoptosis has been reported with aging in the rat left ventricle. In contrast, exercise training not only improves cardiac function, but also reduces the risk of heart disease. However, the ability of exercise training to modulate apoptotic...

  5. Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharman, James E; La Gerche, Andre; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Evidence for the benefits of regular exercise is irrefutable and increasing physical activity levels should be a major goal at all levels of health care. People with hypertension are less physically active than those without hypertension and there is strong evidence supporting the blood pressure-lowering ability of regular exercise, especially in hypertensive individuals. This narrative review discusses evidence relating to exercise and cardiovascular (CV) risk in people with hypertension. Comparisons between aerobic, dynamic resistance, and static resistance exercise have been made along with the merit of different exercise volumes. High-intensity interval training and isometric resistance training appear to have strong CV protective effects, but with limited data in hypertensive people, more work is needed in this area. Screening recommendations, exercise prescriptions, and special considerations are provided as a guide to decrease CV risk among hypertensive people who exercise or wish to begin. It is recommended that hypertensive individuals should aim to perform moderate intensity aerobic exercise activity for at least 30 minutes on most (preferably all) days of the week in addition to resistance exercises on 2-3 days/week. Professionals with expertise in exercise prescription may provide additional benefit to patients with high CV risk or in whom more intense exercise training is planned. Despite lay and media perceptions, CV events associated with exercise are rare and the benefits of regular exercise far outweigh the risks. In summary, current evidence supports the assertion of exercise being a cornerstone therapy in reducing CV risk and in the prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:25305061

  6. Updating ACSM's Recommendations for Exercise Preparticipation Health Screening.

    PubMed

    Riebe, Deborah; Franklin, Barry A; Thompson, Paul D; Garber, Carol Ewing; Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Magal, Meir; Pescatello, Linda S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) exercise preparticipation health screening process is to identify individuals who may be at elevated risk for exercise-related sudden cardiac death and/or acute myocardial infarction. Recent studies have suggested that using the current ACSM exercise preparticipation health screening guidelines can result in excessive physician referrals, possibly creating a barrier to exercise participation. In addition, there is considerable evidence that exercise is safe for most people and has many associated health and fitness benefits; exercise-related cardiovascular events are often preceded by warning signs/symptoms; and the cardiovascular risks associated with exercise lessen as individuals become more physically active/fit. Consequently, a scientific roundtable was convened by the ACSM in June 2014 to evaluate the current exercise preparticipation health screening recommendations. The roundtable proposed a new evidence-informed model for exercise preparticipation health screening on the basis of three factors: 1) the individual's current level of physical activity, 2) presence of signs or symptoms and/or known cardiovascular, metabolic, or renal disease, and 3) desired exercise intensity, as these variables have been identified as risk modulators of exercise-related cardiovascular events. Identifying cardiovascular disease risk factors remains an important objective of overall disease prevention and management, but risk factor profiling is no longer included in the exercise preparticipation health screening process. The new ACSM exercise preparticipation health screening recommendations reduce possible unnecessary barriers to adopting and maintaining a regular exercise program, a lifestyle of habitual physical activity, or both, and thereby emphasize the important public health message that regular physical activity is important for all individuals. PMID:26473759

  7. Central oxytocin modulates exercise-induced tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Braga, D C; Mori, E; Higa, K T; Morris, M; Michelini, L C

    2000-06-01

    We have shown that vasopressinergic projections to dorsal brain stem are activated during exercise and facilitate exercise tachycardia in both trained (T) and sedentary (S) rats (Dufloth DL, Morris M, and Michelini LC. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 273: R1271-R1282, 1997). In the present study, we investigated whether oxytocinergic projections to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)-dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) complex (NTS/DMV) are involved in the differential heart rate (HR) response to exercise in T and S rats. Arterial pressure (AP) and HR responses to dynamic exercise (0.4-1.4 km/h) were compared in S and T pretreated with vehicle (saline), oxytocin (OT; 20 pmol/200 nl) or OT-receptor antagonist (OT(ant); 20 pmol/200 nl) into the NTS/DMV. OT content in specific brain regions and plasma were measured in separate S and T groups at rest and immediately after exercise. Exercise increased OT content in dorsal (4.5-fold) and ventral brain stem (2.7-fold) and spinal cord (3.4-fold) only in T rats. No significant changes were observed in neurosecretory regions or medial eminence and posterior pituitary, but plasma levels of T rats were reduced immediately after exercise. Blockade of NTS/DMV OT receptors did not change basal mean AP (MAP) and HR or the MAP response to exercise. However, OT(ant) potentiated exercise-induced tachycardia (average increase of 26%) only in the T group. Pretreatment with exogenous OT in the NTS/DMV blunted the tachycardic response both in S and T rats without changing the MAP response. Administration of OT-receptor antagonist or OT into the fourth cerebral ventricle had no effect on the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise. Taken together, the results suggest that oxytocinergic projections to the NTS/DMV are stimulated when T rats exercise and that OT released at this level acts on OT receptors to restrain exercise-induced tachycardia. PMID:10848513

  8. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  9. Exercise physiology in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) suggest that noncardiac peripheral factors contribute to the reduced peak V(o2) (peak exercise oxygen uptake) and to its improvement after endurance exercise training. A greater understanding of the peripheral skeletal muscle vascular adaptations that occur with physical conditioning may allow for tailored exercise rehabilitation programs. The identification of specific mechanisms that improve whole body and peripheral skeletal muscle oxygen uptake could establish potential therapeutic targets for medical therapies and a means to follow therapeutic response. PMID:24975908

  10. Exercise through Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  11. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscles of the rotator cuff--the part that helps with circular motion). These exercises should not cause you pain. If you feel any pain, stop exercising. Start again with a lighter weight. Warm up before adding weights. To warm up, stretch your ...

  12. Saliva composition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R

    1998-07-01

    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities. PMID:9739538

  13. Exercise Adherence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Pat

    This digest discusses exercise adherence, noting its vital role in maximizing the benefits associated with physical activity. Information is presented on the following: (1) factors that influence adherence to self-monitored programs of regular exercise (childhood eating habits, and psychological, physical, social, and situational factors); (2)…

  14. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  15. Caffeine, exercise and the brain.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Romain; Roelands, Bart; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine can improve exercise performance when it is ingested at moderate doses (3-6 mg/kg body mass). Caffeine also has an effect on the central nervous system (CNS), and it is now recognized that most of the performance-enhancing effect of caffeine is accomplished through the antagonism of the adenosine receptors, influencing the dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems. Adenosine and dopamine interact in the brain, and this might be one mechanism to explain how the important components of motivation (i.e. vigor, persistence and work output) and higher-order brain processes are involved in motor control. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with 'attention'. Through this neurochemical interaction, caffeine improves sustained attention, vigilance, and reduces symptoms of fatigue. Other aspects that are localized in the CNS are a reduction in skeletal muscle pain and force sensation, leading to a reduction in perception of effort during exercise and therefore influencing the motivational factors to sustain effort during exercise. Because not all CNS aspects have been examined in detail, one should consider that a placebo effect may also be present. Overall, it appears that the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine reside in the brain, although more research is necessary to reveal the exact mechanisms through which the CNS effect is established. PMID:23899750

  16. Exercise performance during captopril and atenolol treatment in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Van Baak, M A; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T; Tan, E S

    1991-01-01

    1. Maximal aerobic exercise capacity, submaximal endurance exercise performance, and exercise haemodynamics have been studied in sixteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension during treatment with captopril and atenolol. 2. Administration of atenolol (1 x 100 mg day-1) or captopril (1 x 100 mg day-1) for 6 weeks resulted in similar supine and erect systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Heart rate was significantly lower during atenolol treatment. 3. Exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment, exercise diastolic blood pressure (at 100W) did not differ significantly. With atenolol exercise cardiac output was significantly lower and exercise stroke volume significantly higher than with captopril. 4. Maximal work rate, maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment (respectively 6%, 8% and 25%). Maximal respiratory exchange ratio and lactate concentration did not differ. 5. No statistically significant difference in submaximal endurance time between atenolol and captopril was found. Endurance time was reduced by 19% during atenolol and by 13% during captopril as compared with placebo. No difference in rating of perceived exertion between atenolol and captopril was present. 6. The results indicate that atenolol will reduce blood pressure during exercise more effectively than captopril in patients with hypertension. The limitation of submaximal endurance exercise performance by both agents is of similar magnitude. This may be regarded as an unwanted side effect in certain physically active patients with hypertension. PMID:1768565

  17. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; McGough, Ellen L

    2014-01-01

    In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults. PMID:24379659

  18. Thermal and cardiovascular strain from hypohydration: influence of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Montain, S J; Sawka, M N; Latzka, W A; Valeri, C R

    1998-02-01

    This study determined the effects of exercise intensity on the physiologic (thermal and cardiovascular) strain induced from hypohydration during heat stress. We hypothesized that the added thermal and cardiovascular strain induced by hypohydration would be greater during high intensity than low intensity exercise. Nine heat-acclimated men completed a matrix of nine trials: three exercise intensities, 25%, 45% and 65% VO2 max; and three hydration levels, euhydration and hypohydration at 3% and 5% body weight loss (BWL). During each trial, subjects attempted 50 min of treadmill exercise in a hot room (30 degrees C db, 50% rh) while body temperatures and cardiac output were measured. Hypohydration was achieved by exercise and fluid restriction the day preceding the trials. Core temperature increased (P<0.05) 0.12 degrees C per%BWL at each hypohydration level and was not affected by exercise intensity. Cardiac output was reduced (P<0.05) compared to euhydration levels and was reduced more during high compared to low intensity exercise after 5% BWL. It was concluded that: a) the thermal penalty (core temperature increase) accompanying hypohydration is not altered by exercise intensity; and b) at severe hypohydration levels, the cardiovascular penalty (cardiac output reduction) increases with exercise intensity. PMID:9562215

  19. Can exercise change the stereotypes associated with individuals with cancer?

    PubMed

    Clément-Guillotin, C; Falzon, C; d'Arripe-Longueville, F

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercising can positively influence the stereotypes associated with individuals with cancer and, more specifically, have an effect on the impression formation related to warmth and competence. A total of 193 French college students (Mage ?=?21.08, SD?=?1.44?years; 88 females and 105 males) were randomly assigned to one of the conditions of a 2 (participant sex)?×?2 (target health status: cancer vs no information)?×?3 (target exercise status: exerciser vs non-exerciser vs no information) experimental design. Results indicated that exercising target with cancer was perceived as the most competent compared with targets with cancer and those without information about cancer. These results suggest that exercising could be an effective way to undermine cancer stereotypes and reduce discrimination against people with cancer. PMID:24979050

  20. The benefits of exercise for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Keating, Shelley E; George, Jacob; Johnson, Nathan A

    2015-10-01

    As exercise is now an established therapy for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recent investigations have sought to identify the optimal dose (type, intensity and amount) of exercise for hepatic benefit. Here, the authors discuss the following: the role of aerobic exercise for the modulation of hepatic steatosis; the limited evidence for the role of resistance training in reducing liver fat; the lack of evidence from clinical trials on the role of exercise in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; and the benefits of exercise for patients with NAFLD, beyond steatosis. Based on current evidence, the authors provide recommendations for exercise prescription for patients with NAFLD. PMID:26289101

  1. Exercise Prescriptions for Active Seniors: A Team Approach for Maximizing Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Fred H., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise is an important "medication" that healthcare providers can prescribe for their geriatric patients. Increasing physical fitness by participating in regular exercise can reduce the effects of aging that lead to functional declines and poor health. Modest regular exercise can substantially lower the risk of death from coronary artery…

  2. Exercise Thermoregulation in Men after One and 24-hours of 6 Degree Head-Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weldhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Exercise thermoregulation exercise is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise.

  3. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  4. Exercise When Young Provides Lifelong Benefits to Bone Structure and Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Warden,S.; Fuchs, R.; Castillo, A.; Nelson, I.; Turner, C.

    2007-01-01

    Short-term exercise in growing rodents provided lifelong benefits to bone structure, strength, and fatigue resistance. Consequently, exercise when young may reduce the risk for fractures later in life, and the old exercise adage of 'use it or lose it' may not be entirely applicable to the skeleton.

  5. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Eric S.; Gunn, Bridget; Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage following high-force eccentric exercise in men randomly administered Cr or placebo. Results indicated that 5 days of Cr supplementation did not reduce indirect makers of muscle damage or enhance recovery from high-force eccentric exercise.…

  6. High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Postprandial Triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen F; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David J

    2015-07-01

    This review examined if high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) reduces postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Fifteen studies were identified, in which the effect of interval exercise conducted at an intensity of >65% of maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated on postprandial TAG levels. Analysis was divided between studies that included supramaximal exercise and those that included submaximal interval exercise. Ten studies examined the effect of a single session of low-volume HIIE including supramaximal sprints on postprandial TAG. Seven of these studies noted reductions in the postprandial total TAG area under the curve the morning after exercise of between ~10 and 21% compared with rest, but three investigations found no significant difference in TAG levels. Variations in the HIIE protocol used, inter-individual variation or insufficient time post-exercise for an increase in lipoprotein lipase activity are proposed reasons for the divergent results among studies. Five studies examined the effect of high-volume submaximal interval exercise on postprandial TAG. Four of these studies were characterised by high exercise energy expenditure and effectively attenuated total postprandial TAG levels by ~15-30%, but one study with a lower energy expenditure found no effect on TAG. The evidence suggests that supramaximal HIIE can induce large reductions in postprandial TAG levels but findings are inconsistent. Submaximal interval exercise offers no TAG metabolic or time advantage over continuous aerobic exercise but could be appealing in nature to some individuals. Future research should examine if submaximal interval exercise can reduce TAG levels in line with more realistic and achievable exercise durations of 30 min per day. PMID:25851583

  7. Osteoporosis: What is the Role of Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnings, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Research has not yet identified the best combination of estrogen replacement, calcium, and exercise for fighting osteoporosis, but clinical experience indicates all are needed to prevent the rapid bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women. Physicians must encourage women to reduce their risk using all available options. (SM)

  8. Our World: Exercise in Space - Duration: 3 minutes, 50 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out why exercise is so important to the astronauts who travel into space. Learn how gravity affects our bodies and what astronauts must do in reduced gravity environments to keep their bodies ...

  9. "It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

  10. Exercise and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

  11. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  12. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  13. Exercise thermoregulation - Possible effects of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in thermoregulation during spaceflight could result in an inability to tolerate ambient conditions or exercise tasks that were readily tolerated preflight. Weightlessness may alter heat production by changing metabolic rate, circadian rhythms of heat production, or work efficiency. It may impair heat loss by reducing convective and evaporative heat exchange. In addition, crewmembers may become less fit, less heat acclimated, hypohydrated, or have altered thermal sensitivity. Three scenarios are described: exercise conditioning in the mid deck, EVA, and emergency egress. Each scenario is discussed in terms of potential thermal challenges and possible consequences on crew performance.

  14. Exercise and Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Exercise and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the ... until a bone breaks. Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. It is more common in women, but men ...

  15. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... hours of studying burn mental energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. ...

  16. Exercise Tips for Travelers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tips for Travelers Whether you’re traveling for business or pleasure, you can stick to your exercise ... you’re on vacation, but even on a business trip, it’s possible to squeeze in 30 minutes ...

  17. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  18. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > Parents > Nutrition & Fitness Center > Staying ... longer than 2 hours. Back Continue Raising Fit Kids Combining regular physical activity with a healthy diet ...

  19. Exercise and children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about themselves Are more physically fit Have more energy Other benefits of exercise are: A lower risk ... Let them know it will give them more energy, make their body stronger, and make them feel ...

  20. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about themselves Are more physically fit Have more energy Other benefits of exercise for children are: A ... know that being active will give them more energy, make their bodies stronger, and make them feel ...

  1. Exercises in Applied Geochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackleton, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews exercises in the analysis of samples and interpretations of results from the geochemical survey portion of a three year teacher education program in geology presented at Salisbury College of Advanced Education. (SL)

  2. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. Brisk walking or jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  3. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Jun 23,2015 If you have ... second set. Walking Heel-to-Toe Purpose: Improve balance. Starting Position: Stand close to a wall for ...

  4. Exercise and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Exercise can improve lean body mass, decrease fat, stress, fatigue and depression; improve strength, improve strength, endurance, and cardiovascular fitness, It may also help the immune system work better. FOR MORE INFORMATION You can get ...

