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1

Strenuous endurance training in humans reduces oxidative stress following exhausting exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether high-intensity endurance training would alleviate exercise-induced oxidative\\u000a stress. Nine untrained male subjects (aged 19–21?years) participated in a 12-week training programme, and performed an acute\\u000a period of exhausting exercise on a cycle ergometer before and after training. The training programme consisted of running\\u000a at 80% maximal exercise heart rate for 60?min?·?day?1, 5?days?·?week?1

Hiromi Miyazaki; Shuji Oh-ishi; Takako Ookawara; Takako Kizaki; Koji Toshinai; Sung Ha; Shukoh Haga; Li Li Ji; Hideki Ohno

2001-01-01

2

Effects of strenuous exercise on haemostasis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To review the effects of exercise on haemostasis and examine the possible clinical sequelae of these changes. Methods: The search strategy included articles from 1966 to August 2002 using Medline and SportDiscus databases, and cross referencing the bibliographies of relevant papers. Results: Exercise results in activation of both the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, as shown by a reduction in whole blood clotting time and activated partial thromboplastin time, an increase in the activity of several components of the cascades, and an increase in fibrin degradation products. In vitro tests suggest that coagulation remains activated after fibrinolysis has returned to baseline levels. Conclusions: Both the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades are stimulated by strenuous exercise, but the temporal relation between the two and its clinical significance remains to be clarified. Doctors and athletes should be aware of the haemostatic changes induced by exercise, and further work is needed to clarify the possible role of these changes in sudden cardiac death. PMID:14514536

Smith, J

2003-01-01

3

Are similar inflammatory factors involved in strenuous exercise and sepsis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing body of data suggest that strenuous exercise triggers an inflammatory response having some similarity with those occurring in sepsis. Indices of this inflammatory response to exercise (IRE) especially include leukocytosis, release of inflammatory mediators and acute phase reactants, tissue damage, priming of various white blood cell lines, production of free radicals; activation of complement, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades.

G. Camus; G. Deby-Dupont; J. Duchateau; C. Deby; J. Pincemail; M. Lamy

1994-01-01

4

The Effect of Strenuous Exercise on Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a laboratory experiment designed to help students understand the concept of diastolic blood pressure, the pressure during which the left ventricle of the heart is not contracting. Examines the effect of strenuous exercise on blood pressure. Includes materials needed, procedures, results, and discussion of the results. (MDH)

Cvancara, Victor

1992-01-01

5

Sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs depresses three blood copper enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show mixed conclusions about acute responses of copper status to strenuous exercise. Because copper function involves\\u000a metalloenzyme activities, which might take days to change, the present study examined the response of three copper metalloenzyme\\u000a activities to sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs. A race lasting 12–15 d depressed activities for both plasma ceruloplasmin\\u000a and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in dogs

R. A. DiSilvestro; K. W. Hinchcliff; A. Blostein-Fujii

2005-01-01

6

Effects of Strenuous Exercise on Stallion Sperm Quality  

E-print Network

temperture AV Artificial vagina BCS Body condition score bpm Heartbeat per minute BW Body weight CN Control (non-exercised) group of stallions COMP?t Sperm chromatin structure assay cells outside the main population CONC Concentration of spermatozoa...), subcutaneous neck (NT) and subcutaneous scrotal (SQST) for non-exercising stallions (EX) during exercise…………………………………………………………… 35 xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Mean (± SD) body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) endpoints...

Rosenberg, Jennifer L.

2012-10-19

7

Day-to-day changes in oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise during strenuous endurance training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of strenuous endurance training on day-to-day changes in oxygen uptake (VO2) on-kinetics (time constant) at the onset.of exercise. Four healthy men participated in strenuous training, for 30 min·day–1, 6 days·week–1 for 3 weeks. The VO2 was measured breath-by-breath every day except Sunday at exercise intensities corresponding to the lactate threshold

Takayoshi Yoshida; Masao Udo; Takashi Ohmori; Yojiro Matsumoto; Takashi Uramoto; Koji Yamamoto

1992-01-01

8

Dietary nucleotide improves markers of immune response to strenuous exercise under a cold environment  

PubMed Central

Background Strenuous exercise has been classically associated to immune-suppression and consequently to an increased risk of infections, especially at the upper respiratory tract. The administration of dietary nucleotides has been demonstrated useful to maintain the immune function in situations of stress and thus could be an appropriate strategy to counteract the decline of the immune function associated to strenuous exercise. The aim of the present study was to asses the impact of a specific nucleotide formulation (Inmunactive®) on the markers of immune function of athletes after a heavy exercise bout under cold conditions. Methods Twenty elite male taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into two groups of 10 subjects that were supplemented with placebo (P) or Inmunactive (I) at 480 mg/day during 30 days. At baseline (day 0) and after 4 wk of supplementation (day 30) each subject undertook an exhaustion exercise test using a cycloergometer. Skin temperature, core temperature, heart rate, lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the test. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after each exercise test for determination of blood cell concentrations, PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-LP) and salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Results Exercise tests induced neutrophilia and reduction in lymphocyte blood counts on day 0 and on day 30 in both groups. However, the I group exhibited a faster recovery from the lymphopenic response than the P group, so that lymphocyte levels were higher after 150 min (P?exercise-evoked decrease at baseline. Conclusions These findings suggest that supplementation with a nucleotide-based product for 4 weeks could counteract the impairment of immune function after heavy exercise. PMID:23566489

2013-01-01

9

Melatonin decreases muscular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise and stimulates growth factor synthesis.  

PubMed

Strenuous exercise is detrimental to athletes because of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Melatonin, a classic antioxidant, has been shown to exhibit beneficial effects regarding intense exercise and tissue repair. In this study, we evaluated the onset and resolution of inflammation in melatonin-treated and nontreated rats subjected to a strenuous exercise session. We also analyzed the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Control and treated rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise after a period of 10 days of melatonin treatment (20 mg/dL). Plasma and muscle levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2-alpha/beta (CINC-2?/?), l-selectin, macrophage inflammatory protein-3-alpha (MIP-3?), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured prior to, immediately after, and 2 hr after exercise. Our data revealed decreases in the muscle concentrations of IL-1? (35%), TNF-? (13%), IL-6 (48%), and TBARS (40%) in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We also observed decreases in the plasma concentrations of IL-1? (17%) in the melatonin-treated group. VEGF-? concentrations and SOD activity increased by 179% and 22%, respectively, in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We concluded that muscle inflammation and oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise were less severe in the muscles of melatonin-treated animals than in the muscles of control animals. Thus, melatonin treatment may reverse exercise-induced skeletal muscle inflammation and stimulate growth factor synthesis. PMID:25546615

Borges, Leandro da Silva; Dermargos, Alexandre; Junior, Edenilson Pinto da Silva; Weimann, Eleine; Lambertucci, Rafael Herling; Hatanaka, Elaine

2015-03-01

10

Lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with inferior vena cava filter and history of strenuous physical exercise.  

PubMed

Lumbar artery pseudoaneurysms (LAPs) are a rare complication of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The few reports in the literature describe treatment of patients presenting with ruptured LAPs. This case report describes the successful management of a symptomatic LAP because of an IVC filter, which initially presented as a retroperitoneal hematoma resulting from lumbar artery laceration by a filter strut. We hypothesize that the strenuous abdominal exercises performed by the patient may have facilitated IVC penetration by the filter, leading to development of a retroperitoneal hematoma and subsequent LAP. This case suggests that patients with IVC filters should avoid strenuous exercise and underscores the importance of timely retrieval of nonpermanent IVC filters. PMID:24246536

Tsekouras, Nikolaos; Whalen, Ralph C; Comerota, Anthony J

2015-03-01

11

Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon.Methods: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. Samples were analysed for urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, creatine

J E Smith; G Garbutt; P Lopes; D Tunstall Pedoe

2004-01-01

12

Excessive skeletal muscle recruitment during strenuous exercise in McArdle patients.  

PubMed

We compared the cardiorespiratory response and muscle recruitment [as determined by electromyography (EMG)] of 37 McArdle patients [19 males, 37.4 ± 2.8 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.1 ± 4.7 kg m(-2)] and 33 healthy controls (18 males, 36.4 ± 10.0 years, BMI: 25.7 ± 3.8 kg m(-2)) during cycle-ergometer exercise (an incremental test to exhaustion and a 12-min submaximal constant workload test). We obtained cardiorespiratory [oxygen uptake and heart rate (HR)] and EMG data (rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles). During the incremental test, the patients exhibited the expected hyperkinetic cardiovascular response shown by a marked increase in the slope of the HR:Power relationship (p < 0.001). Throughout the incremental test and at the point of fatigue, the patients produced significantly less power than the controls (peak power output: 67 ± 21 vs. 214 ± 56 watts respectively, p < 0.001), yet they demonstrated significantly higher levels of muscle activity for a given absolute power. During the constant workload test, patients displayed higher levels of EMG activity than the controls during the second half of the test, despite a lower power production (34 ± 13 vs. 94 ± 29 watts respectively, p < 0.001). In conclusion, since the McArdle patients required more motor unit recruitment for a given power output, our data suggest that the state of contractility of their muscles is reduced compared with healthy people. Excessive muscle recruitment for a given load could be one of the mechanisms explaining the exercise intolerance of these patients. PMID:20683610

Rae, Dale E; Noakes, Timothy D; San Juan, Alejandro F; Pérez, Margarita; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Morán, María; Martín, Miguel A; Andreu, Antoni L; Arenas, Joaquín; Lucia, Alejandro

2010-11-01

13

Differential responses of serum and salivary interleukin-6 to acute strenuous exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical exercise is associated with elevation of serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) because of its production in the muscles. The use of IL-6 measurements in saliva has been proposed in the field of immunopathology, mainly involving salivary gland disease. We evaluated the responses of serum and salivary IL-6 in two different groups of athletes submitted to different types of controlled

M. Minetto; A. Rainoldi; M. Gazzoni; M. Terzolo; P. Borrione; A. Termine; L. Saba; A. Dovio; A. Angeli; P. Paccotti

2005-01-01

14

The influence of respiratory acid-base changes on muscle performance and excitability of the sarcolemma during strenuous intermittent hand grip exercise.  

PubMed

Acidification has been reported to provide protective effects on force production in vitro. Thus, in this study, we tested if respiratory acid-base changes influence muscle function and excitability in vivo. Nine subjects performed strenuous, intermittent hand grip exercises (10 cycles of 15 s of work/45 s of rest) under respiratory acidosis by CO(2) rebreathing, alkalosis by hyperventilation, or control. The Pco(2), pH, K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), and Na(+) concentration were measured in venous and arterialized blood. Compound action potentials (M-wave) were elicited to examine the excitability of the sarcolemma. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded to estimate the central drive to the muscle. The lowest venous pH during the exercise period was 7.24 ± 0.03 in controls, 7.31 ± 0.05 with alkalosis, and 7.17 ± 0.04 with acidosis (P < 0.001). The venous [K(+)] rose to similar maximum values in all conditions (6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/l). The acidification reduced the decline in contraction speed (P < 0.001) but decreased the M-wave area to 73.4 ± 19.8% (P < 0.001) of the initial value. After the first exercise cycle, the M-wave area was smaller with acidosis than with alkalosis, and, after the second cycle, it was smaller with acidosis than with the control condition (P < 0.001). The duration of the M-wave was not affected. Acidification diminished the reduction in performance, although the M-wave area during exercise was decreased. Respiratory alkalosis stabilized the M-wave area without influencing performance. Thus, we did not find a direct link between performance and alteration of excitability of the sarcolemma due to changes in pH in vivo. PMID:22162523

Hilbert, M; Shushakov, V; Maassen, N

2012-02-01

15

The effect of various levels of strenuous to exhaustive exercise on reaction time.  

PubMed

Reaction times and heart rates of 10 subjects walking and running on a motor-driven treadmill were recorded. The exercise consisted of four 3-min stages: Stage 1, 2.5 mph at 12% grade; Stage 2, 3.4 mpg at 14% grade; Stage 3, 4.2 mph at 16% grade; Stage 4 5.0 mph at 18% grade. Subjects were given three separate tests at 1-week intervals. There was an increase in reaction time with increased exercise, but this effect diminished significantly over days. Also, when heart rate was 80% of maximum during the post-test, reaction time was not significantly different from the pre-test. Optimum reaction time was obtained at approximately 40% of maximum heart rate. PMID:954735

Bender, V L; McGlynn, G H

1976-06-21

16

The effect of various levels of strenuous to exhaustive exercise on reaction time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction times and heart rates of 10 subjects walking and running on a motor-driven treadmill were recorded. The exercise\\u000a consisted of four 3-min stages: Stage 1, 2.5 mph at 12% grade; Stage 2, 3.4 mph at 14% grade; Stage 3, 4.2 mph at 16% grade;\\u000a Stage 4, 5.0 mph at 18% grade. Subjects were given three separate tests at 1-week

V. L. Bender; G. H. McGlynn

1976-01-01

17

Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon. Methods: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. Samples were analysed for urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, myoglobin, troponin I, full blood count, a clotting screen, and D-dimers. The results before and after exercise were compared. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all variables. Results: Significant increases were found in CK, CK-MB, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin following the marathon. However, there was no significant change in the level of troponin I. There was also evidence of activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades following the marathon, with a reduction in activated partial thromboplastin time, a reduction in fibrinogen, and an increase in D-dimers. Conclusions: The results confirm previous individual studies on marathon running and the biochemical and haematological tests routinely carried out in hospital. These are affected by prolonged exercise, and "abnormal" results in these tests may be normal after prolonged exercise and therefore not diagnostic of a disease process. The results of investigations in patients who have been exercising should be interpreted with caution. PMID:15155430

Smith, J; Garbutt, G; Lopes, P; Pedoe, D

2004-01-01

18

The use of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the effects of cooling on skeletal muscle after strenuous exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a The purpose of this study was to investigate the separate effects of cooling during the acute (within 60 min post-exercise)\\u000a or subacute (24–168 h post-exercise) phase on skeletal muscle after exercise. Twenty-eight male subjects [mean (SD) 23.8 (1.8) years]\\u000a were randomly assigned to the control (COTG, n=10), cold-water immersion (CWIG, n=9), and double-cold-water immersion groups (DCWIG, n=9). The cold-water immersion (15 min) was

Osamu Yanagisawa; Mamoru Niitsu; Hiroshi Yoshioka; Kazushige Goto; Hiroki Kudo; Yuji Itai

2003-01-01

19

Does post-exercise massage treatment reduce delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a frequent problem after unaccustomed exercise. No universally accepted treatment exists. Massage therapy is often recommended for this condition but uncertainty exists about its effectiveness. AIM: To determine whether post-exercise massage alleviates the symptoms of DOMS after a bout of strenuous exercise. METHOD: Various computerised literature searches were carried out and located seven

E. Ernst

1998-01-01

20

Immune function in sport and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Regular moderate exercise is associated with a reduced incidence of infection compared with a completely sedentary state. However, prolonged bouts of strenuous exercise cause a temporary ,depression of various ,aspects of immune ,function (e.g. neutrophil respiratory burst, lymphocyte proliferation, monocyte antigen presentation) that usually lasts ~3-24 hours after exercise depending on the,intensity and duration of the exercise bout. Post-exercise

Michael Gleeson

2007-01-01

21

Acute Effects of Moderate and Strenuous Running on Trace Element Distribution in the Brain, Liver, and Spleen of Trained Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Trace elements such as manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) play key roles in metabolic reactions and are important in many physiological enzymatic processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the acute effects of moderate and strenuous running (treadmill) exercise on the levels of Mn, Co and Cr in the brain, liver, and spleen of trained rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar-Albino adult male rats were used in the study. Rats were grouped as control group (no mandated exercise; n=8), moderate exercise group (30 min exercise duration; n=7), and strenuous exercise group (60 min exercise duration; n=6). The levels of Mn, Co, and Cr in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, and spleen were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cr levels in liver of rats increased in parallel to the time course of running supporting the exercise training effect on the action of insulin. Compared to the control group, the level of Co significantly decreased in the brain stem of rats in the moderate exercise group (p=0.009) and in the frontal lobe of rats in the strenuous exercise group (p=0.004). In the strenuous exercise group, an examination of the brain stem revealed that the level of Mn significantly decreased (p=0.001), and levels of Co and Cr were apparently depleted to the extent that these elements were no longer detectable. Conclusion: A notable finding is that during or after single bout strenuous exercise, levels of Co decreased in the spleen and particularly decreased in the brain stem of regularly trained rats. From this study, it can be inferred that sportsmen should aware trace element disturbances among the body parts or depletion of some trace elements after single bout of chronic strenuous running exercise. PMID:25207079

Ergen, K?vanç; ?nce, Hürrem; Düzova, Halil; Karakoç, Yunus; Emre, M. Hanifi

2013-01-01

22

Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Anger Expression Among Overweight Children  

PubMed Central

This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight, sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children. PMID:19168916

Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Colleen A.; Davis, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

23

Role of Resistance Exercise in Reducing Risk for Cardiometabolic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance exercise training, also known as weight training or strength training, involves the use of muscular strength to\\u000a work against a resistance or force. A large cohort study showed that resistance exercise was associated with reduced risk\\u000a of cardiovascular disease. Resistance exercise increases lean body mass, improves muscular strength, and produces small reductions\\u000a in body fat and blood pressure in

Angela S. Alberga; Ronald J. Sigal; Glen P. Kenny

2010-01-01

24

Physiological aspects and clinical sequelae of energy deficiency and hypoestrogenism in exercising women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amenorrhoea associated with reduced caloric intake and strenuous exercise leads to hypoestrogenism and is associ- ated with clinical manifestations that include disordered eating, stress fractures, osteoporosis, and, as recently reported, a potential increase in the risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Disordered eating, menstrual irregu- larities and bone loss comprise the clinical condition known as the 'female athlete triad'. The aetiology

Mary Jane De Souza; Nancy I. Williams

2004-01-01

25

Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Long distance running causes acute muscle damage resulting in inflammation and decreased force production. Endurance athletes use NSAIDs during competition to prevent or reduce pain, which carries the risk of adverse effects. Tart cherries, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may have a protective effect to reduce muscle damage and pain during strenuous exercise. This study aimed to assess

Kerry S Kuehl; Erica T Perrier; Diane L Elliot; James C Chesnutt

2010-01-01

26

Milk consumption following exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate-vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V?O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V?O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

2015-01-01

27

Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V?O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V?O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

2015-01-01

28

Effect of High Intensity Exercise Training on Central Hemodynamic Responses to Exercise in Men With Reduced Left Ventricular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high intensity exercise training on left ventricular function and hemodynamic responses to exercise in patients with reduced ventricular function.Background. Results of studies on central hemodynamic adaptations to exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure have been contradictory, and some research has suggested that training causes further myocardial

Paul Dubach; Jonathan Myers; Gerald Dziekan; Ute Goebbels; Walter Reinhart; Peter Muller; Peter Buser; Peter Stulz; Paul Vogt; Reto Ratti

1997-01-01

29

How Do Humans Control Physiological Strain during Strenuous Endurance Exercise?  

PubMed Central

Background Distance running performance is a viable model of human locomotion. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the physiologic strain during competitions ranging from 5–100 km, we evaluated heart rate (HR) records of competitive runners (n?=?211). We found evidence that: 1) physiologic strain (% of maximum HR (%HRmax)) increased in proportional manner relative to distance completed, and was regulated by variations in running pace; 2) the %HRmax achieved decreased with relative distance; 3) slower runners had similar %HRmax response within a racing distance compared to faster runners, and despite differences in pace, the profile of %HRmax during a race was very similar in runners of differing ability; and 4) in cases where there was a discontinuity in the running performance, there was evidence that physiologic effort was maintained for some time even after the pace had decreased. Conclusions/Significance The overall results suggest that athletes are actively regulating their relative physiologic strain during competition, although there is evidence of poor regulation in the case of competitive failures. PMID:18698405

Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Lucia, Alejandro; deKoning, Jos J.; Foster, Carl

2008-01-01

30

Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

Higgins, P. A.

2004-12-01

31

Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

2014-06-01

32

Prognosis: does exercise training reduce adverse events in heart failure?  

PubMed

Patients with heart failure (HF) were once discouraged from participating in exercise programs because of concerns regarding safety and the potential for harm to an already damaged myocardium. However, studies over the last 3 decades have provided extensive insights into both the health outcome benefits of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these benefits. Studies on the outcome benefits of exercise training, including mortality and hospitalization, have been convincing. This article reviews the physiologic benefits of exercise training in HF, studies on exercise training in women, results and implications of the HF-ACTION trial, and recent meta-analyses using the Cochrane data base. PMID:25432474

Myers, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Haykowsky, Mark J F; Taylor, Rod S

2015-01-01

33

Exercise Training Reduces Depression and Increases the Performance of Pleasant Activities in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of a structured exercise training program to the therapeutic benefits of a ‘support’ group on the depressed mood and reduced performance of pleasant activities by hemodialysis patients. After 6 months of an aerobic exercise training program, the 10 exercisers showed a significant increase in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and a significant decrease in dysphoric mood

Robert M. Carney; Bonnie Templeton; Barry A. Hong; Herschel R. Harter; James M. Hagberg; Kenneth B. Schechtman; Andrew P. Goldberg

1987-01-01

34

The Efficacy of Exercise in Reducing Depressive Symptoms among Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of exercise to reduce depressive symptoms among cancer survivors. In addition, we examined the extent to which exercise dose and clinical characteristics of cancer survivors influence the relationship between exercise and reductions in depressive symptoms.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search identifying randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions among adult cancer survivors,

Justin C. Brown; Tania B. Huedo-Medina; Linda S. Pescatello; Stacey M. Ryan; Shannon M. Pescatello; Emily Moker; Jessica M. LaCroix; Rebecca A. Ferrer; Blair T. Johnson

2012-01-01

35

Quercetin reduces susceptibility to influenza infection following stressful exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercise stress is associated with increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection. We have shown that exercise stress can increase susceptibility to infection. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, has been reported to inhibit infectivity and replication of a broad spectrum of viruses and may offset the increase in susceptibility to infection associated with stressful exercise. This study examined the effects of quercetin feedings on susceptibility to the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) following stressful exercise. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: exercise-placebo, exercise-quercetin, control-placebo, or control-quercetin. Exercise consisted of a run to fatigue (140 min) on a treadmill for 3 consecutive days. Quercetin (12.5 mg/kg) was administered via gavage for 7 days before viral challenge. At 30 min after the last bout of exercise or rest, mice (n = 23Â?30) were intranasally inoculated with a standardized dose of influenza virus (0.04 hemagglutinating units). Mice were monitored daily for morbidity (time to sickness), symptom severity, and mortality (time to death) for 21 days. Exercise stress was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5Â?7 (P < 0.05)]; quercetin offset the increase in susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5Â?7 (P < 0.05)] that was associated with stressful exercise. These data suggest that short-term quercetin feedings may prove to be an effective strategy to lessen the impact of stressful exercise on susceptibility to respiratory infection.

PhD J Mark Davis (University of South Carolina Exercise Science)

2008-06-14

36

Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

2006-01-01

37

The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

2012-01-01

38

Chronic exercise training versus acute endurance exercise in reducing neurotoxicity in rats exposed to lead acetate?  

PubMed Central

After intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lead acetate, rats received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (15–22 m/min, 25–64 minutes) and/or treadmill exercise at 1.6 km/h until exhaustion. The markers related to neurotoxicity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. 8 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.04) and plasma level of total antioxidant capacity of rats exposed to lead acetate (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.001). Acute exercise only decreased the hippocampal malondialdehyde level (P = 0.09) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.66). Acute exercise also enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in rats exposed to lead acetate, insignificantly (P = 0.99). These findings suggest that chronic treadmill exercise can significantly decrease neurotoxicity and alleviate oxidative stress in rats exposed to lead acetate. However, acute endurance exercise was not associated with these beneficial effects. PMID:25206718

Shahandeh, Mohammad; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Sarkisian, Vaginak

2013-01-01

39

Clinical utility of exercise training in heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction.  

PubMed

Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

2015-01-01

40

Clinical Utility of Exercise Training in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction  

PubMed Central

Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

2015-01-01

41

Carbohydrate intake reduces fat oxidation during exercise in obese boys.  

PubMed

The recent surge in childhood obesity has renewed interest in studying exercise as a therapeutic means of metabolizing fat. However, carbohydrate (CHO) intake attenuates whole body fat oxidation during exercise in healthy children and may suppress fat metabolism in obese youth. To determine the impact of CHO intake on substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in obese boys, seven obese boys (mean age: 11.4 ± 1.0 year; % body fat: 35.8 ± 3.9%) performed 60 min of exercise at an intensity that approximated maximal fat oxidation. A CHO drink (CARB) or a placebo drink (CONT) was consumed in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Rates of total fat, total CHO, and exogenous CHO (CHO(exo)) oxidation were calculated for the last 20 min of exercise. During CONT, fat oxidation rate was 3.9 ± 2.4 mg × kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1 )× min(-1), representing 43.1 ± 22.9% of total energy expenditure (EE). During CARB, fat oxidation was lowered (p = 0.02) to 1.7 ± 0.6 mg × kg FFM(-1 )× min(-1), contributing to 19.8 ± 4.9% EE. Total CHO oxidation rate was 17.2 ± 3.1 mg × kg FFM(-1 )× min(-1) and 13.2 ± 6.1 mg × kg FFM(-1) × min(-1) during CARB and CONT, respectively (p = 0.06). In CARB, CHO(exo) oxidation contributed to 23.3 ± 4.2% of total EE. CHO intake markedly suppresses fat oxidation during exercise in obese boys. PMID:21468747

Chu, Lisa; Riddell, Michael C; Takken, Tim; Timmons, Brian W

2011-12-01

42

Benefits of exercise intervention in reducing neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy is a widespread and potentially incapacitating pathological condition that encompasses more than 100 different forms and manifestations of nerve damage. The diverse pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy affects autonomic, motor and/or sensory neurons, and the symptoms that typify the condition are abnormal cutaneous sensation, muscle dysfunction and, most notably, chronic pain. Chronic neuropathic pain is difficult to treat and is often characterized by either exaggerated responses to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) or pain resulting from stimuli that would not normally provoke pain (allodynia). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of some pathways associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy and then discuss the benefits of exercise interventions. The development of neuropathic pain is a highly complex and multifactorial process, but recent evidence indicates that the activation of spinal glial cells via the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 and increases in the production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and brain derived neurotropic factor are crucial steps. Since many of the most common causes of peripheral neuropathy cannot be fully treated, it is critical to understand that routine exercise may not only help prevent some of those causes, but that it has also proven to be an effective means of alleviating some of the condition’s most distressing symptoms. More research is required to elucidate the typical mechanisms of injury associated with peripheral neuropathy and the exercise-induced benefits to those mechanisms. PMID:24772065

Dobson, John L.; McMillan, Jim; Li, Li

2014-01-01

43

Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs. PMID:25870778

Bretland, Rachel Judith

2015-01-01

44

Haemodynamic changes induced by submaximal exercise before a dive and its consequences on bubble formation  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effects of a submaximal exercise performed 2?h before a simulated dive on bubble formation and to observe the haemodynamic changes and their influence on bubble formation. Participants and methods 16 trained divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 400?kPa for 30?min and decompressed at a rate of 100?kPa/min with a 9?min stop at 130?kPa (French Navy MN90 procedure). Each diver performed two dives 3?days apart, one without exercise and one with exercise before the dive. All participants performed a 40?min constant?load submaximal and calibrated exercise, which consisted of outdoor running 2?h before the dive. Circulating bubbles were detected with a precordial Doppler at 30, 60 and 90?min after surfacing. Haemodynamic changes were evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Results A single bout of strenuous exercise 2?h before a simulated dive significantly reduced circulating bubbles. Post?exercise hypotension (PEH) was observed after exercise with reductions in diastolic and mean blood pressure (DBP and MBP), but total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Stroke volume was reduced, whereas cardiac output was unchanged. Simulated diving caused a similar reduction in cardiac output independent of pre?dive exercise, suggesting that pre?dive exercise only changed DBP and MBP caused by reduced stroke volume. Conclusion A single bout of strenuous exercise 2?h before a dive significantly reduced the number of bubbles in the right heart of divers and protected them from decompression sickness. Declining stroke volume and moderate dehydration induced by a pre?dive exercise might influence inert gas load and bubble formation. PMID:17138641

Blatteau, Jean?Eric; Boussuges, Alain; Gempp, Emmanuel; Pontier, Jean?Michel; Castagna, Olivier; Robinet, Claude; Galland, Francois?Michel; Bourdon, Lionel

2007-01-01

45

Head hair reduces sweat rate during exercise under the sun.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of human head hair on thermoregulation during exercise carried out under solar radiation. 10 healthy male subjects (mean±SD: 25.1±2.5 yr; height: 176.2±4.0?cm; weight: 73.7±6.7?kg; VO(2max) 56.2±5.3?mLO(2)·kg (-1)·min (-1)) took part in 2 1 h-long trials of continuous exercise on a treadmill at 50% VO2(max) under solar radiation that were separated by at least 2 days. Whereas for the first trial they retained their natural head hair (HAIR), in the second trial their hair was totally shaved (NOHAIR). Several properties were measured, including environmental heat stress (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index - WBGT, °C), heart rate, rectal temperature, skin temperature, head temperature, and global sweat rate. The main findings were that whereas there was a lower sweat rate in the HAIR condition (HAIR: 7.08±0.79 vs. NOHAIR: 7.67±0.79?g·m (-2)·min (-1); p=0.03), there were no significant differences in any of the other variables between the HAIR and NOHAIR trials. In conclusion, the presence of head hair resulted in a lower sweat rate. PMID:20683812

Coelho, L G M; Ferreira-Junior, J B; Martini, A R P; Borba, D A; Coelho, D B; Passos, R L F; Fonseca, M A da; Moura-Lima, F A S; Prado, L S; Rodrigues, L O C

2010-11-01

46

Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercises You Can Do at Home These are simple exercises you can do at home to improve ... Find Programs & Services Make a Donation Find a Location View Events Calendar Read the News View Daily ...

47

Maternal exercise during pregnancy reduces risk of mammary tumorigenesis in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Emerging research indicates that modifying lifestyle factors during pregnancy may convey long-term health benefits to offspring. This study was designed to determine whether maternal exercise during pregnancy leads to reduced mammary tumorigenesis in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to exercised and sedentary groups, with the exercised group having free access to a running wheel and the sedentary group housed with a locked wheel during pregnancy. Female pups from exercised or sedentary dams were weaned at 21 days of age and fed a high fat diet without access to a running wheel. At 6 weeks, all pups were injected with the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Mammary tumor development in all pups was monitored for 15 weeks. Pups from exercised dams had a substantially lower tumor incidence (42.9%) compared with pups from sedentary dams (100%). Neither tumor latency nor histological grade differed between the two groups. These data are the first to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy potentiates reduced tumorigenesis in offspring. This study provides an important foundation towards developing more effective modes of behavior modification for cancer prevention. PMID:24950432

Camarillo, Ignacio G; Clah, Leon; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xuanzhu; Larrick, Brienna; Blaize, Nicole; Breslin, Emily; Patel, Neal; Johnson, Diamond; Teegarden, Dorothy; Donkin, Shawn S; Gavin, Timothy P; Newcomer, Sean

2014-11-01

48

Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity

Daniele Martarelli; Mario Cocchioni; Stefania Scuri; Pierluigi Pompei

2009-01-01

49

Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice  

PubMed Central

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) ?-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in ?1 and ?2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPAR? and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance. PMID:25478210

Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Schaffer, Stephen W.

2014-01-01

50

Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.  

PubMed

To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A H; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter

2014-11-15

51

Can Exercise Increase Fitness and Reduce Weight in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15–20?years compared with the general population. Most years of lost life are due to the excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength, and weight. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. Results: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n?=?94) and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n?=?892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11–30% and strength by 33–37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression, exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting, little is known about the effect on weight reduction and cardiovascular fitness. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum, and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally, participants should be assessed beyond the intervention to identify long lasting effects. PMID:25120495

Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Moltke, Ane; Nordentoft, Merete

2014-01-01

52

Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-? (P < 0.05) and TGF-? (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

2013-12-01

53

Reduced Exercise Tolerance and Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment with Remote Secondhand Smoke Exposure  

PubMed Central

Rationale Flight attendants who worked on commercial aircraft before the smoking ban in flights (pre-ban FAs) were exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS). We previously showed never-smoking pre-ban FAs to have reduced diffusing capacity (Dco) at rest. Methods To determine whether pre-ban FAs increase their Dco and pulmonary blood flow () during exercise, we administered a symptom-limited supine-posture progressively increasing cycle exercise test to determine the maximum work (watts) and oxygen uptake () achieved by FAs. After 30 min rest, we then measured Dco and at 20, 40, 60, and 80 percent of maximum observed work. Results The FAs with abnormal resting Dco achieved a lower level of maximum predicted work and compared to those with normal resting Dco (mean±SEM; 88.7±2.9 vs. 102.5±3.1%predicted ; p?=?0.001). Exercise limitation was associated with the FAs' FEV1 (r?=?0.33; p?=?0.003). The Dco increased less with exercise in those with abnormal resting Dco (mean±SEM: 1.36±0.16 vs. 1.90±0.16 ml/min/mmHg per 20% increase in predicted watts; p?=?0.020), and amongst all FAs, the increase with exercise seemed to be incrementally lower in those with lower resting Dco. Exercise-induced increase in was not different in the two groups. However, the FAs with abnormal resting Dco had less augmentation of their Dco with increase in during exercise (mean±SEM: 0.93±0.06 vs. 1.47±0.09 ml/min/mmHg per L/min; p<0.0001). The Dco during exercise was inversely associated with years of exposure to SHS in those FAs with ?10 years of pre-ban experience (r?=??0.32; p?=?0.032). Conclusions This cohort of never-smoking FAs with SHS exposure showed exercise limitation based on their resting Dco. Those with lower resting Dco had reduced pulmonary capillary recruitment. Exposure to SHS in the aircraft cabin seemed to be a predictor for lower Dco during exercise. PMID:22493689

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Sadeghi, Nasrat; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M.

2012-01-01

54

Resistance training reduces the blood pressure response of older men during submaximum aerobic exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether 16 weeks of resistance training (RT) can reduce the blood pressure response and improve the cardiovascular function of men aged 70-80 years during submaximum aerobic exercise. Methods: Twenty-four men aged between 70 and 80 years were randomly assigned to an RT group (n = 12) and control group (n =

Dale I. Lovell; Ross Cuneo; Greg C. Gass

2009-01-01

55

Endurance Exercise Accelerates Myocardial Tissue Oxygenation Recovery and Reduces Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Exercise training offers cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, few essential signals have been identified to underscore the protection from injury. In the present study, we hypothesized that exercise-induced acceleration of myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery contributes to this protection. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were trained on treadmills for 45 min/day at a treading rate of 15 m/min for 8 weeks. At the end of 8-week exercise training, mice underwent 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 60-min or 24-h reperfusion. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry was performed to measure myocardial tissue oxygenation. Western immunoblotting analyses, gene transfection, and myography were examined. The oximetry study demonstrated that exercise markedly shortened myocardial tissue oxygenation recovery time following reperfusion. Exercise training up-regulated Kir6.1 protein expression (a subunit of ATP-sensitive K+ channel on vascular smooth muscle cells, VSMC sarc-KATP) and protected the heart from I/R injury. In vivo gene transfer of dominant negative Kir6.1AAA prolonged the recovery time and enlarged infarct size. In addition, transfection of Kir6.1AAA increased the stiffness and reduced the relaxation capacity in the vasculature. Together, our study demonstrated that exercise training up-regulated Kir6.1, improved tissue oxygenation recovery, and protected the heart against I/R injury. This exercise-induced cardioprotective mechanism may provide a potential therapeutic intervention targeting VSMC sarc-KATP channels and reperfusion recovery. PMID:25474642

Zheng, Tiantian; Xu, Xiaohua; Sandvick, Taylor M.; Hutchinson, Kirk; Wold, Loren E.; Hu, Keli; Sun, Qinghua; Thomas, D. Paul; Ren, Jun; He, Guanglong

2014-01-01

56

Exercise-induced Bronchospasm In Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will encompass definition, history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of exercise –induced\\u000a bronchospasm in the pediatric individual with and without known asthma. Exercise induced asthma is the conventional term for\\u000a transient airway narrowing in a known asthma in association with strenuous exercise usually lasting 5-10 minutes with a decline\\u000a in pulmonary function by at least 10%. Exercise induced

Chris Randolph

2008-01-01

57

Prenatal Stretching Exercise and Autonomic Responses: Preliminary Data and a Model for Reducing Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and it increases maternal risk for future cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships among stretching exercise, autonomic cardiac response, and the development of preeclampsia. Design Secondary data analysis. Methods Heart rate and pulse pressure were longitudinally examined in this secondary data analysis among women who engaged in stretching exercise daily from 18 weeks of gestation to the end of pregnancy compared with women who did walking exercise daily during the same time period. A total of 124 women were randomized to either stretching (n=60) or walking (n=64) in the parent study. Findings Heart rates in the stretching group were consistently lower than those in the walking group. Conclusions Based on the results of this secondary data analyses, a physiologic framework for possible beneficial effects of stretching exercise by enhancing autonomic responses on reducing risks for preeclampsia is proposed and discussed. Clinical Relevance If the protective effect is established, stretching exercise can be translated into nursing intervention for prenatal care. PMID:20618595

Yeo, SeonAe

2010-01-01

58

Molecular aspects involved in swimming exercise training reducing anhedonia in a rat model of depression.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from depression frequently display hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in elevated cortisol levels. One main symptom of this condition is anhedonia. There is evidence that exercise training can be used as a rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an aerobic exercise training protocol on the depressive-like behavior, anhedonia, induced by repeated dexamethasone administration. The study was carried out on adult male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups: the "control group" (C), "exercise group" (E), "dexamethasone group" (D) and the "dexamethasone plus exercise group" (DE). The exercise training consisted of swimming (1 h/d, 5 d/wk) for 3 weeks, with an overload of 5% of the rat body weight. Every day rats were injected with either dexamethasone (D/DE) or saline solution (C/E). Proper positive controls, using fluoxetine, were run in parallel. Decreased blood corticosterone levels, reduced adrenal cholesterol synthesis and adrenal weight (HPA disruption), reduced preference for sucrose consumption and increased immobility time (depressive-like behavior), marked hippocampal DNA oxidation, increased IL-10 and total brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; pro-plus mature-forms) and a severe loss of body mass characterized the dexamethasone-treated animals. Besides increasing testosterone blood concentrations, the swim training protected depressive rats from the anhedonic state, following the same profile as fluoxetine, and also from the dexamethasone-induced impaired neurochemistry. The data indicate that physical exercise could be a useful tool in preventing and treating depressive disorders. PMID:21712072

Sigwalt, A R; Budde, H; Helmich, I; Glaser, V; Ghisoni, K; Lanza, S; Cadore, E L; Lhullier, F L R; de Bem, A F; Hohl, A; de Matos, F J; de Oliveira, P A; Prediger, R D; Guglielmo, L G A; Latini, A

2011-09-29

59

Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Part I: Exercising Nonpharmacologic Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essential hypertension is diagnosed with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. Studies indicate exercise can be a clinically useful treatment, though strenuous exercise may be contraindicated for some. The article discusses the physician's role in diagnosis, nonpharmacologic interventions, exercise safety and effectiveness, and…

Daniels, Stephen Ra.; Loggie, Jennifer M. H.

1992-01-01

60

Fasting and recovery from exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery after strenuous exercise involves processes that are dependent on fluid and food intake. Current sports nutrition guidelines provide recommendations for the quantity and timing of consumption of nutrients to optimise recovery issues such as refuelling, rehydration and protein synthesis for repair and adaptation. Recovery of immune and antioxidant systems is important but less well documented. In some cases, there

Louise Burke

2010-01-01

61

Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia.  

PubMed

Exercise in hypoxia is associated with reduced muscle oxidative function and impaired exercise tolerance. We hypothesised that dietary nitrate supplementation (which increases plasma [nitrite] and thus NO bioavailability) would ameliorate the adverse effects of hypoxia on muscle metabolism and oxidative function. In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, nine healthy subjects completed knee-extension exercise to the limit of tolerance (T(lim)), once in normoxia (20.9% O(2); CON) and twice in hypoxia (14.5% O(2)). During 24 h prior to the hypoxia trials, subjects consumed 0.75 L of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (9.3 mmol nitrate; H-BR) or 0.75 L of nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (0.006 mmol nitrate; H-PL). Muscle metabolism was assessed using calibrated (31)P-MRS. Plasma [nitrite] was elevated (P < 0.01) following BR (194 ± 51 nm) compared to PL (129 ± 23 nm) and CON (142 ± 37 nM). T(lim) was reduced in H-PL compared to CON (393 ± 169 vs. 471 ± 200 s; P < 0.05) but was not different between CON and H-BR (477 ± 200 s). The muscle [PCr], [P(i)] and pH changed at a faster rate in H-PL compared to CON and H-BR. The [PCr] recovery time constant was greater (P < 0.01) in H-PL (29 ± 5 s) compared to CON (23 ± 5 s) and H-BR (24 ± 5 s). Nitrate supplementation reduced muscle metabolic perturbation during exercise in hypoxia and restored exercise tolerance and oxidative function to values observed in normoxia. The results suggest that augmenting the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway may have important therapeutic applications for improving muscle energetics and functional capacity in hypoxia. PMID:21911616

Vanhatalo, Anni; Fulford, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, James R; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

2011-11-15

62

Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

Exercise - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... now Download now Publication Stretching for People with MS Illustrated manual showing range of motion, stretching, and ...

63

Pulmonary system limitations to endurance exercise performance in humans.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence over the past 25 years depicts the healthy pulmonary system as a limiting factor of whole-body endurance exercise performance. This brief overview emphasizes three respiratory system-related mechanisms which impair O(2) transport to the locomotor musculature [arterial O(2) content (C(aO(2))) × leg blood flow (Q(L))], i.e. the key determinant of an individual's aerobic capacity and ability to resist fatigue. First, the respiratory system often fails to prevent arterial desaturation substantially below resting values and thus compromises C(aO(2)). Especially susceptible to this threat to convective O(2) transport are well-trained endurance athletes characterized by high metabolic and ventilatory demands and, probably due to anatomical and morphological gender differences, active women. Second, fatiguing respiratory muscle work (W(resp)) associated with strenuous exercise elicits sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction in limb-muscle vasculature, which compromises Q(L). This impact on limb O(2) transport is independent of fitness level and affects all individuals, but only during sustained, high-intensity endurance exercise performed above ?85% maximal oxygen uptake. Third, excessive fluctuations in intrathoracic pressures accompanying W(resp) can limit cardiac output and therefore Q(L). Exposure to altitude exacerbates the respiratory system limitations observed at sea level, further reducing C(aO(2)) and substantially increasing exercise-induced W(resp). Taken together, the intact pulmonary system of healthy endurance athletes impairs locomotor muscle O(2) transport during strenuous exercise by failing to ensure optimal arterial oxygenation and compromising Q(L). This respiratory system-related impact exacerbates the exercise-induced development of fatigue and compromises endurance performance. PMID:22125308

Amann, Markus

2012-03-01

64

Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484

Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

2015-01-01

65

The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

2014-01-01

66

Physical exercise protects myenteric neurons and reduces parasitemia in Trypanosoma cruzi infection.  

PubMed

To evaluate the parasitemia, nitrergic neurons, and cytokines in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice subjected to moderate physical exercise, forty male Swiss mice, 30days of age, were divided: Trained Control (TC), Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Control (SC), and Sedentary Infected (SI). The moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill lasted 8weeks. Three days after completing the moderate physical exercise program, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, and parasitemia was evaluated from day 4 to day 22 after inoculation. After 75days of infection, cytokines were measured and colonic neurons were quantified using immunofluorescence to identify neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The results were analyzed using analysis of variance - Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, to 5% significance. Moderate physical exercise reduced the parasite peak on day 8 of infection and total parasitemia (p<0.05), contributed to survival of number of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons (p<0.01) and promoted neuronal hypertrophy of the neurons (p<0.05), increased the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-? (p<0.01) and transforming growth factor-? (p>0.05), providing beneficial effects to the host by acting on the immune system to preserve nitrergic neurons. PMID:24667137

Moreira, Neide Martins; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; de Oliveira Dalálio, Márcia Machado; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Braga, Caroline Felício; de Araújo, Silvana Marques

2014-06-01

67

Post-exercise alcohol ingestion exacerbates eccentric-exercise induced losses in performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute alcohol intake on muscular performance in both the exercising and non-exercising legs in the days following\\u000a strenuous eccentric exercise was investigated to ascertain whether an interaction between post-exercise alcohol use and muscle\\u000a damage causes an increase in damage-related weakness. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the\\u000a quadriceps muscles of one leg on an

Matthew J. Barnes; Toby Mündel; Stephen R. Stannard

2010-01-01

68

The Difference in Respiratory and Blood Gas Values During Recovery After Exercise With Spontaneous Versus Reduced Breathing Frequency  

PubMed Central

Extrapolation from post-exercise measurements has been used to estimate respiratory and blood gas parameters during exercise. This may not be accurate in exercise with reduced breathing frequency (RBF), since spontaneous breathing usually follows exercise. This study was performed to ascertain whether measurement of oxygen saturation and blood gases immediately after exercise accurately reflected their values during exercise with RBF. Eight healthy male subjects performed an incremental cycling test with RBF at 10 breaths per minute. A constant load test with RBF (B10) was then performed to exhaustion at the peak power output obtained during the incremental test. Finally, the subjects repeated the constant load test with spontaneous breathing (SB) using the same protocol as B10. Pulmonary ventilation (VE), end-tidal oxygen (PETO2), and carbon dioxide pressures (PETCO2) and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were measured during both constant load tests. The partial pressures of oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2) in capillary blood were measured during the last minute of exercise, immediately following exercise and during the third minute of recovery. At the end of exercise RBF resulted in lower PETO2, SaO2 and PO2, and higher PETCO2 and PCO2 when compared to spontaneous breathing during exercise. Lower SaO2 and PETO2 were detected only for the first 16s and 20s of recovery after B10 compared to the corresponding period in SB. There were no significant differences in PO2 between SB and B10 measured immediately after the exercise. During recovery from exercise, PETCO2 remained elevated for the first 120s in the B10 trial. There were also significant differences between SB and B10 in PCO2 immediately after exercise. We conclude that RBF during high intensity exercise results in hypoxia; however, due to post-exercise hyperpnoea, measurements of blood gas parameters taken 15s after cessation of exercise did not reflect the changes in PO2 and SaO2 seen during exercise. Key points In some sports, the environment is inappropriate for direct measurement of respiratory and blood gas parameters during exercise. To overcome this problem, extrapolation from post-exercise measurements has often been used to estimate changes in respiratory and blood gas parameters during exercise. The possibility of hypoxia and hypercapnia during exercise with reduced breathing frequency has been tested by measuring capillary blood sampled after the exercise. Reduced breathing frequency during high intensity exercise results in hypoxia; however, due to marked post-exercise hyperventilation, measurements of blood gas parameters taken 15 s after the cessation of exercise did not yield any changes in these parameters. Despite hyperventilation during recovery, hypercapnia could be detected by measuring blood gas parameters within 15 s after the exercise with reduced breathing frequency. PMID:24150010

Kapus, Jernej; Ušaj, Anton; Kapus, Venceslav; Štrumbelj, Boro

2009-01-01

69

The independent and combined effects of exercise training and reducing sedentary behavior on cardiometabolic risk factors  

PubMed Central

Purpose This pilot study examined if the combination of exercise training and reducing sedentary time (ST) results in greater changes to health markers than either intervention alone. Methods Fifty-seven overweight/obese participants (19M/39F) (mean ± SD; age 43.6 ± 9.9 y, BMI 35.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2) completed the 12-week study and were randomly assigned to 1) EX: exercise 5-days/week for 40-minutes/session at moderate intensity; 2) rST: reduce ST and increase non-exercise physical activity; 3) EX-rST: combination of EX and rST and 4) CON: maintain behavior. Fasting lipids, blood pressure (BP), VO2 peak, BMI and 2-hr oral glucose tolerance tests were completed pre- and post-intervention. Results EX and EX-rST increased VO2 peak by ~10% and decreased systolic BP (both p<0.001). BMI decreased by ?3.3% (95% CI: ?4.6 to ?1.9%) for EX-rST and ?2.2% (?3.5 to 0.0%) for EX. EX-rST significantly increased C-ISI by 17.8% (2.8 to 32.8%) and decreased insulin area-under-the-curve by 19.4% (?31.4 to ?7.3%). No other groups improved in insulin action variables. rST group decreased ST by 7% (~50 min/day), however BP was the only health-related outcome that improved. Conclusions EX and EX-rST improved VO2 peak and BMI providing further evidence that moderate intensity exercise is beneficial. The within-group analysis provides preliminary evidence that exercising and reducing ST may result in improvements in metabolic biomarkers that are not seen with exercise alone, though between group differences did not reach statistical significance. Future studies, with larger samples, should examine health-related outcomes resulting from greater reductions in ST over longer intervention periods. PMID:24971677

Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Lyden, Kate; Staudenmayer, John; Hickey, Amanda; Viskochil, Richard; Braun, Barry; Freedson, Patty S.

2014-01-01

70

UNC analysis finds exercise, even mild physical activity, may reduce breast cancer risk  

Cancer.gov

A new analysis done by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers has found that physical activity--either mild or intense and before or after menopause--may reduce breast cancer risk, but substantial weight gain may negate these benefits. Published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings indicate that women can reduce their breast cancer risk by exercising and maintaining their weight. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is home to the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

71

Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants are molecules that reduce the damage associated with oxidative stress by counteracting free radicals. Regular exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle, although it can increase oxidative stress. As a typical vegetarian diet comprises a wide range of antioxidant-rich foods, it is plausible that the consumption of these foods will result in an enhanced antioxidant system capable of reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a relationship between a vegetarian diet and lower risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers has been established. This review explores the current available evidence linking exercise, vegetarians, antioxidants, and oxidative stress. PMID:20845212

Trapp, Denise; Knez, Wade; Sinclair, Wade

2010-10-01

72

Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

2013-01-01

73

Reduced oxidation rates of ingested glucose during prolonged exercise with low endogenous CHO availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper descibes a study that shows that glycogen-lowering exercise, performed the evening before an exercise bout in combination with glycogen restriction leads to a reduction of the oxidation rate of ingested glucose during moderate-intensity exercise

ASKER E. JEUKENDRUP; LARS B. BORGHOUTS; W. H. M. Saris; A. J. M. Wagenmakers

1996-01-01

74

Influence of aerobic exercise on depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

43 depressed undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment condition in which they participated in strenuous exercise, a placebo treatment condition in which they practiced relaxation exercises, or a no-treatment condition. Aerobic capacity was assessed before and after a 10-wk treatment period. Self-reported depression was assessed before, during, and after the treatment period. Results show that

I. Lisa McCann; David S. Holmes

1984-01-01

75

Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise  

PubMed Central

Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e., team sports) induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness, and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise. PMID:24550837

Minett, Geoffrey M.; Duffield, Rob

2013-01-01

76

Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise.  

PubMed

Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e., team sports) induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness, and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise. PMID:24550837

Minett, Geoffrey M; Duffield, Rob

2014-01-01

77

Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia-dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishment by assessment of tissue oxygenation maximal change and recovery change, respectively. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled, of whom 9 (age 33.3 ± 4.4 years, five males) completed the study. Each subject took part in three MRI visits, with dietary nitrate (7cl concentrated beetroot juice) consumed before the third visit. During each visit fMRIs were conducted concurrently with plantar flexion exercise at workloads of 15% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found between visits 1 and 2 in the fMRI measures. A decrease in maximal change was found at 15% MVC in soleus between visits 2 and 3 (5.12 ± 2.36 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.004) and between visits 1 and 3 (4.43 ± 2.12 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.043), but not at 25% MVC or within gastrocnemius. There was no difference in recovery change between visits. We found that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces tissue oxygenation alterations during physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This effect is more prominent in muscles with predominantly type 1 fibers and at lower workloads. This indicates that in healthy subjects dietary nitrate predominantly affects skeletal muscle energy efficiency with no change in oxygen delivery. PMID:25052493

Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

2014-07-01

78

Reduced metaboreflex control of blood pressure during exercise in individuals with intellectual disability: a possible contributor to exercise intolerance.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males performed a testing protocol involving 3-min periods of baseline, HG exercise (at 30% MVC), circulatory occlusion, and recovery. The same protocol was repeated without occlusion. At baseline, no differences were detected between groups in beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume, and peripheral resistance. IID were able to sustain an exercise MAP response at comparable levels to the control group exerting similar peripheral resistance; however, IID exhibited a blunted chronotropic response to HG and a diminished exercise vagal withdrawal compared to controls. During occlusion, IID exhibited a lower pressor response than their control peers, associated with a lower increase in peripheral resistance during this task. In conclusion, although intellectual disabilities can be the consequence of many different genes, IID share common deficits in the chronotropic response to exercise and a blunted metaboreflex-induced pressor response. PMID:23000635

Dipla, K; Zafeiridis, A; Papadopoulos, S; Koskolou, M; Geladas, N; Vrabas, I S

2013-01-01

79

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Exercise, Via Reduced Leptin Levels, in Obese Women with Down Syndrome.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, our aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, eleven of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-week aerobic training programme. They attended 3 sessions/week, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30-40 min) at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate, and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex and BMI. Fat mass percentage and distribution were measured and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and post-intervention. This protocol was approved by an Institutional Ethics Committee. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants' VO2max (20.2±5.8vs.23.7±6.3ml/kg/min;p<0.001), and plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced in the intervention group (54.2±6.7vs.45.7±6.1ng/ml;p=0.026). Further significant correlations between plasma leptin and indices of obesity were found. In contrast, no significant changes were found in adiponectin levels (p>0.05). None of tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training programme reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome. PMID:23170751

Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Fornieles-Gonzalez, Gabriel; Rosety, Miguel Angel; Rosety, Ignacio; Diaz, Antonio; Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel

2012-11-19

80

Efficacy of Chinese Eye Exercises on Reducing Accommodative Lag in School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial. Methods A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine); sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints); and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage). Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score. Results Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10D) than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03D) and eyes closed group (0.07D) (P = 0.04). The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0%) than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8%) and the eyes closed group (34.9%) (P = 0.03). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes. Conclusion Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the long-term. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01756287 PMID:25742161

Li, Shi-Ming; Kang, Meng-Tian; Peng, Xiao-xia; Li, Si-Yuan; Wang, Yang; Li, Lei; Yu, Jing; Qiu, Li-Xin; Sun, Yun-Yun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Sun, Xin; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

2015-01-01

81

Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

1992-01-01

82

Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021

Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Venditti, Paola

2015-01-01

83

Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola

2015-01-01

84

Increased slow wave sleep and reduced stage 2 sleep in children depending on exercise intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is controversy about the consequences of physical exercise on human sleeping behaviors. Evidence suggests that voluntary physical exercise affects brain structures and functions. However, there are inconsistent data regarding the effects of exercise on sleep architecture and sleep continuity, especially the amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

Markus Dworak; Alfred Wiater; Dirk Alfer; Egon Stephan; Wildor Hollmann; Heiko K. Strüder

2008-01-01

85

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression  

PubMed Central

Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as “similar.” Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as “similar.” Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as “similar,” while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information. PMID:23641193

Déry, Nicolas; Pilgrim, Malcolm; Gibala, Martin; Gillen, Jenna; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; MacQueen, Glenda; Becker, Suzanna

2013-01-01

86

Resistance exercise increases AMPK activity and reduces 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Resistance exercise is a potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis and muscle cell growth, with the increase in protein synthesis being detected within 2–3 h post-exercise and remaining elevated for up to 48 h. However, during exercise, muscle protein synthesis is inhibited. An increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity has recently been shown to decrease mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling to key regulators of translation initiation. We hypothesized that the cellular mechanism for the inhibition of muscle protein synthesis during an acute bout of resistance exercise in humans would be associated with an activation of AMPK and an inhibition of downstream components of the mTOR pathway (4E-BP1 and S6K1). We studied 11 subjects (seven men, four women) before, during, and for 2 h following a bout of resistance exercise. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected at each time point from the vastus lateralis. We utilized immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting methods to measure muscle AMPK?2 activity, and mTOR-associated upstream and downstream signalling proteins, and stable isotope techniques to measure muscle fractional protein synthetic rate (FSR). AMPK?20 activity (pmol min?1 (mg protein)?1) at baseline was 1.7 ± 0.3, increased immediately post-exercise (3.0 ± 0.6), and remained elevated at 1 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle FSR decreased during exercise and was significantly increased at 1 and 2 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at Thr37/46 was significantly reduced immediately post-exercise (P < 0.05). We conclude that AMPK activation and a reduced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 may contribute to the inhibition of muscle protein synthesis during resistance exercise. However, by 1–2 h post-exercise, muscle protein synthesis increased in association with an activation of protein kinase B, mTOR, S6K1 and eEF2. PMID:16873412

Dreyer, Hans C; Fujita, Satoshi; Cadenas, Jerson G; Chinkes, David L; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

2006-01-01

87

Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise

Francis M Finucane; Jessica Horton; Lisa R Purslow; David B Savage; Soren Brage; Hervé Besson; Kenneth Horton; Ema Lucia De Rolfe; Alison Sleigh; Stephen J Sharp; Helen J Martin; Avan Aihie Sayer; Cyrus Cooper; Ulf Ekelund; Simon J Griffin; Nicholas J Wareham

2009-01-01

88

Development of Countermeasures and Exercise Protocols to Reduce the Effects of Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I have helped scientists at NASA-JSC in analyzing data from many projects. Some of the major ones are: (1) cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) following bed rest, (2) the effects of dietary sodium, (3) in-flight cycle exercise mitigates reduced oxygen consumption at submaximal heart rates following space flight, (4) exercise thermoregulation after 13 days of head down bed rest, and (5) bed rest induced orthostatic intolerance. Many of the projects have now been completed and some of them are in the process of being published and others have been presented at national meetings. These projects have helped me be a true statistician and given me a real-life perspective of how interesting and complicated data can be. As a by-product of of these involvements I have been able to write and publish some methodological research that have applications in NASA and elsewhere. For instance, while I was at JSC, I happened to meet Dr. Al Feiveson and got into a discussion of the Space Shuttle Reliability. This led us to rethink about the way the data on the accelerated life testing of space shuttle pressure vessels had been analyzed. This has resulted in a major statistical paper and the paper has appeared in one of the top journals in the field of Statistics. A review of the paper by the editor of the journal was published in AmStatNews, a copy is attached with this report. I have presented these findings at the national/international statistics conference and at other places. I have also written another paper on reliability and a paper on calibration techniques that have applications in the engineering and the biomedical branches of NASA. Further, I am currently in the process of writing at least two more papers that have direct applications in NASA related studies.

Kulkarni, Pandurang M.

2000-01-01

89

The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y) performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial) and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation (omega-3 trial). Before and 48 h after eccentric exercise, signs of inflammation was assessed by measuring soreness ratings, swelling (arm circumference and arm volume), and temperature (infrared skin sensor). Arm soreness increased (p < 0.0001) in response to eccentric exercise; the magnitude of increase in soreness was 15% less in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.004). Arm circumference increased after eccentric exercise in the control trial (p = 0.01) but not in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.15). However, there was no difference between trials (p = 0.45). Arm volume and skin temperature did not change in response to eccentric exercise in either trial. These findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation decreases soreness, as a marker of inflammation, after eccentric exercise. Based on these findings, omega-3 supplementation could provide benefits by minimizing post-exercise soreness and thereby facilitate exercise training in individuals ranging from athletes undergoing heavy conditioning to sedentary subjects or patients who are starting exercise programs or medical treatments such as physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation. Key points Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to reduce inflammation in numerous inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Chrohn’s disease. Although strenuous exercise is known to cause acute increases in inflammation, it is not clear if omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates this adverse response to exercise. Our research demonstrates that 3000 mg·d-1 omega-3 fatty acid supplementation minimizes the severe, delayed-onset muscle soreness that results from strenuous eccentric strength exercise. This information, along with a plethora of information showing that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has other health benefits, demonstrates that a readily available over the counter nutritional supplement (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids) reduces delayed-onset soreness caused by strenuous strength exercise. This information has obvious relevance to athletic populations but also to other groups such as physical therapy patients and newly admitted cardiac rehabilitation patients, as muscle soreness, if left unchecked, can slow the progress in adapting to a new exercise program. Furthermore, as inflammation is known to be involved in the pathogenesis if numerous diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, it is likely prudent for individuals to use inflammation-attenuating interventions, such as omega-3 supplementation, to keep inflammatory responses to physical activity at a minimum. PMID:24150614

Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.

2011-01-01

90

Naloxone and rimonabant reduce the reinforcing properties of exercise in rats.  

PubMed

Naloxone and rimonabant block neurotransmitter action of some drugs of abuse (such as ethanol, opiates, and nicotine), and thereby reduce drug seeking and self-administration by suppressing the drugs' reinforcing properties. The present study represents an attempt to elucidate whether these drugs may also reduce rewarding properties of other events, in this case, activity-based reinforcement. In Experiment 1, 10 obese and 10 lean Zucker rats pressed a locked door under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement that, when unlocked, provided access to a running wheel for 2-min intervals. After baseline breakpoints were established, doses of naloxone (0.3-10 mg/kg) were administered prior to experimental sessions. Obese rats exhibited lower baseline breakpoints for wheel activity, lower response rates, and fewer revolutions compared to lean rats. Naloxone decreased revolutions and response rates for lean and obese rats, but did not reduce breakpoints. In Experiment 2, five Long-Evans rats pressed a door to unlock a wheel for 20 s of wheel activity. Doses of rimonabant (1-10 mg/kg) were administered before some experimental sessions. The highest dose of rimonabant suppressed breakpoints and response rates, but did not affect revolutions. These data suggest that both drugs reduce the reinforcing properties of wheel running, but do so in different manners: naloxone may suppress wheel-based activity (consummatory behavior), but not seeking (appetitive behavior), and rimonabant does the converse. The data also support the role of endocannabinoids in the reinforcing properties of exercise, an implication that is important in terms of CB1 antagonists as a type of pharmacotherapy. PMID:21707193

Rasmussen, Erin B; Hillman, Conrad

2011-12-01

91

Short-term Aerobic Exercise Reduces Nitroglycerin-induced Orthostatic Intolerance in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims/Hypothesis Older adults are at a high risk for syncope due to orthostatic intolerance (OI), and this risk increases with comorbid type 2 diabetes and vasoactive medications. Despite many benefits, previous investigations have shown worsening OI with aerobic training. We examined whether aerobic exercise reduced OI in older adults with type 2 diabetes who were given a short-acting vasoactive agent (nitroglycerin). Methods Forty older adults (25 males and 15 females, mean age 71.4 ± 0.7 years, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years) with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects were randomized to each of 2 groups: an aerobic group (3 months of vigorous aerobic exercise) and a nonaerobic (no aerobic exercise) group. Exercise sessions were supervised by a certified exercise trainer 3 times per week. After being given 400 ?g of sublingual nitroglycerin, each subject was placed in a 70° head-up tilt for 30 minutes. Results When the 2 groups were compared using a Cox proportional hazards model, tilt table tolerance was significantly better in the aerobic group as compared to in the nonaerobic group (?2MC = 7.271, P = 0.007). Conclusions Our findings indicate that a relatively short aerobic exercise intervention can improve postnitroglycerin orthostatic tolerance in older adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21346593

Madden, Kenneth M.; Lockhart, Chris K.; Potter, Tiffany F.; Cuff, Darcye J.; Meneilly, Graydon S.

2013-01-01

92

Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Older heart failure (HF) patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF) due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (aged 68 ± 10 years) without large (aorta) or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery) vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a) peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2), b) physical function, c) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d) determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min) compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min) (p = 0.01). Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p < 0.001). After submaximal exercise, the change in superficial femoral LBF was reduced in HF participants (79 ± 92 ml/min) compared to healthy elderly (222 ± 108 ml/min; p = 0.002). This occurred even though submaximal stress-induced measures of the flow in the descending aorta (5.0 ± 1.2 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3 L/min; p = 0.87), and the stress-resting baseline difference in aortic flow (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.7 ± 0.8 L/min; p = 0.75) were similar between the 2 groups. Importantly, the difference in submaximal exercise induced superficial femoral LBF between the 2 groups persisted after accounting for age, gender, body surface area, LVEF, and thigh muscle area (p ? 0.03). Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow. PMID:19922666

2009-01-01

93

The role of exercise in reducing the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus in obese women.  

PubMed

The global obesity epidemic continues unabated, now rapidly expanding to developing countries. Multiple comorbidities and premature mortality are associated with obesity, most frequently diabetes. The associated financial and economical burden is escalating as well. The sedentary lifestyle adopted by many pregnant women because of traditional practices and the current recommendation for gestational weight gain are contributing factors to the obesity and diabetes epidemic. Physical inactivity is recognized as an independent risk factor for obesity insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; the physiological and hormonal changes associated with pregnancy magnify this risk. Conversely, evidence and accumulated experience indicate that antenatal lifestyle interventions that include physical activity and judicious dieting could improve the pregnancy outcome and reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and is effective as an adjunctive therapy for diabetes in pregnancy. All major professional organizations, among them American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Diabetes Association (ADA), Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), recommend lifestyle interventions that include diet and exercise to prevent or manage gestational diabetes or diabetes mellitus. PMID:25240421

Artal, Raul

2015-01-01

94

Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/?(0) thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (?VO2/?WR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (?VO2/?HR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (?VE/?VO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (?VE/?VCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

2015-04-01

95

Physical Exercise Reduces the Expression of RANTES and Its CCR5 Receptor in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Humans  

PubMed Central

RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-?, IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue. PMID:24895488

Baturcam, Engin; Tiss, Ali; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said

2014-01-01

96

Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.  