  5. The Influence of “wuqinxi” exercises on the Lumbosacral Multifidus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of the five animals (wuqinxi) exercises on the lumbosacral multifidus. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled two groups of volunteers, 15 volunteers who did the five animals exercises, the experimental group, and 15 volunteers who did aerobic exercise (walking), the control group. Both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention, the average surface electromyography (ASEMG) of the two groups in the process of ?exion and extension was recorded and analyzed using DASYLab10.0 software, and the flexion extension ratio (FER) was calculated. [Results] The ASEMG in the process of flexion was lower than the ASEMG in the process of extension both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention on both sides of all volunteers. There was no significant difference in FER between the experimental group and control group before the 1?year exercise intervention; however, the FER of experimental group was lower than that of the control group after the 1?year exercise intervention. There was no significant difference between the two sides in any individual both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention in both groups. [Conclusion] The “wuqinxi” exercises improved the function of the lumbosacral multifidus, and might be an alternative method of reducing low back pain. PMID:25013288

  6. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  7. Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core temperature after deconditioning appears to be caused by decreased peripheral vasodilation in humans. Factors related to glucose metabolism may influence this mechanism.

  8. Exercise training in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vainshelboim, Baruch; Fox, Benjamin Daniel; Oliveira, Jose; Kramer, Mordechai Reuven

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic devastating interstitial lung disease associated with exercise intolerance, dyspnea, hypoxemia, diminished quality of life and poor prognosis. A growing body of evidence with respect to short-term effects of exercise training has demonstrated clinical benefits in IPF patients. A recent systematic review showed significant improvements in 6-min walking distance, peak aerobic capacity, reduced dyspnea and improved quality of life. However, aspects of training programs, maintenance and predictors of improvement and the impact on prognosis need to be further explored. The aim of this paper was to comprehensively review the existing scientific literature regarding exercise training in patients with IPF and identify important gaps that should be studied in the future. PMID:26567878

  9. Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwill, J. R.; Taylor, J. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena.

  10. Exercise, Vascular Stiffness, and Tissue Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Steppan, Jochen; Sikka, Gautam; Jandu, Simran; Barodka, Viachaslau; Halushka, Marc K.; Flavahan, Nicholas A.; Belkin, Alexey M.; Nyhan, Daniel; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Santhanam, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular aging is closely associated with increased vascular stiffness. It has recently been demonstrated that decreased nitric oxide (NO)?induced S?nitrosylation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) contributes to age?related vascular stiffness. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise restores NO signaling and attenuates vascular stiffness by decreasing TG2 activity and cross?linking in an aging rat model. Methods and Results Rats were subjected to 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise. Aging was associated with diminished phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase and phosphorylated vasodilator?stimulated phosphoprotein abundance, suggesting reduced NO signaling. TG2 cross?linking activity was significantly increased in old animals, whereas TG2 abundance remained unchanged. These alterations were attenuated in the exercise cohort. Simultaneous measurement of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) demonstrated increased aortic stiffness in old rats, compared to young, at all values of mean arterial pressure (MAP). The PWV?MAP correlation in the old sedentary and old exercise cohorts was similar. Tensile testing of the vessels showed increased stiffness of the aorta in the old phenotype with a modest restoration of mechanical properties toward the young phenotype with exercise. Conclusions Increased vascular stiffness during aging is associated with decreased TG2 S?nitrosylation, increased TG2 cross?linking activity, and increased vascular stiffness likely the result of decreased NO bioavailability. In this study, a brief period of moderate aerobic exercise enhanced NO signaling, attenuated TG cross?linking activity, and reduced ex vivo tensile properties, but failed to reverse functional vascular stiffness in vivo, as measured by PWV. PMID:24721796

  11. Multiplanar breast kinematics during different exercise modalities.

    PubMed

    Risius, Deborah; Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Multiplanar breast movement reduction is crucial to increasing physical activity participation amongst women. To date, research has focused on breast movement during running, but until breast movement is understood during different exercise modalities, the breast support requirements for specific activities are unknown. To understand breast support requirements during different exercise modalities, this study aimed to determine multiplanar breast kinematics during running, jumping and agility tasks. Sixteen 32D participants had markers attached to their right nipple and torso. Relative multiplanar breast displacement was calculated during bare-breasted treadmill running (10 kph), maximum countermovement jumping and an agility t-test. Exercise modality influenced the magnitude and direction of breast displacement, velocity and acceleration (p < .05). Jumping produced greater vertical breast displacement (.09 m) but less mediolateral breast displacement (.05 m) than running or the agility task, but agility tasks produced the highest multiplanar breast velocities and acceleration. Breast movement during jumping was predominantly in the vertical direction, whereas the agility task produced a greater percentage of mediolateral breast acceleration than running or jumping. Exercise modality impacted upon the magnitude and distribution of bare-breasted multiplanar breast kinematics in this homogenous 32D cohort. Therefore, to reduce breast movement in women of a 32D bra size, manufacturers may wish to design sport-specific products, with greater vertical support for exercise modalities incorporating jumping and greater mediolateral support for agility tasks. PMID:24942053

  12. Muscle damage and inflammation after eccentric exercise: can the repeated bout effect be removed?

    PubMed

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2015-12-01

    The current consensus in exercise physiology is that the repeated bout effect always appears after few eccentric exercise sessions. This is the first attempt to challenge this tenet, by exploiting specificity in muscle plasticity. More specifically, we examined whether the opposing adaptations in muscle induced after concentric and eccentric exercise can attenuate and/or remove the repeated bout effect. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned into one of the following groups: (1) the alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group; and (2) the eccentric-only exercise group. Both groups performed 8 weeks of resistance exercise using the knee extensors of both legs on an isokinetic dynamometer. The alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group performed an alternating exercise protocol, switching between eccentric-only and concentric-only exercise every 4 weeks, while the eccentric-only group performed eccentric exercise. Evaluation of muscle damage using physiological (isometric torque, delayed onset muscle soreness, and range of movement) and biochemical (creatine kinase) markers and inflammation (C-reactive protein) was performed at weeks 1, 5, and 10. Baseline isometric peak torque was also evaluated at week 14 after another cycle (4 weeks) of alternating or eccentric-only exercise training. In the alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group, the concentric exercise training performed prior to eccentric exercise reduced dramatically the repeated bout effect by reversing muscle back to its unaccustomed state. On the contrary, the eccentric-only exercise group exhibited a typical manifestation of the repeated bout effect. Interestingly, muscle strength was elevated similarly for both alternating and eccentric-only exercise groups after 13 weeks of training. The alternating eccentric-concentric exercise scheme, implemented in the present study, has for the first time successfully overcame the repeated bout effect. The similarity in muscle strength measurements following the two protocols is against the notion that inflammation plays an important role in exercise-induced adaptations in muscle. PMID:26660557

  13. Type 2 diabetes exaggerates exercise effort and impairs exercise performance in older women

    PubMed Central

    Huebschmann, A G; Kohrt, W M; Herlache, L; Wolfe, P; Daugherty, S; Reusch, J EB; Bauer, T A; Regensteiner, J G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with high levels of disability and mortality. Regular exercise prevents premature disability and mortality, but people with T2DM are generally sedentary for reasons that are not fully established. We previously observed that premenopausal women with T2DM report greater effort during exercise than their counterparts without diabetes, as measured by the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. We hypothesized that RPE is greater in older women with T2DM versus no T2DM. Research design and methods We enrolled overweight, sedentary women aged 50–75?years with (n=26) or without T2DM (n=28). Participants performed submaximal cycle ergometer exercise at 30?W and 35% of individually-measured peak oxygen consumption (35% VO2peak). We assessed exercise effort by RPE (self-report) and plasma lactate concentration. Results VO2peak was lower in T2DM versus controls (p=0.003). RPE was not significantly greater in T2DM versus controls (30?W: Control, 10.4±3.2, T2DM, 11.7±2.3, p=0.08; 35% VO2peak: Control, 11.1±0.5, T2DM, 12.1±0.5, p=0.21). However, lactate was greater in T2DM versus controls (p=0.004 at 30?W; p<0.05 at 35% VO2peak). Greater RPE was associated with higher lactate, higher heart rate, and a hypertension diagnosis (p<0.05 at 30?W and 35% VO2peak). Conclusions Taken together, physiological measures of exercise effort were greater in older women with T2DM than controls. Exercise effort is a modifiable and thereby targetable end point. In order to facilitate regular exercise, methods to reduce exercise effort in T2DM should be sought. Trial number NCT00785005. PMID:26464803

  14. The relation of physical activity and exercise to mental health.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C B; Sallis, J F; Needle, R

    1985-01-01

    Mental disorders are of major public health significance. It has been claimed that vigorous physical activity has positive effects on mental health in both clinical and nonclinical populations. This paper reviews the evidence for this claim and provides recommendations for future studies. The strongest evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise probably alleviate some symptoms associated with mild to moderate depression. The evidence also suggests that physical activity and exercise might provide a beneficial adjunct for alcoholism and substance abuse programs; improve self-image, social skills, and cognitive functioning; reduce the symptoms of anxiety; and alter aspects of coronary-prone (Type A) behavior and physiological response to stressors. The effects of physical activity and exercise on mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, and other aspects of mental health are not known. Negative psychological effects from exercise have also been reported. Recommendations for further research on the effects of physical activity and exercise on mental health are made. PMID:3920718

  15. The Practical Application of Exercise Training Principles in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Clement, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    As millions of Canadians take the message of Participaction to heart, family physicians are asked a multitude of questions about exercise. It can be viewed as a pharmacological agent: dosage, frequency, host response, side effects and sensitivities should be considered in the design of an exercise program. Complications of exercise result in overuse injury to muscle, tendon and bone. Important etiological areas involve training, biomechanical features and footwear. Adequate recovery from a training stimulus is necessary for physiological adaptation. Warm up, flexibility, and dosage of exercise need special consideration. Compensatory activity caused by genu varum and pes planus may be reduced by the use of orthotic devices. Study of the wear pattern of the running shoe may reveal clues about biomechanical alignment. The physician's direct practical guidance will minimize complications, as will proper design of the exercise program and selection of appropriate equipment. PMID:21286100

  16. Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on exercise-induced transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes

    PubMed Central

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Keller, Charlotte; Steensberg, Adam; Wulff Helge, Jørn; Klarlund Pedersen, Bente; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P Darrell

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise to lower muscle glycogen content in one leg and then, the following day, completed 2.5 h low intensity two-legged cycling exercise. Nuclei and mRNA were isolated from biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the control and reduced glycogen (pre-exercise glycogen = 609 ± 47 and 337 ± 33 mmol kg?1 dry weight, respectively) legs before and after 0, 2 and 5 h of recovery. Exercise induced a significant (P < 0.05) increase (2- to 3-fold) in transcription of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) genes in the reduced glycogen leg only. Although PDK4, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA were elevated in the reduced glycogen leg before exercise, no consistent difference was found between the two legs in response to exercise. In a second study, six subjects completed two trials (separated by 2 weeks) consisting of 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise with either control (398 ± 52 mmol kg?1 dry weight) or low (240 ± 38 mmol kg?1 dry weight) pre-exercise muscle glycogen. Exercise induced a significantly greater increase in PDK4 transcription in the low glycogen (> 6-fold) than in the control (< 3-fold) trial. Induction of PDK4 and UCP3 mRNA in response to exercise was also signficantly higher in the low glycogen (11.4- and 3.5-fold, respectively) than in the control (5.0- and 1.7-fold, respectively) trial. These data indicate that low muscle glycogen content enhances the transcriptional activation of some metabolic genes in response to exercise, raising the possibility that signalling mechanisms sensitive to glycogen content and/or FFA availability may be linked to the transcriptional control of exercise-responsive genes. PMID:12015434

  17. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721

  18. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

  19. Exercise and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Gayda, Mathieu; Lepers, Romuald; Sosner, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Aging is a natural and complex physiological process influenced by many factors, some of which are modifiable. As the number of older individuals continues to increase, it is important to develop interventions that can be easily implemented and contribute to "successful aging". In addition to a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being, the benefits of regular exercise on mortality, and the prevention and control of chronic disease affecting both life expectancy and quality of life are well established. We summarize the benefits of regular exercise on longevity, present the current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms, and outline the main recommendations. Exercise can partially reverse the effects of the aging process on physiological functions and preserve functional reserve in the elderly. Numerous studies have shown that maintaining a minimum quantity and quality of exercise decreases the risk of death, prevents the development of certain cancers, lowers the risk of osteoporosis and increases longevity. Training programs should include exercises aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, as well as flexibility and balance. Though the benefits of physical activity appear to be directly linked to the notion of training volume and intensity, further research is required in the elderly, in order to develop more precise recommendations, bearing in mind that the main aim is to foster long-term adherence to physical activity in this growing population. PMID:23063021

  20. Exercise and Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Phu, Steven; Boersma, Derek; Duque, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    Sarcopenia is a major component of the frailty syndrome and is also a strong predictor of disability, morbidity, and mortality in older persons. Without any available pharmacological intervention to sarcopenia, non-pharmacological interventions are the only option to prevent these poor outcomes in sarcopenic patients. Among those interventions, physical activity with or without protein supplementation has demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle mass and function and in preventing disability and frailty in older persons. Additionally, to the beneficial effect of physical activity on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, a regular exercise program (3 times/wk) that includes resistance and endurance exercise training would have a major positive effect on sarcopenic muscle through improving muscle mass, strength, and function. In this review, we looked at the effect of exercise on sarcopenic frail older persons from the biological aspects of the response of the muscle to exercise to some practical aspects of exercise prescription in this high-risk population. We conclude that, although challenging, older persons should be encouraged to participate in this type of programs, which would improve not only their function and independence but also their quality of life. PMID:26071171

  1. Exercise-induced neuromuscular dysfunction under reflex conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, T; Burke, J R; Davis, J M; Durstine, J L

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe further the effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on reflex sensitivity. The subjects were eight physically active, but untrained males, between the ages of 18 and 29 years. The effects of eccentric and concentric exercise on patellar tendon reflex responses were determined. The 8 week experiment consisted of two, 5 day, test protocols with a 6 week wash-out period between test protocols. Each 5 day test protocol consisted of the following six test sessions: (1) day 1--baseline, (2) day 2 baseline, (3) day 2--immediate post-exercise, and (4-6) days 3-5: 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. On day 2, the subjects made either 100 fatiguing concentric or eccentric isotonic contractions using the right leg at 75% of the corresponding repetition maximum values. During each test session, the electromyogram (EMG) and force-time characteristics of basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses were measured. The reflex amplitudes of basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses were decreased following fatiguing concentric exercise. There were no immediate effects of fatiguing eccentric exercise on the basic and conditioned patellar tendon reflex responses, but the EMG amplitudes of these reflex responses were reduced on the days following eccentric exercise. The amount of conditioned patellar tendon reflex facilitation was decreased following the concentric exercise protocol and at 48 h post-eccentric exercise. Our conditioned reflex data suggest that post-exercise changes to the physiological mechanisms that modulate the recruitment gain of the alpha-motoneuron pool may depend upon the type of fatiguing exercise. PMID:11482545

  2. Section 6 Exercises, Problems, and Solutions Review Exercises

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Section 6 Exercises, Problems, and Solutions Review Exercises: 1. Contrast Slater type orbitals (STOs) with Gaussian type orbitals (GTOs). Exercises: 1. By expanding the molecular orbitals {k} as linear combinations of atomic orbitals {µ}, k = µ cµk µ show how the canonical Hartree-Fock (HF

  3. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

  4. The history of “Exercise Is Medicine” in ancient civilizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

  5. Voluntary Exercise Protects Heart from Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Roya; Mohaddes, Gisou; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Ghaznavi, Rana; Ghyasi, Rafigheh; Vatankhah, Amir Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oxidative stress plays a key role in the onset and development of diabetes complications. In this study, we evaluated whether voluntary exercise could alleviate oxidative stress in the heart and blood of streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats. Methods: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=7): control, exercise, diabetes and exercise + diabetes. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin in male rats. Rats in the trained groups were subjected to voluntary running wheel exercise for 6 weeks. At the end of six weeks blood and heart tissue samples were collected and used for determination of antioxidant enzymes (including SOD, GPX and CAT activities) and MDA level. Results: Exercise significantly reduced MDA levels both in the heart tissue (p<0.01) and blood samples (p<0.05). In addition, exercise significantly increased SOD (p<0.05), GPX (p<0.001) and CAT (p<0.05) in the heart tissue. Voluntary exercise also significantly increased SOD (p<0.01), GPX (p<0.05) and CAT (p<0.001) in the blood. Conclusion: Voluntary exercise diminishes the MDA level in blood and heart tissue of diabetic rats. It also accentuates activities of SOD, GPX and CAT. Therefore, it may be considered a useful tool for the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:26236662

  6. The history of "Exercise Is Medicine" in ancient civilizations.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Charles M

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

  7. The effects of isometric exercise types on pain and muscle activity in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23–25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity. PMID:26331136

  8. Kegel Exercises for Your Pelvic Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... strengthen the pelvic muscles, just like it takes time to improve the muscles in your arms, legs or abdomen. ... exercises can strengthen pelvic muscles. These exercises often improve bladder ... ______ times daily. I spent _____ minutes exercising. At each exercise ...