PubMed

Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 °C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:?CAA declined 75 ± 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P < 0.001), but was unchanged in BAL (P = 0.061). Exercise time was shorter in TYR-free (59.8 ± 19.0 min vs. 66.2 ± 16.9 min in TYR-free and BAL respectively; P = 0.036). Heart rate (P = 0.298), core (P = 0.134) and skin (P = 0.384) temperature, RPE (P > 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:?CAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat. PMID:23288035

Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys

2013-06-01

97

Quercetin intake with exercise modulates lipoprotein metabolism and reduces atherosclerosis plaque formation  

PubMed Central

Study objectives We proposed that mice supplemented with quercetin, a class of flavonoids known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, will have profound effects on the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis when combined with exercise. Study design Forty C57BL6 LDLr ?/? mice were divided into four groups (n?=?10): control untreated (NN); control group supplemented with 100 ?g/day of quercetin (NQ); exercise group (EN); and exercise group supplemented with 100 ?g/day of quercetin (EQ). All animals were fed atherogenic diet. The exercise groups were run on a treadmill for 30 minutes, 15 m/min for 5 days/week for 30 days. After 30 day animals were sacrificed and tissues were harvested. Results and conclusion Mice supplemented with quercetin during exercise sessions had 78% atherosclerotic plaque reduction compared to control mice and 40% less atherosclerotic plaque formation compared to control group supplemented with quercetin. The manifestation of the combination of quercetin supplementation with exercise was more evident in the pro-reverse cholesterol transport genes, indicating a plausible mechanism for their combined beneficial effect. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), is multifactorial and therefore its treatment approaches and the ability to regress the plaque are complicated. Data from research on animal models and clinical studies have indicated that moderate daily exercise can alleviate the risk for the development of atherosclerotic plaques, while the same has not been true for the supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24890098

2014-01-01

98

Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}  

SciTech Connect

Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

Yan Zhencheng [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Liu Daoyan [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhang Lili [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Shen Chenyi [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Ma Qunli [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Cao Tingbing [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Wang Lijuan [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Nie Hai [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zidek, Walter [Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Tepel, Martin [Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Zhu Zhiming [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)]. E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

2007-03-09

99

Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment  

Cancer.gov

Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study published October 8, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

100

Response of males and females to high-force eccentric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has previously been shown that females incur less muscle damage than males after strenuous exercise, but limited data are available for humans. To determine possible differences between the sexes in humans, the response to high-force eccentric exercise was examined in a large sample of women (n = 83) and men (n = 82). The participants performed a bout of

John Rinard; Priscilla M. Clarkson; Lucille L. Smith; Marlene Grossman

2000-01-01

101

Fetal heart rate and uterine contractility during maternal exercise at term  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the physiologic response of human fetal heart rate and uterine contractility to moderately strenuous maternal exercise. STUDY DESIGN: We measured fetal heart rate and intrauterine pressure with the use of internal monitoring before, during, and after maternal exercise at a heart rate of 140 beats\\/min on a cycle ergometer in 30 term women admitted

Wilhelmina E. M. Spinnewijn; Frederik K. Lotgering; Piet C. Struijk; Henk C. S. Wallenburg

1996-01-01

102

Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20–50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive

H P F PETERS; W R DE VRIES; G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN; L M A AKKERMANS

2001-01-01

103

Air breathing minimizes post-exercise lactate load in the tropical Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides Broussonet  

E-print Network

. Strenuous exercise with bouts of burst swimming, however, resulted in both high blood lactate and glucoseAir breathing minimizes post-exercise lactate load in the tropical Pacific tarpon, Megalops Megalops cyprinoides that were significantly higher when fish did not have access to air. Blood glucose

Farrell, Anthony P.

104

Hypoxic exercise training reduces senescent T-lymphocyte subsets in blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration and control of systemic immune responses depends on the regulated trafficking of T-lymphocytes. This study elucidates how various exercises regimens with\\/without hypoxia affect phenotypic characteristics of T-lymphocyte subsets in blood. Fifty sedentary males were randomly divided into five groups. Each group (n=10) received one of five interventions: normoxic (21%O2) resting (N-C), hypoxic (15%O2) resting (H-C), normoxic exercise (50%Wmax

Jong-Shyan Wang; Wan-Ling Chen; Tzu-Pin Weng

2011-01-01

105

Exercise interventions to reduce fall-related fractures and their risk factors in individuals with low bone density: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Exercise can reduce falls and fall-related fractures in healthy individuals; however, evidence for individuals with low BMD\\u000a is limited. The results from this systematic review indicate that exercise interventions for individuals with low BMD to reduce\\u000a falls and fractures should include balance, muscle strengthening, and weight-bearing exercises.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate which exercise interventions are

D. C. J. de Kam; E. Smulders; V. G. M. Weerdesteijn; B. C. M. Smits-Engelsman

2009-01-01

106

Left ventricular global longitudinal strain is associated with exercise capacity in failing hearts with preserved and reduced ejection fraction  

PubMed Central

Aims Heart failure patients with reduced and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) show reduced exercise capacity. We explored the relationship between exercise capacity and systolic and diastolic myocardial function in heart failure patients. Methods and results Exercise capacity, by peak oxygen uptake (VO2), was assessed in 100 patients (56 ± 12 years, NYHA functional class: 2.5 ± 0.9, EF: 42 ± 19%). LV systolic function, as EF and global longitudinal strain (GLS), and right ventricular function were assessed by echocardiography. Left atrial volume index and the ratio of peak early diastolic filling velocity (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e?) were measures of diastolic function. Thirty-seven patients had heart failure with preserved EF (HFpEF), defined as EF ?50% and echocardiographic diastolic dysfunction. LV GLS and peak pulmonary arterial systolic pressure were independently correlated to peak VO2 in the total study population and in HFpEF separately. LV GLS was superior to EF in identifying patients with impaired peak VO2 <20 mL/kg/min as shown by receiver operating characteristic analyses [areas under curves 0.93 (0.89–0.98) vs. 0.85 (0.77–0.93), P < 0.05]. In patients with HFpEF, GLS was reduced below normal (?17.5 ± 3.2%) and correlated to E/e? (R = 0.45, P = 0.005) and left atrial volume index (R = 0.48, P = 0.003), while EF did not. Conclusion GLS correlated independently to peak VO2 in patients with reduced and preserved EF and was superior in identifying patients with reduced exercise capacity. In HFpEF, systolic function by GLS was impaired. There was a significant relationship between diastolic function and GLS, confirming a coupling between diastolic and longitudinal systolic function in HFpEF. PMID:25552469

Hasselberg, Nina E.; Haugaa, Kristina H.; Sarvari, Sebastian I.; Gullestad, Lars; Andreassen, Arne K.; Smiseth, Otto A.; Edvardsen, Thor

2015-01-01

107

Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Dysfunction and Remodeling in Ovariectomized Rats Submitted to Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exercise training (ET) prevents or minimizes cardiac dysfunction and pathological ventricular remodeling in ovariectomized rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) and to examine the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were subjected to either MI or fictitious surgery (Sham) and randomly divided into the following groups: Control, OVX+SHAMSED, OVX+SHAMET, OVX+MISED and OVX+MIET. ET was performed on a motorized treadmill (5x/wk, 60 min/day, 8 weeks). Cardiac function was assessed by ventricular catheterization and Dihydroethidium fluorescence (DHE) was evaluated to analyze cardiac oxidative stress. Histological analyses were made to assess collagen deposition, myocyte hypertrophy and infarct size. Western Blotting was performed to analyze the protein expression of catalase and SOD-2, as well as Gp91phox and AT1 receptor (AT1R). MI-trained rats had significantly increased in +dP/dt and decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared with MI-sedentary rats. Moreover, oxidative stress and collagen deposition was reduced, as was myocyte hypertrophy. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in both AT1R and Gp91phox expression and an increase in catalase expression. SOD-2 expression was not altered. These results indicate that ET improves the functional cardiac parameters associated with attenuation of cardiac remodeling in ovariectomized rats subjected to MI. The mechanism seems to be related to a reduction in the expression of both the AT1 receptor and Gp91phox as well as an increase in the antioxidant enzyme catalase, which contributes to a reduction in oxidative stress. Therefore, ET may be an important therapeutic target for the prevention of heart failure in postmenopausal women affected by MI. PMID:25551214

de Almeida, Simone Alves; Claudio, Erick Roberto Gonçalves; Mengal, Vinícius Franskoviaky; de Oliveira, Suelen Guedes; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila Lang; Gouvêa, Sônia Alves; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; de Abreu, Gláucia Rodrigues

2014-01-01

108

Exercise in heart failure patients supported with a left ventricular assist device.  

PubMed

After implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD), exercise capacity in heart failure patients remains reduced with peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) values averaging from 11 to 20 ml/kg/min. Total cardiac output in CF-LVAD patients during exercise is predominantly determined by pump speed, the pressure difference across the pump, and in some cases ejection through the aortic valve. Fixed pump speed utilized in CF-LVADs may provide insufficient support, resulting in a moderate cardiac output increase during increased physical strain. Ongoing studies are evaluating whether pump speed changes in response to varied loading conditions may enable LVADs to provide sufficient support even during strenuous exercise. In the currently used devices, evidence suggests that focus on optimizing non-cardiac peripheral parameters is vital. Extra-cardiac potentially reversible factors are anemia with low oxygen-carrying capacity, obesity and general deconditioning with low muscle mass. In addition, exercise training in CF-LVAD patients can improve peak VO2. To design interventions to improve functional capacity in patients treated with modern durable LVADs, a detailed understanding of exercise physiology in a continuous-flow circulatory system is necessary. In this review we address the different components of exercise physiology in LVAD patients and point out potential solutions or areas of future research. PMID:25577562

Jung, Mette Holme; Gustafsson, Finn

2015-04-01

109

Genetic impairment of AMPKalpha2 signaling does not reduce muscle glucose uptake during treadmill exercise in mice.  

PubMed

Some studies suggest that the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important in regulating muscle glucose uptake in response to intense electrically stimulated contractions. However, it is unknown whether AMPK regulates muscle glucose uptake during in vivo exercise. We studied this in male and female mice overexpressing kinase-dead AMPKalpha2 (AMPK-KD) in skeletal and heart muscles. Wild-type and AMPK-KD mice were exercised at the same absolute intensity and the same relative intensity (30 and 70% of individual maximal running speed) to correct for reduced exercise capacity of the AMPK-KD mouse. Muscle glucose clearance was measured using 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose as tracer. In wild-type mice, glucose clearance was increased at 30 and 70% of maximal running speed by 40 and 350% in the quadriceps muscle and by 120 and 380% in gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. Glucose clearance was not lower in AMPK-KD muscles compared with wild-type regardless of whether animals were exercised at the same relative or the same absolute intensity. In agreement, surface membrane content of the glucose transporter GLUT4 was increased similarly in AMPK-KD and wild-type muscle in response to running. We also measured signaling of alternative exercise-sensitive pathways that might be compensatorily increased in AMPK-KD muscles. However, increases in phosphorylation of CaMKII, Trisk95, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 were not higher in AMPK-KD than in WT muscle. Collectively, these findings suggest that AMPKalpha2 signaling is not essential in regulating glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle during treadmill exercise and that other mechanisms play a central role. PMID:19654283

Maarbjerg, Stine J; Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Rose, Adam J; Jeppesen, Jacob; Jensen, Thomas E; Treebak, Jonas T; Birk, Jesper B; Schjerling, Peter; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A

2009-10-01

110

Enhancement of preoxygenation for decompression sickness protection: effect of exercise duration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Since strenuous exercise for 10 min during preoxygenation was shown to provide better protection from decompression sickness (DCS) incidence than resting preoxygenation, a logical question was: would a longer period of strenuous exercise improve protection even further? HYPOTHESIS: Increased strenuous exercise duration during preoxygenation increases DCS protection. METHODS: There were 60 subjects, 30 men and 30 women, who were exposed to 9,144 m (4.3 psia) for 4 h while performing mild, upper body exercise. Before the exposures, each subject performed three preoxygenation profiles on different days in balanced order: a 90-min resting preoxygenation control; a 240-min resting preoxygenation control; and a 90-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 15 min. The subjects were monitored at altitude for venous gas emboli (VGE) with an echo-imaging system and observed for signs and symptoms of DCS. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in occurrence of DCS following any of the three preoxygenation procedures. Results were also comparable to an earlier report of 42% DCS with a 60-min preoxygenation including a 10-min exercise. There was no difference between VGE incidence in the comparison of protection offered by a 90-min preoxygenation with or without 13 min of strenuous exercise. The DCS incidence following a 240-min resting preoxygenation, 40%, was higher than observed during NASA studies and nearly identical with the earlier 42% DCS after a 60-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 10 min. CONCLUSION: The protection offered by a 10 min exercise in a 60-min preoxygenation was not increased with extension of the preoxygenation exercise period to 15 min in a 90-min preoxygenation, indicating an upper time limit to the beneficial effects of strenuous exercise.

Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Fischer, Michele D.; Kannan, Nandini

2002-01-01

111

Does smoking status influence the effect of physical exercise on fibrinolytic function in healthy volunteers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise has been reported to simultaneously trigger and protect against sudden death, the so-called “The Paradox of Exercise”. Differences in fibrinolytic function appear to exist between chronic and acute exercise. The aim of the present study was\\u000a to assess the fibrinolytic system after strenuous exercise in healthy people and explored the influence of smoking habit.\\u000a \\u000a Methods: 23 healthy male volunteers

Antonio Tello-Montoliu; Vanessa Roldán; Vicente E Climent; Francisco Sogorb; Gregory YH Lip; Francisco Marín

2006-01-01

112

Resistance exercise at variable volume does not reduce postprandial lipemia in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of resistance exercise sessions (RESs) performed at different levels of high-volume resistance exercise (HVRE) and low-volume resistance exercise (LVRE) on postprandial lipemia (PPL) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-nine healthy unconditioned postmenopausal women (59.5?±?4.8 years of age, body mass 69.6?±?9.1 kg, height 157.9?±?7.2 cm, BMI 27.6?±?4.1 kg m(-2), waist circumference 76.1?±?9.7 cm, VO2max 18.7?±?1.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) were assigned to a LVRE (n?=?12), HVRE (n?=?14), and control group (CG, n?=?13). Experimental groups performed one RES involving eight exercises. The HVRE group performed three sets with a maximum of 15 repetitions, and the LVRE group performed one set with a maximum of 15 repetitions. Approximately 16 h after a RES, all of the groups were given an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT). During the RES, we evaluated the energy expenditure (EE) of the resistance session and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); following the RES and the OFTT, we evaluated lipid profiles (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides). While the study groups did not demonstrate significant differences in lipid profiles, the total energy expenditure (EE?+?EPOC) of the session exercise treatments was significantly higher for HVRE than for LVRE (0.60?±?0.12 and 0.31?±?0.11 MJ, respectively, p?exercise do not lower basal triglyceride concentration and postprandial lipid profile parameters at approximately 16 h following resistance exercise in untrained postmenopausal women. PMID:24414335

Correa, Cleiton Silva; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Macedo, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira; Bittencourt, Aline; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Gross, Julia Silveira; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

2014-04-01

113

Whole body deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase {beta}2 reduces muscle AMPK activity and exercise capacity.  

PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) ? subunits (?1 and ?2) provide scaffolds for binding ? and ? subunits and contain a carbohydrate-binding module important for regulating enzyme activity. We generated C57Bl/6 mice with germline deletion of AMPK ?2 (?2 KO) and examined AMPK expression and activity, exercise capacity, metabolic control during muscle contractions, aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) sensitivity, and susceptibility to obesity-induced insulin resistance. We find that ?2 KO mice are viable and breed normally. ?2 KO mice had a reduction in skeletal muscle AMPK ?1 and ?2 expression despite up-regulation of the ?1 isoform. Heart AMPK ?2 expression was also reduced but this did not affect resting AMPK ?1 or ?2 activities. AMPK ?1 and ?2 activities were not changed in liver, fat, or hypothalamus. AICAR-stimulated glucose uptake but not fatty acid oxidation was impaired in ?2 KO mice. During treadmill running ?2 KO mice had reduced maximal and endurance exercise capacity, which was associated with lower muscle and heart AMPK activity and reduced levels of muscle and liver glycogen. Reductions in exercise capacity of ?2 KO mice were not due to lower muscle mitochondrial content or defects in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake or fatty acid oxidation. When challenged with a high-fat diet ?2 KO mice gained more weight and were more susceptible to the development of hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance. In summary these data show that deletion of AMPK ?2 reduces AMPK activity in skeletal muscle resulting in impaired exercise capacity and the worsening of diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. PMID:20855892

Steinberg, Gregory R; O'Neill, Hayley M; Dzamko, Nicolas L; Galic, Sandra; Naim, Tim; Koopman, René; Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Honeyman, Jane; Hewitt, Kimberly; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Scott, John W; Koentgen, Frank; Lynch, Gordon S; Watt, Matthew J; van Denderen, Bryce J W; Campbell, Duncan J; Kemp, Bruce E

2010-11-26

114

NaHCO3-induced alkalosis reduces the phosphocreatine slow component during heavy-intensity forearm exercise.  

PubMed

During heavy-intensity exercise, the mechanisms responsible for the continued slow decline in phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) (PCr slow component) have not been established. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a reduced intracellular acidosis would result in a greater oxidative flux and, consequently, a reduced magnitude of the PCr slow component. Subjects (n = 10) performed isotonic wrist flexion in a control trial and in an induced alkalosis (Alk) trial (0.3g/kg oral dose of NaHCO3, 90 min before testing). Wrist flexion, at a contraction rate of 0.5 Hz, was performed for 9 min at moderate- (75% of onset of acidosis; intracellular pH threshold) and heavy-intensity (125% intracellular pH threshold) exercise. 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure intracellular [H+], [PCr], [Pi], and [ATP]. The initial recovery data were used to estimate the rate of ATP synthesis and oxidative flux at the end of heavy-intensity exercise. In repeated trials, venous blood sampling was used to measure plasma [H+], [HCO3-], and [Lac-]. Throughout rest and exercise, plasma [H+] was lower (P < 0.05) and [HCO3-] was elevated (P < 0.05) in Alk compared with control. During the final 3 min of heavy-intensity exercise, Alk caused a lower (P < 0.05) intracellular [H+] [246 (SD 117) vs. 291 nmol/l (SD 129)], a greater (P < 0.05) [PCr] [12.7 (SD 7.0) vs. 9.9 mmol/l (SD 6.0)], and a reduced accumulation of [ADP] [0.065 (SD 0.031) vs. 0.098 mmol/l (SD 0.059)]. Oxidative flux was similar (P > 0.05) in the conditions at the end of heavy-intensity exercise. In conclusion, our results are consistent with a reduced intracellular acidosis, causing a decrease in the magnitude of the PCr slow component. The decreased PCr slow component in Alk did not appear to be due to an elevated oxidative flux. PMID:16002768

Forbes, S C; Raymer, G H; Kowalchuk, J M; Marsh, G D

2005-11-01

115

Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit?Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology?University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands? This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.?? PMID:11171839

PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

2001-01-01

116

A Comparison of Exercise and Meditation in Reducing Physiological Response to Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of brief treadmill exercise and meditation with a placebo-control treatment for reduction in several physiological and psychological measures of stress, anxiety, and tension before and after a written final examination in 48 high-test anxiety subjects. The subjects, 24 men and 24 women,…

Sime, Wesley E.

117

Diet and Exercise Interventions Reduce Intrahepatic Fat Content and Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both obesity and aging increase intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, which leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of diet and diet in conjunction with exercise on IHF content and associated metabolic abnormalities in obese older adults. Eighteen obese (BMI ?30 kg\\/m2) older (?65 years old) adults completed a 6-month

Krupa Shah; Abby Stufflebaum; Tiffany N. Hilton; David R. Sinacore; Samuel Klein; Dennis T. Villareal

2009-01-01

118

Exercise Minimizes Weight Regain By Reducing Appetite, Burning Fat, And Lowering 'Defended' Body Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

APS Press Release of Journal Article "Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long term weight loss" by Paul S. MacLean, Janine A. Higgins, Holly R. Wyatt, Edward L. Melanson, Ginger C. Johnson, Matthew R. Jackman, Erin D. Giles, Ian E. Brown and James O. Hill, found in American Journal of Physiology Â? Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2009-09-02

119

The repeated bout effect of reduced-load eccentric exercise on elbow flexor muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this study we investigated the extent to which an initial eccentric exercise consisting of two (2ECC) or six maximal eccentric\\u000a actions (6ECC) of the elbow flexors would produce a similar effect to 24 maximal eccentric actions (24ECC), on a second bout\\u000a of 24ECC performed 2 weeks later. Male students (n=34) were assigned to one of three groups, and with

Kazunori Nosaka; K. Sakamoto; M. Newton; P. Sacco

2001-01-01

120

For Women With PCOS, Acupuncture And Exercise May Bring Relief, Reduce Risks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study, Â?Low-frequency electro-acupuncture and physical exercise decrease high muscle sympathetic nerve activity in polycystic ovary syndromeÂ? was conducted by Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Elizabeth Jedel, Per Olof Janson and Vrsa Bergmann Sverrisdottir, all of the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. The study is in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, published by The American Physiological Society.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2006-06-29

121

Process Evaluation of Workplace Interventions with Physical Exercise to Reduce Musculoskeletal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2?min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12?min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12?min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2?min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67–92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. PMID:25574172

Zebis, Mette K.

2014-01-01

122

Exercise reduces fatigue in chronic fatigued Hodgkins disease survivors—results from a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this pilot study were to compare aerobic capacity in non-fatigued and fatigued Hodgkin's disease survivors (HDS) and to assess the feasibility of an exercise-programme and its effects upon fatigue, physical functioning and aerobic capacity in chronic fatigued HDS. 53 HDS (85%) of originally 62 survivors treated at the Trondheim University Hospital in the period 1987–1997 completed a

L. M. Oldervoll; S. Kaasa; H. Knobel; J. H. Loge

2003-01-01

123

Spurious Hb mass increases following exercise.  

PubMed

Sensitivity of the Athlete Blood Passport for blood doping could be improved by including total haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)), but this measure may be unreliable immediately following strenuous exercise. We examined the stability of Hb(mass) following ultra-endurance triathlon (3.8 km swim, 180 km bike, 42.2 km run). 26 male sub-elite triathletes, 18 Racers and 8 Controls, were tested for Hb(mass) using CO re-breathing, twice 1-5 days apart. Racers were measured before and 1-3 h after the triathlon. Controls did no vigorous exercise on either test day. Serum haptoglobin concentration and urine haemoglobin concentration were measured to assess intravascular haemolysis. There was a 3.2% (p<0.01) increase in Racers' Hb(mass) from pre-race (976 g ± 14.6%, mean ±% coefficient of variation) to post-race (1 007 g ± 13.8%), as opposed to a - 0.5% decrease in Controls (pre-race 900 g ± 13.9%, post-race 896 g ± 12.4%). Haptoglobin was - 67% (p<0.01) reduced in Racers (pre-race 0.48 g / L ± 150%, post-race 0.16 g / L ± 432%), compared to - 6% reduced in Controls (pre-race 1.08 g / L ± 37%, post-race 1.02 g / L ± 37%). Decreased serum haptoglobin concentration in Racers, which is suggestive of mild intravascular blood loss, was contrary to the apparent Hb(mass) increase post-race. Ultra-endurance triathlon racing may confound the accuracy of post-exercise Hb(mass) measures, possibly due to splenic contraction or an increased rate of CO diffusion to intramuscular myoglobin. PMID:22706938

Gough, C E; Eastwood, A; Saunders, P U; Anson, J M; Gore, C J

2012-09-01

124

Anti-ischemic effects of ivabradine, a selective heart rate-reducing agent, in exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in pigs.  

PubMed

The effects of ivabradine, a novel heart rate-reducing agent that inhibits the cardiac pacemaker current If, were compared with those of the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, in a model of exercise-induced regional myocardial ischemia in pigs. Five Yucatan micropigs were chronically instrumented to measure hemodynamics, regional myocardial contractility, and local electrograms, and a fixed stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery was induced using a clip. Each animal underwent three experiments on different days, each consisting of two treadmill exercise sessions, 4 hours apart. Ivabradine 5 mg/kg, propranolol 5 mg/kg, or vehicle was administered orally 3 hours before the second exercise session. Exercises before treatment and after vehicle produced reproducible hemodynamic changes and regional myocardial ischemia in the area perfused by the stenosed coronary artery, indicated by ST segment shift and regional contractile dysfunction. Ivabradine and propranolol were equipotent in reducing heart rate at rest and limiting tachycardia during exercise. Ivabradine, unlike propranolol, did not reduce left ventricular contractility at rest or during exercise, and did not increase atrio-ventricular conduction time. Both compounds reduced the exercise-induced ST segment shift in the ischemic region by approximately 80%, but ivabradine preserved systolic shortening to a significantly greater degree than propranolol (P < 0.05). PMID:14576519

Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Bidouard, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Ludovic; Reure, Hélène; Péglion, Jean-Louis

2003-11-01

125

Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit.  

PubMed

The myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) response to resistance exercise (REX) and protein ingestion during energy deficit (ED) is unknown. In young men (n = 8) and women (n = 7), we determined protein signaling and resting postabsorptive MPS during energy balance [EB; 45 kcal·kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1)·day(-1)] and after 5 days of ED (30 kcal·kg FFM(-1)·day(-1)) as well as MPS while in ED after acute REX in the fasted state and with the ingestion of whey protein (15 and 30 g). Postabsorptive rates of MPS were 27% lower in ED than EB (P < 0.001), but REX stimulated MPS to rates equal to EB. Ingestion of 15 and 30 g of protein after REX in ED increased MPS ~16 and ~34% above resting EB (P < 0.02). p70 S6K Thr(389) phosphorylation increased above EB only with combined exercise and protein intake (~2-7 fold, P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term ED reduces postabsorptive MPS; however, a bout of REX in ED restores MPS to values observed at rest in EB. The ingestion of protein after REX further increases MPS above resting EB in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that combining REX with increased protein availability after exercise enhances rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during short-term ED and could in the long term preserve muscle mass. PMID:24595305

Areta, José L; Burke, Louise M; Camera, Donny M; West, Daniel W D; Crawshay, Siobhan; Moore, Daniel R; Stellingwerff, Trent; Phillips, Stuart M; Hawley, John A; Coffey, Vernon G

2014-04-15

126

An enhanced exercise and cognitive programme does not appear to reduce incident delirium in hospitalised patients: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if a programme of progressive resistance exercise, mobilisation and orientation, in addition to usual care, was superior to usual care alone in the prevention of incident delirium in older hospitalised patients. Design A randomised controlled trial. Setting The study was performed at a secondary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia between May 2005 and December 2007. Participants 648 consecutive medical inpatients aged 65?years or older who had been in hospital for less than 48?h and who did not have delirium. Intervention Participants were randomly allocated to a twice-daily programme of progressive resistance exercise tailored to individual ability, mobilisation and orientation in addition to usual care or to usual care alone. Measurements Delirium was measured using the Confusion Assessment Method at baseline and every 48?h until discharge. Secondary outcome measures were severity and duration of delirium, discharge destination and length of stay. Results Delirium occurred in 4.9% (95% CI 2.3% to 7.3%) of the intervention group (15/305) and in 5.9% (20/339; 95% CI 3.8% to 9.2%) of the group receiving usual care. No difference was observed between groups (?2; p=0.5). The intervention had no effect on delirium duration, severity, discharge destination or length of stay. Conclusion A programme of progressive resistance exercise and orientation was not effective in reducing incident delirium in hospitalised elderly patients. PMID:23794558

Jeffs, Kimberley J; Berlowitz, David J; Grant, Shane; Lawlor, Vicki; Graco, Marnie; de Morton, Natalie A; Savige, Judith A; Lim, Wen K

2013-01-01

127

Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (?10.83 ± 2.13 vs. ?2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (?11.26 ± 2.13 vs. ?3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (?10.87 ± 2.39 vs. ?0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

2014-01-01

128

Both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduce the facing-the-viewer bias in biological motion perception.  

PubMed

Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1) or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2) would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2) would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1) or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2), and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our results provide further support that the facing-the-viewer bias for biological motion stimuli is related to the sociobiological relevance of such stimuli. PMID:24987956

Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F

2014-01-01

129

Physical exercise prior and during treatment reduces sub-chronic doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anti-cancer agent whose clinical usage results in a cumulative and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. We have previously shown that exercise performed prior to DOX treatment reduces the resulting cardiac(mito) toxicity. We sought to determine the effects on cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) when used prior and during DOX treatment. Male-young Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=6 per group): SAL+SED (saline sedentary), SAL+TM (12-weeks TM), SAL+FW (12-weeks FW), DOX+SED (7-weeks of chronic DOX treatment 2mg/kg per week), DOX+TM and DOX+FW. DOX administration started 5weeks after the beginning of the exercise protocol. Heart mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations, mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption and membrane potential), semi-quantification of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins and their in-gel activity, as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidative stress (SIRT3, p66shc and UCP2), biogenesis (PGC1? and TFAM), acetylation and markers for oxidative damage (carbonyl groups, MDA,SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD activity) were evaluated. DOX treatment resulted in ultrastructural and functional alterations and decreased OXPHOS. Moreover, DOX decreased complex I activity and content, mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM), increased acetylation and oxidative stress. TM and FW prevented DOX-induced alteration in OXPHOS, the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in complex V activity and in complex I activity and content. DOX-induced decreases in TFAM and SIRT3 content were prevented by TM only. Both chronic models of physical exercise performed before and during the course of sub-chronic DOX treatment translated into an improved mitochondrial bioenergetic fitness, which may result in part from the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. PMID:25446396

Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Santos-Alves, Estela; Mariani, Diogo; Rizo-Roca, David; Padrão, Ana I; Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, J Ramon; Ferreira, Rita; Oliveira, Paulo J; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António

2015-01-01

130

Physical exercise reduces cardiac defects in type 2 spinal muscular atrophy-like mice  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of death in infants worldwide, is due to the misexpression of the survival of motor neuron protein, causing death of motor neurons. Several clinical symptoms suggested that, in addition to motor neurons, the autonomic nervous systems could be implicated in the cardiac function alterations observed in patienst with SMA. These alterations were also found in a severe SMA mouse model, including bradycardia and a reduction of sympathetic innervation, both associated with autonomic imbalance. In the present study, we investigate the extent of autonomic dysfunction and the effects of a running-based exercise on the altered cardiorespiratory function in type 2 SMA-like mice. We observed that the SMA induced: (1) a dramatic alteration of intrinsic cardiac conduction associated with bradycardia; (2) a severe cardiomyopathy associated with extensive ventricular fibrosis; and (3) a delay in cardiac muscle maturation associated with contractile protein expression defects. Furthermore, our data indicate that the sympathetic system is not only functioning, but also likely contributes to alleviate the bradycardia and the arrhythmia in SMA-like mice. Moreover, physical exercise provides many benefits, including the reduction of cardiac protein expression defect, the reduction of fibrosis, the increase in cardiac electrical conduction velocity, and the drastic reduction in bradycardia and arrhythmias resulting in the partial restoration of the cardiac function in these mice. Thus, modulating the cardiorespiratory function in SMA could represent a new target for improving supportive care and for developing new pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that would most certainly include physical exercise. PMID:22930275

Biondi, Olivier; Lopes, Philippe; Desseille, Céline; Branchu, Julien; Chali, Farah; Salah, Amina Ben; Pariset, Claude; Chanoine, Christophe; Charbonnier, Frédéric

2012-01-01

131

Melatonin Reduces Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Stanozolol in Rats Exposed to Swimming Exercise  

PubMed Central

Objective: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are nominated for clinical use to promote protein synthesis in many therapeutic conditions. However, the indiscriminate use of AAS is related to hazardous cardiac disturbances and oxidative stress. We designed a study to investigate whether prolonged treatment with high doses of stanozolol modifies the activities of some antioxidant enzymes in the heart in sedentary and trained rats and whether this treatment causes alterations of cardiovascular parameters. In addition, the effectiveness of melatonin as an antioxidant and as a modulator of the cardiovascular side effects of stanozolol (STA) treatment was analyzed. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: sedentary (S), stanozolol sedentary (SS), stanozolol-melatonin sedentary (SMS), trained (T), stanozolol trained (ST) and stanozolol-melatonin trained (SMT). The stanozolol-treatment rats received 5 mg.kg?1 by subcutaneous injection before each exercise session (5 d.wk?1, i.e., 25 mg.kg?1.wk?1), while control groups received only saline solution injection. The melatonin-treatment groups received intraperitoneal injections of melatonin (10 mg.kg?1), 5 d.wk?1 for 6 wk. Electrocardiography, blood pressure and antioxidant enzyme activity measurements were performed at the end of the experimental period for cardiac function and molecular assessment. Results: This is the first time that the in vivo effects of melatonin treatment on stanozolol-induced cardiovascular side effects have been studied. Stanozolol induced bradycardia and significantly increased cardiac superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Trained stanozolol-treated rats experienced an increase in blood pressure and relative heart weight, and they developed left cardiac axis deviation. Although melatonin did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy in exercised stanozolol-treated animals, it maintained blood pressure and cardiac catalase activity, and it prevented stanozolol-induced cardiac electrical axis deviation. Conclusion: In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, chronic stanozolol administration induced mild cardiovascular side effects that were partly attenuated by melatonin treatment. However, these results showed that the combination of melatonin and exercise could minimize the stanozolol side effects in the cardiovascular system. PMID:25610273

Barbosa dos Santos, Gustavo; Machado Rodrigues, Marcelo José; Gonçalves, Estela Maria; Cintra Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina; Areas, Miguel Arcanjo

2013-01-01

132

Mitochondrial uncoupling reduces exercise capacity despite several skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations.  

PubMed

The effects of mitochondrial uncoupling on skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation and maximal exercise capacity are unknown. In this study, rats were divided into a control group (CTL, n = 8) and a group treated with 2,4-dinitrophenol, a mitochondrial uncoupler, for 28 days (DNP, 30 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in drinking water, n = 8). The DNP group had a significantly lower body mass (P < 0.05) and a higher resting oxygen uptake (Vo2, P < 0.005). The incremental treadmill test showed that maximal running speed and running economy (P < 0.01) were impaired but that maximal Vo2 (Vo2max) was higher in the DNP-treated rats (P < 0.05). In skinned gastrocnemius fibers, basal respiration (V0) was higher (P < 0.01) in the DNP-treated animals, whereas the acceptor control ratio (ACR, Vmax/V0) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), indicating a reduction in OXPHOS efficiency. In skeletal muscle, DNP activated the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, as indicated by changes in the mRNA expression of PGC1-? and -?, NRF-1 and -2, and TFAM, and increased the mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase 1 (P < 0.01). The expression of two mitochondrial proteins (prohibitin and Ndufs 3) was higher after DNP treatment. Mitochondrial fission 1 protein (Fis-1) was increased in the DNP group (P < 0.01), but mitofusin-1 and -2 were unchanged. Histochemical staining for NADH dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle revealed an increase in the proportion of oxidative fibers after DNP treatment. Our study shows that mitochondrial uncoupling induces several skeletal muscle adaptations, highlighting the role of mitochondrial coupling as a critical factor for maximal exercise capacities. These results emphasize the importance of investigating the qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in addition to the amount of mitochondria. PMID:24336883

Schlagowski, A I; Singh, F; Charles, A L; Gali Ramamoorthy, T; Favret, F; Piquard, F; Geny, B; Zoll, J

2014-02-15

133

Movement control exercise versus general exercise to reduce disability in patients with low back pain and movement control impairment. A randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) in subacute and chronic stages can be treated effectively with exercise therapy. Research guidelines recommend evaluating different treatments in defined subgroups of patients with NSLBP. A subgroup of patients with movement control impairment (MCI) improved significantly on patient specific function and disability in a previous case series after movement control exercises. Methods/Design In a randomised controlled trial (RCT) we will compare the effectiveness of movement control and general exercise in patients with MCI. 106 participants aged 18 - 75 will be recruited in 5 outpatient hospital departments and 7 private practices. Patients randomly assigned to the movement control exercise group will be instructed to perform exercises according to their MCI. The general exercise group will follow an exercise protocol aimed at improving endurance and flexibility. Patients in both groups will receive 9 - 18 treatments and will be instructed to do additional exercises at home. The primary outcome is the level of disability assessed using the patient specific functional scale (PSFS) which links the perceived pain to functional situations and is measured before treatment and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes concern low back pain related disability (Roland Morris questionnaire, RMQ), graded chronic pain scale (GCPS), range of motion and tactile acuity. Discussion To our knowledge this study will be the first to compare two exercise programs for a specific subgroup of patients with NSLBP and MCI. Results of this study will provide insight into the effectiveness of movement control exercise and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms behind MCI and its relation to NSLBP. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN80064281 PMID:21943318

2011-01-01

134

There are at least 40 Benefits of Exercise Reduce the risk of premature death  

E-print Network

/or dying from heart disease Reduce high blood pressure or the risk of developing high blood pressure workload on the heart Reduce resting heart rate Increased blood supply to muscles and ability to use oxygen pressure. Obesity doubles the risk of all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2

Paxton, Anthony T.

135

Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain  

PubMed Central

The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

Steig, Amy J.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Higgins, Janine A.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Eckel, Robert H.; Hill, James O.

2011-01-01

136

Resistive vibration exercise during bed-rest reduces motor control changes in the lumbo-pelvic musculature.  

PubMed

To understand the effects of a resistive vibration exercise (RVE) countermeasure on changes in lumbo-pelvic muscle motor control during prolonged bed-rest, 20 male subjects took part in the Berlin Bed-Rest Study (in 2003-2005) and were randomised to a RVE group or an inactive control group. Surface electromyographic signals recorded from five superficial lumbo-pelvic muscles during a repetitive knee movement task. The task, which required stabilisation of the lumbo-pelvic region, was performed at multiple movement speeds and at multiple time points during and after bed-rest. After excluding effects that could be attributed to increases in subcutaneous fat changes and improvements in movement skill, we found that the RVE intervention ameliorated the generalised increases in activity ratios between movement speeds (p?0.012), reductions in lumbo-pelvic extensor and flexor co-contraction (p=0.058) and increases in root-mean-square electromyographic amplitude (p=0.001) of the lumbar erector spinae muscles. Effects of RVE on preventing increases in amplitude-modulation (p=0.23) of the lumbar erector spinae muscles were not significant. Few significant changes in activation-timing were seen. The RVE intervention during bed-rest, with indirect loading of the spine during exercise, was capable of reducing some, but not all, motor control changes in the lumbo-pelvic musculature during and after bed-rest. PMID:22018458

Belavý, Daniel L; Wilson, Stephen J; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Richardson, Carolyn A

2012-02-01

137

Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

Tipton, Charles M.

1991-01-01

138

Exercise training reduces resting heart rate via downregulation of the funny channel HCN4  

PubMed Central

Endurance athletes exhibit sinus bradycardia, that is a slow resting heart rate, associated with a higher incidence of sinus node (pacemaker) disease and electronic pacemaker implantation. Here we show that training-induced bradycardia is not a consequence of changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system but is caused by intrinsic electrophysiological changes in the sinus node. We demonstrate that training-induced bradycardia persists after blockade of the autonomous nervous system in vivo in mice and in vitro in the denervated sinus node. We also show that a widespread remodelling of pacemaker ion channels, notably a downregulation of HCN4 and the corresponding ionic current, If. Block of If abolishes the difference in heart rate between trained and sedentary animals in vivo and in vitro. We further observe training-induced downregulation of Tbx3 and upregulation of NRSF and miR-1 (transcriptional regulators) that explains the downregulation of HCN4. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for the potentially pathological heart rate adaptation to exercise training. PMID:24825544

D’Souza, Alicia; Bucchi, Annalisa; Johnsen, Anne Berit; Logantha, Sunil Jit R.J.; Monfredi, Oliver; Yanni, Joseph; Prehar, Sukhpal; Hart, George; Cartwright, Elizabeth; Wisloff, Ulrik; Dobryznski, Halina; DiFrancesco, Dario; Morris, Gwilym M.; Boyett, Mark R.

2014-01-01

139

Exercise Trajectories of Women from Entry to a 6-Month Cardiac Rehabilitation Program to One Year after Discharge  

PubMed Central

Background. Physical activity is associated with reduced mortality and morbidity. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective intervention for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Unfortunately, women are less likely to engage in, or sustain, regular physical activity. Objectives were to (1) describe women's guidelines-based levels of physical activity during and after CR and (2) determine the physical activity trajectories of women from entry to CR to one year after CR. Methods and Results. A prospective, longitudinal study of 203 women with CVD enrolled in a 6-month CR program. Physical activity was measured using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LSI), focusing on moderate-strenuous activity. Data were analyzed using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and logistic regression. Mean scores on the LSI showed women to be “active” at all follow-up points. LCGA revealed a two-class model, respectively, called “inactive relapsers” and “moderately active relapsers.” Predictors of the “moderately active relapsers” class were employment status and diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Conclusions. Women achieved the recommended physical activity levels by the end of CR and sustained them until one year after CR. LCGA allowed us to determine the class trajectories associated with moderate-strenuous activity and, from these, to identify implications for targeted intervention. PMID:24151580

Arthur, Heather M.; Blanchard, Chris; Gunn, Elizabeth; Kodis, Jennifer; Walker, Steven; Toner, Brenda

2013-01-01

140

Clearance of Filtered Fluid from the Lung during Exercise Role of Hyperpnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During strenuous exercise in sheep, lung lymph flow increases within seconds and rises to levels 7- to 10-fold over baseline. Con- comitant with the flow increase, the lymph protein content rap- idly decreases to levels consistent with severe capillary hyperten- sion. This pattern of clearance of filtered fluid is quite different than is seen with the passive capillary hypertension that

TOMONOBU KOIZUMI; ROBERT J. ROSELLI; RICHARD E. PARKER; CASILDA I. HERMO-WEILER; MUKUL BANERJEE; JOHN H. NEWMAN

141

The effects of increased physical exercise on disruptive behavior in retarded persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low frequency but highly intense disruptive behavior of 10 institutionalized mentally retarded persons was treated by providing them with opportunities for vigorous exercise. In two experiments, severely aggressive and hyperactive clients were exposed to two daily periods of jogging and strenuous activities in multiple baseline designs across clients. Rating scale data collected daily from cottage and school personnel indicated

James F. McGimsey; Judith E. Favell

1988-01-01

142

Eccentric exercise, isokinetic muscle torque and delayed onset muscle soreness: the role of reactive oxygen species  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the muscular damage and soreness that is observed following strenuous or unaccustomed exercise. This study investigated the relationship between delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle function and ROS following downhill running using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations. Eight physically active male subjects participated

Graeme L. Close; Tony Ashton; Tim Cable; Dominic Doran; Don P. M. MacLaren

2004-01-01

143

The phosphodiesterases type 5 inhibitor tadalafil reduces the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in men during cycle ergometric exercise.  

PubMed

Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may influence human physiology, health, and performance by also modulating endocrine pathways. We evaluated the effects of a 2-day tadalafil administration on adenohypophyseal and adrenal hormone adaptation to exercise in humans. Fourteen healthy males were included in a double-blind crossover trial. Each volunteer randomly received two tablets of placebo or tadalafil (20 mg/day with a 36-h interval) before a maximal exercise was performed. After a 2-wk washout, the volunteers were crossed over. Blood samples were collected at -30 and -15 min and immediately before exercise, immediately after, and during recovery (+15, +30, +60, and +90 min) for adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), ?-endorphin, growth hormone (GH), prolactin, cortisol (C), corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) assays. C-to-CBG (free cortisol index, FCI) and DHEAS-to-C ratios were calculated. Exercise intensity, perceived exertion rate, O? consumption, and CO? and blood lactate concentration were evaluated. ACTH, GH, C, corticosterone, and CBG absolute concentrations and/or areas under the curve (AUC) increased after exercise after both placebo and tadalafil. Exercise increased DHEAS only after placebo. Compared with placebo, tadalafil administration reduced the ACTH, C, corticosterone, and FCI responses to exercise and was associated with higher ?-endorphin AUC and DHEAS-to-C ratio during recovery, without influencing cardiorespiratory and performance parameters. Tadalafil reduced the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during exercise by probably influencing the brain's nitric oxide- and cGMP-mediated pathways. Further studies are necessary to confirm our results and to identify the involved mechanisms, possible health risks, and potential clinical uses. PMID:22318947

Di Luigi, Luigi; Sgrò, Paolo; Baldari, Carlo; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Crescioli, Clara; Bianchini, Serena; Romanelli, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Guidetti, Laura

2012-04-15

144

Cost-effectiveness of diet and exercise interventions to reduce overweight and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To analyze whether two dietary weight loss interventions—the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) program and a low-fat diet program— would be cost-effective in Australia, and to assess their potential to reduce the disease burden related to excess body weight.Design:We constructed a multi-state life-table-based Markov model in which the distribution of body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart

M Forster; J L Veerman; J J Barendregt; T Vos

2011-01-01

145

Multiple short bouts of exercise over 12-h period reduce glucose excursions more than an energy-matched single bout of exercise  

PubMed Central

Objective Long, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior are thought to negatively influence postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined the effects of a 1-h bout of morning exercise versus intermittent walking bouts of short duration on glucose excursions and insulin secretion over 12-h. Materials/Methods Eleven young, obese individuals (18–35y, BMI>30kg/m2) with impaired glucose tolerance were studied on three 12-h study days: 1) sedentary behavior (SED); 2) sedentary behavior with 1-h morning exercise (EX) at 60–65% VO2peak; and 3) sedentary behavior with 12-hourly, 5-min intervals of exercise (INT) at 60–65% VO2peak. Meals (1046 kJ/meal) were provided every 2-h. Blood samples were collected every 10 min and measured for glucose, insulin, and c-peptide concentrations. Results Glucose iAUC (12-h) was attenuated in the INT and SED conditions compared to the EX condition (P<0.05). Glucose concentrations were higher in the EX compared to the SED condition for ~150 min (20% of the study day), and comparison of the EX-INT study days revealed that glucose concentrations were greater for ~ 240 minutes (~1/3 of the 12-h day). In the SED condition, the 12-h insulin iAUC was ~15% higher (P<0.05) compared to the INT and EX conditions. Insulin production rate was found to increase ~20% with INT exercise vs. the SED and EX condition (P<0.05). Conclusions Short, frequent periods of exercise attenuated glucose excursions and insulin concentrations in obese individuals to a greater degree than an equal amount of exercise performed continuously in the morning. PMID:24439242

Holmstrup, ME; Fairchild, TJ; Keslacy, S; Weinstock, RS; Kanaley, JA

2014-01-01

146

Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control Usual care. Measurements Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies. PMID:24591821

Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy

2014-01-01

147

The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background: The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indirectly shows the muscle’s oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold), in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods: The RER, O2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml•kg?1•min?1), during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results: Endurance trained men presented higher O2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05) of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance. PMID:21157516

Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P.; Torres-Durán, Patricia V.; Romero-Gonzalez, Jaime; Mascher, Dieter; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A.

2008-01-01

148

Cortical Excitability of Psychiatric Disorders: Reduced Post-Exercise Facilitation in Depression Compared to Schizophrenia and Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In normal subjects, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from the motor cortex are increased after non-fatiguing exercise of hand muscles. This phenomenon is called post-exercise facilitation. This study aims to test the hypothesis that psychiatric syndromes (major depressive episode, schizophrenia) have different levels of post-exercise facilitation compared to controls.Methods: Patients with DSM-IV major depressive

Philip D. Reid; Brett Daniels; Marzena Rybak; Yvonne Turnier-Shea; Saxby Pridmore

2002-01-01

149

Reduced Exercise-Associated Response of The GH-IGF-I Axis and Catecholamines in Obese Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Obesity blunts catecholamine and growth hormone responses to exercise in adults, but the effect of obesity on these exercise-associated hormonal,responses,in children is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to asses the effect of childhood obesity on the counter-regulatory hormonal response,to acute exercise. Twenty-five obese children (Ob, BMI> 95%), and 25 age, gender and maturity matched normal

Alon Eliakim; Dan Nemet; Frank Zaldivar; Robert G. McMurray; Floyd L. Culler; Pietro Galassetti; Dan M. Cooper

2005-01-01

150

Supraspinal fatigue after normoxic and hypoxic exercise in humans.  

PubMed

Inadequate cerebral O? availability has been proposed to be an important contributing factor to the development of central fatigue during strenuous exercise. Here we tested the hypothesis that supraspinal processes of fatigue would be increased after locomotor exercise in acute hypoxia compared to normoxia, and that such change would be related to reductions in cerebral O? delivery and tissue oxygenation. Nine endurance-trained cyclists completed three constant-load cycling exercise trials at ?80% of maximal work rate: (1) to the limit of tolerance in acute hypoxia; (2) for the same duration but in normoxia (control); and (3) to the limit of tolerance in normoxia. Throughout each trial, prefrontal cortex tissue oxygenation and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAV) were assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy and trans-cranial Doppler sonography, respectively. Cerebral O? delivery was calculated as the product of arterial O? content and MCAV. Before and immediately after each trial, twitch responses to supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation were obtained to assess neuromuscular and cortical function, respectively. Exercise time was reduced by 54%in hypoxia compared to normoxia (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 8.1 ± 2.9 min; P<0.001). Cerebral O? delivery,cerebral oxygenation and maximum O? uptake were reduced whereas muscle electromyographic activity was increased in hypoxia compared to control (P <0.05).Maximum voluntary force and potentiated quadriceps twitch force were decreased below baseline after exercise in each trial;the decreases were greater in hypoxia compared to control (P<0.001), but were not different in the exhaustive trials (P>0.05). Cortical voluntary activation was also decreased after exercise in all trials, but the decline in hypoxia (?18%) was greater than in the normoxic trials (?5-9%)(P <0.05). The reductions in cortical voluntary activation were paralleled by reductions in cerebral O? delivery. The results suggest that curtailment of exercise performance in acute severe hypoxia is due, in part, to failure of drive from the motor cortex, possibly as a consequence of diminished O? availability in the brain. PMID:22473785

Goodall, Stuart; González-Alonso, José; Ali, Leena; Ross, Emma Z; Romer, Lee M

2012-06-01

151

HIF1? is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection while HIF2? is needed for dopaminergic neuron survival in the substantia nigra pars compacta.  

PubMed

Exercise reduces the risk of developing a number of neurological disorders and increases the efficiency of cellular energy production. However, overly strenuous exercise produces oxidative stress. Proper oxygenation is crucial for the health of all tissues, and tight regulation of cellular oxygen is critical to balance O2 levels and redox homeostasis in the brain. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)1? and HIF2? are transcription factors regulated by cellular oxygen concentration that initiate gene regulation of vascular development, redox homeostasis, and cell cycle control. HIF1? and HIF2? contribute to important adaptive mechanisms that occur when oxygen and ROS homeostasis become unbalanced. It has been shown that preconditioning by exposure to a stressor prior to a hypoxic event reduces damage that would otherwise occur. Previously we reported that 3months of exercise protects SNpc dopaminergic (DA) neurons from toxicity caused by Complex I inhibition. Here, we identify the cells in the SNpc that express HIF1? and HIF2? and show that running exercise produces hypoxia in SNpc DA neurons, and alters the expression of HIF1? and HIF2?. In mice carrying a conditional knockout of Hif1? in postnatal neurons we observe that exercise alone produces SNpc TH+ DA neuron loss. Loss of HIF1? also abolishes exercise-induced neuroprotection. In mice lacking Hif2? in postnatal neurons, the number of TH+ DA neurons in the adult SNpc is diminished, but 3months of exercise rescues this loss. We conclude that HIF1? is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection and both HIF1? and HIF2? are necessary for the survival and function of adult SNpc DA neurons. PMID:25796140

Smeyne, M; Sladen, P; Jiao, Y; Dragatsis, I; Smeyne, R J

2015-06-01

152

Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats.  

PubMed

Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g ?-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation. PMID:25761734

Picklo, Matthew J; Thyfault, John P

2015-04-01

153

Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P < 0.001) were found for changes in plasma glucose during and after exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

2013-01-01

154

Anaerobic exercise reduces tumor growth, cancer cachexia and increases macrophage and lymphocyte response in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we investigated the effect of jump exercise on tumor growth, cancer cachexia, lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage\\u000a function in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (60 days) were divided into sedentary (C) and exercised (E) groups.\\u000a Jump training consisted of six sets of 10 jumps in water with overload of 50% of body mass with 1 min of resting, four times

Carina de Lima; Luciana E. Alves; Fabíola Iagher; Andressa Franzoi Machado; Sandro J. Bonatto; Diogo Kuczera; Carine Ferreira de Souza; Daniele Cristina Pequito; Ana Lúcia Muritiba; Everson Araújo Nunes; Luiz Cláudio Fernandes

2008-01-01

155

Effects of administering a selected ergogenic aid prior to strenuous activity  

E-print Network

on each and at the culmination of the exercise bout. Recovery measures of : heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen intake were then determined I ' for five minutes following the exercise bout. During Test One, no , treatment was administered. During..., and recovery heart rates, 3) to determine the effects of Stim-0-Stam on endurance t1me, and 4) to determine the effects of Stim-0-Stam on oxygen intake during recovery. Procedure Thirty male volunteers served as subjects for the study. The subjects were...

Lambert, Jacqueline

1973-01-01

156

Reduced Hypoglycemia and Increased Time in Target Using Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery During Nights With or Without Antecedent Afternoon Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Afternoon exercise increases the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in subjects with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that automated feedback-controlled closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery would be superior to open-loop (OL) control in preventing NH and maintaining a higher proportion of blood glucose levels within the target blood glucose range on nights with and without antecedent afternoon exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects completed two 48-h inpatient study periods in random order: usual OL control and CL control using a proportional-integrative-derivative plus insulin feedback algorithm. Each admission included a sedentary day and an exercise day, with a standardized protocol of 60 min of brisk treadmill walking to 65–70% maximum heart rate at 3:00 p.m. RESULTS Among 12 subjects (age 12–26 years, A1C 7.4 ± 0.6%), antecedent exercise increased the frequency of NH (reference blood glucose <60 mg/dL) during OL control from six to eight events. In contrast, there was only one NH event each on nights with and without antecedent exercise during CL control (P = 0.04 vs. OL nights). Overnight, the percentage of glucose values in target range was increased with CL control (P < 0.0001). Insulin delivery was lower between 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. on nights after exercise on CL versus OL, P = 0.008. CONCLUSIONS CL insulin delivery provides an effective means to reduce the risk of NH while increasing the percentage of time spent in target range, regardless of activity level in the mid-afternoon. These data suggest that CL control could be of benefit to patients with type 1 diabetes even if it is limited to the overnight period. PMID:23757427

Sherr, Jennifer L.; Cengiz, Eda; Palerm, Cesar C.; Clark, Bud; Kurtz, Natalie; Roy, Anirban; Carria, Lori; Cantwell, Martin; Tamborlane, William V.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.

2013-01-01

157

Metabolic Cost of Experimental Exercises  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the type and duration of activity during decompression was well documented, the metabolic cost of 1665 subject-exposures with 8 activity profiles from 17 altitude decompression sickness (DCS) protocols at Brooks City-Base, TX from 1983-2005 was not determined. Female and male human volunteers (30 planned, 4 completed) performed activity profiles matching those 8 activity profiles at ground level with continuous monitoring of metabolic cost. A Cosmed K4b2 Cardio Pulmonary Exercise Testing device was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2) during the profiles. The results show levels of metabolic cost to the females for the profiles tested varied from 4.3 to 25.5 ml/kg/min and from 3.0 to 12.0 ml/kg/min to the males. The increase in VO2 from seated rest to the most strenuous of the 8 activity profiles was 3.6-fold for the females and 2.8-fold for the males. These preliminary data on 4 subjects indicate close agreement of oxygen uptake for activity performed during many subject-exposures as published earlier. The relatively low average oxygen uptake required to perform the most strenuous activity may imply the need for adjustment of modeling efforts using metabolic cost as a risk factor. Better definition of metabolic cost during exposure to altitude, a critical factor in DCS risk, may allow refinement of DCS prediction models.

Webb, James T.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

2009-01-01

158

The effect of depressive symptomatology on plasma cortisol responses to acute bicycle exercise among post-menopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of depressive symptomatology on the cortisol response to strenuous exercise. Thirteen healthy, post-menopausal women participated in this study. The results show that acute bicycle exercise activates the hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in rapid increases in plasma cortisol. Concerning the effect of depressive symptomatology on cortisol release during physical performance, we found

Gieta van der Pompe; Nol Bernards; Theo F. Meijman; Cobi J. Heijnen

1999-01-01

159

Exercise-associated increases in cardiac biomarkers.  

PubMed

At present, the risk of myocardial damage by endurance exercise is under debate because of reports on exercise-associated increases in cardiac biomarkers troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP); these markers are typically elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure, respectively. Exercise-associated elevations of cardiac biomarkers can be present in elite and in recreational athletes, especially after prolonged and strenuous endurance exercise bouts (e.g., marathon and ultratriathlon). However, in contrast to cardiac patients, it is still unclear if the exercise-associated appearance or increase in cardiac biomarkers in obviously healthy athletes represents clinically significant cardiac insult or is indeed part of the physiological response to endurance exercise. In addition, elevations in cardiac biomarkers in athletes after exercise may generate difficulties for clinicians in terms of differential diagnosis and may result in inappropriate consequences. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide an overview of exercise-associated alterations of the cardiac biomarkers troponin T and I, ischemia-modified albumin, BNP, and its cleaved inactive fragment N-terminal pro BNP for the athlete, coach, scientist, and clinician. PMID:18614952

Scharhag, Jürgen; George, Keith; Shave, Rob; Urhausen, Axel; Kindermann, Wilfried

2008-08-01

160

Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans.  

PubMed

Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

2014-07-15

161

Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans  

PubMed Central

Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial–venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12–23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension () (R2 ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

2014-01-01

162

Low-frequency vibratory exercise reduces the risk of bone fracture more than walking: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new type of exercise that has been increasingly tested for the ability to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis in frail people. There are two currently marketed vibrating plates: a) the whole plate oscillates up and down; b) reciprocating vertical displacements on the left and right side of a fulcrum, increasing the lateral accelerations. A

Narcís Gusi; Armando Raimundo; Alejo Leal

2006-01-01

163

Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =?1.06 [?1.67 to ?0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [?1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =?0.10 [?0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

2015-01-01

164

Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise  

PubMed Central

Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary. PMID:25068141

Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

2014-01-01

165

Effects of acculturation and age on the exercise capacities of Solomon Islanders.  

PubMed

Submaximal exercise tests were carried out on 197 females and 290 males from five populations in the Solomon Islands to determine how acculturation affects the fitness of different age and sex groups. Males and females in the least acculturated group show the highest fitness levels, reflecting strenuous work patterns. Subjects from the most acculturated groups exhibit the lowest levels of fitness, a consequence of their more sedentary life-styles. Unexpectedly, older females in these groups show exercise capacities that are equal to those of younger women. This may be a consequence of generational differences in the practice of traditional activities, such as those associated with gardening. Groups ranked intermediate in acculturation show variable patterns. For some age and sex groups, modernization has reinforced and even intensified strenuous activity patterns, resulting in high levels of fitness. For others, modernization has promoted inactivity and/or altered dietary patterns, resulting in increased body fat and low levels of fitness. PMID:2333939

Weitz, C A

1990-04-01

166

Reversal of muscle insulin resistance with exercise reduces postprandial hepatic de novo lipogenesis in insulin resistant individuals.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with the metabolic syndrome by altering the distribution pattern of postprandial energy storage. We conducted a study to examine this hypothesis by reversing muscle insulin resistance with a single bout of exercise and measuring hepatic de novo lipogenesis and hepatic triglyceride synthesis after a carbohydrate-rich meal. We studied 12 healthy, young, lean, insulin resistant individuals in an interventional, randomized cross-over trial. The response to the ingestion of a carbohydrate-rich meal was studied at rest and after one 45-min bout of exercise on an elliptical trainer. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis was assessed by using (2)H(2)O, and changes in glycogen and fat content in liver and muscle were measured by (13)C and (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Exercise resulted in a greater than threefold increase in postprandial net muscle glycogen synthesis (P < 0.001), reflecting improved muscle insulin responsiveness, and a ?40% reduction (P < 0.05) in net hepatic triglyceride synthesis. These changes in whole body energy storage were accompanied by a ?30% decrease in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (P < 0.01) and were independent of changes in fasting or postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. These data demonstrate that skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of atherogenic dyslipidemia and NAFLD in young insulin resistant individuals who are prone to develop the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21808028

Rabøl, Rasmus; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Dufour, Sylvie; Flannery, Clare; Shulman, Gerald I

2011-08-16

167

Reversal of muscle insulin resistance with exercise reduces postprandial hepatic de novo lipogenesis in insulin resistant individuals  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with the metabolic syndrome by altering the distribution pattern of postprandial energy storage. We conducted a study to examine this hypothesis by reversing muscle insulin resistance with a single bout of exercise and measuring hepatic de novo lipogenesis and hepatic triglyceride synthesis after a carbohydrate-rich meal. We studied 12 healthy, young, lean, insulin resistant individuals in an interventional, randomized cross-over trial. The response to the ingestion of a carbohydrate-rich meal was studied at rest and after one 45-min bout of exercise on an elliptical trainer. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis was assessed by using 2H2O, and changes in glycogen and fat content in liver and muscle were measured by 13C and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Exercise resulted in a greater than threefold increase in postprandial net muscle glycogen synthesis (P < 0.001), reflecting improved muscle insulin responsiveness, and a ?40% reduction (P < 0.05) in net hepatic triglyceride synthesis. These changes in whole body energy storage were accompanied by a ?30% decrease in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (P < 0.01) and were independent of changes in fasting or postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. These data demonstrate that skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of atherogenic dyslipidemia and NAFLD in young insulin resistant individuals who are prone to develop the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21808028

Rabøl, Rasmus; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Dufour, Sylvie; Flannery, Clare; Shulman, Gerald I.

2011-01-01

168

Life-long aerobic exercise preserved baseline cerebral blood flow but reduced vascular reactivity to CO2  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the potential benefits of life-long aerobic exercise on brain health, in particular cerebrovascular function. Materials and Methods Ten Masters Athletes (MA) (7 males/3 females; 74.5±5.8 yrs.) and ten sedentary elderly individuals (SE) (8 males/2 females; 75.4±5.6 yrs.) were recruited, and baseline Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) and Cerebral Vascular Reactivity (CVR) to CO2 were measured on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine sedentary young subjects were also recruited to serve as a control group to verify the age-effect. Results When compared to the SE group, MA showed higher CBF in posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, which are key regions of the default-mode-network and are known to be highly sensitive to age and dementia. CVR in the MA brain were paradoxically lower than that in SE. This effect was present throughout the brain. Within the MA group, individuals with higher Vo2max had an even lower CVR, suggesting a dose-response relationship. Conclusion Life-long aerobic exercise preserved blood supply in the brain’s default-mode-network against age-related degradation. On the other hand, its impact on cerebral vascular system seems to be characterized by a dampening of CO2 reactivity, possibly because of desensitization effects due to a higher lifetime exposure. PMID:23526811

Thomas, Binu P.; Yezhuvath, Uma S.; Tseng, Benjamin Y.; Liu, Peiying; Levine, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hanzhang

2013-01-01

169

Effect of exercise in reducing breast and chest-wall pain in patients with breast cancer: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Breast or chest-wall pain (bcp) is prevalent in 20%–50% of breast cancer survivors, and it affects quality of life (qol). To determine the feasibility and potential efficacy of an exercise program to improve patient qol and bcp, such a program was offered to breast cancer patients suffering from bcp. Methods The study enrolled 10 breast cancer patients with moderate-to-severe bcp at 3–6 months after completion of all adjuvant treatments. These patients participated in a 12-week comprehensive health improvement program (chip). Intensity was adjusted to reach 65%–85% of the patient’s maximal heart rate. Before the chip and at 1 and 6 months after completion of the chip, qol and pain were measured using questionnaires [European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core and breast cancer modules (qlq-C30, -BR23) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire short form] completed by the patients. Results were compared with those from case-matched control subjects from another study at McGill University. Results After the chip, patients reported significant and clinically important improvements in qol and symptoms. At 1 and 6 months post-chip, patients in the study felt, on average, better in overall qol than did historical control subjects. Conclusions Our study suggests that patients who experience chronic bcp may benefit from an exercise program. A randomized controlled trial is warranted. PMID:22670102

Wong, P.; Muanza, T.; Hijal, T.; Masse, L.; Pillay, S.; Chasen, M.; Lowensteyn, I.; Gold, M.; Grover, S.

2012-01-01

170

Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Long distance running causes acute muscle damage resulting in inflammation and decreased force production. Endurance athletes use NSAIDs during competition to prevent or reduce pain, which carries the risk of adverse effects. Tart cherries, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may have a protective effect to reduce muscle damage and pain during strenuous exercise. This study aimed to assess the effects of tart cherry juice as compared to a placebo cherry drink on pain among runners in a long distance relay race. Methods The design was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Fifty-four healthy runners (36 male, 18 female; 35.8 ± 9.6 yrs) ran an average of 26.3 ± 2.5 km over a 24 hour period. Participants ingested 355 mL bottles of tart cherry juice or placebo cherry drink twice daily for 7 days prior to the event and on the day of the race. Participants assessed level of pain on a standard 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at baseline, before the race, and after the race. Results While both groups reported increased pain after the race, the cherry juice group reported a significantly smaller increase in pain (12 ± 18 mm) compared to the placebo group (37 ± 20 mm) (p < .001). Participants in the cherry juice group were more willing to use the drink in the future (p < 0.001) and reported higher satisfaction with the pain reduction they attributed to the drink (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ingesting tart cherry juice for 7 days prior to and during a strenuous running event can minimize post-run muscle pain. PMID:20459662

2010-01-01

171

Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p < 0.001) and PPT (p < 0.05). Compared with control, both active exercise and massage significantly reduced the intensity of soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage. Coaches, therapists, and athletes can use either active warm-up or massage to reduce DOMS acutely, for example, to prepare for competition or strenuous work, but should be aware that the effect is temporary, that is, the greatest effects occurs during the first 20 minutes after treatment and diminishes within an hour. PMID:23524365

Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

2013-12-01

172

Supervised exercise training reduces oxidative stress and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the effects of supervised exercise training (SET) on cardiometabolic risk, cardiorespiratory fitness and oxidative stress status in 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), twenty male subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to an intervention group, which performed SET in a hospital-based setting, and to a control group. SET consisted of a 12-month supervised aerobic, resistance and flexibility training. A reference group of ten healthy male subjects was also recruited for baseline evaluation only. Participants underwent medical examination, biochemical analyses and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Oxidative stress markers (1-palmitoyl-2-[5-oxovaleroyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [POVPC]; 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [PGPC]) were measured in plasma and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All investigations were carried out at baseline and after 12 months. SET yielded a significant modification (p < 0.05) in the following parameters: V'O2max (+14.4%), gas exchange threshold (+23.4%), waist circumference (?1.4%), total cholesterol (?14.6%), LDL cholesterol (?20.2%), fasting insulinemia (?48.5%), HOMA-IR (?52.5%), plasma POVPC (?27.9%) and PGPC (?31.6%). After 12 months, the control group presented a V'O2max and a gas exchange threshold significantly lower than the intervention group. Plasma POVC and PGPC were significantly different from healthy subjects before the intervention, but not after. In conclusion, SET was effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic risk and oxidative stress status in T2DM. PMID:25783765

Vinetti, Giovanni; Mozzini, Chiara; Desenzani, Paolo; Boni, Enrico; Bulla, Laura; Lorenzetti, Isabella; Romano, Claudia; Pasini, Andrea; Cominacini, Luciano; Assanelli, Deodato

2015-01-01

173

Supervised exercise training reduces oxidative stress and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effects of supervised exercise training (SET) on cardiometabolic risk, cardiorespiratory fitness and oxidative stress status in 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), twenty male subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to an intervention group, which performed SET in a hospital-based setting, and to a control group. SET consisted of a 12-month supervised aerobic, resistance and flexibility training. A reference group of ten healthy male subjects was also recruited for baseline evaluation only. Participants underwent medical examination, biochemical analyses and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Oxidative stress markers (1-palmitoyl-2-[5-oxovaleroyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [POVPC]; 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [PGPC]) were measured in plasma and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All investigations were carried out at baseline and after 12 months. SET yielded a significant modification (p < 0.05) in the following parameters: V'O2max (+14.4%), gas exchange threshold (+23.4%), waist circumference (-1.4%), total cholesterol (-14.6%), LDL cholesterol (-20.2%), fasting insulinemia (-48.5%), HOMA-IR (-52.5%), plasma POVPC (-27.9%) and PGPC (-31.6%). After 12 months, the control group presented a V'O2max and a gas exchange threshold significantly lower than the intervention group. Plasma POVC and PGPC were significantly different from healthy subjects before the intervention, but not after. In conclusion, SET was effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic risk and oxidative stress status in T2DM. PMID:25783765

Vinetti, Giovanni; Mozzini, Chiara; Desenzani, Paolo; Boni, Enrico; Bulla, Laura; Lorenzetti, Isabella; Romano, Claudia; Pasini, Andrea; Cominacini, Luciano; Assanelli, Deodato

2015-01-01

174

Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

1998-01-01

175

Questionable Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

1999-01-01

176

Protocol for Work place adjusted Intelligent physical exercise reducing Musculoskeletal pain in Shoulder and neck (VIMS): a cluster randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Specific strength training is a promising type of physical exercise for relieving neck and shoulder pain in office workers. However, the optimal combination of frequency and exercise duration, as well as the importance of exercise supervision, is unknown. The VIMS study investigates in

Lars L Andersen; Mette K Zebis; Mogens T Pedersen; Kirsten K Roessler; Christoffer H Andersen; Mette M Pedersen; Helene Feveile; Ole S Mortensen; Gisela Sjøgaard

2010-01-01

177

Nitric oxide synthase inhibition with l-NAME reduces maximal oxygen uptake but not gas exchange threshold during incremental cycle exercise in man  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that the effective inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), achieved via systemic infusion of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), would reduce the gas exchange threshold (GET) and the maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max) during incremental cycle exercise in man if NO is important in the regulation of muscle vasodilatation. Seven healthy males, aged 18–34 years, volunteered to participate in this ethically approved study. On two occasions, the subjects completed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on an electrically braked cycle ergometer following the infusion of either l-NAME (4 mg kg?1 in 50 ml saline) or placebo (50 ml saline, CON). At rest, the infusion of l-NAME resulted in a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP; CON vs. l-NAME, 89 ± 8 vs. 103 ± 11 mmHg (mean ± s.d.; P < 0.05)) and a significant reduction in heart rate (HR; CON vs. l-NAME, 60 ± 12 vs. 51 ± 8 beats min?1; P < 0.01). At submaximal work rates, there was no significant difference in V?O2 between the conditions and no difference in the GET (CON vs. l-NAME, 1.94 ± 0.47 vs. 2.01 ± 0.41 l min?1). However, at higher work rates, differences in V?O2 between the conditions became more pronounced such that V?O2max was significantly lower with l-NAME (CON vs. l-NAME, 4.02 ± 0.41 vs. 3.80 ± 0.34 l min?1; P < 0.05). The reduction in V?O2max was associated with a reduction in HRmax (CON vs. l-NAME, 186 ± 10 vs. 178 ± 7 beats min?1; P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that NOS inhibition with l-NAME has no effect on GET but reduces V?O2max during large muscle group exercise in man, presumably by direct or indirect effects on cardiac output and muscle blood flow. PMID:15284344

Jones, Andrew M; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Campbell, Iain T

2004-01-01

178

Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training  

PubMed Central

Introduction The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO) or protein ingestion. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum) followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO)) and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO) cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass?1, 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO), or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO). Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass?1) 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. Results Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05). Phosphorylation of mTORSer2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05), while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05). Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (?29–109%, P<0.05). However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05) and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05). Conclusion We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation to training and/or subsequent performance. PMID:24533082

Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Areta, José L.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Hawley, John A.; Coffey, Vernon G.