  9. Exercise Training and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Tara L.; Lloyd, Pamela G.; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12–15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50–1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking ~5 times/wk, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Pre-clinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including: improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a life style pattern, that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations, is the most desirable and beneficial. PMID:23720270

  10. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  11. Supine Lower Body Negative Pressure Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity in Male Twins during 30 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise capacity is reduced following both short and long duration exposures to microgravity. We have shown previously that supine lower body negative pressure with exercise (LBNP(sub ex) maintains upright exercise capacity in men after 5d and 15d bed rest, as a simulation of microgravity. We hypothesized that LBNP(sub ex) would protect upright exercise capacity (VO2pk) and sprint performance in eight sets of identical male twins during a 30-d bed rest. Twins within each set were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) who performed no exercise or to an exercise group (EX) who performed a 40-min interval (40-80% pre-BR VO2pk) LBNP(sub ex) (55+/-4 mmHg) exercise protocol, plus 5 min of resting LBNP, 6 d/wk. LBNP produced footward force equivalent to 1.0- 1.2 times body weight. Pre- and post-bed rest, subjects completed an upright graded exercise test to volitional fatigue and sprint test of 30.5 m. After bed rest, VO2pk was maintained in the EX subjects (-3+/-3%), but was significantly decreased in the CON subjects (-24+/-4%). Sprint time also was increased in the CON subjects (24+/-8%), but maintained in the EX group (8+/-2%). The performance of a supine, interval exercise protocol with LBNP maintains upright exercise capacity and sprint performance during 30 d of bed rest. This exercise countermeasure protocol may help prevent microgravity-induced deconditioning during long duration space flight.

  12. Weelchair exercise roller product design

    E-print Network

    Su, Benjamin W

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by bicycle training rollers, a wheelchair exercise roller (an exercise machine for the application of wheelchair users) was designed from conception of idea to alpha prototype. Background and market data was ...

  13. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Women Older Adults Military & Military Families Exercise for Stress and Anxiety The physical benefits of exercise — improving ... University Press, 2011) Fitness Tips: Stay Healthy, Manage Stress The most recent federal guidelines for adults recommend ...

  14. Exercise to Improve Your Balance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercise to Improve Your Balance Having good balance is important for many everyday activities, such as ... fracture of the arm, hand, ankle, or hip. Balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid ...

  15. Why You Need Flexibility Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  16. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Post-Surgery Diet Post-Surgery Exercise How are diet & exercise affected? It is very difficult for pancreatic ... fatigued. Pancan.org has published a very informative Diet and Nutrition booklet. You can review this booklet ...

  17. Exercise and training in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, N J; van Herwaarden, C L; Folgering, H; Binkhorst, R A

    1988-09-01

    Exercise protocols and training are used more and more in diagnostic procedures and as a tool in improving physical, social and psychological functioning in chronic obstructive lung disease patients. Before starting a training programme in chronic obstructive lung disease patients, one should exclude ventilatory-limited patients from the group. A maximal ergometer test with arterial blood samples or pulse oximetry must be performed. In mild forms of chronic obstructive lung disease with no ventilatory insufficiency demonstrable with exercise testing, the patient can be trained with no restrictions. Endurance training is permitted. It should be noted that it is possible to train the muscular and cardiovascular system up to a new, possible ventilatory maximum. In severe chronic obstructive lung disease endurance training is accompanied by hypoxia, with an associated risk of rhythm disturbances and right heart failure. Training with supplemental oxygen can reduce this risk, but should be done only under close medical supervision. In very severe chronic obstructive lung disease, when endurance training is only marginally possible even with supplemental oxygen, suppleness, coordination and relaxation exercises should be emphasised in rehabilitation programmes. Postural exercises and breathing control exercises can also give great subjective improvements in this often very disabled group of patients. Furthermore they can reduce fear and panic when dyspnoea occurs. Training of the respiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease must be regarded as an experimental therapy. The clinical importance remains uncertain. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction should not limit exercises or training, provided it is treated correctly. PMID:3055147

  18. Go4Life, an exercise and physical activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging at NIH, is designed to help older adults fit exercise and physical activity into their daily life. Motivating older adults to become physically

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Stephen José

    4Life offers exercises, motivational tips, and free resources to help older adults get ready, start not start to be more physically active? How Exercise Can Help You Exercise and physical activity are good. Mixing it up also helps to reduce boredom and cut your risk of injury. #12;2015 Volume 27 Issue 3 http

  19. Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential of exercise to positively influence so many physical and psychosocial domains, the Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program was developed to address the multiple impairments arising from the chronic health condition of stroke. We present the details of this exercise program and the evidence which has shown that the FAME Program can improve motor function (muscle strength, balance, walking), cardiovascular fitness, bone density, executive functions and memory. The FAME Program can help to improve the physical and cognitive abilities of people living with a stroke and reduce the risk of secondary complications such as falls, fractures and heart disease. PMID:22287825

  20. Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A. (editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (editor)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

  1. Exercise and Fluid Balance Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…

  2. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano Review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation Find with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano

  3. Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Solomon Zegeye s ­ Exercise Session 3­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, S.K. Zegeye Lyapunov Stability Check Consider the continuous anything about the stability of the system. ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 3­ sc4026 1 #12

  4. NISTIR 7340 NIST Intercomparison Exercise

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7340 NIST Intercomparison Exercise Program for Organic Contaminants in the Marine Environment: Description and Results of 2005 Organic Intercomparison Exercises Michele M. Schantz John R Exercises Michele M. Schantz, John R. Kucklick,1 Reenie M. Parris, Dianne L. Poster, and Stephen A. Wise

  5. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Jacopo Antonello j ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, J. Antonello Review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, J. Antonello

  6. Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Marco Forgione m ­ Exercise Session 3 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, M. Forgione Linearization Example In the following diagram, we.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 3 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, M. Forgione · x, horizontal position

  7. Exercise Session 6 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 6 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 20, 2011 ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 6 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Integral Control Consider the simple

  8. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a ­ Exercise Session 2­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Basic review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation 5 Do similarly with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2­ sc4026 1

  9. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Properties of the matrix exponential Show, by using/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Review of Eigenvalues

  10. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 8, 2009 ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Linear Quadratic Regulator, in Theory Consider

  11. Exercise Session 6 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 6 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p.stano@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 14, 2010 ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session ­ Exercise Session 6 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano Integral Control Consider the simple first-order model

  12. Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p ­ Exercise Session 3 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano Linearization Example In the following diagram, we have.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 3 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano · x, horizontal position

  13. The Role of Macronutrients in Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Christopher M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role of macronutrients in exercise, examining research pertaining to exercise intensity, exercise duration, macronutrient intake, and mode of exercise as they pertain to both athletes and recreational exercisers. The paper explains that coaches and trainers must interpret and apply research findings to individual exercisers,…

  14. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  15. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  16. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  17. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shashi K

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC) wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one’s strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

  18. Exercising after Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tone. Low-impact aerobics is great for increasing heart and respiratory rates, which helps keep vital organs healthy. General activity, like washing the car or working in the garden, can help women stay active when exercise isn’t an option. “Any activity is better ...

  19. Interdisciplinary Exercises in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastonguay, Paul R.

    1975-01-01

    Lists a series of thought questions to stimulate a student to undertake his own interdisciplinary exercises to correlate his learnings in his own way. The statements are designed to challenge the mind, in order to develop a personal framework on topics such as life, the meaning of man, and the evolution and bondage of social structure. (BR)

  20. Exercises in Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, William J.; And Others

    The 35 exercises presented in this paper have been designed to simulate real-life experiences involving the process of persuasion and to enhance understanding of the persuasive process. Among the aspects of the persuasive process dealt with are the identification of persuasive events, emotive language, language intensity, source credibility,…

  1. Exercise Tips for Travelers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the sample Go4Life workout you can do any time, anywhere. Download the Tip Sheet Exercise Tips for Travelers (PDF, 343.39 KB) You Might Also Like Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals Making Your Fitness Center Comfortable for Members ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. About Go4Life Policies & Disclaimer Download Acrobat Reader ...

  2. The Business Controversy Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Clive

    2001-01-01

    Describes an exercise used in business communication courses that uses controversial business news to provoke discussion and build critical thinking as well as help students to develop writing and speaking skills as they prepare to face the communications implications of workplace controversies and crises. (SR)

  3. Inspiring Exercises for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Tzee-Char

    1999-01-01

    Inspiring exercises are used to guide students at all levels to rediscover the essential meaning of various individual pieces of mathematics. Presents five sets of examples including Abel's identity, Hensel's lemma, finitely generated Abelian groups, Baire's category theorem, and the Weierstrass preparation theorem. (Author/ASK)

  4. Exercises in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Danny

    1991-01-01

    Presents three exercises that deal with issues in communication: (1) icebreaking techniques for seminar groups, including individual, pair, and small group formats; (2) a workshop that stresses cooperative groupwork, including competitive teams; and (3) a workshop that encourages assertiveness in learning situations and discusses submissiveness,…

  5. Exercise for Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an hour of physical activity every day. Regular exercise helps children Feel less stressed Feel better about themselves Feel more ready to learn in school Keep a healthy weight Build and keep healthy bones, muscles and joints Sleep better at night As kids spend more time ...

  6. Chronic exercise ameliorates the neuroinflammation in mice carrying NSE/htau23

    SciTech Connect

    Leem, Yea-Hyun; Lee, Young-Ik; Son, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} The progress of neurodegeration are directly linked to the neuroinflammatory response. {yields} We investigate whether exercise improves the neuroinflammation using T{sub g}-NSE/htau23 mice. {yields} This provides insights that exercise may beneficial effects on the neuroinflammatory disorders. -- Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether chronic endurance exercise attenuates the neuroinflammation in the brain of mice with NSE/htau23. In this study, the tau-transgenic (Tg) mouse, Tg-NSE/htau23, which over expresses human Tau23 in its brain, was subjected to chronic exercise for 3 months, from 16 months of age. The brains of Tg mice exhibited increased immunoreactivity and active morphological changes in GFAP (astrocyte marker) and MAC-1 (microglia marker) expression in an age-dependent manner. To identify the effects of chronic exercise on gliosis, the exercised Tg mice groups were treadmill run at a speed of 12 m/min (intermediate exercise group) or 19 m/min (high exercise group) for 1 h/day and 5 days/week during the 3 month period. The neuroinflammatory response characterized by activated astroglia and microglia was significantly repressed in the exercised Tg mice in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. In parallel, chronic exercise in Tg mice reduced the increased expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-6, IL-1{beta}, COX-2, and iNOS. Consistently with these changes, the levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-ERK were markedly downregulated in the brain of Tg mice after exercise. In addition, nuclear NF-{kappa}B activity was profoundly reduced after chronic exercise in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. These findings suggest that chronic endurance exercise may alleviate neuroinflammation in the Tau pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  8. Molecular effects of exercise in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Ingrid E; Nader, Gustavo A

    2008-11-01

    Exercise is now known to be beneficial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, exercise can improve physical performance, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, and reduce disease activity and systemic inflammation, as evidenced by reductions in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and other systemic markers of inflammation. Similar effects on physical performance and cardiorespiratory fitness have been observed in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Improved muscle performance in these patients is associated with an increased ratio of type I : type II muscle fibers and increased cross-sectional area of type II muscle fibers, suggesting that myositis-affected muscle retains the ability to respond to exercise. In addition, resistance exercise training can reduce the expression of genes involved in inflammation and fibrosis in patients with myositis, and in vitro mechanical loading of chondrocytes can suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that exercise can also reduce inflammation in the local tissue environment. Further studies of the systemic and local responses underlying exercise-associated improvement in muscle performance, soft tissue integrity and health outcomes are warranted. PMID:18839010

  9. Low Intensity Exercise Training Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Potential

    PubMed Central

    Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester S.; Mancinelli, Rosa; Doria, Christian; Rotini, Alessio; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Fulle, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l.) improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women. Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (mi)RNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206). Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12–67%), although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  10. Are There Deleterious Cardiac Effects of Acute and Chronic Endurance Exercise?

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Fernandez, Antonio B; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies document that habitual physical activity reduces the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and most demonstrate progressively lower rates of ASCVD with progressively more physical activity. Few studies have included individuals performing high-intensity, lifelong endurance exercise, however, and recent reports suggest that prodigious amounts of exercise may increase markers for, and even the incidence of, cardiovascular disease. This review examines the evidence that extremes of endurance exercise may increase cardiovascular disease risk by reviewing the causes and incidence of exercise-related cardiac events, and the acute effects of exercise on cardiovascular function, the effect of exercise on cardiac biomarkers, including "myocardial" creatine kinase, cardiac troponins, and cardiac natriuretic peptides. This review also examines the effect of exercise on coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, the frequency of atrial fibrillation in aging athletes, and the possibility that exercise may be deleterious in individuals genetically predisposed to such cardiac abnormalities as long QT syndrome, right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review is to our knowledge unique because it addresses all known potentially adverse cardiovascular effects of endurance exercise. The best evidence remains that physical activity and exercise training benefit the population, but it is possible that prolonged exercise and exercise training can adversely affect cardiac function in some individuals. This hypothesis warrants further examination. PMID:26607287

  11. Conditional disruption of miR17-92 cluster in collagen type I-producing osteoblasts results in reduced periosteal bone formation and bone anabolic response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Subburaman; Wergedal, Jon E; Das, Subhashri; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of the microRNA (miR)17-92 cluster in osteoblast lineage cells using a Cre-loxP approach in which Cre expression is driven by the entire regulatory region of the type I collagen ?2 gene. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice showed a 13-34% reduction in total body bone mineral content and area with little or no change in bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA at 2, 4, and 8 wk in both sexes. Micro-CT analyses of the femur revealed an 8% reduction in length and 25-27% reduction in total volume at the diaphyseal and metaphyseal sites. Neither cortical nor trabecular volumetric BMD was different in the cKO mice. Bone strength (maximum load) was reduced by 10% with no change in bone toughness. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses revealed a 28% reduction in the periosteal bone formation rate and in the mineral apposition rate but with no change in the resorbing surface. Expression levels of periostin, Elk3, Runx2 genes that are targeted by miRs from the cluster were decreased by 25-30% in the bones of cKO mice. To determine the contribution of the miR17-92 cluster to the mechanical strain effect on periosteal bone formation, we subjected cKO and control mice to 2 wk of mechanical loading by four-point bending. We found that the periosteal bone response to mechanical strain was significantly reduced in the cKO mice. We conclude that the miR17-92 cluster expressed in type I collagen-producing cells is a key regulator of periosteal bone formation in mice. PMID:25492928

  12. Upright exercise or supine lower body negative pressure exercise maintains exercise responses after bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Ford, S. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Adaptation to bed rest or space flight is accompanied by an impaired ability to exercise in an upright position. We hypothesized that a daily, 30-min bout of intense, interval exercise in upright posture or supine against lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would maintain upright exercise heart rate and respiratory responses after bed rest. Twenty-four men (31 +/- 3 yr) underwent 5 d of 6 degree head-down tilt: eight performed no exercise (CON), eight performed upright treadmill exercise (UPex), and eight performed supine treadmill exercise against LBNP at -51.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg (LBNPex). Submaximal treadmill exercise responses (56, 74, and 85% of VO2peak) were measured pre- and post-bed rest. In CON, submaximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and ventilation were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) after bed rest. In UPex and LBNPex, submaximal exercise responses were similar pre- and post-bed rest. Our results indicate that a daily 30-min bout of intense, interval upright exercise training or supine exercise training against LBNP is sufficient to maintain upright exercise responses after 5 d of bed rest. These results may have important implications for the development of exercise countermeasures during space flight.

  13. Intense exercise training and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Williams, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Regular moderate exercise reduces the risk of infection compared with a sedentary lifestyle, but very prolonged bouts of exercise and periods of intensified training are associated with increased infection risk. In athletes, a common observation is that symptoms of respiratory infection cluster around competitions, and even minor illnesses such as colds can impair exercise performance. There are several behavioral, nutritional and training strategies that can be adopted to limit exercise-induced immunodepression and minimize the risk of infection. Athletes and support staff can avoid transmitting infections by avoiding close contact with those showing symptoms of infection, by practicing good hand, oral and food hygiene and by avoiding sharing drinks bottles and cutlery. Medical staff should consider appropriate immunization for their athletes particularly when travelling to international competitions. The impact of intensive training stress on immune function can be minimized by getting adequate sleep, minimizing psychological stress, avoiding periods of dietary energy restriction, consuming a well-balanced diet that meets energy and protein needs, avoiding deficiencies of micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12), ingesting carbohydrate during prolonged training sessions, and consuming - on a daily basis - plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs and Lactobacillus probiotics. PMID:23899753

  14. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management procedures.