2014-01-01

179

The beneficial effects of exercise on cartilage are lost in mice with reduced levels of ECSOD in tissues.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased mechanical damage to joint cartilage. We have previously found that extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) is decreased in OA joint fluid and cartilage, suggesting oxidant damage may play a role in OA. We explored the effect of forced running as a surrogate for mechanical damage in a transgenic mouse with reduced ECSOD tissue binding. Transgenic mice heterozygous (Het) for the human ECSOD R213G polymorphism and 129-SvEv (wild-type, WT) mice were exposed to forced running on a treadmill for 45 min/day, 5 days/wk, over 8 wk. At the end of the running protocol, knee joint tissue was obtained for histology, immunohistochemistry, and protein analysis. Sedentary Het and WT mice were maintained for comparison. Whole tibias were studied for bone morphometry, finite element analysis, and mechanical testing. Forced running improved joint histology in WT mice. However, when ECSOD levels were reduced, this beneficial effect with running was lost. Het ECSOD runner mice had significantly worse histology scores compared with WT runner mice. Runner mice for both strains had increased bone strength in response to the running protocol, while Het mice showed evidence of a less robust bone structure in both runners and untrained mice. Reduced levels of ECSOD in cartilage produced joint damage when joints were stressed by forced running. The bone tissues responded to increased loading with hypertrophy, regardless of mouse strain. We conclude that ECSOD plays an important role in protecting cartilage from damage caused by mechanical loading. PMID:25593283

Pate, Kathryn M; Sherk, Vanessa D; Carpenter, R Dana; Weaver, Michael; Crapo, Silvia; Gally, Fabienne; Chatham, Lillian S; Goldstrohm, David A; Crapo, James D; Kohrt, Wendy M; Bowler, Russell P; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Regan, Elizabeth A

2015-03-15

180

Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of a Rare but Potentially Life-Threatening Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old male Marine with an uncomplicated medical history and a long history of strenuous, daily exercise presented to the emergency department after experiencing anaphylactic shock while running. Symptoms resolved following administration of intramuscular diphenhydramine, ranitidine, intravenous methylprednisolone, and intravenous fluids. On followup in the allergy clinic, a meticulous clinical history was obtained which elucidated a picture consistent with exercise-induced anaphylaxis. He had experienced diffuse pruritus and urticaria while exercising on multiple occasions over the last three years. His symptoms would usually increase as exercise continued. Prior to the first episode, he regularly exercised without symptoms. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a rare but potentially life-threatening syndrome that requires a careful clinical history and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Treatment is primarily exercise avoidance. Prophylactic mediations are inconsistently effective but are empirically used. Successful treatment with omalizumab was recently reported in a case of refractory exercise-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:23585764

Jaqua, Nathan T.; Peterson, Matthew R.; Davis, Karla L.

2013-01-01

181

Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Weight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE) to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health. Methods Twenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI). Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated. Results Weight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes. Conclusion These findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. PMID:24904847

Lim, Jung Sub; Jang, Gook-Chan; Moon, Kyung-Rye

2013-01-01

182

Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements  

SciTech Connect

Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rowland, R.A. (Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Chemical Preparedness Div.)

1991-01-01

183

Type 2 Diabetes Elicits Lower Nitric Oxide, Bradykinin Concentration and Kallikrein Activity Together with Higher DesArg9-BK and Reduced Post-Exercise Hypotension Compared to Non-Diabetic Condition  

PubMed Central

This study compared the plasma kallikrein activity (PKA), bradykinin concentration (BK), DesArg9-BK production, nitric oxide release (NO) and blood pressure (BP) response after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed by individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 10 without type 2 diabetes (ND) underwent three sessions: 1) maximal incremental test on cycle ergometer to determine lactate threshold (LT); 2) 20-min of constant-load exercise on cycle ergometer, at 90% LT and; 3) control session. BP and oxygen uptake were measured at rest and at 15, 30 and 45 min post-exercise. Venous blood samples were collected at 15 and 45 minutes of the recovery period for further analysis of PKA, BK and DesArg9-BK. Nitrite plus nitrate (NOx) was analyzed at 15 minutes post exercise. The ND group presented post-exercise hypotension (PEH) of systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure on the 90% LT session but T2D group did not. Plasma NOx increased ~24.4% for ND and ~13.8% for T2D group 15min after the exercise session. Additionally, only ND individuals showed increases in PKA and BK in response to exercise and only T2D group showed increased DesArg9-BK production. It was concluded that T2D individuals presented lower PKA, BK and NOx release as well as higher DesArg9-BK production and reduced PEH in relation to ND participants after a single exercise session. PMID:24265812

Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Arsa, Gisela; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Puga, Guilherme Morais; Lima, Laila Cândida de Jesus; Campbell, Carmen Sílvia Grubert; Franco, Octavio Luiz

2013-01-01

184

The affective beneficence of vigorous exercise revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. High exercise intensity may be associated with reduced adherence to exercise programmes, possibly because it is perceived as aversive. However, several authors have suggested that an intensity as high as 60% or 70% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) is necessary for exercise to elicit positive affective changes. To elucidate this discrepancy, the affective responses to increasing levels of exercise

Eric E. Hall; Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Steven J. Petruzzello

2002-01-01

185

Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.  

PubMed

The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise. PMID:25794236

Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

2015-04-01

186

Effects of C-peptide on blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and glucose utilization in the exercising forearm of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microvascular dysfunction is frequently seen in patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The present study was undertaken to examine whether skeletal muscle microcirculation in Type 1 diabetic patients is influenced by C-peptide. Forearm blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and substrate exchange were studied during strenuous rhythmic forearm exercise on a hand ergometer. Measurements were made before and during i.v. infusion

B.-L. Johansson; B. Linde; J. Wahren

1992-01-01

187

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and in extreme cases, death. Because compulsive exercise is closely related to eating disorders, help can be found at community agencies specifically ...

188

?-glucan reduces exercise-induced stress through downregulation of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats.  

PubMed

Immediate-early genes are involved in acute stress responses in the central nervous system. ?-glucan stimulates innate immune defenses, exerts an anti-tumor response and increases resistance to a wide variety of types of infection. To date, the effect of ?-glucan on the expression of immediate-early genes under stressful conditions has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of ?-glucan on the expression of the oncogenes c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dentate gyrus and dorsal raphe in rats following exhaustive treadmill running were investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group) as follows: Control, exercise, exercise and 50 mg/kg ?-glucan treatment, exercise and 100 mg/kg ?-glucan treatment, and exercise and 200 mg/kg ?-glucan treatment. Rats in the ?-glucan?treated groups were administered ?-glucan at the respective dose once per day for seven days. Rats in the exercise groups performed treadmill running once per day for six days. On the seventh day of the experiment, the time to exhaustion in response to treadmill running was determined for the exercise groups. The expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe and hippocampus was enhanced by exhaustive treadmill running. Administration of ?-glucan resulted in an increase in the time to exhaustion and the suppression of the exercise-induced increment in c-Fos and c-Jun expression. In conclusion, ?-glucan may exert an alleviating effect on exercise-induced stress through the suppression of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats. PMID:24604295

Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Jae-Deung; Seo, Jin-Hee

2014-05-01

189

Responses of plasma glutamine, free tryptophan and branched-chain amino acids to prolonged exercise after a regime designed to reduce muscle glycogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged exercise can elicit a reduction in the plasma glutamine concentration and an increase in the plasma concentration\\u000a ratio of free tryptophan (FTrp) to branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The purpose of this investigation was to study the\\u000a effects of a 60-min bout of vigorous treadmill running with dietary manipulation on plasma concentrations of glutamine, FTrp\\u000a and BCAA after an exercise

Cathy L. Zanker; Ian L. Swaine; Linda M. Castell; Eric A. Newsholme

1997-01-01

190

Exercise addiction.  

PubMed

This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start. PMID:23329605

Landolfi, Emilio

2013-02-01

191

Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

2004-01-01

192

A 12 WEEKS EXERCISE PROGRAM RESULTED IN REDUCED VISCERAL FAT AND FASTING INSULIN BUT NOT TOTAL AND INTRAMYOCELLULAR FAT IN HISPANIC OBESE ADOLESCENTS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Weight loss is known to improve insulin sensitivity but is difficult to achieve. The independent effects of exercise on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in the absence of overall w...

193

A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

2010-01-01

194

Review of exercise studies in breast cancer survivors: attention to principles of exercise training.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: Research supports the use of exercise to improve quality of life and reduce the side effects of breast cancer treatment, such as fatigue and decreased aerobic capacity. Previously published reviews have focused on reporting the outcomes of exercise interventions, but have not critically examined the exercise prescriptions. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the application of the principles of exercise training in the exercise prescriptions reported in intervention studies for breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Databases were searched for randomised controlled trials of exercise in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were extracted to evaluate the application of the principles of exercise training, the reporting of the components of the exercise prescription and the reporting of adherence to the exercise prescription. RESULTS: Of the 29 papers included, none applied all principles of exercise training. Specificity was applied by 64%, progression by 41%, overload by 31%, initial values by 62% and diminishing returns and reversibility by 7% of trials. No study reported all components of the exercise prescription. CONCLUSION: The application of the principles of exercise training varied greatly, and reporting of the exercise prescribed and completed was incomplete. When principles of exercise training are applied to the development of exercise protocols, there is greater confidence that non-significant findings reflect lack of efficacy of exercise rather than deficiencies in the prescription. Incomplete reporting of the exercise prescription and adherence to the prescription limits the reproducibility of the intervention, and the ability to determine the dose of exercise received by participants. PMID:21666228

Campbell, Kristin L; Neil, Sarah E; Winters-Stone, Kerri M

2011-06-10

195

Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through reducing Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in spontaneous hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of cognition. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum of the ADHD rat. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYR) weighing 210± 10 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n= 15): control group, ADHD group, ADHD and methylphenidate (MPH)-treated group, ADHD and treadmill exercise group. The rats in the MPH-treated group as a positive control received 1 mg/kg MPH orally once a day for 28 consecutive days. The rats in the treadmill exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 28 days. Motor coordination and balance were determined by vertical pole test. Immunohistochemistry for the expression of calbindinD-28 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the cerebellar vermis and Western blot for GFAP, Bax, and Bcl-2 were conducted. In the present results, ADHD significantly decreased balance and the number of calbindin-positive cells, while GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum were significantly increased in the ADHD group compared to the control group (P< 0.05, respectively). In contrast, treadmill exercise and MPH alleviated the ADHD-induced the decrease of balance and the number of calbindine-positive cells, and the increase of GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum (P< 0.05, respectively). Therefore, the present results suggested that treadmill exercise might exert ameliorating effect on ADHD through reduction of Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum. PMID:24678501

Yun, Hyo-Soon; Park, Mi-Sook; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

2014-02-01

196

Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through reducing Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in spontaneous hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of cognition. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum of the ADHD rat. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYR) weighing 210± 10 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n= 15): control group, ADHD group, ADHD and methylphenidate (MPH)-treated group, ADHD and treadmill exercise group. The rats in the MPH-treated group as a positive control received 1 mg/kg MPH orally once a day for 28 consecutive days. The rats in the treadmill exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 28 days. Motor coordination and balance were determined by vertical pole test. Immunohistochemistry for the expression of calbindinD-28 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the cerebellar vermis and Western blot for GFAP, Bax, and Bcl-2 were conducted. In the present results, ADHD significantly decreased balance and the number of calbindin-positive cells, while GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum were significantly increased in the ADHD group compared to the control group (P< 0.05, respectively). In contrast, treadmill exercise and MPH alleviated the ADHD-induced the decrease of balance and the number of calbindine-positive cells, and the increase of GFAP expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the cerebellum (P< 0.05, respectively). Therefore, the present results suggested that treadmill exercise might exert ameliorating effect on ADHD through reduction of Purkinje cell loss and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum. PMID:24678501

Yun, Hyo-Soon; Park, Mi-Sook; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

2014-01-01

197

Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in a nonathlete: case report and review of physiology.  

PubMed

The integrity of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier is vulnerable to intense exercise in elite athletes, similar to the phenomenon of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in thoroughbred racehorses. A 50-year-old previously healthy man presented with acute onset shortness of breath, dry cough, and hypoxemia after engaging in an extremely vigorous game of handball. CT scan of the chest showed diffuse patchy air-space disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Infectious etiologies and bleeding diatheses were excluded by laboratory testing. Serological tests for ANCA-associated vasculitis, lupus, and Goodpasture's disease also were negative. A transthoracic echocardiogram was normal. The patient recovered completely on supportive therapy in less than 72 h. This case demonstrates strenuous exercise as a cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a previously healthy male with no apparent underlying cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:24532148

Diwakar, Amit; Schmidt, Gregory A

2014-04-01

198

Fluid Balance and Exercise Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators

Rabindarjeet Singh

2003-01-01

199

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... often result in long-term damage. Instead of building muscle, too much exercise actually destroys muscle mass, especially if the body isn't getting enough nutrition, forcing it to break down muscle for energy. Girls who exercise compulsively may disrupt the balance ...

200

Volcanological Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, which builds on knowledge gained in previous homework exercises located at the same site, asks students in an undergraduate class at Tulane University to answer some basic questions about volcanoes, and to determine the volcanic hazards associated with Mt. Rainier, Washington; Montserrat, West Indies; and Long Valley Caldera, California by searching the World Wide Web.

Stephen Nelson

201

DATE: Depressed adolescents treated with exercise: Study rationale and design for a pilot study  

PubMed Central

There is an important need for non-medication interventions for depressed youth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a standardized aerobic exercise regime to treat non-medicated clinically depressed adolescents based on adherence and completion rates, including 1) establishing effect sizes for the primary outcomes including the Chidren’s Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) and Actical (energy expenditure data) as well as selected secondary outcomes; (e.g., Clinical Global Improvement, depression rating scales, exercise logs, attitudes), and 2) determining whether moderate to strenuous exercise (12 kcal/kg/week [KKW]) versus a control stretching activity (<4 KKW) for 12 weeks leads to a clinically meaningful reduction in depressive symptoms and/or improved psychosocial functioning. The challenge is to develop an exercise intervention that can motivate a typically sedentary depressed adolescent to exercise on a regular basis. The goal is to demonstrate that exercise alone can provide an important and effective non-medication intervention for adolescent depression. This paper reports on the rationale and design of a pilot study which aims to inform the design of a larger trial to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic exercise to treat adolescent depression. After describing the case for exercise within the broader context of the prevalence of adolescent depression and other treatments, the paper describes the intervention and procedures for data collection. PMID:20454641

Hughes, Carroll W.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Cleaver, Joseph; Greer, Tracy L.; Emslie, Graham J.; Kennard, Beth; Dorman, Shauna; Bain, Tyson; Dubreuil, Judy; Barnes, Conrad

2010-01-01

202

Cardiovascular exercise in the U.S. space program: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exercise deconditioning during space flight may impact a crewmember's ability to perform strenuous or prolonged tasks during and after a spaceflight mission. In this paper, we review the cardiovascular exercise data from U.S. spaceflights from the Mercury Project through International Space Station (ISS) expeditions and potential implications upon current and future missions. During shorter spaceflights (<16 days), the heart rate (HR) response to exercise testing and maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) are not changed. The submaximal exercise HR responses during longer duration flights are less consistent, and VO 2 max has not been measured. Skylab data demonstrated no change in the exercise HR response during flight which would be consistent with no change in VO 2 max; however, during ISS flight exercise HR is elevated early in the mission, but approaches preflight levels later during the missions, perhaps due to performance of exercise countermeasures. An elevated exercise HR is consistently observed after both short and long duration spaceflight, and crewmembers appear to recover at rates which are affected by the length of the mission.

Moore, Alan D.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

2010-04-01

203

Metformin and exercise reduce muscle FAT\\/CD36 and lipid accumulation and blunt the progression of high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Derangements in skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism,associated with insulin resistance in obesity appear to involve decreased FA oxidation and increased accumulation,of lipids such as ceramides and diacylglycerol (DAG). We investigated potential lipid-related mechanisms,of metformin (Met) and\\/or exercise (Ex) for blunting the progression of hyperglycemia\\/hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in female Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a high-fat

Angela C. Smith; Kerry L. Mullen; Kathryn A. Junkin; Jennifer Nickerson; A. Chabowski; A. Bonen; David J. Dyck

2007-01-01

204

Cerebral perturbations provoked by prolonged exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses cerebral metabolic and neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise in humans with special focus on associations with fatigue. Global energy turnover in the brain is unaltered by the transition from rest to moderately intense exercise, apparently because exercise-induced activation of some brain regions including cortical motor areas is compensated for by reduced activity in other regions of the

Lars Nybo; Niels H Secher

2004-01-01

205

Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P < 0.01) more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and FM (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively). Only P + RT (0.1 ± 0.04 kg) and PRISE (0.21 ± 0.07 kg) lost VAT mass (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P + RT (5.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl) and PRISE (15.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), with the greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P < 0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (0.6 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.4 units), and leptin decreased (4.7 ± 2.2, 4.7 ± 3.1 ng/dl), and adiponectin increased (3.8 ± 1.1, 2.4 ± 1.1 ?g/ml) only in P + RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines. PMID:24833780

Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J

2014-07-01

206

High altitude, prolonged exercise, and the athlete biological passport.  

PubMed

The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) detects blood doping in athletes through longitudinal monitoring of erythropoietic markers. Mathematical algorithms are used to define individual reference ranges for these markers for each athlete. It is unclear if altitude and exercise can affect the variables included in these calculations in a way that the changes might be mistaken for blood manipulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the simultaneous strenuous exercise and low to high altitude exposure on the calculation algorithms of the ABP. 14 sea level (SL) and 11 altitude native (ALT) highly trained athletes participated in a 14-day cycling stage race taking place at an average altitude of 2496?m above sea level (min. 1014?m, max. 4120?m), race distances ranged between 96 and 227?km per day. ABP blood measures were taken on days -1,3,6,10,14 (SL) and -1,9,15 (ALT) of the race. Four results from three samples of two different SL athletes exceeded the individual limits at the 99% specificity threshold and one value at 99.9%. In ALT, three results from three samples of three different athletes were beyond the individual limits at 99%, one at 99.9%. The variations could be explained by the expected physiological reaction to exercise and altitude. In summary, the abnormalities observed in the haematological ABP´s of well-trained athletes during extensive exercise at altitude are limited and in line with expected physiological changes. PMID:25252093

Schumacher, Yorck O; Garvican, Laura A; Christian, Ryan; Lobigs, Louisa M; Qi, Jiliang; Fan, Rongyun; He, Yingying; Wang, Hailing; Gore, Christopher J; Ma, Fuhai

2015-01-01

207

Exercise response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

1975-01-01

208

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis as a manifestation of cholinergic urticaria.  

PubMed

Two patients presented with a history of exercise-induced hypotension associated with severe pruritus and either generalized urticaria or facial angioedema. Each patient was exercised under controlled conditions with use of bicycle ergometer exerciser (900 KPM/min) for 20 to 30 min at 23 degrees C. Each patients complained of generalized pruritus and then erupted in lesions typical of cholinergic urticaria. In one patient the lesions became confluent about the face and were followed by eyelid edema, lip swelling, and transient hypotension. Plasma histamine levels were elevated in each patient and reached a maximal level between 20 and 25 min. Neither patient had a change in forced expiratory volume in one second during the episode and detailed pulmonary function testing in one patient revealed no change in airway resistance, specific conductance, forced expiratory vital capacity, or forced expiratory flow rates. One patient had a positive methacholine chloride (Mecholyl) skin test with satellite lesions, and the second patient was skin-test negative. The skin test-positive patient, who was not hypotensive when initially challenged, was strenuously exercised for 15 min/day. Progressively less severe reactions were seen associated with diminished histamine release, and the patient is now on a daily exercise program; symptoms in the second patient are controlled with hydroxazine. Our results indicate that some patients with the exercise-induced anaphylactic syndrome are unusual examples of severe cholinergic urticaria. Furthermore, the utility of a regular exercise program as part of the management of some patients with cholinergic urticaria requires further investigation. PMID:6169753

Kaplan, A P; Natbony, S F; Tawil, A P; Fruchter, L; Foster, M

1981-10-01

209

Comparison of reducing epicardial fat by exercise, diet or bariatric surgery weight loss strategies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The objectives were to determine whether epicardial fat (EAT) is subject to modification, and whether various strategies accomplish this end point and the relationship between weight loss and EAT. A systematic review of the literature following meta-analysis guidelines was conducted using the search strategy 'epicardial fat' OR 'epicardial adipose tissue' AND 'diet' OR 'exercise' OR 'bariatric surgery (BS)' OR 'change in body weight' limited to humans. Eleven articles were identified with 12 intervention approaches of which eight studies showed a statistically significant reduction in EAT. A random-effects meta-analysis suggests an overall significant reduction of 1.12 standardized units (95% CI?=?[-1.71, -0.54], P value?exercise. BMI reductions correlated significantly with EAT reductions for diet-based interventions, i.e. for some but not all interventions. In conclusion, EAT, a factor that is significantly associated with coronary artery disease, can be modified. The type of intervention, in addition to the amount of weight loss achieved, is predictive of the amount of EAT reduction. PMID:25753297

Rabkin, S W; Campbell, H

2015-05-01

210

Diabetes and exercise  

PubMed Central

Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significant worldwide burden of this type of diabetes. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the acute and long term physiological benefits of physical activity, although the precise duration, intensity, and type of exercise have yet to be fully elucidated. However, in type 1 diabetes, the expected improvements in glycaemic control with exercise have not been clearly established. Instead significant physical and psychological benefits of exercise can be achieved while careful education, screening, and planning allow the metabolic, microvascular, and macrovascular risks to be predicted and diminished. ??? PMID:10378067

Peirce, N. S.

1999-01-01

211

Regular physical exercise in patients with type II diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that regular physical exercise helps diabetic patients control blood glucose, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, and prevent other related complications. In spite of the undoubted benefits of regular physical exercise, diabetic patients with chronic complications should be aware of potential hazards of practicing exercise. To avoid some harmful consequences of acute exercise, it is necessary to adopt

C. Nakhanakhup; P. Moungmee; H. J. Appell; J. A. Duarte

2006-01-01

212

The Effect of a Hyperdynamic Circulation on Tissue Doppler Values: A Simulation in Young Adults during Exercise  

PubMed Central

Left ventricular tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) velocities are used to monitor systolic and diastolic function, but it is not known how these may change in a hyperdynamic circulation, as often occurs in anesthesia and critical care medicine. Twenty-six healthy young volunteers were recruited and left ventricular systolic and diastolic tissue Doppler velocities measured at rest, light exercise, strenuous exercise, and recovery (10 minutes after exercise). At rest, TDI velocities significantly decreased from base to apex (P < .001). Within basal, mid, and apical sections, systolic and diastolic peak velocities differed between segments (P < .05), except for systolic middle (P = .094) and late diastolic apical velocities (P = .257). Basal septal velocities differed from basal lateral, for systolic (P = .041) but not diastolic peak values. Inferobasal radial values differed from basal lateral values for both systolic and diastolic velocities (P < .05). Both systolic and diastolic TDI velocities increased significantly in all segments in a proportionate manner with a hyperdynamic circulation. PMID:21403890

Royse, Colin F.; Ruizhi, Ni; Huynh, Andrew L.; Royse, Alistair G.

2011-01-01

213

What You Eat After Exercise Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Study shows reducing carbs after exercise is more important for enhancing insulin sensitivity than reducing calories." This press release describes the study design and findings from the published study "Energy deficit after exercise augments lipid mobilization but does not contribute to the exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity" by Sean A. Newsom, Simon Schenk, Kristin M. Tomas, Matthew P. Harber, Nicolas D. Knuth, Naila Goldenberg, and Jeffrey F. Horowitz published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, March 2010.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-01-28

214

Heart rate and oxygen uptake response to exercise in children with low peak exercise heart rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal children achieve the same increase of oxygen uptake (VO2) in response to exercise even though resting and submaximal exercise heart rates vary greatly as a function of age, body size and physical conditioning. To determine whether the VO2 response to exercise is altered when heart rate is significantly reduced by heart disease, we compared 78 children who achieved a

I. M. Schulze-Neick; H. U. Wessel; M. H. Paul

1992-01-01

215

Physical Activity is Associated with Improved Aerobic Exercise Capacity over Time in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired exercise capacity is common in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). This impairment is progressive and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We studied the influence of the frequency of at least moderately strenuous physical activity (PhysAct) on changes in exercise capacity of ACHD patients over time. Methods We studied ACHD patients ?21 years old who had repeated maximal (RER?1.09) cardiopulmonary exercise tests within 6 to 24 months. On the basis of data extracted from each patient’s clinical records, PhysAct frequency was classified as (1) Low: minimal PhysAct, (2) Occasional: moderate PhysAct <2 times/week, or (3) Frequent: moderate PhysAct ?2 times/week. Results PhysAct frequency could be classified for 146 patients. Those who participated in frequent exercise tended to have improved pVO2 (?pVO2=+1.63±2.67 ml/kg/min) compared to those who had low or occasional activity frequency (?pVO2=+0.06±2.13 ml/kg/min, p=0.003) over a median follow-up of 13.2 months. This difference was independent of baseline clinical characteristics, time between tests, medication changes, or weight change. Those who engaged in frequent PhysAct were more likely to have an increase of pVO2 of ?1SD between tests as compared with sedentary patients (multivariable OR=7.4, 95%CI 1.5-35.7). Aerobic exercise capacity also increased for patients who increased activity frequency from baseline to follow-up; 27.3% of those who increased their frequency of moderately strenuous physical activity had a clinically significant (at least +1SD) increase in pVO2 compared to only 11% of those who maintained or decreased activity frequency. Conclusions ACHD patients who engage in frequent physical activity tend to have improved exercise capacity over time. PMID:23962775

Bhatt, Ami B; Landzberg, Michael J; Rhodes, Jonathan

2013-01-01

216

Achilles tendon biomechanics in response to acute intense exercise.  

PubMed

Achilles tendinopathy is a common disorder and is more prevalent in men. Although differences in tendon mechanics between men and women have been reported, understanding of tendon mechanics in young active people is limited. Moreover, there is limited understanding of changes in tendon mechanics in response to acute exercise. Our purpose was to compare Achilles tendon mechanics in active young adult men and women at rest and after light and strenuous activity in the form of repeated jumping with an added load. Participants consisted of 17 men and 14 women (18-30 years) who were classified as being at least moderately physically active as defined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Tendon force/elongation measures were obtained during an isometric plantarflexion contraction on an isokinetic dynamometer with simultaneous ultrasound imaging of the Achilles tendon approximate to the soleus myotendinous junction. Data were collected at rest, after a 10-minute treadmill walk, and after a fatigue protocol of 100 toe jumps performed in a Smith machine, with a load equaling 20% of body mass. We found greater tendon elongation, decreased stiffness, and lower Young's modulus only in women after the jumping exercise. Force and stress were not different between groups but decreased subsequent to the jumping exercise bout. In general, women had greater elongation and strain, less stiffness, and a lower Young's modulus during plantarflexor contraction. These data demonstrate differences in tendon mechanics between men and women and suggest a potential protective mechanism explaining the lower incidence of Achilles tendinopathy in women. PMID:24552794

Joseph, Michael F; Lillie, Kurtis R; Bergeron, Daniel J; Cota, Kevin C; Yoon, Joseph S; Kraemer, William J; Denegar, Craig R

2014-05-01

217

Exercise with prebreathe appears to increase protection from decompression sickness: Preliminary findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle involves one hour of prebreath with 100% oxygen, decompression of the entire Shuttle to 10.2 psia for at least 12 hours, and another prebreath for 40 minutes before decompression to the 4.3 psia suit pressure. We are investigating the use of a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen beginning with a ten-minute strenuous exercise period as an alternative for the staged decompression schedule described above. The 10-minute exercise consists of dual-cycle ergometry performed at 75% of the subject's peak oxygen uptake to increase denitrogenation efficiency by increasing ventilation and perfusion. The control exposures were preceded by a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen while resting in a supine position. The twenty-two male subjects were exposed to 4.3 psia for 4 hours while performing light to moderate exercise. Preliminary results from 22 of the planned 26 subjects indicate 76% DCS following supine, resting prebreathe and 38% following prebreathe with exercise. The staged decompression schedule has been shown to result in 23% DCS which is not significantly different from the exercise-enhanced prebreathe results. Prebreathe including exercise appears to be comparable to the protection afforded by the more lengthy staged decompression schedule. Completion of the study later this year will enable planned statistical analysis of the results.

Webb, James T.; Fischer, Michele D.; Heaps, Cristine L.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

1994-01-01

218

Swimming exercise enhances the hippocampal antioxidant status of female Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Objectives Moderate exercise is known to have health benefits, while both sedentarism and strenuous exercise have pro-oxidant effects. In this study, we assessed the effect of moderate exercise on the antioxidant homeostasis of rats' hippocampi. Methods Female Wistar rats were submitted to a 30-minute swimming protocol on 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. Control rats were immersed in water and carefully dried. Production of hippocampal reactive species, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and glutathione levels in these animals were determined up to 30 days after completion of the 4-week protocol. Results Production of reactive species and hippocampal glutathione levels were increased 1 day after completion of the 4-week protocol, and returned to control levels after 7 days. Antioxidant enzyme activities were increased both 1 day (catalase) and 7 days (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) after completion of the protocol. Thirty days after completion of the protocol, none of the antioxidant parameters evaluated differed from those of controls. Discussion Our results reinforce the benefits of aerobic exercise, which include positive modulation of antioxidant homeostasis in the hippocampi. The effects of exercise are not permanent; rather, an exercise regimen must be continued in order to maintain the neurometabolic adaptations. PMID:25387101

Stone, Vinícius; Kudo, Karen Yurika; Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; August, Pauline Maciel; Matté, Cristiane

2015-05-01

219

Effect of Acute Exercise on Upper-Limb Volume in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Strenuous upper-extremity activity and/or exercise have traditionally been prescribed for breast cancer survivors with or at risk of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an acute bout of exercise on upper-limb volume and symptoms in breast cancer survivors, with the intent to provide pilot data to guide a subsequent larger study. Methods: Twenty-three women who regularly participated in dragon-boat racing took part in the study. A single exercise bout was performed at a moderate intensity (rating of perceived exertion: 13–14) for 20 continuous minutes on an arm ergometer. The difference between affected and unaffected limb volume was assessed pre- and post-exercise via measurements of limb circumference at five time points. Results: Although limb volume increased following exercise in both limbs, the difference between the limbs remained stable at each measurement point. Only one participant was found to have an increase in arm-volume difference of >100 ml post intervention, and only four participants reported symptoms of tension and/or heaviness in the affected limb. Conclusion: The results suggest that limb volume in breast cancer survivors increases after an acute bout of upper-limb exercise but that, for the majority of women, the response is not different between affected and unaffected limbs. Future research using a larger sample and more sensitive measurement methods are recommended. PMID:20808486

Campbell, Kristin L.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.