  15. Central and peripheral hemodynamics in exercising humans: leg vs arm exercise.

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; González-Alonso, J; Helge, J W; Søndergaard, H; Munch-Andersen, T; Saltin, B; Boushel, R

    2015-12-01

    In humans, arm exercise is known to elicit larger increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) than leg exercise. However, the precise regulation of regional vascular conductances (VC) for the distribution of cardiac output with exercise intensity remains unknown. Hemodynamic responses were assessed during incremental upright arm cranking (AC) and leg pedalling (LP) to exhaustion (Wmax ) in nine males. Systemic VC, peak cardiac output (Qpeak ) (indocyanine green) and stroke volume (SV) were 18%, 23%, and 20% lower during AC than LP. The mean BP, the rate-pressure product and the associated myocardial oxygen demand were 22%, 12%, and 14% higher, respectively, during maximal AC than LP. Trunk VC was reduced to similar values at Wmax . At Wmax , muscle mass-normalized VC and fractional O2 extraction were lower in the arm than the leg muscles. However, this was compensated for during AC by raising perfusion pressure to increase O2 delivery, allowing a similar peak VO2 per kg of muscle mass in both extremities. In summary, despite a lower Qpeak during arm cranking the cardiovascular strain is much higher than during leg pedalling. The adjustments of regional conductances during incremental exercise to exhaustion depend mostly on the relative intensity of exercise and are limb-specific. PMID:26589128

  16. Increased atrial arrhythmia susceptibility induced by intense endurance exercise in mice requires TNF?.

    PubMed

    Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh; Izaddoustdar, Farzad; Korogyi, Adam S; Wang, Qiongling; Farman, Gerrie P; Yang, FengHua; Yang, Wallace; Dorian, David; Simpson, Jeremy A; Tuomi, Jari M; Jones, Douglas L; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Cox, Brian; Wehrens, Xander H T; Dorian, Paul; Backx, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia that, for unknown reasons, is linked to intense endurance exercise. Our studies reveal that 6 weeks of swimming or treadmill exercise improves heart pump function and reduces heart-rates. Exercise also increases vulnerability to AF in association with inflammation, fibrosis, increased vagal tone, slowed conduction velocity, prolonged cardiomyocyte action potentials and RyR2 phosphorylation (CamKII-dependent S2814) in the atria, without corresponding alterations in the ventricles. Microarray results suggest the involvement of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF?, in exercised-induced atrial remodelling. Accordingly, exercise induces TNF?-dependent activation of both NF?B and p38MAPK, while TNF? inhibition (with etanercept), TNF? gene ablation, or p38 inhibition, prevents atrial structural remodelling and AF vulnerability in response to exercise, without affecting the beneficial physiological changes. Our results identify TNF? as a key factor in the pathology of intense exercise-induced AF. PMID:25598495

  17. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  18. Exercise for tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathies are one of the most common sports/musculoskeletal injury in modern western societies. Many physiotherapy approaches have been recommended in the literature for the management of tendinopathy. The most effective treatment in the management of tendinopathy is the eccentric training. Load, speed and frequency of contractions are the three principles of eccentric exercises, discussed in this report. However, eccentric training is not effective for all patients with tendinopathy and the effectiveness of this approach when applied as monotherapy is lower than it is applied as part of the rehabilitation process. For this reason, clinicians combine eccentric training with other physiotherapy techniques such as stretching, isometric and lumbar stability exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy, soft tissue manipulation techniques, taping and acupuncture in the management of tendinopathies. Further research is needed to find out which treatment strategy combined with eccentric training will provide the best results in the rehabilitation of tendinopathy. PMID:26140271

  19. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  20. A review of exercise as intervention for sedentary hazardous drinking college students: rationale and issues.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity-exercise-as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that students who engage in exercise regularly are less likely to drink heavily. However, the adherence to exercise necessary to achieve these benefits and possibly reduce drinking is poor, and improved exercise adherence interventions are needed. A novel combination of motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management is discussed as a means to address the critical issue of exercise adherence. PMID:20452930

  1. Effect of exercise on postprandial endothelial function in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Matthew J; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E; Tolfrey, Keith; Nevill, Alan; Barrett, Laura A

    2013-07-28

    The ingestion of high-fat meals induces a state of endothelial dysfunction in adults. This dysfunction is attenuated by prior exercise. The response of young people to these nutritional and physiological stressors has not been established. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if a bout of moderate-intensity exercise influenced endothelial function (as indicated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD)) following the ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch in adolescent boys (aged 12·6-14·3 years). Two, 2 d main trials (control and exercise) were completed by thirteen adolescent boys in a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Participants were inactive on day 1 of the control trial, but completed 60 min of walking at 60 % peak oxygen uptake in the exercise trial. On day 2, endothelial function was assessed via FMD prior to, and following, ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch. There was no difference in fasting FMD between the control and exercise trial (P= 0·449). In the control trial, FMD was reduced by 32 % following consumption of the high-fat breakfast and by 24 % following lunch. In the exercise trial, the corresponding reductions were 6 and 10 %, respectively (main effect trial, P= 0·002). These results demonstrate that moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate the decline in FMD seen following the consumption of high-fat meals in adolescent boys. PMID:23218136

  2. Computational Modeling of Pathophysiologic Responses to Exercise in Fontan Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Ethan; Perry, James C.; Davis, Christopher; Migliavacca, Francesco; Pennati, Giancarlo; Giardini, Alessandro; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Marsden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Reduced exercise capacity is nearly universal among Fontan patients. Although many factors have emerged as possible contributors, the degree to which each impacts the overall hemodynamics is largely unknown. Computational modeling provides a means to test hypotheses of causes of exercise intolerance via precisely controlled virtual experiments and measurements. We quantified the physiological impacts of commonly encountered, clinically relevant dysfunctions introduced to the exercising Fontan system via a previously developed lumped-parameter model of Fontan exercise. Elevated pulmonary arterial pressure was observed in all cases of dysfunction, correlated with lowered cardiac output, and often mediated by elevated atrial pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance was not the most significant factor affecting exercise performance as measured by cardiac output. In the absence of other dysfunctions, atrioventricular valve insufficiency alone had significant physiological impact, especially under exercise demands. The impact of isolated dysfunctions can be linearly summed to approximate the combined impact of several dysfunctions occurring in the same system. A single dominant cause of exercise intolerance was not identified, though several hypothesized dysfunctions each led to variable decreases in performance. Computational predictions of performance improvement associated with various interventions should be weighed against procedural risks and potential complications, contributing to improvements in routine patient management protocol. PMID:25260878

  3. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  4. Crosstalk between exercise and galanin system alleviates insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2015-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise can enhance insulin sensitivity, however, the precise mechanism for this outcome is not entirely identified. Emerging evidences point out that exercise can upregulate galanin protein and mRNA expression, resulting in improvement of insulin sensitivity via an increase in translocation of glucose transporter 4 and subsequent glucose uptake in myocytes and adipocytes of healthy and type 2 diabetic rats, which may be blocked by galanin antagonist. In return, galanin can exert the exercise-protective roles to prevent excessive movement of skeletal muscle and to accelerate exercise trauma repair in exercise-relative tissues. Studies also implicated that combination of aerobic exercise and activation of galanin system may make more significant improvement in insulin sensitivity than that of either one did. These suggest that galanin system is essential for physical activity to alleviate insulin resistance, namely, the beneficial effect of physical activity on glucose uptake is at least partly mediated by galanin system. Besides, co-treatment with galanin and exercise is an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing insulin resistance. PMID:26542124

  5. Physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bettany-Saltikov, J; Parent, E; Romano, M; Villagrasa, M; Negrini, S

    2014-02-01

    The use of exercises for the treatment of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis is controversial. Whilst exercises are routinely used in a number of central and southern European countries, most centres in the rest of the world (mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries), do not advocate its use. One of the reasons for this is that many health care professionals are usually not conversant with the differences between generalised physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic scoliosis-specific exercises (PSSE): while the former are generic exercises usually consisting of low-impact stretching and strengthening activities like yoga, Pilates and the Alexander technique, PSSE consist of a program of curve-specific exercise protocols which are individually adapted to a patients' curve site, magnitude and clinical characteristics. PSSEs are performed with the therapeutic aim of reducing the deformity and preventing its progression. It also aims to stabilise the improvements achieved with the ultimate goal of limiting the need for corrective braces or the necessity of surgery. This paper introduces the different 'Schools' and approaches of PSSE currently practiced (Scientific Exercise Approach to Scoliosis - SEAS, Schroth, Barcelona Scoliosis Physical Therapy School - BSPTS, Dobomed, Side Shift, Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis - FITS and Lyon) and discusses their commonalities and differences. PMID:24525556

  6. Effect of nebulised salbutamol on maximal exercise performance in men with mild asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, W; Packe, G E; Cayton, R M

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 5 mg nebulised salbutamol on the cardiorespiratory responses to a progressive maximal exercise test was investigated in eight asthmatic (mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 3.48 (1.0) litres) and eight non-asthmatic men. Exercise tests were performed on a bicycle ergometer after administration of nebulised salbutamol or matched saline placebo. In the asthmatic subjects salbutamol increased the resting FEV1 by 11%. The mean (SD) percentage fall in FEV1 after exercise did not change significantly (salbutamol 9.4 (12.8); placebo 15.0 (8.0], but because the FEV1 before exercise was increased the lowest FEV1 after exercise was also significantly higher after salbutamol than placebo (3.60 (1.13) v 2.85 (0.80) litres). Despite the improvement in FEV1 before exercise there was no significant difference in maximal workload, oxygen uptake, heart rate, or ventilation during exercise after salbutamol compared with placebo in the asthmatic patients. Tidal volume was higher at maximal exercise after salbutamol but there was no change in perception of breathlessness or exertion in the asthmatic subjects. During submaximal progressive exercise the perceived rate of exertion was reduced in the asthmatic patients and oxygen pulse was reduced in both groups owing to a small and non-significant increase in heart rate. The FEV1 and cardiorespiratory response to the progressive maximal exercise test in the non-asthmatic subjects were otherwise unchanged after salbutamol. The results suggest that 5 mg nebulised salbutamol has little effect on the cardiorespiratory responses to progressive maximal exercise in patients with mild asthma and in non-asthmatic subjects. Salbutamol in this dose may reduce the severity of exercise induced asthma, but no ergogenic effect on maximal exercise performance was shown. PMID:2595636

  7. Brain glycogen decreases during prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2011-07-01

    Brain glycogen could be a critical energy source for brain activity when the glucose supply from the blood is inadequate (hypoglycaemia). Although untested, it is hypothesized that during prolonged exhaustive exercise that induces hypoglycaemia and muscular glycogen depletion, the resultant hypoglycaemia may cause a decrease in brain glycogen. Here,we tested this hypothesis and also investigated the possible involvement of brain monoamines with the reduced levels of brain glycogen. For this purpose,we exercised male Wistar rats on a treadmill for different durations (30-120 min) at moderate intensity (20 m min?¹) and measured their brain glycogen levels using high-power microwave irradiation (10 kW). At the end of 30 and 60 min of running, the brain glycogen levels remained unchanged from resting levels, but liver and muscle glycogen decreased. After 120 min of running, the glycogen levels decreased significantly by ?37-60% in five discrete brain loci (the cerebellum 60%, cortex 48%, hippocampus 43%, brainstem 37% and hypothalamus 34%) compared to those of the sedentary control. The brain glycogen levels in all five regions after running were positively correlated with the respective blood and brain glucose levels. Further, in the cortex, the levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), potential involved in degradation of the brain glycogen, increased during prolonged exercise and negatively correlated with the glycogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that brain glycogen could decrease with prolonged exhaustive exercise. Increased monoamines together with hypoglycaemia should be associated with the development of decreased brain glycogen, suggesting a new clue towards the understanding of central fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:21521757

  8. Nutritional Support for Exercise-Induced Injuries.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Kevin D

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition is one method to counter the negative impact of an exercise-induced injury. Deficiencies of energy, protein and other nutrients should be avoided. Claims for the effectiveness of many other nutrients following injuries are rampant, but the evidence is equivocal. The results of an exercise-induced injury may vary widely depending on the nature of the injury and severity. Injuries typically result in cessation, or at least a reduction, in participation in sport and decreased physical activity. Limb immobility may be necessary with some injuries, contributing to reduced activity and training. Following an injury, an inflammatory response is initiated and while excess inflammation may be harmful, given the importance of the inflammatory process for wound healing, attempting to drastically reduce inflammation may not be ideal for optimal recovery. Injuries severe enough for immobilization of a limb result in loss of muscle mass and reduced muscle strength and function. Loss of muscle results from reductions in basal muscle protein synthesis and the resistance of muscle to anabolic stimulation. Energy balance is critical. Higher protein intakes (2-2.5 g/kg/day) seem to be warranted during immobilization. At the very least, care should be taken not to reduce the absolute amount of protein intake when energy intake is reduced. There is promising, albeit preliminary, evidence for the use of omega-3 fatty acids and creatine to counter muscle loss and enhance hypertrophy, respectively. The overriding nutritional recommendation for injured exercisers should be to consume a well-balanced diet based on whole, minimally processed foods or ingredients made from whole foods. The diet composition should be carefully assessed and changes considered as the injury heals and activity patterns change. PMID:26553492

  9. The accumulation of exercise and postprandial endothelial function in boys.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, M J; Morris, J G; Nevill, M E; Barrett, L A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of accumulating 60?min of exercise on endothelial function and triacylglycerol concentrations following the ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch in 14 adolescent boys (aged 12 to 14 years). Two, 2-day main trials (control and exercise) were completed in a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Participants were inactive on day 1 of the control trial but on day 1 of the exercise trial completed 6?×?10?min runs at 70% of peak oxygen uptake, spread over the day. On day 2, triacylglycerol concentrations and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were measured prior to, and following, ingestion of the high-fat meals. In the control trial, FMD was reduced by 30% and 33% (P?exercise these reductions were negated (main effect trial, P?=?0.002, interaction effect trial × time, P?reduced by 11% and 16% in the exercise trial; however, these differences were not significant (P?>?0.05). These results support the concept of accumulating physical activity for health in adolescents as the accumulated exercise attenuated the decline in FMD seen following the consumption of high-fat meals. PMID:23944355

  10. Stress reactivity and exercise training in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, J A; Fredrikson, M; Matthews, K A; Kuhn, C M; Schniebolk, S; German, D; Rifai, N; Steege, J; Rodin, J

    1991-01-01

    Examined the influence of ovarian function on psychophysiological stress responses and determined if aerobic exercise reduced stress reactivity. Fifty premenopausal and postmenopausal women initially were subjected to a public speaking task and an ice-on-the-forehead procedure, during which time their blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and continuous blood samples were obtained. Subjects also underwent aerobic fitness evaluations with a maximum-exercise treadmill test. Subjects were then randomly assigned to a 12-week exercise program of either aerobic exercise (e.g., walking and jogging at a prescribed exercise intensity) or non-aerobic strength and flexibility training and were then reevaluated. Results indicated that postmenopausal women exhibited lower resting epinephrine levels but greater epinephrine reactivity to the speaking task compared to the premenopausal women. There were no differences between premenopausal and postmenopausal women with respect to cardiovascular or catecholamine responses during the cold challenge. Premenopausal and postmenopausal women also achieved comparable improvements in aerobic fitness. However, results of the mental stress testing were complex and provided only partial support for the role of aerobic exercise in reducing stress responses. PMID:1765033

  11. Exercise awareness and barriers after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program as well as the factors that may mask the outcomes of regular exercise regimen need to be continuously addressed as a part of patients’ rehabilitation care. The focus of this editorial is to encourage the medical community to consider routine physical activity as one of the necessary vital signs that needs to be routinely checked in patients with SCI. Providing education tips, nutritional counseling and engaging in recreational programs may provide motivational route to the community of SCI. This may result in reinforcing active lifestyle in survivors with SCI as well as to reduce the impact of chronic life threatening medical disorders. PMID:25035817

  12. Exercise awareness and barriers after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2014-07-18

    Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program as well as the factors that may mask the outcomes of regular exercise regimen need to be continuously addressed as a part of patients' rehabilitation care. The focus of this editorial is to encourage the medical community to consider routine physical activity as one of the necessary vital signs that needs to be routinely checked in patients with SCI. Providing education tips, nutritional counseling and engaging in recreational programs may provide motivational route to the community of SCI. This may result in reinforcing active lifestyle in survivors with SCI as well as to reduce the impact of chronic life threatening medical disorders. PMID:25035817

  13. The BASES Expert Statement on use of music in exercise.

    PubMed

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Terry, Peter C; Lane, Andrew M; Bishop, Daniel T; Priest, David-lee

    2012-05-01

    The use of music during exercise has become ubiquitous over the past two decades and is now supported by a burgeoning body of research detailing its effects and the contingencies surrounding its use. The purpose of this statement is to present a synopsis of the body of knowledge, with selected references, and to provide practical recommendations for exercise practitioners regarding music selection. Following the identification of methodological shortcomings in early studies, researchers have been guided by new conceptual frameworks, and have produced more consistent findings as a consequence. The use of music has been found to yield ergogenic effects in the exercise domain while also promoting psychological (e.g. enhanced affect) and psychophysical (reduced ratings of perceived exertion) benefits. There is a paucity of research examining the longitudinal effects of music on key outcome variables such as exercise adherence. PMID:22512537

  14. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Stein, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress. PMID:12441602

  15. Exercise and relaxation in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1997-04-01

    The growing size of world cities and ever more competitive working conditions are thought to cause subjective stress, anxiety and depression, with a resulting decrease in the quality of life, sleep disturbances, drug and alcohol abuse and poor productivity. Acute stress may suppress immune function, leading to an increased incidence of infections, and chronic stress may predispose to a number of ailments, including digestive disturbances, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and neoplasia; jointly, these factors cause a substantial shortening of life expectancy. The control of stress thus makes an important contribution to health. Stress levels can be reduced by anxiolytic drugs, or by a variety of psychological techniques; however, an appropriate programme of physical activity may be the preferred option, since exercise has many positive effects on health that are unrelated to stress. If exercise is to be effective in inducing relaxation, it must be noncompetitive, moderate in intensity, and pursued in pleasant surroundings. PMID:9160478

  16. Core strengthening exercises for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Baerga-Varela, Luis; Abréu Ramos, Antonio M

    2006-01-01

    Core strengthening concepts have gained increased popularity in low back rehabilitation. Traditional low back pain rehabilitation is based on a static spine stability model and is composed mostly of modalities, stretching and strengthening exercises. More recent theories, however, include newer concepts of dynamic spinal stability, coordination and neuromuscular control. Core strengthening exercises incorporate these new concepts. Although more research is necessary, the best available evidence suggests that a core strengthening program may be beneficial in reducing pain scores, functional disability and recurrences of acute low back pain episodes. This article reviews "core" anatomy, physiologic models of spinal stability, effects, of low back pain on spinal stability, evidence-based reasoning behind core strengthening and the basic concepts involved in designing a core strengthening program. PMID:19610550

  17. Nitric oxide and exercise in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, P C; Marlin, D J; Demoncheaux, E; Scott, C; Casas, I; Smith, N C; Higenbottam, T

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of exercise on the production rate of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air (VNO) and the effects of inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were investigated in five Throughbred horses. 2. The concentration of NO ([NO]) in exhaled air collected from within the nasal opening was lower when collected at a high flow rate of 80 l min-1 than at a low flow rate of 20 l min-1: when trotting at 3.7 m s-1 the values were 0.78 +/- 0.15 and 1.23 +/- 9.14 p.p.b., respectively, and when cantering at 9 m s-1 the values were 1.69 +/- 0.31 and 2.25 +/- 0.32 p.p.b., respectively. 3. Nebulized methoxamine (40 mg ml-1 for 60 s), an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, further reduced [NO] during the 9 m s-1 canter to 1.05 +/- 0.14 and 1.99 +/- 0.41 p.p.b. when collected at 80 and 20 l min-1, respectively, and induced cyclical changes in the breathing pattern. 4. Exercise induced a linear increase in VNO with work intensity to a maximum (428.1 +/- 31.6 pmol min-1 kg-1) which coincided with the maximal oxygen uptake for the horses (138.3 +/- 11.7 ml min-1 kg-1), although a further increase in VNO (779.3 +/- 38.4 pmol min-1 kg-1) occurred immediately after exercise. The changes in VNO correlated well with the tidal volume (r = 0.968; P < 0.01) and the haematocrit (r = 0.855; P < 0.01). 5. In the first 2 min of high intensity exercise, inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the pulmonary artery pressure: during the first minute, pulmonary artery pressure was 83.1 +/- 7.6 mmHg compared with a control value of 94.4 +/- 6.3 mmHg, and during the second minute, 84.2 +/- 7.1 mmHg compared with a control value of 98.4 +/- 4.7 mmHg. There were no other significant changes in cardiovascular or respiratory indices, including cardiac output, measured during exercise between control and inhaled NO tests. 6. The results show that exhaled NO is released from the airways of the horse and may contribute to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. PMID:8887788

  18. Cerebrovascular responses to submaximal exercise in women with COPD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background COPD patients have decreased physical fitness, and have an increased risk of vascular disease. In the general population, fitness is positively associated with resting cerebral blood flow velocity, however, little is known about the cerebrovascular response during exercise particularly in COPD patients. We hypothesized that COPD patients would have lower cerebral blood flow during exercise secondary to decreased physical fitness and underlying vascular disease. Methods Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was conducted in 11 women with GOLD stage I-II COPD, and 11 healthy controls to assess fitness. Cerebro- and cardio-vascular responses were compared between groups during two steady-state exercise tests (50% peak O2 consumption and 30 W). The main outcome variable was peak middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (V¯P) during exercise using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Results Physical fitness was decreased in COPD patients. V¯P was comparable between COPD and controls (25?±?22% versus 15?±?13%, respectively; P?>?0.05) when exercising at the same relative intensity, despite patients having higher blood pressure and greater arterial desaturation. However, V¯P was elevated in COPD (31?±?26% versus 13?±?10%; P???0.05) when exercising at the same workload as controls. Conclusions Our results are contradictory to our a-priori hypothesis, suggesting that during matched intensity exercise, cerebral blood flow velocity is similar between COPD and controls. However, exercise at a modestly greater workload imposes a large physical demand to COPD patients, resulting in increased CBF compared to controls. Normal activities of daily living may therefore impose a large cerebrovascular demand in COPD patients, consequently reducing their cerebrovascular reserve capacity. PMID:24898136

  19. Antioxidant supplementation during exercise training: beneficial or detrimental?

    PubMed

    Peternelj, Tina-Tinkara; Coombes, Jeff S

    2011-12-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in skeletal muscle during exercise have been associated with muscle damage and impaired muscle function. Supporting endogenous defence systems with additional oral doses of antioxidants has received much attention as a noninvasive strategy to prevent or reduce oxidative stress, decrease muscle damage and improve exercise performance. Over 150 articles have been published on this topic, with almost all of these being small-scale, low-quality studies. The consistent finding is that antioxidant supplementation attenuates exercise-induced oxidative stress. However, any physiological implications of this have yet to be consistently demonstrated, with most studies reporting no effects on exercise-induced muscle damage and performance. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates detrimental effects of antioxidant supplementation on the health and performance benefits of exercise training. Indeed, although ROS are associated with harmful biological events, they are also essential to the development and optimal function of every cell. The aim of this review is to present and discuss 23 studies that have shown that antioxidant supplementation interferes with exercise training-induced adaptations. The main findings of these studies are that, in certain situations, loading the cell with high doses of antioxidants leads to a blunting of the positive effects of exercise training and interferes with important ROS-mediated physiological processes, such as vasodilation and insulin signalling. More research is needed to produce evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of antioxidant supplementation during exercise training. We recommend that an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain the optimal antioxidant status in exercising individuals. PMID:22060178

  20. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 13, 2011 ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise, s2 = -1, s3 = -1 + j, s4 = -1 - j. ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12

  1. Exercise Session 1 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 1 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p ­ Exercise Session 1 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano State-Space Model Consider the third-order model d3q dt3. Simulate the model with Matlab. ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 1 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate

  2. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p.stano@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 7, 2010 ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session, s2 = -1, s3 = -1 + j, s4 = -1 - j. ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12

  3. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Jacopo Antonello j.antonello@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 11, 2012 ­ Ac.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise-loop eigenvalues at s1 = -1, s2 = -1, s3 = -1 + j, s4 = -1 - j. ­ Ac.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 5

  4. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  5. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  6. [Muscle enzyme activity and exercise].

    PubMed

    Gojanovic, B; Feihl, F; Gremion, G; Waeber, B

    2009-02-01

    Exercise is classically associated with muscular soreness, presenting one to two days later, delayed onset muscular soreness. Blood muscle enzymes and protein elevations are characteristic, and may cause renal failure. Creatin phosphokinase peak appears on the fourth day and depends on exercise type and individual parameters. This effect is attenuated with repeated bouts, by habituation. Metabolic complications are rare. The knowledge of this reaction, even with common exercises, allows to postpone investigations for a complex metabolic disorder, or to avoid stopping a medication for fear of a side effect, as with statins. Indeed, it is necessary to wait for seven days without any exercise before interpreting an elevated CK result. PMID:19180440

  7. Exercise Decreases Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Expression in the Spinal Cord and Positively Modulates Neuronal Growth

    PubMed Central

    GHIANI, CRISTINA A.; YING, ZHE; DE VELLIS, JEAN; GOMEZ-PINILLA, FERNANDO

    2009-01-01

    To successfully grow, neurons need to overcome the effects of hostile environments, such as the inhibitory action of myelin. We have evaluated the potential of exercise to overcome the intrinsic limitation of the central nervous system for axonal growth. In line with the demonstrated ability of exercise to increase the regenerative potential of neurons, here we show that exercise reduces the inhibitory capacity of myelin. Cortical neurons grown on myelin from exercised rats showed a more pronounced neurite extension compared with neurons grown on poly-D-lysine, or on myelin extracted from sedentary animals. The activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 5, a kinase involved in neurite outgrowth, was found to be increased in cortical neurons grown on exercise-myelin and in the lumbar spinal cord enlargement of exercised animals. Exercise significantly decreased the levels of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a potent axonal growth inhibitor, suggesting that downregulation of MAG is part of the mechanism through which exercise reduces growth inhibition. It is known that exercise elevates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) spinal cord levels and that BDNF acts to overcome the inhibitory effects of myelin. Accordingly, we blocked the action of BDNF during exercise, which suppressed the exercise-related MAG decrease. Protein kinase A (PKA) has been related to the ability of BDNF to overcome growth inhibition; in agreement, we found that exercise increased PKA levels and this effect was reverted by blocking BDNF. Overall, these results show that exercise promotes a permissive cellular environment for axonal growth in the adult spinal cord requiring BDNF action. PMID:17497667

  8. Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Damon C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An exercise device 10 is particularly well suited for use in low gravity environments, and includes a frame 12 with plurality of resistance elements 30,82 supported in parallel on the frame. A load transfer member 20 is moveable relative to the frame for transferring the applied force to the free end of each captured resistance element. Load selection template 14 is removably secured both to the load transfer member, and a plurality of capture mechanisms engage the free end of corresponding resistance elements. The force applying mechanism 53 may be a handle, harness or other user interface for applying a force to move the load transfer member.

  9. Microgravity strategic planning exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.

  10. Section 1 Exercises, Problems, and Solutions Review Exercises

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    problem, determine the probability for observing a z-component of angular momentum equal to 1hSection 1 Exercises, Problems, and Solutions Review Exercises 1. Transform (using the coordinate of degenerate eigenvalues can be made to have orthonormal eigenfunctions. 6. Solve the following second order

  11. Keeping Fit with Asta O'Donnell. An Exercise Program for Problem Backs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Asta

    An estimated 75 million people in the United States suffer from some type of back problem. Most are caused by muscle strain and improper posture. This book describes an exercise program designed to relieve muscle strain, improve and correct posture, and reduce stress and tension. The book is divided into four sections: "Warm Ups,""Basic Exercise

  12. Emotional Responsiveness after Low- and Moderate-Intensity Exercise and Seated Rest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Carson; O'Connor, Patrick J.; Crabbe, James B.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether anxiety-reducing conditions of low- and moderate-intensity cycling exercise would lead to changes in emotional responsiveness to pictures designed to elicit pleasant neutral, and unpleasant emotions among healthy female college students. Results indicated that cycling exercise resulted in decreased baseline activity of facial…

  13. Regular exercise modulates obesity factors and body composition in sturdy men.

    PubMed

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Choi, Pil-Byung

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the change and correlation between obesity factors and body composition according to regular exercise. Thirty-six sturdy men at twenty years old in 'K' university students were participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n= 18 in each group): control group and regular exercise group. Exercise program composed of three programs: warm-up (10 min), work-out (30-60 min), cool-down (10 min), and categorized by five days per week for eight weeks. Aerobic exercise using a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve was performed, and weight training was composed of nine different exercises for the large muscles. Before the performing regular exercise, there was no significant difference between control and regular exercise groups. In the present results, 8 weeks regular exercise significantly decreased leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) more than compared to before performing regular exercise, whereas significantly enhanced lean mass more than compared to before performing regular exercise. Furthermore, regular exercise group reduced leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, WHR, and BMI compared to control group in the post test. In the correlation of obesity-related factors and body composition, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) showed correlation with weight, lean mass, and fat mass after performing regular exercise. Here in this study, we suggest that regular exercise is a valuable tool for the improvement of health in the sturdy men, because regular exercise suppresses body fat and obesity-related factors. PMID:24278869

  14. Regular exercise modulates obesity factors and body composition in sturdy men

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Choi, Pil-Byung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the change and correlation between obesity factors and body composition according to regular exercise. Thirty-six sturdy men at twenty years old in ‘K’ university students were participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n= 18 in each group): control group and regular exercise group. Exercise program composed of three programs: warm-up (10 min), work-out (30–60 min), cool-down (10 min), and categorized by five days per week for eight weeks. Aerobic exercise using a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve was performed, and weight training was composed of nine different exercises for the large muscles. Before the performing regular exercise, there was no significant difference between control and regular exercise groups. In the present results, 8 weeks regular exercise significantly decreased leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) more than compared to before performing regular exercise, whereas significantly enhanced lean mass more than compared to before performing regular exercise. Furthermore, regular exercise group reduced leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, WHR, and BMI compared to control group in the post test. In the correlation of obesity-related factors and body composition, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) showed correlation with weight, lean mass, and fat mass after performing regular exercise. Here in this study, we suggest that regular exercise is a valuable tool for the improvement of health in the sturdy men, because regular exercise suppresses body fat and obesity-related factors. PMID:24278869

  15. Hydration effects on physiological strain of horses during exercise-heat stress.

    PubMed

    Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1998-06-01

    This study examined the effects of hyperhydration, exercise-induced dehydration, and oral fluid replacement on physiological strain of horses during exercise-heat stress. On three occasions, six horses completed a 90-min exercise protocol (50% maximal O2 uptake, 34.5 degrees C, 48% relative humidity) divided into two 45-min periods (exercise I and exercise II) with a 15-min recovery between exercise bouts. In random order, horses received no fluid (NF), 10 liters of water (W), or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) 2 h before exercise and between exercise bouts. Compared with NF, preexercise hyperhydration (W and CE) did not alter heart rate, cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (SV), core body temperature, sweating rate (SR), or sweating sensitivity during exercise I. In contrast, after exercise II, exercise-induced dehydration in NF (decrease in body mass: NF, 5.6 +/- 0.8%; W, 1.1 +/- 0.4%; CE, 1.0 +/- 0.2%) resulted in greater heat storage, with core body temperature approximately 1. 0 degrees C higher compared with W and CE. In exercise II, the greater thermal strain in NF was associated with significant (P < 0. 05) decreases in Q (10 +/- 2%), SV (9 +/- 3%), SR, and sweating sensitivity. We concluded that 1) preexercise hyperhydration provided no thermoregulatory advantage; 2) maintenance of euhydration by oral fluid replacement ( approximately 85% of sweat fluid loss) during exercise in the heat was reflected in higher Q, SV, and SR with decreased heat storage; and 3) W or an isotonic CE solution was equally effective in reducing physiological strain associated with exercise-induced dehydration and heat stress. PMID:9609799

  16. Aligning work and circadian time in shift workers improves sleep and reduces circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Céline; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Roenneberg, Till

    2015-03-30

    Sleep loss and circadian disruption-a state of misalignment between physiological functions and imposed sleep/wake behavior-supposedly play central roles in the etiology of shift work-related pathologies [1-4]. Circadian entrainment is, however, highly individual [5], resulting in different chronotypes [6, 7]. Chronotype in turn modulates the effects of working times: compared to late chronotypes, earlier ones sleep worse and shorter and show higher levels of circadian misalignment during night shifts, while late types experience more sleep and circadian disruption than early types when working morning shifts [8]. To promote sleep and reduce the mismatch between circadian and working time, we implemented a chronotype-adjusted (CTA) shift schedule in a factory. We abolished the most strenuous shifts for extreme chronotypes (i.e., mornings for late chronotypes, nights for early ones) and examined whether sleep duration and quality, social jetlag [9, 10], wellbeing, subjective stress perception, and satisfaction with leisure time improved in this schedule. Intermediate chronotypes (quartiles 2 and 3) served as a control group, still working morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00), and night (22:00-6:00) shifts, with two strenuous shifts (out of twelve per month) replaced by evening ones. We observed a significant increase of self-reported sleep duration and quality, along with increased wellbeing ratings on workdays among extreme chronotypes. The CTA schedule reduced overall social jetlag by 1 hr, did not alter stress levels, and increased satisfaction with leisure time (early types only). Chronotype-based schedules thus can reduce circadian disruption and improve sleep; potential long-term effects on health and economic indicators need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:25772446

  17. Exercising Your Finger After an Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to make it easier to squeeze. Exercise: Object Pick-up This exercise can improve fine motor skills, such ... or tying your shoes. To do this exercise, pick up small objects such as coins, marbles or buttons ...