2009-01-01

220

Maple Exercises  

E-print Network

Systems. 1.1 On Line. In this introductory section we will pose no exercises, but instead, will detail how to use Maple to ... ing Maple's le management. For example ... document that opens is hyperlinked to all sorts of information about Maple, ...

1998-01-21

221

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Stephen Nelson

222

Eating & Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PheT interactive, downloadable simulation allows students to Explore issues such as calories in food, how to burn calories, and the relationship between calories and weight by choosing diet and exercise and keeping an eye on your weight.Sample earning goals, teaching ideas, and translated versions are available.

2008-01-01

223

Maple Exercises  

E-print Network

Systems. 1.1 On Line. In this introductory section we will pose no exercises, but instead, will detail how to use ... ing Maple's le management. For example .... pvac,system : These two commands cause Maple to load, from its Share Library, a.

1998-01-21

224

Can a tailored exercise and home hazard reduction program reduce the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with cognitive impairment: protocol paper for the i-FOCIS randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The rate of falls in community dwelling older people with cognitive impairment (CI) is twice that of a cognitively intact population, with almost two thirds of people with CI falling annually. Studies indicate that exercise involving balance and/or a home hazard reduction program are effective in preventing falls in cognitively intact older people. However the potential benefit of these interventions in reducing falls in people with CI has not been established. This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a tailored exercise and home hazard reduction program can reduce the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with CI. We will determine whether the intervention has beneficial effects on a range of physical and psychological outcome measures as well as quality of life of participants and their carers. A health economic analysis examining the cost and potential benefits of the program will also be undertaken. Methods and design Three hundred and sixty people aged 65 years or older living in the community with CI will be recruited to participate in the trial. Each will have an identifiable carer with a minimum of 3.5 hours of face to face contact each week. Participants will undergo an assessment at baseline with retests at 6 and 12 months. Participants allocated to the intervention group will participate in an exercise and home hazard reduction program tailored to their cognitive and physical abilities. The primary outcome measure will be the rate of falls which will be measured using monthly falls calendars. Secondary outcome measures will include the risk of falling, quality of life, measures of physical and cognitive function, fear of falling and planned and unplanned use of health services. Carers will be followed up to determine carer burden, coping strategies and quality of life. Discussion The study will determine the impact of this tailored intervention in reducing the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with CI as well as the cost-effectiveness and adherence to the program. The results will have direct implications for the design and implementation of interventions for this high-risk group of older people. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12614000603617 PMID:25128411

2014-01-01

225

Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery.  

PubMed

Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism. PMID:24384982

Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

2014-04-01

226

Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence with Weight Loss, a Vanguard Trial: The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) Trial  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer among women in developed countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and mortality in both pre-and postmenopausal women. Co-morbid medical conditions are common among breast cancer survivors. The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) study is a 4-year randomized clinical trial of 693 overweight/obese women aged ?21 years diagnosed with any early stage breast cancer (stages I[?1 cm]-III) within the previous five years, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving sustained weight loss and to examine the impact of weight loss on quality of life and co-morbidities, and to enable future exploration of biochemical mechanisms linking obesity to lower likelihood of disease-free survival. This trial is strategically designed as a vanguard for a fully-powered trial of women who will be evaluated for breast cancer recurrence and disease-free survival. Participants were recruited between 2010 and 2012 at four sites, had completed initial therapies, and had a body mass index between 25 and 45 kg/m2. The intervention featured a group-based cognitive-behavioral weight loss program with telephone counseling and tailored newsletters to support initial weight loss and subsequent maintenance, with the goal of 7% weight loss at two years. This study has high potential to have a major impact on clinical management and outcomes after a breast cancer diagnosis. This trial initiates the effort to establish weight loss support for overweight or obese breast cancer survivors as a new standard of clinical care. PMID:23266440

Rock, Cheryl L.; Byers, Tim E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ganz, Patricia A.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Elias, Anthony; Krontiras, Helen; Liu, Jingxia; Naughton, Michael; Pakiz, Bilgé; Parker, Barbara A.; Sedjo, Rebecca L.; Wyatt, Holly

2012-01-01

227

Mechanism of sympathetic activation during prolonged physical exercise in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It seems likely that depletion of body carbohydrates may account for the rise in the sympathetic activity during prolonged exercise, since glucose given during or before exercise reduces the increase in plasma catecholamines. The aim of the present study was to find out whether the increase in plasma noradrenaline (NA) in response to exercise can be reduced by 1. increasing

S. Kozlowski; K. Nazar; Z. Brzezifiska; D. Stephens; H. Kaciuba-U?ci?ko; A. Kobry?

1983-01-01

228

Mediating Mechanisms in a Program to Reduce Intentions to Use Anabolic Steroids and Improve Exercise Self-Efficacy and Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the mediating mechanisms responsible for the effects of a program designed to reduce intentions to use anabolic steroids, improve nutrition, and increase strength training self-efficacy. Fifteen of 31 high school football teams (ND 1,506 players at baseline) in Oregon and Washington were assigned to receive the intervention. The multicomponent program addressed the social influences promoting ergogenic drug

David P. MacKinnon; Linn Goldberg; Greg N. Clarke; Diane L. Elliot; JeeWon Cheong; Angela Lapin; Esther L. Moe; Jennifer L. Krull

2001-01-01

229

Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections, Study ... According to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. ...

230

Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  

PubMed

The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

2013-03-01

231

Exercise haemodynamics and maximal exercise capacity during beta-adrenoceptor blockade in normotensive and hypertensive subjects.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of atenolol administration on maximal exercise capacity and exercise haemodynamics have been compared in eight normotensive and eight mildly hypertensive subjects, matched for sex, age, body weight, and maximal oxygen uptake, and familiar with maximal exercise testing. 2. Supine and exercise blood pressure, and exercise total peripheral resistance were significantly higher, and exercise cardiac output was significantly lower in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects. 3. Administration of atenolol (1 X 100 mg day-1) for 3 days reduced supine and exercise systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output, and increased exercise stroke volume. Supine and exercise diastolic blood pressure and exercise total peripheral resistance were unaffected by atenolol. The effects of atenolol did not differ in the normotensive and the hypertensive subjects. 4. Maximal work load, maximal oxygen uptake, and maximal heart rate were reduced to a similar extent in normotensive and hypertensive subjects during atenolol treatment. 5. It is concluded that there is no difference in the effects of short-term atenolol administration on exercise haemodynamics and maximal exercise capacity in normotensive and mildly hypertensive subjects. PMID:2896013

van Baak, M A; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T

1988-01-01

232

Hypoxia has a greater effect than exercise on the redistribution of pulmonary blood flow in swine.  

PubMed

Strenuous exercise combined with hypoxia is implicated in the development of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), which is believed to result from rupture of pulmonary capillaries secondary to high vascular pressures. The relative importance of hypoxia and exercise in altering the distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) is unknown. Six chronically catheterized specific pathogen-free Yorkshire hybrid pigs (25.5 +/- 0.7 kg, means +/- SD) underwent incremental treadmill exercise tests in normoxia (Fi(O(2)) = 0.21) and hypoxia (Fi(O(2)) = 0.125, balanced order), consisting of 5 min at 30, 60, and 90% of the previously determined Vo(2max). At steady state (~4 min), metabolic and cardiac output data were collected and fluorescent microspheres were injected over approximately 30 s. Later the fluorescent intensity of each color in each 2-cm(3) lung piece was determined and regional perfusion was calculated from the weight-normalized fluorescence. Both hypoxia and exercise shifted PBF away from the ventral cranial lung regions toward the dorsal caudal regions of the lung, but hypoxia caused a greater dorsal caudal shift in PBF at rest than did near-maximal exercise in normoxia. The variance in PBF due to hypoxia, exercise, and vascular structure was 16 +/- 4.2, 4.0 +/- 4.4, and 59.4 +/- 11.4%, respectively, and the interaction between hypoxia and exercise represented 12 +/- 6.5%. This observation implies that there is already a maximal shift with in PBF with hypoxia in the dorsal-caudal regions in pigs that cannot be exceeded with the addition of exercise. However, exercise greatly increases the pulmonary arterial pressures and therefore the risk of capillary rupture in high flow regions. PMID:17872407

Hopkins, Susan R; Kleinsasser, Axel; Bernard, Susan; Loeckinger, Alex; Falor, Eric; Neradilek, Blazej; Polissar, Nayak L; Hlastala, Michael P

2007-12-01

233

Assessment of protein synthesis in highly aerobic canine species at the onset and during exercise training.  

PubMed

Canis lupus familiaris, the domesticated dog, is capable of extreme endurance performance. The ability to perform sustained aerobic exercise is dependent on a well-developed mitochondrial reticulum. In this study we examined the cumulative muscle protein and DNA synthesis in groups of athletic dogs at the onset of an exercise training program and following a strenuous exercise training program. We hypothesized that both at the onset and during an exercise training program there would be greater mitochondrial protein synthesis rates compared with sedentary control with no difference in mixed or cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates. Protein synthetic rates of three protein fractions and DNA synthesis were determined over 1 wk using (2)H2O in competitive Alaskan Huskies and Labrador Retrievers trained for explosive device detection. Both groups of dogs had very high rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the sedentary state [Alaskan Huskies: Mixed = 2.28 ± 0.12, cytoplasmic (Cyto) = 2.91 ± 0.10, and mitochondrial (Mito) = 2.62 ± 0.07; Labrador Retrievers: Mixed = 3.88 ± 0.37, Cyto = 3.85 ± 0.06, and Mito = 2.92 ± 0.20%/day]. Mitochondrial (Mito) protein synthesis rates did not increase at the onset of an exercise training program. Exercise-trained dogs maintained Mito protein synthesis during exercise training when mixed (Mixed) and cytosolic (Cyto) fractions decreased, and this coincided with a decrease in p-RpS6 but also a decrease in p-ACC signaling. Contrary to our hypothesis, canines did not have large increases in mitochondrial protein synthesis at the onset or during an exercise training program. However, dogs have a high rate of protein synthesis compared with humans that perhaps does not necessitate an extra increase in protein synthesis at the onset of aerobic exercise training. PMID:25614602

Miller, Benjamin F; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Drake, Joshua C; Peelor, Frederick F; Biela, Laurie M; Pratt-Phillips, Shannon; Davis, Michael; Hamilton, Karyn L

2015-04-01

234

Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

235

Prenatal Exercise Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range,

Tiffany Field

236

Exercise and Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercise and Asthma Health Issues Listen Exercise and Asthma Article Body Almost every child (and adult) with ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

237

Exercise and Physical Activity  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise videos/DVDs made for older people. • Add music to the exercises if it helps the person with Alzheimer’s disease. Dance to the music if possible. • Break exercises into simple, easy-to- ...

238

Exercise stress test  

MedlinePLUS

... EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill ... This test is done at a medical center or health care provider's office. The technician will place 10 flat, ...

239

Exercise-Induced Urticaria  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Exercise-induced Urticaria Overview What is exercise-induced urticaria? Exercise-induced urticaria is a condition that causes hives and other allergic symptoms. It can occur during ...

240

Exercise and Shoulder Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... the painful limb and should seek immediate medical attention. They should select other forms of exercise to ... cautions people to avoid exercise/activities that cause increased pain lasting an hour or more after exercise. ...

241

Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice.  

PubMed

Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); and (3) exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1) or (4) 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5). Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training. PMID:24595275

Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

2014-01-01

242

RNA Sequencing of the Exercise Transcriptome in Equine Athletes  

PubMed Central

The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as “nucleic acid binding” and “signal transduction activity” functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including those involved in inflammation, cell signaling, and immune interactions. PMID:24391776

Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

2013-01-01

243

Exercising with Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... everyone. In fact, studies show that people with osteoarthritis benefit from regular exercise and physical activity. For people with osteoarthritis, regular exercise can help: l Maintain healthy and ...

244

Exercise in the menopausal woman.  

PubMed

An exercise program for menopausal women that includes both aerobic and resistance training may prevent or relieve problems such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, and depression. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases in women after menopause; in both men and women, regular aerobic exercise may improve cardiorespiratory endurance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise also prevents some age-related increases in body fat and it elevates resting metabolic rate, which correlates directly with lean body mass. Inactivity, not hormonal change, is the most common cause of obesity. Resistance training can improve muscle strength and bone density. Increases in bone mineral content have been found at lumbar vertebral and distal radial sites in women who participate in exercise programs. Weight-bearing exercise in conjunction with estrogen replacement therapy and calcium supplementation helps to prevent osteoporosis. Many women experience mood changes at menopause. Some of these symptoms are caused by chronic sleep deprivation due to night flushes and respond best to estrogen; others are related to levels of brain chemicals and respond favorably to exercise. PMID:2179791

Shangold, M M

1990-04-01

245

Exercise in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  

PubMed

Patients with the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) have orthostatic intolerance, as well as exercise intolerance. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is generally lower in these patients compared with healthy sedentary individuals, suggesting a lower physical fitness level. During acute exercise, POTS patients have an excessive increase in heart rate and reduced stroke volume for each level of absolute workload; however, when expressed at relative workload (%VO2peak), there is no difference in the heart rate response between patients and healthy individuals. The relationship between cardiac output and VO2 is similar between POTS patients and healthy individuals. Short-term (i.e., 3 months) exercise training increases cardiac size and mass, blood volume, and VO2peak in POTS patients. Exercise performance is improved after training. Specifically, stroke volume is greater and heart rate is lower at any given VO2 during exercise after training versus before training. Peak heart rate is the same but peak stroke volume and cardiac output are greater after training. Heart rate recovery from peak exercise is significantly faster after training, indicating an improvement in autonomic circulatory control. These results suggest that patients with POTS have no intrinsic abnormality of heart rate regulation during exercise. The tachycardia in POTS is due to a reduced stroke volume. Cardiac remodeling and blood volume expansion associated with exercise training increase physical fitness and improve exercise performance in these patients. PMID:25487551

Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

2015-03-01

246

Media-Augmented Exercise Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

Krueger, T.

2002-01-01

247

Exercise, Physical Activity, and Exertion over the Business Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As economic recessions reduce employment and wages, associated shifts in time and income constraints would be expected to also impact individuals’ health behaviors. Prior work has focused exclusively on recreational exercise, which typically represents only about 4% of total daily physical exertion. The general presumption in these studies is that, because exercise improves health, if unemployment increases exercise it must

Gregory J. Colman; Dhaval M. Dave

2011-01-01

248

Exercise Heart Rate as a Predictor of Running Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduced heart rate at a standard exercise intensity is a well-established result of endurance training (see Barnard, 1975 for review). Since exercise heart rates are easily monitored, this parameter was identified as a potential predictor of performance in road racing. This report will concern itselfstrictly with the predictive power of exercise heart rates since other data from this study

PETER A. FARRELL; JACK H. WILMORE; EDWARD F. COYLE

1980-01-01

249

Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular variables. Plasma volume (% delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P < 0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training for all regimens indicating no effect of these training regimens on the level of vascular fluid shifts.

Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

250

Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

Kohler, Fred

251

Overcoming Barriers to Exercise: No More Excuses  

MedlinePLUS

... cost exercise programs in your area. Increasing your energy Regular, moderate physical activity can help reduce fatigue ... become active, you’re likely to have more energy than before. As you do more, you also ...

252

Exercise Is Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

Elrick, Harold

1996-01-01

253

Estrogen attenuates HSP 72 expression in acutely exercised male rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen has been shown to reduce post-exercise skeletal muscle damage. Exercise-induced muscle damage may be a factor in the elevated post-exercise expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). Thus, the present investigation was conducted in order to examine the influence of estrogen on post-exercise levels of HSP 72 and heat-shock cognate, HSC 73, in male and female rodents. Prior to an acute

Zain Paroo; Peter M. Tiidus; Earl G. Noble

1999-01-01

254

New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance  

PubMed Central

The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward ‘central command’ mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal ‘tonic’ activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of ? opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O2 transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes – probably acting in concert with feedforward central command – contribute significantly to preserving O2 transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development. PMID:22826128

Dempsey, Jerome A

2012-01-01

255

Astronauts Exercising in Space Video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

2001-01-01

256

Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL. Methods Middle-aged adults (N=202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs. Results Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (Ptrend?0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (Ptrend?0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (Ptrend<0.05). Decreased waist circumference was associated with improved bodily pain and general health but with reduced role-emotional scores (Ptrend?0.05). High exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (Ptrend<0.02). Conclusions Monitoring adherence and tailoring exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance. PMID:23036856

Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M.; Mason, Caitlin E.; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; McTiernan, Anne

2014-01-01

257

Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic\\u000a effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect\\u000a of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the\\u000a impact on subsequent high-intensity exercise performance in the heat. Twelve male

N. D. Clarke; D. P. M. Maclaren; T. Reilly; B. Drust

2011-01-01

258

Exercise-induced glycogenolysis in sympathectomized rats.  

PubMed

The role of the adrenergic system in regulating glycogenolysis during exercise was studied in rats. Alterations in the adrenergic system were produced by injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHD), surgical removal of the adrenal medulla (ADMX), or the combination of ADMX and 6-OHD injection. Exercise was treadmill running at 22 m/min for 60 min. Colonic temperature averaged 2.8 degrees C higher in the exercised than control rats. Exercise reduced the glycogen of the liver and skeletal muscles of all groups. The glycogen concentrations of the soleus and red portion of the gastrocnemius muscles of the ADMX and ADMX-6-OHD groups were about 3.8 and 2.5 times higher after exercise than those of the normal-exercised rats. Glycogen depletion of the white portion of the gastrocnemius muscle was similar for all exercised groups. 6-OHD treatment depleted the catecholamines of the myocardium. These results demonstrate that glycogen depletion during exercise occurs in rats devoid of adrenergic control. However, differences between types of skeletal muscle suggest that factors other than the adrenergic system may be involved in controlling glycogen metabolism during exercise. PMID:6809993

Hashimoto, I; Knudson, M B; Noble, E G; Klug, G A; Gollnick, P D

1982-01-01

259

Clothing and thermoregulation during exercise.  

PubMed

Exercise increases heat production. During exercise in both warm and cold conditions, the major dilemma is the dissipation of the heat produced from muscular activity. The use of clothing generally represents a layer of insulation and as such imposes a barrier to heat transfer and evaporation from the skin surface. In warm environments, additional clothing increases thermal insulation causing more rapid increases in temperature during exercise and imposes a barrier to sweat evaporation. However, clothing can serve a protective function by reducing radiant heat gain and thermal stress. Recent research suggests that neither the inclusion of modest amounts of clothing nor the clothing fabric alter thermoregulation or thermal comfort during exercise in warm conditions. In the cold, most reports do not support an effect of clothing fabric on thermoregulation; however, there are reports demonstrating an effect. Clothing construction does alter thermoregulation during and following exercise in the cold, where fishnet construction offers greater heat dissipation. Future research should include conditions that more closely mimic outdoor conditions, where high work rates, large airflow and high relative humidity can significantly impact thermoregulation. PMID:14606923

Gavin, Timothy P

2003-01-01

260

Pain during and within hours after exercise in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Literature on the pain relieving effects of exercise has been reviewed several times. It is equally important to review the literature on the pain-inducing effects of exercise. Indeed, exercise professionals, health care providers, and exercisers must grapple with the fact that exercise can both induce and reduce pain. The objective of this review was to synthesize our current understanding of exercise-induced pain and inspire advanced research. We searched the PubMed database for publications since 2000 about healthy human participants. Disease-specific reviews of the effects of exercise are available elsewhere. The results of our literature review verified that many different modes, intensities, and durations of exercise can induce pain in healthy people. Another important point is that pain can occur within a few hours after eccentric contractions, which should be considered relative to the construct of delayed-onset muscle soreness. In addition, the studies supported that exercise can be painful in diverse muscle groups. Yet another point illuminated by the literature is that different pain measures do not always change in similar directions and magnitudes after exercise. Therefore, our review confirms that a wide variety of exercises can be painful--even for healthy people. We wonder how many exercise professionals and health care providers regularly and appropriately measure exercise-related pain or consider such pain in their exercise recommendations. We also question if exercise-related pain affects exercise behavior in healthy people as it has been shown to do in people with chronic illnesses. Additional research is needed to improve both exercise recommendations and exercise behavior. PMID:24668291

Dannecker, Erin A; Koltyn, Kelli F

2014-07-01

261

Socially Assistive Robot Exercise Coach: Motivating Older Adults to Engage in Physical  

E-print Network

, such as reducing depression [11] and increasing social interaction [12]. Matsusaka et al. developed an exercise1 Socially Assistive Robot Exercise Coach: Motivating Older Adults to Engage in Physical Exercise evaluation of a socially assistive robot system designed to engage elderly users in physical exercise aimed

Mataric, Maja J.

262

Exercise Completed When Young Provides Lifelong Benefit to Cortical Bone Structure and Estimated Strength  

E-print Network

. These cumulative data indicate: 1) the extreme plasticity of the growing skeleton to exercise; 2) that exerciseExercise Completed When Young Provides Lifelong Benefit to Cortical Bone Structure and Estimated Exercise induces greatest bone gains during growth, yet reduced bone strength is an age-related phenomenon

Zhou, Yaoqi

263

Exercise training improves neurovascular control and functional capacity in heart failure patients regardless of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exercise training is a non-pharmacological strategy for treatment of heart failure. Exercise training improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients. Moreover, exercise training reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and peripheral vasoconstriction. However, most of these studies have been conducted in middle-aged patients. Thus, the effects of exercise training in older patients are much less understood. The

Ligia M Antunes-Correa; Bianca Y Kanamura; Ruth C Melo; Thais S Nobre; Linda M Ueno; Fabio GM Franco; Fabiana Roveda; Ana Maria Braga; Maria UPB Rondon; Patricia C Brum; Holly R Middlekauff; Carlos E Negrao

2012-01-01

264

Circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during exercise in patients with exercise induced asthma and normal subjects.  

PubMed Central

A failure of the usual increase in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during submaximal exercise has been suggested as a contributory cause of exercise induced asthma. Six normal subjects and six asthmatic patients underwent a standard graded maximal exercise test. Measurements of oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, exercise time, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate indicated that the two groups achieved similarly high work loads during exercise. Mean FEV1 fell by 20% in asthmatic patients after exercise. Basal plasma adrenaline concentrations (nmol/l) increased in normal subjects from 0.05 to 2.7 and in asthmatic patients from 0.12 to 1.6 at peak exercise. Noradrenaline concentrations (nmol/l) increased in normal subjects from 2.0 to 14.3 and in asthmatic patients from 1.9 to 13.7 at peak exercise. The increases in adrenaline and noradrenaline in the asthmatic patients did not differ significantly from the increases in normal subjects. Thus a reduced sympathoadrenal response to exercise seems unlikely to be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of exercise induced asthma. PMID:3406917

Berkin, K E; Walker, G; Inglis, G C; Ball, S G; Thomson, N C

1988-01-01

265

Exercise detraining: Applicability to microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical training exposes the various systems of the body to potent physiologic stimuli. These stimuli induce specific adaptations that enhance an individual's tolerance for the type of exercise encountered in training. The level of adaptation and the magnitude of improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the potency of the physical training stimuli. Likewise, our bodies are stimulated by gravity, which promotes adaptations of both the cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. Exposure to microgravity removes normal stimuli to these systems, and the body adapts to these reduced demands. In many respects the cessation of physical training in athletes and the transition from normal gravity to microgravity represent similar paradigms. Inherent to these situations is the concept of the reversibility of the adaptations induced by training or by exposure to normal gravity. The reversibility concept holds that when physical training is stopped (i.e., detraining) or reduced, or a person goes from normal gravity to microgravity, the bodily systems readjust in accordance with the diminished physiologic stimuli. The focus of this chapter is on the time course of loss of the adaptations to endurance training as well as on the possibility that certain adaptations persist, to some extent, when training is stopped. Because endurance exercise training generally improves cardiovascular function and promotes metabolic adaptations within the exercising skeletal musculature, the reversibility of these specific adaptations is considered. These observations have some applicability to the transition from normal to microgravity.

Coyle, Edward F.

1994-01-01

266

Exercise training and immune crosstalk in breast cancer microenvironment: exploring the paradigms of exercise-induced immune modulation and exercise-induced myokines  

PubMed Central

Observational research suggests that exercise may reduce the risk of breast cancer and improve survival. One proposed mechanism for the protective effect of aerobic exercise related to cancer risk and outcomes, but has not been examined definitively, is the immune response to aerobic exercise. Two prevailing paradigms are proposed. The first considers the host immune response as modifiable by aerobic exercise training. This exercise-modulated immune-tumor crosstalk in the mammary microenvironment may alter the balance between tumor initiation and progression versus tumor suppression. The second paradigm considers the beneficial role of exercise-induced, skeletal muscle-derived cytokines, termed “myokines”. These myokines exert endocrine-like effects on multiple organs, including the mammary glands. In this systematic review, we i) define the role of macrophages and T-cells in breast cancer initiation and progression; ii) address the two paradigms that support exercise-induced immunomodulation; iii) systematically assessed the literature for exercise intervention that assessed biomarkers relevant to both paradigms in human intervention trials of aerobic exercise training, in healthy women and women with breast cancer; iv) incorporated pre-clinical animal studies and non-RCTs for background discussion of putative mechanisms, through which aerobic exercise training modulates the immunological crosstalk, or the myokine-tumor interaction in the tumor microenvironment; and v) speculated on the potential biomarkers and mechanisms that define an exercise-induced, anti-tumor “signature”, with a view toward developing relevant biomarkers for future aerobic exercise intervention trials. PMID:25360210

Goh, Jorming; Niksirat, Negin; Campbell, Kristin L

2014-01-01

267

Exercise and Cystic Fibrosis (CF)  

MedlinePLUS

... mean finding an exercise partner. Third, are they cardiovascular exercises or do they exercise your heart and ... the heart and lungs are watched for problems. Cardiovascular exercises: Activities that use lots of muscles and ...

268

Exercise and immunity  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercise slows down the release of stress-related hormones. Stress increases the chance of illness. While exercise is ... through the body and increase the presence of stress-related hormones. Studies have shown that the people who benefit ...

269

Getting Exercise in College  

MedlinePLUS

... in college? What Does My Body Need? The importance of exercise is nothing new. Thomas Jefferson once ... ways to boost your heart rate and promote cardiovascular health. Exercise can also help lower blood pressure ...

270

Anxiety, Depression, and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and clinical investigations of the effects of acute and chronic exercise on state anxiety or tension and depression are reviewed. Proposed explanations for the association of exercise with improved mood states are also discussed.

Patricia M. Mihevic

1981-01-01

271

Clinical Applications for Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

Goldstein, David

1989-01-01

272

Statistics for Chemists: Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

Wehrens, Ron

273

Boolean Raster Well Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Bowling Green State University Summary This is a paper and pencil exercise using boolean raster grids. The exercise gives students a better understanding of how the GIS software works. ...

Enrique Gomezdelcampo

274

Exercise and Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... calcium and vitamin D. l Include regular weight-bearing exercise in your lifestyle. l Stop smoking. l ... be stronger if you are physically active. Weight-bearing exercises, done three to four times a week, ...

275

Diet and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... Labor & Delivery Breastfeeding Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in healing. Prior to your discharge from the hospital, ...

276

Exercise Tips for Travelers  

MedlinePLUS

... laptop, you might also include your favorite exercise DVD. stop along the way. If you’re traveling ... nih.gov/Go4Life • Order the free Go4Life exercise DVD and Workout to Go . • Read more tips for ...

277

Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression. PMID:21394856

Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Muñoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.

2010-01-01

278

Exercise and Acute Cardiovascular Events: Placing the Risks into Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitual physical activity reduces coronary heart disease events, but vig- orous activity can also acutely and transiently increase the risk of sudden cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction in susceptible persons. This scientific statement discusses the potential cardiovascular complications of exercise, their pathological substrate, and their incidence and suggests strategies to reduce these complications. Exercise-associated acute cardiac events generally occur

Paul D. Thompson; Barry A. Franklin; Gary J. Balady; Steven N. Blair; Domenico Corrado; N. A. Mark Estes III; Janet E. Fulton; Neil F. Gordon; William L. Haskell; Mark S. Link; Barry J. Maron; Murray A. Mittleman; Antonio Pelliccia; Nanette K. Wenger; Stefan N. Willich; Fernando Costa

279

Exercising in Cold Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

280

Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

Young, Jocelyn

281

Stretch Band Exercise Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

2007-01-01

282

Advanced resistive exercise device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

283

Prenatal exercise research.  

PubMed

In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

Field, Tiffany

2012-06-01

284

Diabetes and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... blood sugar level should be before and after exercise. If your blood sugar level is too low or too high right ... diabetes Talk to your doctor about the right exercise for you. Check your blood sugar level before and after exercising. Check your feet ...

285

Diabetes and exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... you take medicines that lower your blood sugar, exercise can make your blood sugar go too low. Talk to your doctor or ... sugar again right after exercise, and later on. Exercise can cause your blood sugar to drop for up to 12 hours after ...

286

Easy Exercises for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... or coach first to be sure these exercises are OK for you. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: July 2012 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Exercise Log How Can I Get Motivated to Exercise? What's A Good Workout for a Busy Schedule? Dynamic Stretching (Video) Pilates T'ai Chi ...

287

Exercise and Your Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

288

Exercise as psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of exercise as a psychotherapeutic agent is reviewed. The benefits of exercise are considered to impact both physiological processes and psychological factors such as self-esteem and more efficacious self-talk. The possibility of the use of exercise as an adjunct to both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is suggested.

Peter T. Spencer

1990-01-01

289

Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

290

Exercise Prescription: Principles and Current Limitations  

PubMed Central

Exercise prescriptions must be both safe and effective, while maximizing patient compliance. Safety can be threatened by physical injury, cardiac emergencies and environmental hazards. Risk can be reduced by individualizing the prescription, although the stress ECG contributes little to the prevention of the exercise catastrophe. Effectiveness of a prescription must be gauged by development of aerobic power and muscular strength, reduction of obesity, improvement of flexibility and control of coronary risk factors. The variability of patient response limits the potential for accurate laboratory prescription of exercise; fine tuning must depend upon the patient's immediate reactions. PMID:21283273

Shephard, Roy J.

1983-01-01

291

Exercise in Preventionand Management of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Regular and vigorous physical exercise has been scientifically established as providing strong preventative medicine against\\u000a cancer with the potential to reduce incidence by 40%. The effect is strongest for breast and colorectal cancer; however, evidence\\u000a is accumulating for the protective influence on prostate cancer, although predominantly for more advanced disease and in older\\u000a men. Following cancer diagnosis, exercise prescription

Robert U. Newton; Daniel A. Galvão

2008-01-01

292

Exercise, Stress Resistance, and Central Serotonergic Systems  

PubMed Central

Voluntary exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in humans and prevents serotonin-dependent behavioral consequences of stress in rodents. Evidence reviewed herein is consistent with the hypothesis that exercise increases stress resistance by producing neuroplasticity at multiple sites of the central serotonergic system, which all help to limit the behavioral impact of acute increases in serotonin during stressor exposure. PMID:21508844

Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

2015-01-01

293

Effects of exercise training on pathological cardiac hypertrophy related gene expression and apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined whether exercise training prevents pathological hypertrophy in the left ventricle by modulation of myocardial and apoptosis-associated genes. We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=15, non-exercise SHR), exercise-trained SHR (n=15, treadmill exercise for 12 weeks), and sedentary Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (n=15). Exercise-trained SHR expressed adaptive changes such as reduced body weight, heart rate, blood pressures, left ventricle wall thickness, lipid

Young I. Lee; Joon Y. Cho; Mun H. Kim; Kee B. Kim; Dong J. Lee; Kyu S. Lee

2006-01-01

294

Wallace Creek Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

295

Daily Supine LBNP Treadmill Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity During 14 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to microgravity or bed rest reduces upright exercise capacity. Exercise modes, durations, and intensities which will effectively and efficiently counteract such deconditioning are presently unresolved. We that daily supine treadmill interval training with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would prevent reduction in upright exercise capacity during 14 days of 6 deg. head-down bed rest (BR). Eight healthy male subjects underwent two 14 day BR protocols separated by 3 months. In a crossover design, subjects either remained at strict BR or performed 40 min of daily exercise consisting of supine walking and running at intensities varying from 40-80% of pre-BR upright peak oxygen uptake (VO2). LBNP during supine exercise was used to provide 1.0 to 1.2 times body weight of footward force. An incremental upright treadmill test to measure submaximal and peak exercise responses was given pre- and post-BR. In the non-exercise condition, peak VO2 and time to exhaustion were reduced 16 +/- 4% and 10 +/- 1% (p less than 0.05), respectively, from pre-BR. With LBNP exercise these variables were not significantly different (NS) from pre-BR. During submaximal treadmill speeds after BR, heart rate was higher (11 +/- 11 bpm, p less than 0.05) and respiratory exchange ratio was elevated (p less than 0.05) in the no exercise condition. Both were maintained at pre-BR levels in the LBNP exercise condition (NS from pre-BR). Since this supine treadmill interval training with addition of LBNP maintained upright exercise responses and capacity during BR, this countermeasure may also be effective during space flight.

Ertl, Andy C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Fortney, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ballard, R. E.; William, J. M.

1996-01-01

296

The Mind Body Programs reduce the impact of stress through a variety of research driven skill-building exercises to improve medical symptoms, mood, and well-being. The six core components of our mind body programs are  

E-print Network

an eight-week group program. Cardiac Wellness For patients with heart disease -- or who have cardiac risk-building exercises to improve medical symptoms, mood, and well-being. The six core components of our mind body or In Part Mind Body Medicine Consultation For patients seeking to add a mind body component to their medical

Mootha, Vamsi K.