  18. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    PubMed Central

    Hedayatpour, Nosratollah; Falla, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered. PMID:26543850

  19. The Impact of Exercise on Suicide Risk: Examining Pathways through Depression, PTSD, and Sleep in an Inpatient Sample of Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Collin L.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Souter, Tasha; Vannoy, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Suicide has a large public health impact. Although effective interventions exist, the many people at risk for suicide cannot access these interventions. Exercise interventions hold promise in terms of reducing suicide because of their ease of implementation. While exercise reduces depression, and reductions in depressive symptoms are linked to…

  20. Therapeutic and physical fitness exercise prescription for older adults with joint disease: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, M; Fletcher, J; Ortiz, S

    2000-08-01

    Aging with joint disease does necessarily result in chronic pain, adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, and functional dependency. Several randomized controlled trials clearly show that regular exercise does not exacerbate pain or accelerate disease progression. On the contrary, these studies suggest that exercise training may increase the physiologic reserve and reduce the risk for functional dependency in older adults with joint disease. The goals for an exercise program should be directed toward increasing flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, and cardiovascular fitness. An exercise training program that is tailored specifically to an older adult's physical limitations may achieve these goals, and by optimizing patient safety lead to improve long-term exercise compliance. PMID:10989515

  1. Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Mind Map is an outline in which the major categories radiate from a central image and lesser categories are portrayed as branches of larger branches. The author describes an in-class exercise in which small groups of students each create a Mind Map for a specific topic. This exercise is another example of an active and collaborative learning…

  2. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  3. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  4. Effects of Exercise on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rarick, G. Lawrence

    Exercise is generally held to be a significant factor in the growth, development, and health of children and adolescents. The effects of physical activity regimens on general growth, as well as quantitative and qualitative changes, in animal muscle and bone tissue have been clearly demonstrated. Less is known about the role of exercise and related…

  5. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients. PMID:16101469

  6. Limitations to fluid replacement during exercise.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1999-04-01

    Fluid replacement during exercise is essential for endurance exercise performance and reducing the risk of heat illness. Fluids supply water, which ameliorates dehydration, and also substrate for the working muscles. Absorption of water and nutrients occurs in the upper part of the small intestine, and replacement may be limited by the rate at which fluid is emptied from the stomach or absorbed in the intestine. Gastric emptying of liquids is influenced primarily by the volume of fluid in the stomach and by its energy density. Increasing the volume will speed emptying, but increasing the nutrient content will slow emptying. Osmolality, temperature, and pH of drinks, as well as exercise intensity, are of minor importance. Intestinal water absorption is a passive process: water follows osmotic gradients but will also follow the active absorption of nutrients, especially glucose, which is actively co-transported with sodium. Water transport is maximised by the presence in the intestine of hypotonic solutions of glucose and sodium. Hypertonic solutions promote net water secretion into the intestinal lumen, resulting in a temporary net loss of water from the body. The amount of fluid ingested by athletes is normally much less than can be tolerated, therefore issues such as palatability and practising drinking during training are important. PMID:10198143

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Obesity is a global health problem and is associated with a multitude of complications. This study was designed to determine changes in cardiopulmonary functions after aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty obese subjects, whose ages ranged between 18 and 25?years, were divided into 2 equal groups: group A received aerobic exercise training in addition to dietary measures, and group B received anaerobic exercise training for 3 months in addition to dietary measures. Measurements of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index were obtained for both groups before and after the exercise program. [Results] The mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly, whereas the mean maximum voluntary ventilation increased significantly after treatment in group A. The mean maximum voluntary ventilation also increased significantly after treatment in group B. There were significant differences between the mean levels of the investigated parameters in groups A and B after treatment. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise reduces weight and improves cardiopulmonary fitness in obese subjects better than anaerobic exercise. PMID:26180300

  8. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  9. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  10. Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Deborah; Diorio, Caroline; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue. PMID:24743466

  11. Protective Role of Aerobic Exercise Against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeynali, Farzaneh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Mojtahedi, Hossain; Poorshahnazari, Aliasghar; Talebi, Ardeshir; Pezeshki, Zahra; Mazaheri, Safoora; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapy drug and nephrotoxicity is considered as its major side effect. Aerobic exercise is well known as an approach to reduce the side effects of many drugs. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the protective role of aerobic exercise against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I had aerobic exercise on a treadmill one hour per day and five days per week for eight weeks. Then, the exercise protocol was continued for another week, but during this week, the animals also received CP (2.5 mg/kg/day; ip). Group II underwent the same protocol as group I without exercise in the last week during the CP therapy. Groups III and IV were assigned as positive and negative control groups, and were treated with CP and saline without exercise, respectively. Finally, the animals were sacrificed for the biochemical measurement and tissue histopathology investigation. Results: CP alone without exercise increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and malondialdehyde (MDA); and kidney nitrite level, while treadmill exercise in group I significantly ameliorated these parameters (P < 0.05). Kidney and serum levels of MDA and nitrite did not alter significantly. Also, the severity of kidney tissue damage decreased significantly in groups I and II (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Aerobic exercise may reduce CP-induced nephrotoxicity with a favorable effect on renal function by increasing activation of antioxidant system. PMID:26448855

  12. Recovery from exercise: vulnerable state, window of opportunity, or crystal ball?

    PubMed Central

    Luttrell, Meredith J.; Halliwill, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Why should we study the recovery from exercise as a discrete phenomenon from exercise itself? We identify three distinct (but not mutually exclusive) rationales that drive the need to investigate the physiology of recovery from exercise. (1) Some individuals are at a heightened risk of clinical outcomes in the immediate post-exercise period; thus the potential negative outcomes of this “vulnerable state” must be weighed against the numerous benefits of exercise training, and may be mitigated to reduce risk. (2) Many of the signaling mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of exercise training remain amplified during the exercise recovery period, and may present a “window of opportunity” that can be exploited by interventions to enhance the beneficial adaptations to exercise training, especially in clinical populations. (3) On an individual level, exercise recovery responses may provide investigators with a “crystal ball” ability to predict future clinical outcomes even in apparently healthy individuals. In short, the physiology of recovery is a multi-faceted and complex process, likely involving systems and pathways that are distinct from the physiology of exercise itself. For these reasons, it merits ongoing study. PMID:26257656

  13. Aerobic Exercise Protects Retinal Function and Structure from Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Eric C.; Han, Moon K.; Sellers, Jana T.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Hanif, Adam; Gogniat, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a common intervention for rehabilitation of motor, and more recently, cognitive function (Intlekofer and Cotman, 2013; Wood et al., 2012). While the underlying mechanisms are complex, BDNF may mediate much of the beneficial effects of exercise to these neurons (Ploughman et al., 2007; Griffin et al., 2011; Real et al., 2013). We studied the effects of aerobic exercise on retinal neurons undergoing degeneration. We exercised wild-type BALB/c mice on a treadmill (10 m/min for 1 h) for 5 d/week or placed control mice on static treadmills. After 2 weeks of exercise, mice were exposed to either toxic bright light (10,000 lux) for 4 h to induce photoreceptor degeneration or maintenance dim light (25 lux). Bright light caused 75% loss of both retinal function and photoreceptor numbers. However, exercised mice exposed to bright light had 2 times greater retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei than inactive mice exposed to bright light. In addition, exercise increased retinal BDNF protein levels by 20% compared with inactive mice. Systemic injections of a BDNF tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (TrkB) receptor antagonist reduced retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei counts in exercised mice to inactive levels, effectively blocking the protective effects seen with aerobic exercise. The data suggest that aerobic exercise is neuroprotective for retinal degeneration and that this effect is mediated by BDNF signaling. PMID:24523530

  14. Effect of Lumbar Stabilization and Dynamic Lumbar Strengthening Exercises in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Ha; Kim, Ha Jeong; Cho, Young Ki; Lee, Kwang Hee; Kim, Jung Hoo; Choi, Yoo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises and lumbar dynamic strengthening exercises on the maximal isometric strength of the lumbar extensors, pain severity and functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Methods Patients suffering nonspecific LBP for more than 3 months were included prospectively and randomized into lumbar stabilization exercise group (n=11) or lumbar dynamic strengthening exercise group (n=10). Exercises were performed for 1 hour, twice weekly, for 8 weeks. The strength of the lumbar extensors was measured at various angles ranging from 0° to 72° at intervals of 12°, using a MedX. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ) were used to measure the severity of LBP and functional disability before and after the exercise. Results Compared with the baseline, lumbar extension strength at all angles improved significantly in both groups after 8 weeks. The improvements were significantly greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group at 0° and 12° of lumbar flexion. VAS decreased significantly after treatment; however, the changes were not significantly different between the groups. ODQ scores improved significantly in the stabilization exercise group only. Conclusion Both lumbar stabilization and dynamic strengthening exercise strengthened the lumbar extensors and reduced LBP. However, the lumbar stabilization exercise was more effective in lumbar extensor strengthening and functional improvement in patients with nonspecific chronic LBP. PMID:23525973

  15. Exercise prescription for patients with a Fontan circulation: current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Takken, T.; Hulzebos, H.J.; Blank, A.C.; Tacken, M.H.P.; Helders, P.J.M.; Strengers, J.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    It is well documented that children with a Fontan circulation have a reduced exercise capacity. One of the modalities to improve exercise capacity might be exercise training. We performed a systematic literature review on the effects of exercise training in patients with a Fontan circulation. Six published studies were included that reported on the effects of exercise training in 40 patients. All studies had a small sample size and/or did not include a control group. Based on the six published studies we can conclude that children who have undergone a Fontan operation and who are in a stable haemodynamic condition can safely participate in an exercise training programme and that exercise training results in an improved exercise capacity. However, more research is needed to establish the optimal exercise mode, dose-response relation, and the effects of exercise training on cardiac function, peripheral muscle function, physical activity, and health-related quality of life. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:142-7.17612674) PMID:17612674

  16. Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Della Gatta, Paul A; Garnham, Andrew P; Peake, Jonathan M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-07-01

    Aging is associated with increased circulating pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines. Exercise training, in addition to improving muscle function, reduces these circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Yet, few studies have evaluated changes in the expression of cytokines within skeletal muscle after exercise training. The aim of the current study was to examine the expression of cytokines both at rest and following a bout of isokinetic exercise performed before and after 12weeks of resistance exercise training in young (n=8, 20.3±0.8yr) and elderly men (n=8, 66.9±1.6yr). Protein expression of various cytokines was determined in muscle homogenates. The expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 (which are traditionally classified as 'pro-inflammatory') increased substantially after acute exercise. By contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 increased only slightly (or not at all) after acute exercise. These responses were not significantly different between young and elderly men, either before or after 12weeks of exercise training. However, compared with the young men, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines 2h post exercise tended to be greater in the elderly men prior to training. Training attenuated this difference. These data suggest that the inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise increases with age. Furthermore, regular exercise training may help to normalize this inflammatory response, which could have important implications for muscle regeneration and adaptation in the elderly. PMID:24434040

  17. Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

  18. Effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

  19. Oxidative stress status and placental implications in diabetic rats undergoing swimming exercise after embryonic implantation.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Ribeiro, Viviane Maria; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos

    2015-05-01

    The potential benefits and risks of physical exercise on fetal development during pregnancy remain unclear. The aim was to analyze maternal oxidative stress status and the placental morphometry to relate to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from diabetic female rats submitted to swimming program after embryonic implantation. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups (11 animals/group): control-nondiabetic sedentary rats, control exercised-nondiabetic exercised rats, diabetic-diabetic sedentary rats, and diabetic exercised-diabetic exercised rats. A swimming program was used as an exercise model. At the end of pregnancy, the maternal oxidative stress status, placental morphology, and fetal weight were analyzed. The swimming program was not efficient to reduce the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. This fact impaired placental development, resulting in altered blood flow and energy reserves, which contributed to a deficient exchange of nutrients and oxygen for the fetal development, leading to IUGR. PMID:25361551

  20. Cardiorespiratory deconditioning with static and dynamic leg exercise during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, R. W.; Convertino, V. A.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study designed to compare the effects of heavy static and dynamic exercise training during 14 days of bed rest on the cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise performed by seven healthy men aged 19-22 yr. The parameters measured were submaximal and maximal oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, heart rate, and plasma volume. The results indicate that exercise alone during bed rest reduces but does not eliminate the reduction in maximal oxygen uptake. An additional positive hydrostatic effect is therefore necessary to restore maximal oxygen uptake to ambulatory control levels. The greater protective effect of static exercise on maximal oxygen uptake is probably due to a greater hydrostatic component from the isometric muscular contraction. Neither the static nor the dynamic exercise training regimes are found to minimize the changes in all the variables studied, thereby suggesting a combination of static and dynamic exercises.

  1. Effectiveness of a Releasing Exercise Program on Anxiety and Self-Efficacy Among Nurses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Mein; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chiu, Min-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a releasing exercise program (REP) on anxiety and exercise self-efficacy among nurses. The REP consisted of warm-up and tension-releasing exercises and mood adjustment. Ninety-nine nurses (age = 33.38 ± 7.38 years) experiencing anxiety (average Visual Analog Scale for Anxiety [VASA] score of 5.63 ± 1.44 at baseline) were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 50) that received 50-min REP sessions 3 times a week or a control group (n = 49) that did not attend REP sessions. The outcome measures were VASA, the Chinese Version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale scores. At Weeks 12 and 24, the experimental group had significantly lower anxiety levels and higher exercise self-efficacy scores than the control group. Therefore, the REP effectively reduces anxiety and enhances self-confidence in exercise capability. PMID:25326004

  2. Prevention of exercise-related injuries and adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Reis, Victor Machado; Themudo-Barata, José Luís

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is widely recommended as an essential non-pharmacological therapeutic strategy to the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with the natural progression of the disease and typical age and anthropometric profile of individuals with type 2 diabetes may expose these patients to an increased risk of injury and acute adverse events during exercise. These injuries and adverse events can lead to fear of new injury and consequent physical inactivity. Preventative measures are essential to reduce risk, increase safety and avoid the occurrence of exercise-related injuries in people with type 2 diabetes. This population can exercise safely if certain precautions are taken and if exercise is adapted to complications and contraindications of each individual. Conditions such as diabetic foot, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, dehydration and interactions between medication and exercise should be taken into consideration when prescribing exercise. PMID:24194555

  3. Sports drinks, exercise training, and competition.

    PubMed

    von Duvillard, Serge P; Arciero, Paul J; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Alford, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A plethora of investigations examining fluid intake before, during, and after training and competition have suggested that a lack of adequate fluid intake will impair or decrease physical performance. Depending upon the type of training or competition, individuals training for prolonged endurance events should drink fluids containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during and after training or competition. Inadequate hydration will cause significant decrements in performance, increase thermal stress, reduce plasma volume, accelerate fatigue, and possibly cause injuries associated with fluid and sweat loss. However, overdrinking may cause Na+ depletion and in some cases lead to hyponatremia. Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke. PMID:18607221

  4. Lack of independent effect of type 2 diabetes beyond characteristic comorbidities and medications on small muscle mass exercising muscle blood flow and exercise tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Poitras, Veronica J; Bentley, Robert F; Hopkins-Rosseel, Diana H; LaHaye, Stephen A; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are believed to have reduced exercise tolerance; this may be partly due to impaired exercising muscle blood flow (MBF). Whether there is an impact of T2D on exercising MBF within the typical constellation of comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity) and their associated medications has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that small muscle mass exercise tolerance is reduced in persons with T2D versus Controls (matched for age, body mass index, fitness, comorbidities, non-T2D medications) and that this is related to blunted MBF. Eight persons with T2D and eight controls completed a forearm critical force (fCFimpulse) test as a measure of exercise tolerance (10-min intermittent maximal effort forearm contractions; the average contraction impulse in the last 30 sec quantified fCFimpulse). Forearm blood flow (FBF; ultrasound) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; finger photoplethysmography) were measured; forearm vascular conductance (FVK) was calculated. Data are means ± SD, T2D versus Control. fCFimpulse was not different between groups (136.9 ± 47.3  N·sec vs. 163.1 ± 49.7 N·sec, P = 0.371) nor was the ?FBF from rest to during exercise at fCFimpulse (502.9 ± 144.6 vs. 709.1 ± 289.2 mL/min, P = 0.092), or its determinants ?FVK and ?MAP (both P > 0.05), although there was considerable interindividual variability. ?FBF was strongly related to fCFimpulse (r = 0.727, P = 0.002), providing support for the relationship between oxygen delivery and exercise tolerance. We conclude that small muscle mass exercising MBF and exercise tolerance are not impaired in representative persons with T2D versus appropriately matched controls. This suggests that peripheral vascular control impairment does not contribute to reduced exercise tolerance in this population. PMID:26265750

  5. Lack of independent effect of type 2 diabetes beyond characteristic comorbidities and medications on small muscle mass exercising muscle blood flow and exercise tolerance.

    PubMed

    Poitras, Veronica J; Bentley, Robert F; Hopkins-Rosseel, Diana H; LaHaye, Stephen A; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are believed to have reduced exercise tolerance; this may be partly due to impaired exercising muscle blood flow (MBF). Whether there is an impact of T2D on exercising MBF within the typical constellation of comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity) and their associated medications has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that small muscle mass exercise tolerance is reduced in persons with T2D versus Controls (matched for age, body mass index, fitness, comorbidities, non-T2D medications) and that this is related to blunted MBF. Eight persons with T2D and eight controls completed a forearm critical force (fCFimpulse) test as a measure of exercise tolerance (10-min intermittent maximal effort forearm contractions; the average contraction impulse in the last 30 sec quantified fCFimpulse). Forearm blood flow (FBF; ultrasound) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; finger photoplethysmography) were measured; forearm vascular conductance (FVK) was calculated. Data are means ± SD, T2D versus Control. fCFimpulse was not different between groups (136.9 ± 47.3  N·sec vs. 163.1 ± 49.7 N·sec, P = 0.371) nor was the ?FBF from rest to during exercise at fCFimpulse (502.9 ± 144.6 vs. 709.1 ± 289.2 mL/min, P = 0.092), or its determinants ?FVK and ?MAP (both P > 0.05), although there was considerable interindividual variability. ?FBF was strongly related to fCFimpulse (r = 0.727, P = 0.002), providing support for the relationship between oxygen delivery and exercise tolerance. We conclude that small muscle mass exercising MBF and exercise tolerance are not impaired in representative persons with T2D versus appropriately matched controls. This suggests that peripheral vascular control impairment does not contribute to reduced exercise tolerance in this population. PMID:26265750

  6. Graded hypoxia and blood oxidative stress during exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Peters, Bridget; Ballmann, Christopher; Mcginnis, Graham; Epstein, Erin; Hyatt, Hayden; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, William; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2016-01-01

    Altitude exposure and exercise elicit oxidative stress in blood; however, exercise recovery at 5000 m attenuates oxidative stress. The purpose was to determine the altitude threshold at which blood oxidative stress is blunted during exercise recovery. Twelve males 18-28 years performed four-cycle ergometry bouts (60 min, 70% VO2max, at 975 m). In a randomised counterbalanced crossover design, participants recovered 6 h at 0, 1667, 3333 and 5000 m in a normobaric hypoxia chamber (recovery altitudes were simulated by using a computerised system in an environmental chamber by lowering the partial pressure of oxygen to match that of the respective altitude). Oxygen saturation was monitored throughout exercise recovery. Blood samples obtained pre-, post-, 1 h post- and 5 h post-exercise were assayed for ferric-reducing antioxidant plasma, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, lipid hydroperoxides and protein carbonyls. Muscle biopsies obtained pre and 6 h were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify expression of hemeoxgenase 1, superoxide dismutase 2 and nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived 2)-like factor. Pulse oximetry data were similar during exercise, but decreased for the three highest recovery elevations (0 m = 0%, 1667 m = -3%; 3333 m = -7%; 5000 m = -17%). A time-dependent oxidative stress occurred following exercise for all variables, but the two highest recovery altitudes partially attenuated the lipid hydroperoxide response (0 m = +135%, 1667 m = +251%, 3333 m = +99%; 5000 m = +108%). Data may indicate an altitude threshold between 1667 and 3333 m, above which the oxidative stress response is blunted during exercise recovery. PMID:25871479

  7. The benefits of exercise for CKD patients.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Dugan W; West, Cynthia

    2012-11-01

    People with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease often suffer from multiple related disorders, progressive deconditioning, and loss of functional capacity. Yet increased physical activity has been shown to improve patients' quality of life and nutrition, reduce inflammation and depression, and decrease treatment costs and the need for hospitalization. Exercise training should thus be considered an important part of the overall care of people with CKD, while increased physical activity is beneficial at all stages of the disease and can help empower patients to take more control over their own health. PMID:23472556

  8. This exercise demonstrates the principle of parsimony in constructing cladograms. Although it is designed using mammalian cranial characters, the activity could be

    E-print Network

    McCabe, Declan

    AbstrAct This exercise demonstrates the principle of parsimony in constructing cladograms. Although taxa around to reduce tree length. The exercise can become competi- tive when students report out be compared with a published mamma- lian phylogeny. The exercise illustrates phylogenetics, the principle

  9. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Cortinas, Inés Vidal; Beretta, Mario; Alonso, Omar; Mut, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) has reduced sensitivity. Objectives In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP) was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols. Methods In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE) test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection. Results Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (? 85% MPHR) and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP). They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ? 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43). For lesions ? 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35). Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001). Conclusions The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP. PMID:26039661

  10. Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Lee J; Kelly, James; Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Skiba, Philip F; Winyard, Paul G; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with beetroot juice (BR), containing approximately 5-8 mmol inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)), increases plasma nitrite concentration ([NO2(-)]), reduces blood pressure, and may positively influence the physiological responses to exercise. However, the dose-response relationship between the volume of BR ingested and the physiological effects invoked has not been investigated. In a balanced crossover design, 10 healthy men ingested 70, 140, or 280 ml concentrated BR (containing 4.2, 8.4, and 16.8 mmol NO3(-), respectively) or no supplement to establish the effects of BR on resting plasma [NO3(-)] and [NO2(-)] over 24 h. Subsequently, on six separate occasions, 10 subjects completed moderate-intensity and severe-intensity cycle exercise tests, 2.5 h postingestion of 70, 140, and 280 ml BR or NO3(-)-depleted BR as placebo (PL). Following acute BR ingestion, plasma [NO2(-)] increased in a dose-dependent manner, with the peak changes occurring at approximately 2-3 h. Compared with PL, 70 ml BR did not alter the physiological responses to exercise. However, 140 and 280 ml BR reduced the steady-state oxygen (O2) uptake during moderate-intensity exercise by 1.7% (P = 0.06) and 3.0% (P < 0.05), whereas time-to-task failure was extended by 14% and 12% (both P < 0.05), respectively, compared with PL. The results indicate that whereas plasma [NO2(-)] and the O2 cost of moderate-intensity exercise are altered dose dependently with NO3(-)-rich BR, there is no additional improvement in exercise tolerance after ingesting BR containing 16.8 compared with 8.4 mmol NO3(-). These findings have important implications for the use of BR to enhance cardiovascular health and exercise performance in young adults. PMID:23640589

  11. Structural alterations of erythrocyte membrane components induced by exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Brzeszczynska, Joanna; Pieniazek, Anna; Gwozdzinski, Lukasz; Gwozdzinski, Krzysztof; Jegier, Anna

    2008-12-01

    Physical exercise was used as a model of the physiological modulator of free radical production to examine the effects of exercise-induced oxidative modifications on the physico-biochemical properties of erythrocyte membrane. The aim of our work was to investigate conformational changes of erythrocyte membrane proteins, membrane fluidity, and membrane susceptibility to disintegration. Venous blood was taken before, immediately after, and 1 h after an exhaustive incremental cycling test (30 W.min-1 ramp), performed by 11 healthy untrained males on balanced diets (mean age, 22 +/- 2 years; mean body mass index, 25 +/- 4.5 kg.m-2). In response to this exercise, individual maximum heart rate was 195 +/- 12 beats.min-1 and maximum wattage was 292 +/- 27 W. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate alterations in membrane proteins and membrane dynamics, and to measure production of radical species. The reducing potential of plasma (RPP) was measured using the reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric-reducing ability of plasma. Exercise induced decreases in erythrocyte membrane fluidity in the polar region (p < 0.0001) and alterations in the conformational state of membrane proteins (p < 0.05). An increase in RPP was observed immediately after exercise (p < 0.001), with a further increase 1 h postexercise (p < 0.0001). Supporting measurements of lipid peroxidation showed an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances immediately after exercise (p < 0.05) and at 1 h of recovery (p < 0.001); however, free radicals were not detected. Results indicate the existence of early postexercise mild oxidative stress after single-exercise performance, which induced structural changes in erythrocyte membrane components (protein aggregation) and in the membrane organization (lipids rigidization) that followed lipid peroxidation but did not lead to cellular hemolysis. PMID:19088781

  12. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost. PMID:18076223

  13. Nonpreventive Role of Aerobic Exercise Against Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Jalaledin; Zeynali, Farzaneh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Pezeshki, Zahra; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapy drug and nephrotoxicity is a major concern for CP therapy. CP-induced nephrotoxicity is gender-dependent, and the effect of aerobic exercise in females has not been reported yet while it has a beneficial effect in males. Hence, this study was designed to determine the protective role of aerobic exercise against CP-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats. Methods: Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II had aerobic exercise on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Then, the exercise protocol was continued for another week in group I and stopped in group II. All animals in these groups received CP (2.5 mg/kg/day; i.p.) for 1-week. Groups III and IV were treated with CP and vehicle, respectively, without exercise. Finally, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical measurements and tissue histopathology investigations. Results: CP alone without exercise increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS); while exercise could not attenuate these parameters in female rats. Exercise in females increased the serum levels of BUN and Cr and KTDS and weight loss (P < 0.05). Kidney nitrite levels reduce significantly in group I in compared to positive and negative control groups. Exercise also did not have beneficial effects on malondialdehyde levels in plasma and kidney. Conclusions: Aerobic exercise cannot reduce CP-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats. Increasing the damage in female rats may be related to female sex hormone estrogen or gender differences in renal hemodynamic and renin-angiotensin system activity in the presence of exercise. In general, it is recommended that the females under CP chemotherapy avoid exercising during treatment. PMID:26288702

  14. Do Exercise and Physical Activity Protect the Brain?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may play a role in reducing risk for Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline, and research in this area is continuing. Animal studies found that exercise increases both the number of small blood vessels that supply blood to the brain and the ...

  15. The History of "Exercise Is Medicine" in Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases…

  16. Recovery from Cancer: Does Exercise Help? - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    Exercise can reduce risk for other chronic diseases, may have a role in preventing future cancers or recurrences, and may impact quality of life after cancer. Cancer patients often experience a decrease in activity that may lead to decreased muscle strength, increased fatigue and weakness, and increased risk for osteoporosis and other chronic conditions (i.e., high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease).

  17. Restoration of plasma volume after 16 days of head-down tilt induced by a single bout of maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Doerr, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Seven healthy men performed maximal exercise 24 h before the end of 16 days exposure to 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that such an exercise technique could restore plasma volume (PV) at the end of a simulated space mission. Exercise consisted of supine cycling with graded work rates increasing by 16 W/min to volitional fatigue and required an average of 16 min. The experimental protocol was a standard cross-over design in which the order of treatment (exercise or control) was counterbalanced across all seven subjects. PV, fluid intake (ad libitum), urine output, renal function, and hormones associated with fluid homeostasis were measured before HDT, 24 h before the end of HDT just prior to exercise, and at the end of HDT 24 h after exercise. HDT reduced PV by 16% in both control and exercise conditions. Maximal exercise completely restored plasma volume within 24 h to 3.9 +/- 3.2% of pre-HDT levels despite continued HDT. Compared with control, exercise induced a 660-ml larger positive fluid balance because of greater fluid intake and reduced urine volume during the 24 h after exercise. These results suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise before return from 16 days of spaceflight may be completely effective in stimulating thirst and restoring plasma volume to preflight levels.

  18. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  19. Acute aerobic exercise increases exogenously infused bone marrow cell retention in the heart.

    PubMed

    Chirico, Erica N; Ding, Dennis; Muthukumaran, Geetha; Houser, Steven R; Starosta, Tim; Mu, Anbin; Margulies, Kenneth B; Libonati, Joseph R

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to improve cardiac function and reduce infarct size. Exercise training, in the form of cardiac rehabilitation, is an essential part of patient care post-MI. Hence, we tested the effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on stem cell retention and cardiac remodeling post-MI. Small epicardial MI's were induced in 12-month-old C57BL/6 mice via cryoinjury. Two weeks post-MI, vehicle infusion (N = 4) or GFP(+) bone marrow-derived cells (BMC) were injected (tail vein I.V.) immediately after acute exercise (N = 14) or sedentary conditions (N = 14). A subset of mice continued a 5-week intervention of chronic treadmill exercise (10-13 m/min; 45 min/day; 4 days/week; N = 7) or remained sedentary (N = 6). Exercise tolerance was assessed using a graded exercise test, and cardiac function was assessed with echocardiography. Acute exercise increased GFP(+) BMC retention in the infarcted zone of the heart by 30% versus sedentary (P < 0.05). This was not associated with alterations in myocardial function or gene expression of key cell adhesion molecules. Animals treated with chronic exercise increased exercise capacity (P < 0.05) and cardiac mass (P < 0.05) without change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), infarct size, or regional wall thickness (P = NS) compared with sedentary. While BMC's alone did not affect exercise capacity, they increased LVEF (P < 0.05) and Ki67(+) nuclei number in the border zone of the heart (P < 0.05), which was potentiated with chronic exercise training (P < 0.05). We conclude that acute exercise increases BMC retention in infarcted hearts and chronic training increases exogenous BMC-mediated effects on stimulating the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. These preclinical results suggest that exercise may help to optimize stem cell therapeutics following MI. PMID:26486160

  20. Acute aerobic exercise increases exogenously infused bone marrow cell retention in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Erica N; Ding, Dennis; Muthukumaran, Geetha; Houser, Steven R; Starosta, Tim; Mu, Anbin; Margulies, Kenneth B; Libonati, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to improve cardiac function and reduce infarct size. Exercise training, in the form of cardiac rehabilitation, is an essential part of patient care post-MI. Hence, we tested the effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on stem cell retention and cardiac remodeling post-MI. Small epicardial MI’s were induced in 12-month-old C57BL/6 mice via cryoinjury. Two weeks post-MI, vehicle infusion (N = 4) or GFP+ bone marrow-derived cells (BMC) were injected (tail vein I.V.) immediately after acute exercise (N = 14) or sedentary conditions (N = 14). A subset of mice continued a 5-week intervention of chronic treadmill exercise (10–13 m/min; 45 min/day; 4 days/week; N = 7) or remained sedentary (N = 6). Exercise tolerance was assessed using a graded exercise test, and cardiac function was assessed with echocardiography. Acute exercise increased GFP+ BMC retention in the infarcted zone of the heart by 30% versus sedentary (P < 0.05). This was not associated with alterations in myocardial function or gene expression of key cell adhesion molecules. Animals treated with chronic exercise increased exercise capacity (P < 0.05) and cardiac mass (P < 0.05) without change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), infarct size, or regional wall thickness (P = NS) compared with sedentary. While BMC’s alone did not affect exercise capacity, they increased LVEF (P < 0.05) and Ki67+ nuclei number in the border zone of the heart (P < 0.05), which was potentiated with chronic exercise training (P < 0.05). We conclude that acute exercise increases BMC retention in infarcted hearts and chronic training increases exogenous BMC-mediated effects on stimulating the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. These preclinical results suggest that exercise may help to optimize stem cell therapeutics following MI. PMID:26486160

  1. The Recline Exercise: Comparisons with the Head Lift Exercise in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avinash; Rajappa, Akila; Tipton, Elizabeth; Malandraki, Georgia A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the comparative effectiveness of the new Recline Exercise (RE) and the traditional Head Lift Exercise (Shaker Exercise) on submental muscle activity, tongue strength, and perceived exertion in 40 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.5 years, SD 2.6 years). Both groups participated in a 6-week exercise regimen. Outcome variables evaluated pre- and post-exercise included: duration and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity during swallowing measured via surface electromyography (sEMG); anterior and posterior isometric lingual pressures measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument; and perceived exertion levels measured with the Borg category-ratio scale of perceived exertion. Results indicated no significant pre-post differences within or between groups in swallow duration and peak amplitude. In addition, the RE group demonstrated significant post-treatment increases in anterior and posterior tongue strength [p = 0.009; p < 0.001]; however, these increases were of small magnitude (d = 0.132; d = 0.319). Both groups showed marked improvements in perceived exertion levels [p < 0.001]. Our findings indicate that healthy young adults who perform the RE or the HLE do not have significant swallow duration or amplitude gains, most likely due to the reduced need for such gains in the healthy head/neck musculature for submaximal tasks. Furthermore, the significant lingual strength gains seen with the RE indicate that additional musculature is being engaged during its completion. These results are encouraging; however, future research in older adults and patients with dysphagia with examination of swallowing biomechanics is needed to determine its full potential as a rehabilitative regimen. PMID:26386974

  2. Three weeks of early-onset exercise prolongs obesity resistance in DIO rats after exercise cessation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Christa M; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Levin, Barry E