297

Physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine whether different levels of hypoxia affect physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise or subsequent cardiovascular and perceptual responses. Twelve resistance-trained young men (age, 25.3 ± 4.3 years; height, 179.0 ± 4.5 cm; body mass, 83.4 ± 9.1 kg) were tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the back squat and deadlift. Following this, participants completed 3 separate randomized trials of 5 × 5 repetitions at 80% 1RM, with 3 minutes rest between sets, in normoxia (NORM; fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 0.21), moderate-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.16), or high-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.13) by a portable hypoxic unit. Peak and mean force and power variables were monitored during exercise. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed immediately following each set. No differences in force or power variables were evident between conditions. Similar trends were evident in these variables across each set and across the exercise session in each condition. SpO2 was lower in hypoxic conditions than in NORM, whereas HR was higher following sets performed in hypoxia. There were no differences between conditions in RPE. These results indicate that a hypoxic stimulus during high-intensity resistance exercise does not alter physical performance during repetitions and sets or affect how strenuous exercise is perceived to be. This novel training strategy can be used without adversely affecting the physical training dose experienced and may provide benefits over the equivalent training in NORM. PMID:25226332

Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Sculley, Dean V; Hodson, Jacob A; Dascombe, Ben J

2015-03-01

298

Exercise Training Improves Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Rats with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

E-print Network

Exercise Training Improves Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Rats with Pulmonary Arterial In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism promotes right ventricular (RV) and skeletal muscle dysfunction that contributes to reduced exercise

Zhou, Yaoqi

299

Resistance exercise training and the orthostatic response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.

McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.

1997-01-01

300

Delta Opioid Receptors: The Link between Exercise and Cardioprotection  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the role of opioid receptor (OR) subtypes as a mechanism by which endurance exercise promotes cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Wistar rats were randomly divided into one of seven experimental groups: 1) control; 2) exercise-trained; 3) exercise-trained plus a non-selective OR antagonist; 4) control sham; 5) exercise-trained plus a kappa OR antagonist; 6) exercise-trained plus a delta OR antagonist; and 7) exercise-trained plus a mu OR antagonist. The exercised animals underwent 4 consecutive days of treadmill training (60 min/day at ?70% of maximal oxygen consumption). All groups except the sham group were exposed to an in vivo myocardial IR insult, and the myocardial infarct size (IS) was determined histologically. Myocardial capillary density, OR subtype expression, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity were measured in the hearts of both the exercised and control groups. Exercise training significantly reduced the myocardial IS by approximately 34%. Pharmacological blockade of the kappa or mu OR subtypes did not blunt exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR-mediated infarction, whereas treatment of animals with a non-selective OR antagonist or a delta OR antagonist abolished exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exercise training enhanced the activities of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase but did not increase the left ventricular capillary density or the mRNA levels of HSP72, SOD, and catalase. In addition, exercise significantly reduced the protein expression of kappa and delta ORs in the heart by 44% and 37%, respectively. Together, these results indicate that ORs contribute to the cardioprotection conferred by endurance exercise, with the delta OR subtype playing a key role in this response. PMID:25415192

Borges, Juliana P.; Verdoorn, Karine S.; Daliry, Anissa; Powers, Scott K.; Ortenzi, Victor H.; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

2014-01-01

301

Post-Plyometric Exercise Hypotension and Heart Rate in Normotensive Individuals: Influence of Exercise Intensity  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high, moderate and low intensity plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate responses. Methods Ten healthy normotensive men (age, 21.1±0.9 years; height, 175.8±6 cm; and body mass, 69.1±13.6 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated for three non-consecutive days in depth jump exercise from 20-cm box (low intensity [LI]), 40-cm box (moderate intensity [MI]) and 60-cm box (high intensity [HI]) for 5 sets of 20 repetitions. After each exercise session, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min for a period of 90 min. Results No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP, DBP and HR when the protocols (LI, MI and HI) were compared. The LI and HI protocols showed greater reduction in SBP at 40th-70th min of post-exercise (~9%), whereas the LI and MI protocols indicated greater reduction in DBP at 10th-50th min of post exercise (~10%). In addition, the change in the DBP for HI was not significant and the increases in the HR were similar for all intensities. Conclusion It can be concluded that a plyometric exercise (PE) can reduce SBP and DBP post-exercise and therefore we can say that PE has significant effects for reducing BP and HR or post-exercise hypotension. PMID:24799997

Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Moradkhani, Amir-Hossein

2013-01-01

302

Interval exercise, but not endurance exercise, prevents endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Endothelial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury importantly contributes to the poor prognosis during ischemic (myocardial) events. Preconditioning, i.e., repeated exposure to short periods of ischemia, effectively reduces endothelial I/R injury. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that exercise has preconditioning effects on endothelial I/R injury. Therefore, we studied whether an acute bout of endurance or interval exercise is able to protect against endothelial I/R injury. In 17 healthy young subjects, we examined changes in brachial artery endothelial function using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after a bout of high-intensity interval exercise, moderate-intensity endurance exercise, or a control intervention. Subsequently, I/R injury was induced by inflation of a blood pressure cuff around the upper arm to 220 mmHg for 20 min and 20 min of reperfusion followed by another FMD measurement. Near-infrared spectrometry was used to examine local tissue oxygenation during exercise. No differences in brachial artery FMD were found at baseline for the three conditions. I/R induced a significant decline in FMD (7.1 ± 2.3 to 4.3 ± 2.3, P < 0.001). When preceded by the interval exercise bout, no change in FMD was present after I/R (7.7 ± 3.1 to 7.2 ± 3.1, P = 0.56), whereas the decrease in FMD after I/R could not be prevented by the endurance exercise bout (7.8 ± 3.1 to 3.8 ± 1.7, P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single bout of lower limb interval exercise, but not moderate-intensity endurance exercise, effectively prevents brachial artery endothelial I/R injury. This indicates the presence of a remote preconditioning effect of exercise, which is selectively present after short-term interval but not continuous exercise in healthy young subjects. PMID:25416193

Seeger, Joost P H; Lenting, Charlotte J; Schreuder, Tim H A; Landman, Thijs R J; Timothy Cable, N; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

2015-02-15

303

Why does increased exercise decrease migraine?  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence affirm a positive role for exercise in the management of migraine. This review highlights the latest research supporting this view, covering not only its epidemiological aspects but also the pain modulatory systems that are likely to be engaged by exercise. Recent research provides broad and consistent evidence indicating that cardiovascular exercise can activate multiple pain modulatory mechanisms, if not the underlying mechanisms that initiate the attack. Specifically, a synthesis of independent lines of recent research would indicate that exercise activates endogenous neurotransmitter signals that could be effective in reducing the intensity of migraine pain, though it may not have a direct effect on its overall frequency or duration. PMID:24190863

Ahn, Andrew H.

2013-01-01

304

Exercise rehabilitation in patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates that patients with cancer have considerable impairments in cardiorespiratory fitness, which is likely to be a result of the direct toxic effects of anticancer therapy as well as the indirect consequences secondary to therapy (for example, deconditioning). This reduced cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with heightened symptoms, functional dependence, and possibly with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Current understanding of the complex interaction between the effects of the tumour and cancer-associated therapies on the organ components that govern cardiorespiratory fitness, and the effects of exercise training on these parameters is limited; further research will be critical for further progress of exercise-based rehabilitation in the oncology setting. We assess the current evidence regarding the level, mechanisms, and clinical importance of diminished cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with cancer. The efficacy and adaptations to exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate dysfunction in conjunction with exercise prescription considerations for clinical use are also discussed. PMID:22392097

Lakoski, Susan G; Eves, Neil D; Douglas, Pamela S; Jones, Lee W

2012-05-01

305

"Exercise is medicine": curbing the burden of chronic disease and physical inactivity.  

PubMed

An exercise program designed to improve fitness is essential for most adults. Exercise decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, depression, and anxiety. Most fail to achieve recommended exercise levels. Only 1.3% of Australian general practice (GP) consultations provide exercise counseling and advice. Australia provides Medicare reimbursement for consultations with Accredited Exercise Physiologists through allied health care plans initiated through primary care. Exercise Is Medicine is an initiative to equip primary care providers with resources, education, and strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. The objective of Exercise Is Medicine is to improve the health and well-being of our nation. We describe Exercise Is Medicine and encourage primary care providers to discuss physical activity and exercise with their patients and provide them with resources to encourage this activity and referral pathways to train exercise professionals. This will assist primary care providers in treating their patients. PMID:23572372

Coombes, Jeff S; Law, Jen; Lancashire, Bill; Fassett, Robert G

2015-03-01

306

Blockade of TNF in vivo using cV1q antibody reduces contractile dysfunction of skeletal muscle in response to eccentric exercise in dystrophic mdx and normal mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the contribution of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to the severity of exercise-induced muscle damage and subsequent myofibre necrosis in mdx mice. Adult mdx and non-dystrophic C57 mice were treated with the mouse-specific TNF antibody cV1q before undergoing a damaging eccentric contraction protocol performed in vivo on a custom built mouse dynamometer. Muscle damage was

A. T. Piers; T. Lavin; H. G. Radley-Crabb; A. J. Bakker; M. D. Grounds; G. J. Pinniger

2011-01-01

307

Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.  

PubMed

Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

2014-01-01

308

Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain  

PubMed Central

Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.; Cotman, Carl W.

2014-01-01

309

Exercise and children's health.  

PubMed

Every child and adolescent needs exercise, which is a risk-free investment for current and future health. Physicians can help parents and children understand the importance of exercise and help them select safe, enjoyable, age-appropriate activities. This article discusses current literature regarding exercise and its effects on children's health, including nutrition and cardiovascular issues. It also reviews the epidemiology and treatment of injuries in young athletes, including preventative measures. PMID:12831683

Lou, Julia E; Ganley, Theodore J; Flynn, John M

2002-12-01

310

Diabetes and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

While everyone can benefit from exercise, those who have diabetes derive even more benefit than most other people. Many people\\u000a are aware of the benefits of exercise, but have difficulty incorporating physical activity into their lifestyles. The goal\\u000a of this chapter is to review and discuss the practical aspects of using exercise to prevent and manage diabetes.

Scott Going; Betsy Dokken

311

Exercise and freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do most people fail to exercise regularly? In light of theory and research, this paper shows that fitness activity is an affront to people’s sense of freedom; thus, it becomes a freedom-killing and leisure-killing activity. People fail to exercise because they cannot overcome the issue of freedom about exercise. Further, unlike other leisure activities, fitness activity also fails to

Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

2009-01-01

312

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

313

Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

Loerch, Linda H.

2010-01-01

314

Athletic Trainers and Exercise Physiologists  

MedlinePLUS

... courses every 5 years. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) also offers certifications for exercise physiologists. ACSM ... Society of Exercise Physiologists The American College of Sports Medicine Committee on Accreditation for the Exercise Sciences O* ...

315

Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

Evidence for the benefits of regular exercise is irrefutable and increasing physical activity levels should be a major goal at all levels of health care. People with hypertension are less physically active than those without hypertension and there is strong evidence supporting the blood pressure-lowering ability of regular exercise, especially in hypertensive individuals. This narrative review discusses evidence relating to exercise and cardiovascular (CV) risk in people with hypertension. Comparisons between aerobic, dynamic resistance, and static resistance exercise have been made along with the merit of different exercise volumes. High-intensity interval training and isometric resistance training appear to have strong CV protective effects, but with limited data in hypertensive people, more work is needed in this area. Screening recommendations, exercise prescriptions, and special considerations are provided as a guide to decrease CV risk among hypertensive people who exercise or wish to begin. It is recommended that hypertensive individuals should aim to perform moderate intensity aerobic exercise activity for at least 30 minutes on most (preferably all) days of the week in addition to resistance exercises on 2-3 days/week. Professionals with expertise in exercise prescription may provide additional benefit to patients with high CV risk or in whom more intense exercise training is planned. Despite lay and media perceptions, CV events associated with exercise are rare and the benefits of regular exercise far outweigh the risks. In summary, current evidence supports the assertion of exercise being a cornerstone therapy in reducing CV risk and in the prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:25305061

Sharman, James E; La Gerche, Andre; Coombes, Jeff S

2015-02-01

316

Intervention Study of Exercise for Depressive Symptoms in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: Clinical depression affects millions of women annually. Exercise has been studied as a potential antidepressant, with most studies supporting its efficacy. Ex- ercise also has the potential to reduce the risk for physical comorbidities that occur with de- pression. However, less is known about the types of exercise programs to which women with depressive symptoms will adhere.

Lynette L. Craft; Karen M. Freund; Larry Culpepper; Frank M. Perna

2007-01-01

317

Exercise Against Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

1998-01-01

318

Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

Mills, Brett D.; And Others

319

Rotator Cuff Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... you finish doing all 4 exercises, put an ice pack on your shoulder for 20 minutes. It's best to use a plastic bag with ice cubes in it or a bag of frozen peas, not gel packs. If you do all 4 exercises 3 to ...

320

Exercise through Menopause.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

Stuhr, Robyn M.

2002-01-01

321

Exercise and Fitness  

MedlinePLUS

... fuel or energy value of food. Cardiovascular Exercise: Exercise designed to promote a healthy heart and blood vessels. If you have further questions, contact your obstetrician–gynecologist. FAQ045: Designed as an aid to patients, this document sets forth current information and opinions ...

322

Exercise and Respiration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will investigate the process of respiration by investigating the question: How does exercise affect the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled? They will use bromothymol blue to time how fast it changes color before and after exercising. They will be guided into an understanding of the process of cellular respiration.

admin admin

2011-10-07

323

Diabetes and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset

N. S. Peirce

1999-01-01

324

Neurobiology of Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluntary physical activity and exercise training can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogenerative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective processes. At least some of the processes are mediated by neurotrophic factors. Motor skill training and regular exercise enhance executive functions of cognition and some types of learning, including motor learning in the spinal cord. These adaptations in the central nervous system have

Rod K. Dishman; Hans-Rudolf Berthoud; Frank W. Booth; Carl W. Cotman; V. Reggie Edgerton; Monika R. Fleshner; Simon C. Gandevia; Fernando Gomez-Pinilla; Benjamin N. Greenwood; Charles H. Hillman; Arthur F. Kramer; Barry E. Levin; Timothy H. Moran; Amelia A. Russo-Neustadt; John D. Salamone; Jacqueline D. Van Hoomissen; Charles E. Wade; David A. York; Michael J. Zigmond

2006-01-01

325

Diabetes and exercise (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to ... day. By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person ... sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication.

326

Robotics laboratory exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report new laboratory exercises in robotic manipulation, computer vision, artificial intelligence, and mechatronics, four areas that are central to any robotics curriculum. The laboratory exercises supply the student with hands-on experience that complements classroom lectures and software development. Through this experience, the student confronts the hard realities of robot systems and learns to deal with them. Such hands-on

E. Krotkov

1996-01-01

327

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise)  

E-print Network

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise) Model quality, validation exercise. You will need a web link to MolProbity (with Java), and the file 1JIRon1S83_Arg66_supr.kin download- ed from the kinemage.biochem.duke.edu BCH681 web site, or from Sakai. Part 1: MolProbity Go to the MolProbity web

Richardson, David

328

Do physical exercise and reading reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease? a cross-sectional study on factors associated with Parkinson’s disease in elderly Chinese veterans  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for and factors protecting against Parkinson’s disease (PD) in elderly Chinese veterans. Methods Using a database containing detailed information on the health status of the nervous system in elderly Chinese veterans, univariate and multivariate analyses of factors that may be associated with PD were performed. Univariate analysis of qualitative data was done using the Pearson Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, and the Mann–Whitney U nonparametric test was used for univariate analysis of quantitative data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for and factors protecting against PD in elderly Chinese veterans. Results A total of 9,676 elderly Chinese veterans were enrolled, including 228 cases with PD and 183 cases with Parkinson’s syndrome, with 9,265 non-PD subjects serving as controls. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.343, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.028–1.755) and medical history of essential tremor (OR 1.228, 95% CI 1.081–1.396) were identified as independent risk factors for PD, with age being the most important risk factor. Physical exercise (OR 0.478, 95% CI 0.355–0.643) and reading (OR 0.513, 95% CI 0.357–0.735) were identified as independent factors protecting against PD, and physical exercise showed better protection against PD relative to reading. Smoking, alcohol use, anemia, cerebral trauma, education level, and electromagnetic field exposure showed no association with PD. Conclusion Physical exercise and reading may be independent factors that protect against PD among elderly Chinese veterans, while advancing age and medical history of essential tremor may be independent risk factors for PD. This study was cross-sectional, so further research is needed to confirm its results. PMID:25834444

Zou, YM; Tan, JP; Li, N; Yang, JS; Yu, BC; Yu, JM; Zhao, YM; Wang, LN

2015-01-01

329

Leg Immersion in Warm Water, Stretch-Shortening Exercise, and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage  

PubMed Central

Context: Whether muscle warming protects against exercise-induced muscle damage is unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise on the time course of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. Design: Crossover trial. Setting: Human kinetics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven healthy, untrained men (age ?=? 21.5 ± 1.7 years). Intervention(s): Participants' legs were immersed in a water bath at 44 ± 1°C for 45 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Creatine kinase changes in the blood, muscle soreness, prolonged (within 72 hours) impairment in maximal voluntary contraction force and height of drop jump, and electrically evoked muscle force at low and high stimulation frequencies at short and long muscle lengths. Results: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage, including creatine kinase activity in the blood, muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction force, and jump height. The values for maximal voluntary contraction force and jump height, however, were higher during prewarming than for the control condition at 48 hours after stretch-shortening exercise, but this difference was only minor at other time points. Muscle prewarming did not bring about any changes in the dynamics of low-frequency fatigue, registered at either short or long muscle length, within 72 hours of stretch-shortening exercise. Conclusions: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, the clinical application of muscle prewarming may be limited, because decreasing muscle damage did not necessarily lead to improved voluntary performance. PMID:19030137

Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Streckis, Vytautas; Mamkus, Gediminas; Drazdauskas, Adomas

2008-01-01

330

Physical exercise and health.  

PubMed

Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30 min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20 min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals. PMID:25172071

Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique

2014-09-01

331

Integrative biology of exercise.  

PubMed

Exercise represents a major challenge to whole-body homeostasis provoking widespread perturbations in numerous cells, tissues, and organs that are caused by or are a response to the increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscles. To meet this challenge, multiple integrated and often redundant responses operate to blunt the homeostatic threats generated by exercise-induced increases in muscle energy and oxygen demand. The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided greater understanding of the multiplicity and complexity of cellular networks involved in exercise responses, and recent discoveries offer perspectives on the mechanisms by which muscle "communicates" with other organs and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on health and performance. PMID:25417152

Hawley, John A; Hargreaves, Mark; Joyner, Michael J; Zierath, Juleen R

2014-11-01

332

Exercise-induced cardiac troponin elevation: evidence, mechanisms, and implications.  

PubMed

Regular physical exercise is recommended for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although the high prevalence of physical inactivity remains a formidable public health issue, participation in exercise programs and recreational sporting events, such as marathons and triathlons, is on the rise. Although regular exercise training reduces cardiovascular disease risk, recent studies have documented elevations in cardiac troponin (cTn) consistent with cardiac damage after bouts of exercise in apparently healthy individuals. At present, the prevalence, mechanism(s), and clinical significance of exercise-induced cTn release remains incompletely understood. This paper will review the biochemistry, prevalence, potential mechanisms, and management of patients with exercise-induced cTn elevations. PMID:20620736

Shave, Rob; Baggish, Aaron; George, Keith; Wood, Malissa; Scharhag, Jurgen; Whyte, Gregory; Gaze, David; Thompson, Paul D

2010-07-13

333

Exercising for a Healthy Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This health education program discusses the benefits of being physically active in reducing the risk of heart attack. It also presents exercise options and tips for maintaining a healthy heart. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

334

Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo

John Rosene; Tracey Matthews; Christine Ryan; Keith Belmore; Alisa Bergsten; Jill Blaisdell; James Gaylord; Rebecca Love; Michael Marrone; Kristine Ward; Eric Wilson

2009-01-01

335

Gastric emptying rate and perceived hunger after rest and exercise in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate at which ingested fluid is emptied from the stomach is influenced by a number of factors. Exercise at intensities greater than 70% VO2max has been shown to reduce gastric emptying rates in healthy individuals,1 but to date, no studies have reported the effects of differing exercise intensities on gastric emptying characteristics after the cessation of exercise. Five males

G H Evans; S M Shirreffs; P Watson; R J Maughan

2010-01-01

336

Aerobic Exercise Training for Depressive Symptom Management in Adults Living With HIV Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic exercise training may help prevent or reduce depressive symptoms experienced by persons living with HIV infection. However, the psychological effects of aerobic exercise have not been studied exten- sively. This study evaluated the effects of an aerobic exercise training program on self-reported symptoms of depression in HIV-infected adults and examined the convergent validity of two widely used depressive symptom

Judith L. Neidig; Barbara A. Smith; Dale E. Brashers

2003-01-01

337

The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

2013-01-01

338

Exercise Prescriptions for Active Seniors: A Team Approach for Maximizing Adherence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercise is an important "medication" that healthcare providers can prescribe for their geriatric patients. Increasing physical fitness by participating in regular exercise can reduce the effects of aging that lead to functional declines and poor health. Modest regular exercise can substantially lower the risk of death from coronary artery…

Brennan, Fred H., Jr.

2002-01-01

339

Heart rate and exercise intensity during training: observations from the DREW Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Cardiovascular drift (CVdrift) is characterised by a continuous, gradual increase in heart rate (HR) after ?10 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, despite maintenance of a constant work rate. This has important implications for trials that employ HR to monitor exercise intensity, as reducing work rate in order to keep HR constant could result in participants exercising below the intended intensity.

C R Mikus; C P Earnest; S N Blair; T S Church

2009-01-01

340

Sodium-sensitivity and exercise training-induced blood pressure reduction in older hypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise training has been shown to reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but individual responses are variable. Blood pressure responses to sodium loading are also heterogeneous. No studies have determined if sodium-sensitivity status differentially affects the blood pressure response to exercise training. Thus, we sought to determine whether blood pressure reductions with exercise training are different between sodium-sensitive (SS)

Jung-Jun Park; Michael D. Brown; Donald R. Dengel; Mark A. Supiano

2001-01-01

341

Exercise Thermoregulation in Men after One and 24-hours of 6 Degree Head-Down Tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exercise thermoregulation exercise is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise.

Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weldhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1998-01-01

342

Exercise Effects on Erythrocyte Deformability in Exercise-induced Arterial Hypoxemia.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is often found in endurance-trained subjects at high exercise intensity. The role of erythrocyte deformability (ED) in EIAH has been scarcely explored. We aimed to explore the role of erythrocyte properties and lactate accumulation in the response of ED in EIAH. ED was determined in 10 sedentary and in 16 trained subjects, both before and after a maximal incremental test, and after recovery, along with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell lactate concentrations. EIAH was found in 6 trained subjects (?SaO2=-8.25±4.03%). Sedentary and non-EIAH trained subjects showed reduced ED after exercise, while no effect on ED was found in EIAH trained subjects. After exercise, lactate concentrations rose and MCV increased equally in all groups. ED is strongly driven by cell volume, but the different ED response to exercise in EIAH shows that other cellular mechanisms may be implicated. Interactions between membrane and cytoskeleton, which have been found to be O2-regulated, play a role in ED. The drop in SaO2 in EIAH subjects can improve ED response to exercise. This can be an adaptive mechanism that enhances muscular and pulmonary perfusion, and allows the achievement of high exercise intensity in EIAH despite lower O2 arterial transport. PMID:25429547

Alis, R; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Ferioli, D; Torre, A La; Blesa, J R; Romagnoli, M

2015-04-01

343

Exercise and osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

2009-01-01

344

Osteoporosis: What is the Role of Exercise?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has not yet identified the best combination of estrogen replacement, calcium, and exercise for fighting osteoporosis, but clinical experience indicates all are needed to prevent the rapid bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women. Physicians must encourage women to reduce their risk using all available options. (SM)

Munnings, Frances

1992-01-01

345

Exercise in neuromuscular disease.  

PubMed

In this review, the authors present an overview of the role of exercise in neuromuscular disease (NMD). The authors demonstrate that despite the different pathologies in NMDs, exercise is beneficial, whether aerobic/endurance or strength/resistive training. The authors analyze methodological flaws of existing studies and suggest improvements for future trial protocols. Finally, we discuss specialized exercise training of specific muscles, as well as new technologies adapted from other neurologic disorders, including body-weight-supported treadmill ambulation, robotic-assisted gait training, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation. PMID:25520026

Anziska, Yaacov; Inan, Seniha

2014-11-01

346

Geologic Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

Andrew Smith

347

The effect of loratadine in exercise-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess the effect of loratadine in exercise induced asthma. Methods: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of 10 mg oral loratadine, once daily for three days in 11 children. At the end of the treatment period FEV1 was measured, and patients were exercised on a treadmill. FEV1 measurements were repeated at intervals after exercise. Results: Loratadine significantly reduced the decrease in FEV1 after exercise at two, five, 10, 15, and 30 minutes, compared with placebo (p < 0.05). However, the mean decrease in FEV1 at five minutes was more than 15% of baseline in the loratadine group. Conclusions: Loratadine reduces, but does not prevent, exercise induced asthma in children. PMID:11806881

Baki, A; Orhan, F

2002-01-01

348

Part 1: potential dangers of extreme endurance exercise: how much is too much? Part 2: screening of school-age athletes.  

PubMed

The question is not whether exercise is or isn't one of the very best strategies for improving quality of life, cardiovascular (CV) health and longevity-it is. And there is no debate as to whether or not strenuous high-intensity endurance training produces an amazingly efficient, compliant, and powerful pump-it does. The essence of the controversy centers on what exactly is the ideal pattern of long-term physical activity (PA) for conferring robust and enduring CV health, while also optimizing life expectancy. With that goal in mind, this review will focus on the question: "Is more always better when it comes to exercise?" And if a dose-response curve exists for the therapeutic effects of PA, where is the upper threshold at which point further training begins to detract from the health and longevity benefits noted with moderate exercise? The emerging picture from the cumulative data on this hotly debated topic is that moderate exercise appears to be the sweet spot for bestowing lasting CV health and longevity. However, the specific definition of moderate in this context is not clear yet. PMID:25460846

O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Guazzi, Marco

2015-01-01

349

External mechanical compression reduces regional arterial stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute aerobic and resistance exercise has been shown to reduce local muscular artery stiffness in the exercised limb while\\u000a having no effect on the non-exercised limb. The stimulus for these modulations may be related to local muscular compression\\u000a of underlying vasculature. The purpose of this study was to examine arterial stiffness before and after a series of locally\\u000a applied external

Kevin S. Heffernan; David G. Edwards; Lindy Rossow; Sae Young Jae; Bo Fernhall

2007-01-01

350

Our World: Exercise in Space - Duration: 3:50.  

NASA Video Gallery

Find out why exercise is so important to the astronauts who travel into space. Learn how gravity affects our bodies and what astronauts must do in reduced gravity environments to keep their bodies ...

351

Exercise in Individuals with CKD  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few studies evaluating exercise in the nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. This review covers the rationale for exercise among patients with CKD not requiring dialysis and the effects of exercise training on physical functioning, progression of kidney disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we address the issue of the risk of exercise and make recommendations for

Kirsten L. Johansen; Patricia Painter

352

Menstrual cycle, exercise and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise training can have an impact on the menstrual cycle. If the exercise load is great enough it can lead to irregular or even the complete absence of menses, which has implications for reproductive health. Conversely, the menstrual cycle can affect exercise performance. Disruptions in hormonal balance throughout the menstrual cycle have been implicated in altered muscular strength, exercise endurance

Ellen A. Dawson; Thomas Reilly

2009-01-01

353

Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

1992-01-01

354

Exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Exercise training remains a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The choice of type of exercise training depends on the physiologic requirements and goals of the individual patient as well as the available equipment at the PR center. Current evidence suggests that, at ground walking exercise training, Nordic walking exercise training, resistance training, water-based exercise training, tai chi, and nonlinear periodized exercise are all feasible and effective in (subgroups) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In turn, these exercise training modalities can be considered as part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary PR program. PMID:24874127

Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Klijn, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A

2014-06-01

355

Exercise in Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students expressed strong positive feelings about inquiry-based teaching methods the authors developed and implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Inquiry-based learning resulted in a higher order of learning not typically o

Cheryl L. Mason

2003-03-01

356

Exercise and Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Exercise and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the ... until a bone breaks. Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. It is more common in women, but men ...

357

Depression and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the efficacy of antidepressants under a question mark, many depressed patients are turning to common sense remedies such as exercise. Increasing activity not only has physical effects that lift a depressive mood: it can be fun as well.

Jerome Sarris; David J Kavanagh; Robert U Newton

2008-01-01

358

Adventures in Exercise Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. The SALGains evaluation was used to compare the two approaches and significant improvements

Kathleen A. FitzPatrick

2004-09-01

359

Exercises in Physical Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Flinders University in Australia features two sets of exercises that accompany a course on physical oceanography. The basic exercises were originally intended to replace the need for the teacher's presence, but have since also proved useful in distance learning. Topics for these exercises include map projections ocean floor topography, properties of sea water, and water masses and tides. The advanced exercises were designed to give deeper insight into the material and to encourage investigation. Advanced topics include coastal upwelling, graphic display methods for ocean currents, averaging methods for vector time series, geostrophic currents, Rossby wave propagation, the depth of the permanent thermocline (the Sverdrup balance), Ekman layer dynamics, and the outflow of Mediterranean Water into the Atlantic Ocean. The site also features links to other oceanography websites.

Matthias Tomczak

360

Kids and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... of physical activity daily. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) offers these activity guidelines ... Active Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports Why Exercise Is Cool How We Play It's ...

361

Exercise for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... time running and playing. Parents should limit TV, video game and computer time. Parents can set a good example by being active themselves. Exercising together can be fun for everyone. Competitive sports can help kids stay fit. Walking or biking ...

362

Exercise and Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... the house seems impossible. Recent American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines suggest that exercise should be one ... area, click here . Learn more about rheumatologists and rheumatology health professionals . For more information The American College ...

363

Exercise for Seniors  

MedlinePLUS

... Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. Brisk walking or jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

364

Osteoporosis and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a common medical problem. Lifestyle measures to prevent or help treat existing osteoporosis often only receive lip service. The evidence for the role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is reviewed.

J A Todd; R J Robinson

2003-01-01

365

PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE  

PubMed Central

The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L?1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L?1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

2012-01-01

366

Plume Delineation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to develop students ability to synthesize subsurface data and develop a model to explain a local groundwater contamination issue. Based on their groundwater model, they will make predictions as to location of the source area and the location of any potential human health risk. The exercise requires basic contour mapping skill, simple mathematical problem solving skills and a knowledge of Darcy's Law. Has minimal/no quantitative component

Steven Lev

367

Exercise Training and Prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The task of prescribing exercise in competitive athletes and in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more similar\\u000a than one might think, which makes life a bit easier when faced with patients with CVD who also choose to participate in vigorous,\\u000a competitive sports. Regardless of whether you are prescribing exercise for the athlete, or the patient-athlete, there are\\u000a two basic

Steven J. Keteyian; John R. Schairer

368

Inverted Troughs Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise follows the progression of a winter weather event across the Central Plains states beginning 1200 UTC on 7 March 1999. Each forecast question is accompanied by Eta model data and includes a forecast discussion by Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This exercise compliments the Webcast, Inverted Troughs and their Associated Precipitation Regimes, based on a presentation by Phil Schumacher at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder Colorado.

COMET

2004-01-29

369

Exercise, Heart and Health  

PubMed Central

Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits, including improvement in cardiopulmonary or metabolic status, reduction of the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke, prevention of cancer, and decrease in total mortality. Exercise-related cardiac events are occasionally reported during highly competitive sports activity or vigorous exercises. However, the risk of sudden death is extremely low during vigorous exercise, and habitual vigorous exercise actually decreases the risk of sudden death during exercise. The cause of sudden death is ischemic in older subjects (?35 years old), while cardiomyopathies or genetic ion channel diseases are important underlying pathology in younger (<35 years old) victims. The subgroup of patients who are particularly at higher risk of exercise-related sudden death may be identified in different ways, such as pre-participation history taking, physical examination and/or supplementary cardiac evaluation. Limitations exist because current diagnostic tools are not sufficient to predict a coronary artery plaque with potential risk of disruption and/or an acute thrombotic occlusion. Proper and cost-effective methods for identification of younger subjects with cardiac structural problems or genetic ion channel diseases are still controversial. PMID:21519508

2011-01-01

370

[Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction].  

PubMed

Terms exercise-induced asthma (EIA) or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are used to describe transient bronchoconstriction occurring during or immediately after vigorous exercise in some subjects. For the diagnosis of EIB it is necessary to show at least 10% decrease in FEV1 from baseline following physical exercise. The prevalence of EIB has been reported to be 12-15% in general population, 10-20% in summer olympic athletes, affecting up to 50-70% of winter athletes (particularly ski runners and skaters). There are two key theories explaining EIB: thermal and osmotic. Differential diagnosis of EIB should include chronic cardio-pulmonary diseases, vocal cord dysfunction, hyperventilation syndrome and poor physical fitness or overtraining. According to the ATS guidelines from 1999 for the diagnosis of EIB a standardized exercise on a treadmill or cycle ergometer test with stable environmental conditions regarding temperature and humidity of inhaled air, should be employed. Other laboratory tests assessing bronchial hyperresponsiveness to indirect stimuli including eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH), mannitol, hypertonic saline, AMP or measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) are also successfully used. In the prevention of EIB include both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment. In patients with poorly controlled asthma intensification of anti-inflammatory treatment can decrease the frequency and severity of EIB. Short and long acting beta2-agonists, antileukotriene drugs can be used prior to exercise to prevent EIB. PMID:21190152

Hildebrand, Katarzyna

2011-01-01

371

Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?  

PubMed Central

Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

2011-01-01

372

Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core temperature after deconditioning appears to be caused by decreased peripheral vasodilation in humans. Factors related to glucose metabolism may influence this mechanism.

Greenleaf, J. E.

1997-01-01

373

Exercise in a hot environment: the skin circulation.  