    2008-02-01

    We assessed the effect of early-onset exercise as a means of preventing childhood obesity using juvenile male rats selectively bred to develop diet-induced obesity (DIO) or to be diet resistant (DR) when fed a 31% fat high-energy diet. Voluntary wheel running begun at 36 days of age selectively reduced adiposity in DIO vs. DR rats. Other 4-wk-old DIO rats fed a high-energy diet and exercised (Ex) for 13 wk increased their core temperature, gained 22% less body weight, and had 39% lighter fat pads compared with sedentary (Sed) rats. When wheels were removed after 6 wk (6 wk Ex/7 wk Sed), rats gained less body weight over the next 7 wk than Sed rats and still had comparable adipose pad weights to 13-wk-exercised rats. In fact, only 3 wk of exercise sufficed to prevent obesity for 10 wk after wheel removal. Terminally, the 6-wk-Ex/7-wk-Sed rats had a 55% increase in arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression vs. Sed rats, suggesting that this contributed to their sustained obesity resistance. Finally, when Sed rats were calorically restricted for 6 wk to weight match them to Ex rats (6 wk Rstr/7 wk Al), they increased their intake and body weight when fed ad libitum and, after 7 wk more, had higher leptin levels and adiposity than Sed rats. Thus, early-onset exercise may favorably alter, while early caloric restriction may unfavorably influence, the development of the hypothalamic pathways controlling energy homeostasis during brain development. PMID:17989137

  3. Effects of prior heavy-intensity exercise on oxygen uptake and muscle deoxygenation kinetics of a subsequent heavy-intensity cycling and knee-extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Sarah Margaret; Murias, Juan Manuel; Kowalchuk, John Michael; Paterson, Donald Hugh

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of prior heavy-intensity exercise on the adjustment of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO(2p)) and muscle deoxygenation ?[HHb] during the transition to subsequent heavy-intensity cycling (CE) or knee-extension (KE) exercise. Nine young adults (aged 24 ± 5 years) performed 4 repetitions of repeated bouts of heavy-intensity exercise separated by light-intensity CE and KE, which included 6 min of baseline exercise, a 6-min step of heavy-intensity exercise (H1), 6-min recovery, and a 6-min step of heavy-intensity exercise (H2). Exercise was performed at 50 r·min(-1) or contractions per minute per leg. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)) mean response time was ?20% faster (p < 0.05) during H2 compared with H1 in both modalities. Phase 2 time constants (?) were not different between heavy bouts of CE (H1, 29.6 ± 6.5 s; H2, 28.0 ± 4.6 s) or KE exercise (H1, 31.6 ± 6.7 s; H2, 29.8 ± 5.6 s). The VO(2) slow component amplitude was lower (p < 0.05) in H2 in both modalities (CE, 0.19 ± 0.06 L·min(-1); KE, 0.12 ± 0.07 L·min(-1)) compared with H1 (CE, 0.29 ± 0.09 L·min(-1); KE, 0.18 ± 0.07 L·min(-1)), with the contribution of the slow component to the total VO(2) response reduced (p < 0.05) in H2 during both exercise modes. The effective ?HHb was similar between bouts for CE (H1, 18.2 ± 3.0 s; H2, 18.0 ± 3.6 s) and KE exercise (H1, 26.0 ± 7.0 s; H2, 24.0 ± 5.8 s). The ?HHb slow component was reduced during H2 in both CE and KE (p < 0.05). In conclusion, phase 2 VO(2p) was unchanged with priming exercise; however, a faster mean response time of VO(2p) during the heavy-intensity exercise preceded by a priming heavy-intensity exercise was attributed to a smaller slow component and reduced muscle deoxygenation indicative of improved muscle O(2) delivery during the second bout of exercise. PMID:22269026

  4. The impact of strenuous group physical activity on mood states, personal views, body composition, and markers of myocardial damage in overweight/obese adults: the "Step-by-step Italy's coast to coast" trek.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Piana, Natalia; Capezzali, Daniela; Mommi, Antonella; Aiello, Cristina; Gatti, Michela; Romani, Giannermete; Buratta, Livia; Battistini, Dalila; Nasini, Giovanni; Reginato, Elisa; Urbani, Lorena; Pazzagli, Chiara; Ferri, Carla; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388?km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the "Step by step…Italy's coast to coast". The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects. PMID:25143947

  5. The Impact of Strenuous Group Physical Activity on Mood States, Personal Views, Body Composition, and Markers of Myocardial Damage in Overweight/Obese Adults: The “Step-by-Step Italy's Coast to Coast” Trek

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Mommi, Antonella; Aiello, Cristina; Gatti, Michela; Romani, Giannermete; Buratta, Livia; Reginato, Elisa; Urbani, Lorena; Ferri, Carla; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388?km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the “Step by step…Italy's coast to coast”. The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects. PMID:25143947

  6. Youth Exercise Intention and Past Exercise Behavior: Examining the Moderating Influences of Sex and Meeting Exercise Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M.; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay

    2006-01-01

    The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of…

  7. Proof-Reading as a Means of Reducing Student Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheal, P. R.; Wood, Susan

    1981-01-01

    Describes pilot project on effectiveness of proofreading exercises in English as a second language classes in reducing common student errors in use of tenses, concord, and spelling. Results show some improvement, but not as much as was hoped. (BK)

  8. Exercise London: a disaster exercise involving numerous casualties

    PubMed Central

    Theoret, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation — particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected. PMID:1260617

  9. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  10. Role of creatine supplementation in exercise-induced muscle damage: A mini review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Seungho; Yoon, Daeyoung; Kim, Jieun; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    Muscle damage is induced by both high-intensity resistance and endurance exercise. Creatine is a widely used dietary supplement to improve exercise performance by reducing exercise-induced muscle damage. Many researchers have suggested that taking creatine reduces muscle damage by decreasing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, regulating calcium homeostasis, and activating satellite cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of creatine and muscle damage have not been clarified. Therefore, this review discusses the regulatory effects of creatine on muscle damage by compiling the information collected from basic science and sports science research. PMID:26535213

  11. Role of creatine supplementation in exercise-induced muscle damage: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Seungho; Yoon, Daeyoung; Kim, Jieun; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-10-01

    Muscle damage is induced by both high-intensity resistance and endurance exercise. Creatine is a widely used dietary supplement to improve exercise performance by reducing exercise-induced muscle damage. Many researchers have suggested that taking creatine reduces muscle damage by decreasing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, regulating calcium homeostasis, and activating satellite cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of creatine and muscle damage have not been clarified. Therefore, this review discusses the regulatory effects of creatine on muscle damage by compiling the information collected from basic science and sports science research. PMID:26535213

  12. The effects of prone bridge exercise on the Oswestry disability index and proprioception of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Park, Seol

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bridge exercises on the Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores and proprioception among patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 patients participated in this study. After eight weeks of bridge exercise, the joint position angle of the body trunk was measured and the ODI was used in survey form to investigate the intensity of the patients’ low back pain. [Results] After eight weeks of exercise, the ODI showed significant differences in all three groups. Subjects’ joint position sense of the trunk in both lumbar flexion and extension was also significantly different after completing the exercise program; this was true for all three groups. [Conclusion] Performing the prone bridge exercise for eight weeks improved proprioceptive function and reduced pain and impediment of activity, showing it a more effective exercise than other bridge exercises. PMID:26504285

  13. The effects of prone bridge exercise on the Oswestry disability index and proprioception of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Jang, Gwon-Uk; Park, Seol

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bridge exercises on the Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores and proprioception among patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 38 patients participated in this study. After eight weeks of bridge exercise, the joint position angle of the body trunk was measured and the ODI was used in survey form to investigate the intensity of the patients' low back pain. [Results] After eight weeks of exercise, the ODI showed significant differences in all three groups. Subjects' joint position sense of the trunk in both lumbar flexion and extension was also significantly different after completing the exercise program; this was true for all three groups. [Conclusion] Performing the prone bridge exercise for eight weeks improved proprioceptive function and reduced pain and impediment of activity, showing it a more effective exercise than other bridge exercises. PMID:26504285

  14. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  15. Enhancing Adherence in Clinical Exercise Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Heather A.; Blair, Steven N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses exercise adherence from the perspective of adhering to an exercise treatment in a controlled trial, focusing on: adherence (to intervention and measurement); the development of randomized clinical trials; exemplary randomized clinical trials in exercise science (exercise training studies and physical activity interventions); and study…

  16. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  17. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  18. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  19. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  20. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  1. Exercise Manual for Methods in Systematics

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    Exercise Manual for BIOL 471 Methods in Systematics Spring 2007 by Christopher R. Hardy, James C in Systematics, page 2 of 62 BIOL 471 ­ Methods in Systematics Exercise Manual Table of Contents Exercise page Biotic Inventory & Related Activities Exercise 01: Traditional Dichotomous Keys and Biotic Inventory

  2. Computer Science in Practice Exercise No. 5

    E-print Network

    Peleg, Shmuel

    Computer Science in Practice Exercise No. 5 Due: Friday, July 6, Ross closing time This exercise should be submitted in pairs. See submission instruc- tions at the end of the exercise description. In this exercise you will solve the Poisson equation for deriving intrinsic images from a sequence of images. Given

  3. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  4. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  5. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  6. Computer Science in Practice Exercise No. 5

    E-print Network

    Peleg, Shmuel

    Computer Science in Practice Exercise No. 5 Due: Friday, July 6, Ross closing time This exercise should be submitted in pairs. See submission instruc­ tions at the end of the exercise description. In this exercise you will solve the Poisson equation for deriving intrinsic images from a sequence of images. Given

  7. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  8. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  9. Exercise therapy for heart failure patients in Canada.

    PubMed

    Stone, James A; Hauer, Trina; Haykowsky, Mark; Aggarwal, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary pharmacologic therapies have greatly improved outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise therapy also has become increasingly recognized and utilized over the last decade. Patients with HF undergo significant central and peripheral deconditioning. Aerobic and resistance training in this patient population may improve quality of life, muscular strength, aerobic capacity, and potentially longevity. Those HF patients who are able to remain adherent to exercise training programs may improve their self-monitoring skills with respect to progressive volume overload, as well as their capacity for independent living, thereby reducing the likelihood of rehospitalization. PMID:25432476

  10. Exercise Improves Host Response to Influenza Viral Infection in Obese and Non-Obese Mice through Different Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kristi J.; Olson, Molly M.; Thompson, Nicholas J.; Cahill, Mackenzie L.; Wyatt, Todd A.; Yoon, Kyoungjin J.; Loiacono, Christina M.; Kohut, Marian L.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with greater severity of influenza virus infection and impaired host defense. Exercise may confer health benefits even when weight loss is not achieved, but it has not been determined if regular exercise improves immune defense against influenza A virus (IAV) in the obese condition. In this study, diet-induced obese mice and lean control mice exercised for eight weeks followed by influenza viral infection. Exercise reduced disease severity in both obese and non-obese mice, but the mechanisms differed. Exercise reversed the obesity-associated delay in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) cell infiltration, restored BAL cytokine and chemokine production, and increased ciliary beat frequency and IFN?-related gene expression. In non-obese mice, exercise treatment reduced lung viral load, increased Type-I-IFN-related gene expression early during infection, but reduced BAL inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In both obese and non-obese mice, exercise increased serum anti-influenza virus specific IgG2c antibody, increased CD8+ T cell percentage in BAL, and reduced TNF? by influenza viral NP-peptide-responding CD8+ T cells. Overall, the results suggest that exercise “restores” the immune response of obese mice to a phenotype similar to non-obese mice by improving the delay in immune activation. In contrast, in non-obese mice exercise treatment results in an early reduction in lung viral load and limited inflammatory response. PMID:26110868

  11. Exercise Improves Host Response to Influenza Viral Infection in Obese and Non-Obese Mice through Different Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristi J; Olson, Molly M; Thompson, Nicholas J; Cahill, Mackenzie L; Wyatt, Todd A; Yoon, Kyoungjin J; Loiacono, Christina M; Kohut, Marian L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with greater severity of influenza virus infection and impaired host defense. Exercise may confer health benefits even when weight loss is not achieved, but it has not been determined if regular exercise improves immune defense against influenza A virus (IAV) in the obese condition. In this study, diet-induced obese mice and lean control mice exercised for eight weeks followed by influenza viral infection. Exercise reduced disease severity in both obese and non-obese mice, but the mechanisms differed. Exercise reversed the obesity-associated delay in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) cell infiltration, restored BAL cytokine and chemokine production, and increased ciliary beat frequency and IFN?-related gene expression. In non-obese mice, exercise treatment reduced lung viral load, increased Type-I-IFN-related gene expression early during infection, but reduced BAL inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In both obese and non-obese mice, exercise increased serum anti-influenza virus specific IgG2c antibody, increased CD8+ T cell percentage in BAL, and reduced TNF? by influenza viral NP-peptide-responding CD8+ T cells. Overall, the results suggest that exercise "restores" the immune response of obese mice to a phenotype similar to non-obese mice by improving the delay in immune activation. In contrast, in non-obese mice exercise treatment results in an early reduction in lung viral load and limited inflammatory response. PMID:26110868

  12. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  13. Exercise hypoglycemia in nondiabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Brun, J F; Dumortier, M; Fedou, C; Mercier, J

    2001-04-01

    Hypoglycemia during exercise is a common event due to an unbalance between training volume, nutrition, and external influences such as chronobiology, temperature or altitude, in subjects characterized by an acute and chronic increase in glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity. While it is preventable by adequate pre-exercise feeding with carbohydrates, it can also be induced by a prior carbohydrate meal with high glycemic index. Adequate training induces resistance to hypoglycemia via a shift in the balance of oxidized substrates and marked hormonal adaptations, but overtraining, by partially reversing this adaptation, favorizes hypoglycemia. Exercise hypoglycemia is a cause of fatigue or exercise cessation, but also impairs thermoregulatory adaptation and is assumed to fragilize muscles and tendons for traumatic events. PMID:11353874

  14. Exercise, Sports and Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... only potential down side is dealing with unhelpful attitudes at the gym, in exercise classes, or on ... supportive.” Jake, 21, says an “in your face” attitude has worked better for him. “I was teased ...

  15. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (53 KB) Español Chinese ( ???? ) Related Resources Alcoholism Bed Rest and ... Health Smoking Partner Resources Children’s Bone Health and Calcium: ...

  16. Genetic determinants of voluntary exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott A.; Pomp, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Variation in voluntary exercise behavior is an important determinant of long-term human health. Increased physical activity is used as a preventative measure or therapeutic intervention for disease, and a sedentary lifestyle has generally been viewed as unhealthy. Predisposition to engage in voluntary activity is heritable and induces protective metabolic changes, but its complex genetic/genomic architecture has only recently begun to emerge. We first present a brief historical perspective and summary of the known benefits of voluntary exercise. Second, we describe human and mouse model studies using genomic and transcriptomic approaches to reveal the genetic architecture of exercise. Third, we discuss the merging of genomic information and physiological observations, revealing systems and networks that lead to a more complete mechanistic understanding of how exercise protects against disease pathogenesis. Finally, we explore potential regulation of physical activity through epigenetic mechanisms, including those that persist across multiple generations. PMID:23351966

  17. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dancing, or other weight-bearing activities such as aerobics and other sports Careful weight training, using weight ... you are older, do not do high-impact aerobics, such as step aerobics. This type of exercise ...

  18. World Hunger, a UNICEF Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Donald N.

    1976-01-01

    Description of an exercise in which students role play to develop empathy for people with survival problems in poorer nations and to understand the interdependent effects of consumer demand and consumption. (LS)

  19. Exercise Science: A New Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Benjamin

    1982-01-01

    Exercise science represents an integrated approach to the study of the physiological, biochemical, and mechanical adaptations of humans to stresses imposed by a variety of physical performances as well as ambient conditions such as temperature and humidity. (MLW)

  20. Vascular Ageing and Exercise: Focus on Cellular Reparative Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Mark D.; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with an increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increased risk can be attributable to increased prolonged exposure to oxidative stress. Often, CVD is preceded by endothelial dysfunction, which carries with it a proatherothrombotic phenotype. Endothelial senescence and reduced production and release of nitric oxide (NO) are associated with “vascular ageing” and are often accompanied by a reduced ability for the body to repair vascular damage, termed “reendothelialization.” Exercise has been repeatedly shown to confer protection against CVD and diabetes risk and incidence. Regular exercise promotes endothelial function and can prevent endothelial senescence, often through a reduction in oxidative stress. Recently, endothelial precursors, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), have been shown to repair damaged endothelium, and reduced circulating number and/or function of these cells is associated with ageing. Exercise can modulate both number and function of these cells to promote endothelial homeostasis. In this review we look at the effects of advancing age on the endothelium and these endothelial precursors and how exercise appears to offset this “vascular ageing” process. PMID:26697131