PubMed

The combined metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise in the heat place an exceptional burden on the circulation, more than can be met through cardiac output and blood flow redistribution. Blood flow to muscle is not reduced by heat stress in exercise and cardiac output is insufficient to meet competing demands from skin and muscle. Skin blood flow during exercise in the heat is limited in several ways. Dynamic exercise causes a cutaneous vasoconstriction at exercise onset through increased vasoconstrictor activity, both in cool and warm conditions. As exercise continues, internal temperature reaches a threshold for increased active vasodilator activity that is elevated by exercise, but reduced by high skin temperature. Beyond that threshold, skin blood flow is limited well below what would be achieved at rest with the same thermal drive through a limit to the active vasodilator system. This combination of restraints on cutaneous vasodilator function compromises temperature regulation. Internal temperature rises to levels that limit exercise through central thermal effects, rather than loss of blood pressure or a reduction in blood flow to active muscle. PMID:21029188

Johnson, J M

2010-10-01

374

Exercise during pregnancy and its association with gestational weight gain.  

PubMed

We examined the association between exercise during pregnancy and meeting gestational weight gain recommendations. Data came from the 2009 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 856). Women reported their participation in exercise/sports activities before and during pregnancy, including the number of months and types of exercise. We developed an exercise index (EI), the product of the number of months spent in exercise and average metabolic equivalents for specific exercise. The 2009 Institute of Medicine's guideline was used to categorize gestational weight gain into three classes: inadequate, adequate, and excessive. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Over 46 % of women exceeded the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. Nearly one third (31.9 %) of women reported exercising ?3 times a week at any time during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not report this level of exercise during pregnancy, exercising women were more likely to meet gestational weight gain recommendations (32.7 vs. 18.7 %) and had a lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.43, 95 % confidence interval 0.24-0.78]. Women with an EI above the median value of those women who exercised or women who exercised ?3 times a week for 6-9 months during pregnancy had lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain (AOR for EI 0.20, 0.08-0.49; AOR for months 0.26, 0.12-0.56, respectively). Our findings support the need to promote or increase exercise during pregnancy to reduce the high proportion of women who are gaining excessive weight. PMID:24912945

Harris, Shericka T; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Moran, Robert; Gallagher, Alexa

2015-03-01

375

Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise.  

PubMed Central

1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena. Images Figure 7 PMID:8866370

Halliwill, J R; Taylor, J A; Eckberg, D L

1996-01-01

376

Exercise, Vascular Stiffness, and Tissue Transglutaminase  

PubMed Central

Background Vascular aging is closely associated with increased vascular stiffness. It has recently been demonstrated that decreased nitric oxide (NO)?induced S?nitrosylation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) contributes to age?related vascular stiffness. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise restores NO signaling and attenuates vascular stiffness by decreasing TG2 activity and cross?linking in an aging rat model. Methods and Results Rats were subjected to 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise. Aging was associated with diminished phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase and phosphorylated vasodilator?stimulated phosphoprotein abundance, suggesting reduced NO signaling. TG2 cross?linking activity was significantly increased in old animals, whereas TG2 abundance remained unchanged. These alterations were attenuated in the exercise cohort. Simultaneous measurement of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) demonstrated increased aortic stiffness in old rats, compared to young, at all values of mean arterial pressure (MAP). The PWV?MAP correlation in the old sedentary and old exercise cohorts was similar. Tensile testing of the vessels showed increased stiffness of the aorta in the old phenotype with a modest restoration of mechanical properties toward the young phenotype with exercise. Conclusions Increased vascular stiffness during aging is associated with decreased TG2 S?nitrosylation, increased TG2 cross?linking activity, and increased vascular stiffness likely the result of decreased NO bioavailability. In this study, a brief period of moderate aerobic exercise enhanced NO signaling, attenuated TG cross?linking activity, and reduced ex vivo tensile properties, but failed to reverse functional vascular stiffness in vivo, as measured by PWV. PMID:24721796

Steppan, Jochen; Sikka, Gautam; Jandu, Simran; Barodka, Viachaslau; Halushka, Marc K.; Flavahan, Nicholas A.; Belkin, Alexey M.; Nyhan, Daniel; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Santhanam, Lakshmi

2014-01-01

377

Identifying exercise allergies: exercise-induced anaphylaxis and cholinergic urticaria.  

PubMed

Exercise-related allergies vary from the benign rash of cholinergic urticaria to life-threatening exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Rapid diagnosis is essential, but it can be difficult to tell the two conditions apart. The size of the wheals and the patient history provide the best clues. Giving epinephrine and taking steps to protect the patient's airway, breathing, and circulation are standard treatment for exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Effective management for less severe cases involves exercising with a partner, keeping self-injectable epinephrine on hand, and avoiding exercise before and after meals. Prophylactic antihistamines are more effective for cholinergic urticaria than for exercise-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:20086959

Terrell, T; Hough, D O; Alexander, R

1996-11-01

378

Feasibility, design and conduct of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to reduce overweight and obesity in children: The electronic games to aid motivation to exercise (eGAME) study  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in developed countries. Sedentary screen-based activities such as video gaming are thought to displace active behaviors and are independently associated with obesity. Active video games, where players physically interact with images onscreen, may have utility as a novel intervention to increase physical activity and improve body composition in children. The aim of the Electronic Games to Aid Motivation to Exercise (eGAME) study is to determine the effects of an active video game intervention over 6 months on: body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, cardio-respiratory fitness, and physical activity levels in overweight children. Methods/Design Three hundred and thirty participants aged 10–14 years will be randomized to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention). Discussion An overview of the eGAME study is presented, providing an example of a large, pragmatic randomized controlled trial in a community setting. Reflection is offered on key issues encountered during the course of the study. In particular, investigation into the feasibility of the proposed intervention, as well as robust testing of proposed study procedures is a critical step prior to implementation of a large-scale trial. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000632493 PMID:19450288

Maddison, Ralph; Foley, Louise; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Jiang, Yannan; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Hohepa, Maea; Schaaf, David

2009-01-01

379

Effects of a muscle exercise program on exercise capacity in subjects with osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Maximal aerobic power and muscle function have been shown to decrease with age and to be even lower in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). This study was designed to determine if subjects with OA who underwent only a muscle exercise program had improved exercise capacity and cardiovascular fitness. A maximal graded exercise test was given before and after 3 months of exercise (isometric, isotonic, and isometric force generated as a function of time contractions, three times a week). Maximal strength and the tension-time index improved significantly. Peak aerobic power increased from 15.99 +/- 3.96 mL.kg-1.min-1 to 20.34 +/- 3.29 mL.kg-1.min-1. On average, maximal walking speed increased from 2.0 +/- 0.6 mph to 2.4 +/- 0.7mph. Exercise time increased 22%, from 9.2 +/- 2.3 minutes to 11.2 +/- 2.7 minutes. There were significant reductions in submaximal heart rate (15b.min-1) and systolic blood pressure (15mmHg) after training. It would appear that the reduction in aerobic fitness of subjects with OA is secondary to their reduced muscle function. By improving muscle function, increases in exercise capacity and aerobic fitness occurred. PMID:8024427

Fisher, N M; Pendergast, D R

1994-07-01

380

Epilepsy and physical exercise.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

2015-02-01

381

BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises. BEATCALC will wake up your brain on Monday morning with a mental math exercise that will stimulate those gray cells. Each Monday you will receive instructions for an exercise that will enable you to do math computations mentally faster than a friend can do them on a calculator. For example, how about learning to square 65 or 95 mentally in quick time? You can beat that calculator! These exercises are designed for : (1) Foggy heads at work on Monday morning who need a mental jump-start for the week. (2) People who say "I never could do math" and need some math confidence. (3) Calculator cripples. Kids (and big kids) who need a calculator to do 8 times 9. (4) Individuals who have refused to think about numbers since fifth grade. Was it long division that did it? (5) Braggarts who would like to show up a colleague by doing math mentally faster than he/she can do it using a calculator. (6) Seniors who want to keep mentally alert by routinely exercising the noggin. (7) And other hardy and adventurous souls who can use a little mental stimulation. send email to beatcalc@aol.com in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE BEATCALC yourfirstname yourlastname

1997-01-01

382

Fish under exercise.  

PubMed

Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721

Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

2011-06-01

383

Effect of Isometric Handgrip Exercise Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Normal Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise training on resting blood pressure in normal healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Hand grip spring dynamometer was used for IHG exercise training. A total of 30 normal healthy volunteers in the age group of 20-40 y were enrolled for the study. Exercise training protocol consisted of five 3-min bouts of IHG exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction separated by 5 min rest periods. Exercise was performed 3 times/wk for 10 wk. Subject’s blood pressure was measured before and after exercise. Result: There was a significant reduction in resting blood pressure following 10 wk of exercise training. Both Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure reduced significantly (p<0.001). Conclusion: IHG exercise training might be a simple, effective, inexpensive and non-pharmacological method in lowering blood pressure. PMID:25386422

Malhotra, Varun; Kumar, Avnish; Dhar, Usha; Tripathi, Yogesh

2014-01-01

384

Myocardial performance and perfusion during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease caused by Kawasaki disease  

SciTech Connect

For a study of the natural history of coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease and their effect on myocardial blood flow reserve with exercise, five such patients underwent exercise testing on a bicycle. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, and electrocardiograms were monitored continuously. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed for all patients. One patient stopped exercise before exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve but had no evidence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Four patients terminated exercise because of exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve; one had normal cardiovascular reserve and thallium scintiscans, but the remaining patients had diminished cardiovascular reserve. Thallium scintigrams showed myocardial ischemia in two and infarction in one. No patient had exercise-induced electrocardiographic changes. These results indicate that patients with residual coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease frequently have reduced cardiovascular reserve during exercise. The addition of thallium scintigraphy and metabolic measurements to exercise testing improved the detection of exercise-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion.

Paridon, S.M.; Ross, R.D.; Kuhns, L.R.; Pinsky, W.W. (Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit (USA))

1990-01-01

385

Electrical muscle stimulation for chronic heart failure: an alternative tool for exercise training?  

PubMed

Conventional exercise training has been shown conclusively to improve exercise capacity, quality of life, and even reduce mortality in chronic heart failure. Unfortunately, not all heart failure patients are suitable for conventional exercise programs for various reasons. The exciting new technique of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of large groups of muscles has been shown to produce a physiologic response consistent with cardiovascular exercise at mild to moderate intensities by increasing peak oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ventilatory capacity, and heart rate. Additionally, there is improvement in muscle strength. The handful of small studies that exist of home-based EMS training of leg muscles in heart failure show that EMS produces similar benefits to conventional exercise in improving exercise capacity, making EMS an alternative to aerobic exercise training in those that cannot undertake conventional exercise. The improvement seen in leg muscle strength promises also to improve mobility in this sedentary population. PMID:20446069

Banerjee, Prithwish

2010-06-01

386

The relation of physical activity and exercise to mental health.  

PubMed Central

Mental disorders are of major public health significance. It has been claimed that vigorous physical activity has positive effects on mental health in both clinical and nonclinical populations. This paper reviews the evidence for this claim and provides recommendations for future studies. The strongest evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise probably alleviate some symptoms associated with mild to moderate depression. The evidence also suggests that physical activity and exercise might provide a beneficial adjunct for alcoholism and substance abuse programs; improve self-image, social skills, and cognitive functioning; reduce the symptoms of anxiety; and alter aspects of coronary-prone (Type A) behavior and physiological response to stressors. The effects of physical activity and exercise on mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, and other aspects of mental health are not known. Negative psychological effects from exercise have also been reported. Recommendations for further research on the effects of physical activity and exercise on mental health are made. PMID:3920718

Taylor, C B; Sallis, J F; Needle, R

1985-01-01

387

Heat-related illness in sports and exercise.  

PubMed

Exertional heat-related illness (EHRI) is comprised of several states that afflict physically active persons when exercising during conditions of high environmental heat stress. Certain forms of EHRI may become life threatening if not treated. Exertional heat stroke (EHS), characterized by a core body temperature of >40 ° C and mental status changes, is the most severe form of EHRI. EHS must be treated immediately with rapid body cooling to reduce morbidity and mortality. Many EHRI cases are preventable by following heat acclimatization guidelines, modifying sports and exercise sessions during conditions of high environmental heat stress, maintaining adequate hydration, avoiding exertion in the heat when ill, and by educating sports medicine personnel, coaches, parents, and athletes on the early recognition and prevention of EHRI. Heat exhaustion, exercise-associated collapse, exercise-associated muscle cramps, exercise-associated hyponatremia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis are also described. PMID:25240413

Nichols, Andrew W

2014-12-01

388

Acute supplementation with keto analogues and amino acids in rats during resistance exercise.  

PubMed

During exercise, ammonia levels are related to the appearance of both central and peripheral fatigue. Therefore, controlling the increase in ammonia levels is an important strategy in ameliorating the metabolic response to exercise and in improving athletic performance. Free amino acids can be used as substrates for ATP synthesis that produces ammonia as a side product. Keto analogues act in an opposite way, being used to synthesise amino acids whilst decreasing free ammonia in the blood. Adult male rats were divided into four groups based on receiving either keto analogues associated with amino acids (KAAA) or a placebo and resistance exercise or no exercise. There was an approximately 40% increase in ammonaemia due to KAAA supplementation in resting animals. Exercise increased ammonia levels twofold with respect to the control, with a smaller increase (about 20%) in ammonia levels due to exercise. Exercise itself causes a significant increase in blood urea levels (17%). However, KAAA reduced blood urea levels to 75% of the pre-exercise values. Blood urate levels increased 28% in the KAAA group, independent of exercise. Supplementation increased glucose levels by 10% compared with control animals. Exercise did not change glucose levels in either the control or supplemented groups. Exercise promoted a 57% increase in lactate levels in the control group. Supplementation promoted a twofold exercise-induced increase in blood lactate levels. The present results suggest that an acute supplementation of KAAA can decrease hyperammonaemia induced by exercise. PMID:20594391

de Almeida, Rosemeire Dantas; Prado, Eduardo Seixas; Llosa, Carlos Daniel; Magalhães-Neto, Anibal; Cameron, Luiz-Claudio

2010-11-01

389

Corticospinal responses to sustained locomotor exercises: moving beyond single-joint studies of central fatigue.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence that fatiguing exercise is accompanied by changes within the central nervous system that reduce the force that can be produced by working muscles. Here we review studies that used non-invasive neurophysiological techniques to show that sustained single-joint contractions have the capacity to increase corticospinal responsiveness and reduce motoneuronal responsiveness. We contrast these findings with new evidence from our laboratory regarding corticospinal responsiveness during sustained cycling exercise. There seems to be a similar increase in responsiveness of the intracortical inhibitory interneurons during sustained locomotor and single-joint exercise which might be due to acute exercise responses that are common to fatiguing exercise of any nature, such as local accumulation of fatigue metabolites. In contrast, the pattern of changes in corticospinal responsiveness is fundamentally different between the two modes of exercise which might be due to greater systemic fatigue responses to locomotor exercises. PMID:23456490

Sidhu, Simranjit K; Cresswell, Andrew G; Carroll, Timothy J

2013-06-01

390

Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Dexter Perkins

391

Exercises in Math Readiness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arriving at college, many individuals may find themselves in the need of some instructional tools to refresh their memories of various mathematical concepts. Fortunately for those individuals (and their teachers), the Exercises in Math Readiness website contains materials that will ease this process. Created by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Saskatchewan, the site contains exercises of varying difficulty that will take users through such topics as geometry, trigonometry, algebra, and exponential functions. Teachers will also want to look at the section that offers them some specific instructions on how the site might best be used with students. Additionally, the materials here are available in French, Georgian, and Russian.

Rempel, Stephan

392

Mercenaria Laboratory Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Invertebrate Anatomy Online exercise, featuring the hard-shell clam Mercenaria mercenaria (quahog), is part of an Internet laboratory manual for courses in Invertebrate Zoology. This exercise features an introduction to Mollusca and a step-by-step dissection guide, including hand-drawn figures, defined terms, and detailed explanations of form and function. Students will learn about the external anatomy (shell), muscles, mantle skirts, mantle cavity, mantle folds, siphons, gills, labial palps, hemal system, exhalant chamber, excretory system, digestive system, nervous system, and reproductive system.

Richard Fox

393

Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise  

PubMed Central

The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC

2012-01-01

394

BachelorofScience ExerciseScience  

E-print Network

movement by integrating the study areas of Anatomy, Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, and Motor Control nutrition · exercise prescription · therapy and rehabilitation · exercise physiology · fitnessBachelorofScience ExerciseScience N a m e : ______________________________________ I D

Seldin, Jonathan P.

395

Eye Exercises and Reading Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated with a total of 60 primary-grade children was the effectiveness in improving ocular motor control of three training programs: the Bender proprioceptive facilitative feedback exercises, the Marsden ball program, and perceptual exercises. (DB)

Heath, Earl J.; And Others

1976-01-01

396

Weelchair exercise roller product design  

E-print Network

Inspired by bicycle training rollers, a wheelchair exercise roller (an exercise machine for the application of wheelchair users) was designed from conception of idea to alpha prototype. Background and market data was ...

Su, Benjamin W

2005-01-01

397

The history of "Exercise Is Medicine" in ancient civilizations.  

PubMed

In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

Tipton, Charles M

2014-06-01

398

Impact of mental fatigue on self-paced exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether mental fatigue influences the perceived effort required to complete fairly light and hard effort self-paced exercise challenges. 12 participants completed 2 trials in a randomised cross-over design. Each participant was required to complete a time-matched pre-exercise task: 1) a continuous cognitive activity test (EXP condition; n=12), or 2) a time-matched passive neutral observation task (CON condition; n=12). Following the pre-exercise task, participants performed 2 consecutive bouts of self-paced cycling exercise again in randomized order at fairly light (RPE 11) and hard (RPE 15) effort. Physiological, psychological and EEG indices were measured throughout both conditions. EXP participants reported significantly greater sensations of fatigue (p<0.01) and demonstrated greater EEG beta-band activation compared with CON (p<0.01) prior to exercise. Power outputs from the exercise bouts were significantly reduced for EXP in both self-paced: RPE 11 (83±7 vs. 99±7?W; ?p=0.005) and RPE 15 (132±9 vs. 143±8?W; p=0.028) trials. This study demonstrates that individuals with higher self-reported sensations of fatigue and elevations of EEG beta activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain prior to exercise produce less work during self-paced exercise trials than in a control condition, probably due to an altered perception of effort. PMID:23771830

Brownsberger, J; Edwards, A; Crowther, R; Cottrell, D

2013-12-01

399

Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

Greenleaf, John (editor)

1993-01-01

400

Supine Lower Body Negative Pressure Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity in Male Twins during 30 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exercise capacity is reduced following both short and long duration exposures to microgravity. We have shown previously that supine lower body negative pressure with exercise (LBNP(sub ex) maintains upright exercise capacity in men after 5d and 15d bed rest, as a simulation of microgravity. We hypothesized that LBNP(sub ex) would protect upright exercise capacity (VO2pk) and sprint performance in eight sets of identical male twins during a 30-d bed rest. Twins within each set were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) who performed no exercise or to an exercise group (EX) who performed a 40-min interval (40-80% pre-BR VO2pk) LBNP(sub ex) (55+/-4 mmHg) exercise protocol, plus 5 min of resting LBNP, 6 d/wk. LBNP produced footward force equivalent to 1.0- 1.2 times body weight. Pre- and post-bed rest, subjects completed an upright graded exercise test to volitional fatigue and sprint test of 30.5 m. After bed rest, VO2pk was maintained in the EX subjects (-3+/-3%), but was significantly decreased in the CON subjects (-24+/-4%). Sprint time also was increased in the CON subjects (24+/-8%), but maintained in the EX group (8+/-2%). The performance of a supine, interval exercise protocol with LBNP maintains upright exercise capacity and sprint performance during 30 d of bed rest. This exercise countermeasure protocol may help prevent microgravity-induced deconditioning during long duration space flight.

Lee, Stuart M. C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

2006-01-01

401

Exercise and manual physiotherapy arthritis research trial (EMPART): a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a major cause of functional disability and reduced quality of life. Management options aim to reduce pain and improve or maintain physical functioning. Current evidence indicates that therapeutic exercise has a beneficial but short-term effect on pain and disability, with poor long-term benefit. The optimal content, duration and type of exercise are yet

Helen P French; Tara Cusack; Aisling Brennan; Breon White; Clare Gilsenan; Martina Fitzpatrick; Paul O'Connell; David Kane; Oliver FitzGerald; Geraldine M McCarthy

2009-01-01

402

Respiratory-related activation of human abdominal muscles during exercise  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that abdominal muscles are active during the expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle during exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded during incremental exercise to exhaustion and during 30 min of constant work rate exercise at an intensity of 85 % of the peak oxygen consumption rate (V?O2). High amplitude intramuscular EMG activities of both abdominal muscles could be evoked with postural manoeuvres in all subjects. During cycling, respiratory-related activity of the external obliques was evoked in four of seven subjects, whereas rectus abdominis activity was observed in six of the seven subjects. We measured only the activity that was confined exclusively to the expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Expiratory activity of both muscles increased with exercise intensity, although peak values averaged only 10-20 or 20-40 % of the peak activity (obtained during maximal, voluntary expiratory efforts) for the external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles, respectively. To estimate how much of the recorded abdominal muscle activity was supporting leg movements during exercise, we compared the activity at the very end of incremental exercise to that recorded during the first five respiratory cycles after the abrupt cessation of exercise, when ventilation was still very high. Although external oblique activity was reduced after exercise stopped, clear expiratory activity remained. Rectus abdominis activity remained high after exercise cessation, showing a gradual decline that approximated the decline in ventilation. During constant work rate exercise, EMG activities increased to 40-50 and 5-10 % of peak in rectus and external oblique muscles, respectively, and then plateaued for the remainder of the bout in spite of a continual upward drift in V?O2 and pulmonary ventilation. Linear regression analysis showed that the rise in respiratory-related expiratory muscle activity during progressive intensity exercise was significantly correlated with ventilation, although weakly. In constant work rate exercise, expiratory EMG activities increased, but the changes were highly variable and did not change as a function of exercise time, even though ventilation drifted significantly with time. These experiments suggest that abdominal muscles play a role in regulating the ventilatory response to progressive intensity bicycle exercise, although some of the observed activity may support postural adjustments or limb movements. The contribution of abdominal muscles to ventilation during constant work rate exercise is variable, and expiratory activity does not ‘drift’ significantly with time. PMID:12042369

Abraham, Kirk A; Feingold, Howard; Fuller, David D; Jenkins, Megan; Mateika, Jason H; Fregosi, Ralph F

2002-01-01

403

Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing manoeuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises. PMID:24937500

Westerdahl, E

2014-06-17

404

Exercise-induced muscle damage and running economy in humans.  

PubMed

Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15-30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO?max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO?max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

2013-01-01

405

Practice Exercises for Algebra Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercises posted on this web site offer an opportunity for students to evaluate how much they have retained in various subjects of Algebra. Topics covered include geometry, functions, vectors, and statistics. There are corresponding lessons and solutions to each practice exercise. Also, the site contains useful tools such as graphs and spreadsheet modeling exercises to help students better visualize and understanding algebra concepts.

406

Exercise and Fluid Balance Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…

Schlicht, Jeff

2005-01-01

407

Exercising in a Safe Environment  

MedlinePLUS

... on Aging. l Work out with an exercise DVD such as the Go4Life DVD. Quick Tip Be alert to outdoor safety and ... tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise story. National Institute on ...

408

Exercise and the endothelial cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise is known to be effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Among the cardioprotectant mechanisms influenced by exercise, the endothelium is becoming recognised as a major target. Preservation of endothelial cell structure is vital for frictionless blood flow, prevention of macrophage and lipid infiltration and, ultimately, optimal vascular function. Exercise causes various kinds of mechanical, chemical

Susan A. Marsh; Jeff S. Coombes

409

Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hypothetical Miocene exercise is designed to bring together knowledge of marine sedimentology, magnetostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, and biostratigraphy to illustrate how climate changes related to Milankovitch orbital forcing can be used to refine the time scale, determine the timing of events, and estimate rates ("astrochronology").

maya elrick

410

Computer Exercises in Meteorology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

411

Graphic Correlation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graphic correlation lab exercise. It uses real data from a peer-reviewed journal publication by Lucy Edwards (1989). (I have manipulated the data set a little bit.) Students can finish the activity in two hours or less.

Dan Stephen

412

How Exercise Can Help  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen the effects of arthritis, but they also might try getting ... We know that if a physician or a health care provider encourages someone to ... is important, that's a powerful tool to helping people stay up with an ...

413

Exercise and aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness with health and biologic aging is complex and multifaceted, but there is general acknowl- edgment of its importance to major public health outcomes (1-12). Although many questions remain about mechanisms of effect and dose-response curves (13), a synthesis of the literature indicates many potentially positive effects of participation in physical activity

Maria Antoinette Fiatarone Singh

2004-01-01

414

LONGPRO Stream Modeling Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this exercise is to integrate modeling with field data. The activity includes links to a "virtual field trip" of maps and photographs. Data from a creek is included in the field trip and students use an Excel spreadsheet model to analyze the data.

Bill Locke

415

Sleep after Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

After moderate treadmill exercise, marked decreases in operant responding and in latency to onset of behavioral sleep occurs in cats. The sleep produced is characterized by enhancement of synchronized electroencephalographic activity with suppression of the desynchronized phase. The result is consistent with the theory that a function of synchronized sleep is to facilitate recovery from fatigue.

J. Allan Hobson

1968-01-01

416

Exercise and functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,

Wataru Aoi; Yuji Naito; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

417

Slantwise Convection Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise examines an event that took place in the 24 hour time period beginning at 18Z, Dec 31, 2000 in southern British Columbia, Canada and northern Washington/Idaho, United States. This is a companion piece to the COMET Webcast, Slantwise Convection: An Operational Approach.

2014-09-14

418

Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

Harris, Bernard A. (editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (editor)

1994-01-01

419

Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for stroke  

PubMed Central

Given the potential of exercise to positively influence so many physical and psychosocial domains, the Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program was developed to address the multiple impairments arising from the chronic health condition of stroke. We present the details of this exercise program and the evidence which has shown that the FAME Program can improve motor function (muscle strength, balance, walking), cardiovascular fitness, bone density, executive functions and memory. The FAME Program can help to improve the physical and cognitive abilities of people living with a stroke and reduce the risk of secondary complications such as falls, fractures and heart disease. PMID:22287825

Eng, Janice J.

2011-01-01

420

Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.  

PubMed

We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. The (NONEX)V(O)(2mus) at each work rate was not significantly increased. In contrast, (NONEX)FBF was significantly increased at 120 W (p < 0.05) and 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. These results suggest that the O(2) supply to the non-exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise. PMID:20204819

Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito

2010-01-01

421

Exercise training enhances endothelial function in young men  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe present study was designed to assess whether exercise training can enhance endothelium-dependent dilatation in healthy young men.BACKGROUNDExercise has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms for this benefit are unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis, and animal studies have shown that exercise training can enhance endothelial function.METHODSWe have examined the effect of

Peter Clarkson; Hugh E Montgomery; Michael J Mullen; Ann E Donald; Amanda J Powe; Teresa Bull; Michael Jubb; John E Deanfield

1999-01-01

422

Embodied intervention reduce depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

2011-10-01

423

Chronic exercise ameliorates the neuroinflammation in mice carrying NSE/htau23  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} The progress of neurodegeration are directly linked to the neuroinflammatory response. {yields} We investigate whether exercise improves the neuroinflammation using T{sub g}-NSE/htau23 mice. {yields} This provides insights that exercise may beneficial effects on the neuroinflammatory disorders. -- Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether chronic endurance exercise attenuates the neuroinflammation in the brain of mice with NSE/htau23. In this study, the tau-transgenic (Tg) mouse, Tg-NSE/htau23, which over expresses human Tau23 in its brain, was subjected to chronic exercise for 3 months, from 16 months of age. The brains of Tg mice exhibited increased immunoreactivity and active morphological changes in GFAP (astrocyte marker) and MAC-1 (microglia marker) expression in an age-dependent manner. To identify the effects of chronic exercise on gliosis, the exercised Tg mice groups were treadmill run at a speed of 12 m/min (intermediate exercise group) or 19 m/min (high exercise group) for 1 h/day and 5 days/week during the 3 month period. The neuroinflammatory response characterized by activated astroglia and microglia was significantly repressed in the exercised Tg mice in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. In parallel, chronic exercise in Tg mice reduced the increased expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-6, IL-1{beta}, COX-2, and iNOS. Consistently with these changes, the levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-ERK were markedly downregulated in the brain of Tg mice after exercise. In addition, nuclear NF-{kappa}B activity was profoundly reduced after chronic exercise in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. These findings suggest that chronic endurance exercise may alleviate neuroinflammation in the Tau pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

Leem, Yea-Hyun, E-mail: leemyy@empas.com [Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, Korea National Sport University, Seoul 138-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, Korea National Sport University, Seoul 138-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Ik, E-mail: lee0ik@hanmail.net [Department of Oriental Sports Medicine, Daegu Hanny University, Daegu 712-715 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oriental Sports Medicine, Daegu Hanny University, Daegu 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hee-Jeong, E-mail: son1106@paran.com [Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Korea National Sport University, Seoul 138-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Korea National Sport University, Seoul 138-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Ho, E-mail: run2025@hanmail.net [Department of Sports for All, Kangnam University, Yongin 446-702 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Sports for All, Kangnam University, Yongin 446-702 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-18

424

Muscle deoxygenation in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.  

PubMed

It has been generally accepted that the use of oxygen is a major contributor of ATP synthesis in endurance exercise but not in short sprints. In anaerobic exercise, muscle energy is thought to be initially supported by the PCr-ATP system followed by glycolysis, not through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, in real exercise practice, we do not know how much of this notion is true when an athlete approaches his/her maximal capacity of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, such as during a graded VO2max test. This study investigates the use of oxygen in aerobic and anaerobic exercise by monitoring oxygen concentration of the vastus lateralis muscle at maximum intensity using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (NIRS). We tested 14 sprinters from the University of Penn track team, whose competitive events are high jump, pole vault, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m. The Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer with 10% body weight resistance for 30 seconds. To compare oxygenation during aerobic exercise, a steady-state VO2max test with a cycle ergometer was used with 25 watt increments every 2 min. until exhaustion. Results showed that in the Wingate test, total power reached 774 +/- 86 watt, about 3 times greater than that in the VO2max test (270 +/- 43 watt). In the Wingate test, the deoxygenation reached approximately 80% of the established maximum value, while in the VO2max test resulted in approximately 36% deoxygenation. There was no delay in onset of deoxygenation in the Wingate test, while in the VO2max test, deoxygenation did not occur under low intensity work. The results indicate that oxygen was used from the beginning of sprint test, suggesting that the mitochondrial ATP synthesis was triggered after a surprisingly brief exercise duration. One explanation is that prior warm-up (unloaded exercise) was enough to provide the mitochondrial substrates; ADP and Pi to activate oxidative phosphorylation by the type II a and type I myocytes. In addition, transmural pressure created by the muscle contraction reduces blood flow, causing relative hypoxia. PMID:9889877

Nioka, S; Moser, D; Lech, G; Evengelisti, M; Verde, T; Chance, B; Kuno, S

1998-01-01

425

Upright exercise or supine lower body negative pressure exercise maintains exercise responses after bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptation to bed rest or space flight is accompanied by an impaired ability to exercise in an upright position. We hypothesized that a daily, 30-min bout of intense, interval exercise in upright posture or supine against lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would maintain upright exercise heart rate and respiratory responses after bed rest. Twenty-four men (31 +/- 3 yr) underwent 5 d of 6 degree head-down tilt: eight performed no exercise (CON), eight performed upright treadmill exercise (UPex), and eight performed supine treadmill exercise against LBNP at -51.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg (LBNPex). Submaximal treadmill exercise responses (56, 74, and 85% of VO2peak) were measured pre- and post-bed rest. In CON, submaximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and ventilation were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) after bed rest. In UPex and LBNPex, submaximal exercise responses were similar pre- and post-bed rest. Our results indicate that a daily 30-min bout of intense, interval upright exercise training or supine exercise training against LBNP is sufficient to maintain upright exercise responses after 5 d of bed rest. These results may have important implications for the development of exercise countermeasures during space flight.

Lee, S. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Ford, S. R.; Fortney, S. M.

1997-01-01

426

Exercise and Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective In addition to the increasingly recognized role of physical exercise in maintaining cognition, exercise may influence Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as transgenic mouse studies show lowered levels of AD pathology in exercise groups. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between exercise and AD pathology in humans using Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB), amyloid-? (A?)42, tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau)181 biomarkers. Methods Sixty-nine older adults (17 males, 52 females) aged 55–88 were recruited and confirmed to be cognitively normal. A questionnaire on physical exercise levels over the last decade was administered to all. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 56 participants, and amyloid imaging with PIB was performed on 54 participants. Results Participants were classified based on biomarker levels. Those with elevated PIB (p=.030), tau (p=.040) and ptau181 ((p=.044) had significantly lower exercise with a non-significant trend for lower A?42 (p=.135) to be associated with less exercise. Results were similar for PIB after controlling for covariates; tau (p=.115) and ptau181 (p=.123) differences were reduced to non-significant trends. Additional analyses also demonstrated that active individuals who met the exercise guidelines set by the American Heart Association (AHA) had significantly lower PIB binding and higher A?42 levels with and without controlling for covariates (PIB: p=.006 and p=.001; A?42: p=.042 and p=.046). Lastly, the associations between exercise engagement and PIB levels were more prominent in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers. Interpretation Collectively, these results are supportive of an association between exercise engagement and AD biomarkers in cognitively normal older adults. PMID:20818789

Liang, Kelvin Y.; Mintun, Mark A.; Fagan, Anne M.; Goate, Alison M.; Bugg, Julie M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Head, Denise

2010-01-01

427

Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence f