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1

Postural control after a strenuous treadmill exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a strenuous treadmill exercise on body stability and the mechanisms associated with it have been studied with two different experimental protocols. The former investigation was based on stabilometric and metabolic measurements performed in basal condition and after a strenuous treadmill exercise whilst the latter dealt with the study of the early postural response to a 3s-bilateral soleus

Marco Bove; Emanuela Faelli; Andrea Tacchino; Francesco Lofrano; Carla E. Cogo; Piero Ruggeri

2007-01-01

2

The Effect of Strenuous Exercise on Blood Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a laboratory experiment designed to help students understand the concept of diastolic blood pressure, the pressure during which the left ventricle of the heart is not contracting. Examines the effect of strenuous exercise on blood pressure. Includes materials needed, procedures, results, and discussion of the results. (MDH)

Cvancara, Victor

1992-01-01

3

Inflammatory response to strenuous muscular exercise in man  

PubMed Central

Based on the humoral and cellular changes occurring during strenuous muscular work in humans, the concept of inflammatory response to exercise (IRE) is developed. The main indices of IRE consist of signs of an acute phase response, leucocytosis and leucocyte activation, release of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage and cellular infiltrates, production of free radicals, activation of complement, and coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. Depending on exercise intensity and duration, it seems likely that muscle and/or associated connective tissue damage, contact system activation due to shear stress on endothelium and endotoxaemia could be the triggering mechanisms of IRE. Although this phenomenon can be considered in most cases as a physiological process associated with tissue repair, exaggerated IRE could have physiopathological consequences. On the other hand, the influence of several factors such as age, sex, training, hormonal status, nutrition, anti-inflammatory drugs, and the extent to which IRE could be a potential risk for subjects undergoing intense physical training require further study.

Deby-Dupont, G.; Deby, C.; Juchmes-Ferir, A.; Pincemail, J.; Lamy, M.

1993-01-01

4

Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.  

PubMed

Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

2013-10-14

5

Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. METHODS: Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared

Donrawee Leelarungrayub; Sainatee Pratanaphon; Prapas Pothongsunun; Thanyaluck Sriboonreung; Araya Yankai; Richard J Bloomer

2010-01-01

6

Melatonin supplementation ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling induced by strenuous exercise in adult human males.  

PubMed

Strenuous exercise induces inflammatory reactions together with high production of free radicals and subsequent muscle damage. This study was designed to investigate for the first time and simultaneously whether over-expression of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, and alterations in biochemical parameters induced by acute exercise could be prevented by melatonin. This indoleamine is a potent, endogenously produced free radical scavenger and a broad-spectrum antioxidant; consequently, it might have positive effects on the recovery following an exercise session. The participants were classified into two groups: melatonin-treated men (MG) and placebo-treated individuals (controls group, CG). The physical test consisted in a constant run that combined several degrees of high effort (mountain run and ultra-endurance). The total distance of the run was 50 km with almost 2800 m of ramp in permanent climbing and very changeable climatic conditions. Exercise was associated with a significant increase in TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1ra (in blood), and also an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and isoprostane levels (in urine), and indicated the degree of oxidative stress and inflammation induced. Oral supplementation of melatonin during high-intensity exercise proved efficient in reducing the degree of oxidative stress (lower levels of lipid peroxidation, with a significant increase in antioxidative enzyme activities); this would lead to the maintenance of the cellular integrity and reduce secondary tissue damage. Data obtained also indicate that melatonin has potent protective effects, by preventing over-expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and inhibiting the effects of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. In summary, melatonin supplementation before strenuous exercise reduced muscle damage through modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation signaling associated with this physical challenge. PMID:21615492

Ochoa, Julio J; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Kajarabille, Naroa; García, Carmen; Guisado, Isabel M; De Teresa, Carlos; Guisado, Rafael

2011-05-26

7

Effects of strenuous exercise on autonomic nervous system activity in sickle cell trait carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in seven sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers and six subjects with normal hemoglobin in response to exercise Sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of nocturnal ANS were measured in the two groups before and 24 and 48 h after a strenuous exercise consisting of the repetition of three maximal exercise bouts. Global ANS

Mona Hédreville; Jean-Claude Barthélémy; Julien Tripette; Frederic Roche; Marie Dominique Hardy-Dessources; Vincent Pichot; Olivier Hue; Philippe Connes

2008-01-01

8

Progressive strenuous exercise induces the expression of HSP70 in rat skeletal muscles and myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the exercise-induced synthesis and accumulation of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) after progressive strenuous exercise in rat soleus, plantaris, and myocardium. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of six groups, one control group and five exercise groups, divided by intensity and duration of exercise. Skeletal muscles and heart were dissected immediately after last performance. The levels

Young-Oh Shin; Jae-Keun Oh; Jun-Sang Bae; Mi-Young Lee; Jeong-Beom Lee; Hun-Mo Yang; Young-Ki Min; Takaaki Matsumoto

2004-01-01

9

Does Intermittent Pneumatic Leg Compression Enhance Muscle Recovery after Strenuous Eccentric Exercise?  

PubMed

Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s-1) and fast (180° · s-1) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s-1) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s-1 and 180° · s-1).However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. PMID:23606340

Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

2013-04-19

10

Changes in oxygen uptake, shoulder muscles activity, and propulsion cycle timing during strenuous wheelchair exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Cross-over study.Objective:To determine the effect of strenuous wheelchair exercise on oxygen uptake ( ), muscle activity and propulsion cycle timing (including the push time and recovery time during one full arm cycle).Setting:Laboratory of Sport Sciences at the University of France-Comte in France.Methods:Two exercise bouts of 6-min duration were performed at a constant workload: (1) non-fatigable exercise (moderate workload) and

S M Bernasconi; N Tordi; J Ruiz; B Parratte

2007-01-01

11

Changes in salivary antimicrobial peptides, immunoglobulin A and cortisol after prolonged strenuous exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine whether amount of oral antimicrobial components, human ?-defensin-2 (HBD-2), cathelicidin\\u000a (LL-37), and immunoglobulin A (IgA), might be affected by prolonged strenuous exercise. Ten young male volunteers either exercised\\u000a on recumbent ergometer at 75% $$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{O}}_{{2\\\\max }} $$ for 60 min (exercise session) or sat quietly (resting session). Saliva samples were obtained at

Tatsuya Usui; Takahiro Yoshikawa; Keisuke Orita; Shin-ya Ueda; Yoshihiro Katsura; Shigeo Fujimoto; Mamiko Yoshimura

12

Oxygen Consumption in the First Stages of Strenuous Work as a Function of Prior Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which 10 minutes of prior exercise (PE) at a workload adjusted to maintain a heart rate (HR) of 140 beats per minute could facilitate the mobilization of the oxygen transport system in a strenuous criterion task (CT). The control treatment involved completion of the CT following 10 minutes of rest on the…

Gutin, Bernard; And Others

13

Oxygen transport capacity in the air-breathing fish, Megalops cyprinoides: compensations for strenuous exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarpon have high resting or routine hematocrits (Hct) (37.6±3.4%) and hemoglobin concentrations (120.6±7.3 gl?1) that increased significantly following bouts of angling-induced exercise (51.9±3.7% and 142.8±13.5 gl?1, respectively). Strenuous exercise was accompanied by an approximately tenfold increase in blood lactate and a muscle metabolite profile indicative of a high energy demand teleost. Routine blood values were quickly restored only when this

R. M. G Wells; J Baldwin; R. S Seymour; R. V Baudinette; K Christian; M. B Bennett

2003-01-01

14

Effect of strenuous physical exercise on circulating cell-derived microparticles.  

PubMed

Strenuous exercise is associated with an inflammatory response involving the activation of several types of blood cells. In order to document the specific activation of these cell types, we studied the effect of three maximal exercise tests conducted to exhaustion on the quantitative and qualitative pattern of circulating cell-derived microparticles and inflammatory molecules in healthy subjects. This study mainly indicated that the plasma concentration of microparticles from platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was increased immediately after the strenuous exercise. In addition, the increase in plasma concentration of microparticles from PMN and platelets was still observed after 2 hours of recovery. A similar pattern was observed for the IL-6 plasma level. In contrast, no change was observed for either soluble selectins or plasma concentration of microparticles from red blood cells, monocytes and endothelial cells. In agreement, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels were not changed by the exercise. We conclude that a strenuous exercise is accompanied by platelet- and PMN-derived microparticle production that probably reflects the activation of these two cell types. PMID:21321404

Chaar, Vicky; Romana, Marc; Tripette, Julien; Broquere, Cédric; Huisse, Marie-Geneviève; Hue, Olivier; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

2011-01-01

15

Prolonged strenuous exercise alters the cardiovascular response to dobutamine stimulation in male athletes  

PubMed Central

Prolonged strenuous exercise has been associated with transient impairment in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function that has been termed ‘cardiac fatigue’. It has been postulated that cardiac ?-adrenoreceptor desensitization may play a central role; however, data are limited. Accordingly, we assessed the cardiovascular response to progressive dobutamine stimulation after prolonged strenuous exercise (2 km swim, 90 km bike, 21 km run). Nine experienced male athletes were studied: PRE (2–3 days before), POST (after) and REC (1–2 days later). The cardiovascular response to progressive continuous dobutamine stimulation (0, 5, 20, and 40 ?g kg?1 min?1) was assessed, including heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), LV cavity areas (two-dimensional echocardiography) and contractility (end-systolic elastance, SBP/end-systolic cavity area (ESCA)). POST there was limited evidence of myocardial necrosis (measured by troponin I), while catecholamines were elevated. HR was higher POST (mean ±s.d.; PRE, 58 ± 9; POST, 79 ± 9; REC, 57 ± 7 beats min?1; P < 0.05), while SBP was lower (PRE, 127 ± 15; POST, 116 ± 9; REC, 121 ± 12 mmHg; P < 0.05). A blunted HR, SBP and LV contractility (SBP/ESCA; PRE 29 ± 6 versus POST 20 ± 6 mmHg cm?2; P < 0.05) response to dobutamine was demonstrated POST, with values returning towards baseline in REC. Following prolonged strenuous exercise, the chronotropic and inotropic response to dobutamine stimulation is blunted. This study supports the hypothesis that beta-receptor downregulation and/or desensitization may play a major role in prolonged-strenuous-exercise-mediated cardiac fatigue.

Welsh, Robert C; Warburton, Darren E R; Humen, Dennis P; Taylor, Dylan A; McGavock, Jonathon; Haykowsky, Mark J

2005-01-01

16

Strenuous exercise increases late outgrowth endothelial cells in healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and late outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) seem to play an important role in vessel formation.\\u000a While EPCs seem to exert their function mainly through a paracrine effect, the OECs can develop into mature endothelial cells\\u000a and form tubular structures. Exercise is known to increase angiogenic factors that can mobilize EPCs; however, the effect\\u000a on OECs is

Daniel Thorell; Mats Borjesson; Pia Larsson; Erik Ulfhammer; Lena Karlsson; Smita DuttaRoy

2009-01-01

17

Effect of aging and endurance training on tissue catecholamine response to strenuous exercise in Fischer 344 rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the catecholamine response in various tissues to a bout of strenuous exercise in young, adult, and old Fischer 344 rats. Further, to study the effect of endurance training on this response, animals from each age group underwent ten weeks of treadmill running at 75% of their functional capacity. On completion of the training program, all animals demonstrated significant increases (P less than 0.05) in VO2max and endurance capacity. At rest or immediately after an acute bout of strenuous exercise, animals were killed, and the heart, liver, kidney, and adrenals were removed for subsequent catecholamine analysis. Resting cardiac catecholamine levels declined significantly with age. In response to an acute exercise bout, epinephrine (E) levels in the heart were greatly reduced with age averaging 141.8, 62.3, and 21.7 ng/g for the 6-, 15-, and 27-month-old untrained group, respectively. The 15- and 27-month-old trained animals demonstrated significantly higher E levels (33% and 91%) than controls. A similar trend was found for norepinephrine (NE) content in the heart in response to acute exercise, with a marked reduction occurring with advancing age (904.6, 580.1, and 400.8 ng/g heart for 6-, 15-, and 27-month-old untrained groups, respectively). Again, training induced a greater NE response in the older trained animals compared to age-matched controls. In contrast, adrenal catecholamine levels showed a tendency to increase with age. It was concluded that when challenged with strenuous physical stress, cardiac catecholamine content is markedly diminished with age. Further, ten weeks of endurance training can attenuate this functional decline. PMID:3724454

Mazzeo, R S; Colburn, R W; Horvath, S M

1986-07-01

18

Sustained strenuous exercise increases intestinal permeability in racing Alaskan sled dogs.  

PubMed

We assessed gastric and intestinal permeability and performed gastroscopy to evaluate the effects of sustained strenuous exercise on the gastrointestinal tract in racing sled dogs. Three teams of racing Alaskan sled dogs were examined approximately 1 week before and 24 hours after the 2003 Iditarod sled dog race (1,100 miles in 10 days). Each examination consisted of the administration of a solution of sucrose, lactulose, and rhamnose to evaluate gastric and intestinal permeability, as well as gastroscopy to visually inspect the gastric mucosa. Of the 54 dogs examined before the race, 16 completed the course and contributed data to the analysis. Sustained strenuous exercise was associated with an increased frequency of gastric erosions or ulcerations seen endoscopically (0% prerace versus 61% postrace). A significant postrace increase occurred in the median lactulose to rhamnose ratio in both serum and urine (0.11 versus 0.165, P = .0363; 0.11 versus 0.165, P = .0090, respectively). No significant differences were found in median serum or urinary sucrose concentrations when pre- and postrace values were compared. No correlation was found between visible gastric lesions and the concentration of sucrose in serum or urine samples obtained 4-5 hours after administration of the sugar solutions. We conclude that sustained strenuous exercise is associated with increased intestinal permeability, but the sucrose permeability test as we performed it did not correlate with visible gastric lesions. PMID:15715045

Davis, Michael S; Willard, Michael D; Williamson, Katherine K; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A

19

A segmental evaluation of arterial stiffness before and after prolonged strenuous exercise.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the effects of a single session of prolonged strenuous exercise (PSE) on arterial stiffness by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) before and after competition in an ultramarathon. A total of 20 routine ultramarathon competitors (UM) completed baseline and postrace evaluation of central PWV (cPWV), upper-limb PWV (uPWV), and lower-limb PWV (lPWV) using carotid artery - femoral artery, carotid artery - finger, and femoral artery - toe segments, respectively. Fourteen additional age- and gender-matched normally active participants (NA) took part in the identical baseline evaluation but did not participate in the race. Average ultramarathon completion time was 30 h 47 min. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced after exercise (before exercise (pre), 92 ± 7 mm Hg; after exercise (post), 84 ± 7 mm Hg; P < 0.001), whereas heart rate was increased (pre, 57 ± 10 beats·min(-1); post, 73 ± 12 beats·min(-1); P < 0.001). Also, lPWV (pre, 11.8 ± 3.6 m·s(-1); post, 9.6 ± 2.6 m·s(-1); P < 0.05) and uPWV (pre, 5.0 ± 0.53 m·s(-1); post, 4.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1); P < 0.01) were reduced after exercise. No change in cPWV occurred (pre, 4.1 ± 0.8 m·s(-1); post, 3.9 ± 1.3 m·s(-1); P = 0.55). At baseline, the NA group had significantly increased cPWV in comparison with the UM group (UM, 4.1 ± 0.8 m·s(-1); NA, 7.4 ± 1.3 m·s(-1); P < 0.001). Acute participation in PSE influenced peripheral but not central arterial stiffness. Those who routinely participate in PSE have reduced central arterial stiffness as compared with normally active, age- and gender-matched controls. PMID:22606960

Phillips, Aaron A; Cote, Anita T; Foulds, Heather J; Charlesworth, Sarah; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Ngai, Shirley; Ivey, Adam; Drury, C Taylor; Fougere, Renee J; Warburton, Darren E R

2012-05-18

20

Dietary nucleotide improves markers of immune response to strenuous exercise under a cold environment  

PubMed Central

Background Strenuous exercise has been classically associated to immune-suppression and consequently to an increased risk of infections, especially at the upper respiratory tract. The administration of dietary nucleotides has been demonstrated useful to maintain the immune function in situations of stress and thus could be an appropriate strategy to counteract the decline of the immune function associated to strenuous exercise. The aim of the present study was to asses the impact of a specific nucleotide formulation (Inmunactive®) on the markers of immune function of athletes after a heavy exercise bout under cold conditions. Methods Twenty elite male taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into two groups of 10 subjects that were supplemented with placebo (P) or Inmunactive (I) at 480 mg/day during 30 days. At baseline (day 0) and after 4 wk of supplementation (day 30) each subject undertook an exhaustion exercise test using a cycloergometer. Skin temperature, core temperature, heart rate, lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the test. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after each exercise test for determination of blood cell concentrations, PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-LP) and salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Results Exercise tests induced neutrophilia and reduction in lymphocyte blood counts on day 0 and on day 30 in both groups. However, the I group exhibited a faster recovery from the lymphopenic response than the P group, so that lymphocyte levels were higher after 150 min (P?exercise-evoked decrease at baseline. Conclusions These findings suggest that supplementation with a nucleotide-based product for 4 weeks could counteract the impairment of immune function after heavy exercise.

2013-01-01

21

Oxygen transport capacity in the air-breathing fish, Megalops cyprinoides: compensations for strenuous exercise.  

PubMed

Tarpon have high resting or routine hematocrits (Hct) (37.6+/-3.4%) and hemoglobin concentrations (120.6+/-7.3 gl(-1)) that increased significantly following bouts of angling-induced exercise (51.9+/-3.7% and 142.8+/-13.5 gl(-1), respectively). Strenuous exercise was accompanied by an approximately tenfold increase in blood lactate and a muscle metabolite profile indicative of a high energy demand teleost. Routine blood values were quickly restored only when this facultative air-breathing fish was given access to atmospheric air. In vitro studies of oxygen transport capacity, a function of carrying capacity and viscosity, revealed that the optimal Hct range corresponded to that observed in fish under routine behaviour. During strenuous exercise however, further increase in viscosity was largely offset by a pronounced reduction in the shear-dependence of blood which conformed closely to an ideal Newtonian fluid. The mechanism for this behaviour of the erythrocytes appears to involve the activation of surface adrenergic receptors because pre-treatment with propranolol abolished the response. High levels of activity in tarpon living in hypoxic habitats are therefore supported by an elevated Hct with adrenergically mediated viscosity reduction, and air-breathing behaviour that enables rapid metabolic recovery. PMID:12507606

Wells, R M G; Baldwin, J; Seymour, R S; Baudinette, R V; Christian, K; Bennett, M B

2003-01-01

22

Phlebodium decumanum is a natural supplement that ameliorates the oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling induced by strenuous exercise in adult humans.  

PubMed

Strenuous exercise induces muscle damage due to a highly increased generation of free radicals and inflammatory response and therefore, in this type of exercise, it is important to reduce both oxidative stress and inflammation, at least their negative aspects. The purpose of this study was investigate, for the first time, whether a purified, standard water-soluble fraction obtained from Phlebodium decamanum could reduce the over-expression of inflammation and oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise. The physical test consisted of a constant run that combined several degrees of high effort (mountain run and ultra-endurance), in permanent climbing. Biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators were assessed. The results showed that oral supplementation of P. decumanum during high-intensity exercise effectively reduces the degree of oxidative stress (decreased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and isoprostanes generation, increased antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocyte and total antioxidant status in plasma). The data obtained also indicate that this supplementation is efficient in reducing the inflammatory response through the decrease of TNF-? and increase of sTNF-RII, but kept the levels of IL-6 and IL-1ra. In conclusion, oral supplementation of P. decamanum extract during high-intensity exercise effectively reduces the degree of oxidative stress and has anti-inflammatory protective effects, preventing the over-expression of TNF-? but keeping the levels and effects of IL-6. These findings provide a basis for similar Phlebodium supplementation for both professional and amateur athletes performing strenuous exercise in order to reduce the undesirable effects of the oxidative stress and inflammation signalling elicited during high-intensity exercise. PMID:22212862

Díaz-Castro, Javier; Guisado, Rafael; Kajarabille, Naroa; García, Carmen; Guisado, Isabel M; De Teresa, Carlos; Ochoa, Julio J

2012-01-03

23

Microarray analysis after strenuous exercise in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of endurance horses.  

PubMed

It is known that moderate physical activity may have beneficial effects on health, whereas strenuous effort induces a state resembling inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular response to exercise remain unclear, although it is clear that the immune system plays a key role. It has been hypothesized that the physio-pathological condition that develops in athletes subjected to heavy training is caused by derangement of cellular immune regulation. The purpose of the present study was to obtain information on endurance horse gene transcription under strenuous conditions and to identify candidate genes causing immune system derangement. We performed a wide gene expression scan, using microarray technology, on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ten horses chosen from high-level participants in national and international endurance races. The use of three different timepoints revealed changes in gene expression when post-effort samples (T1, taken immediately after the race; and T2, taken 24 h after the race) were compared with basal sample (T0, at rest). Statistical analysis showed no differences in gene expression between T0 and T2 samples, indicating complete restoration of homeostasis by 24 h after racing, whereas T1 showed strong modulation of expression, affecting 132 genes (97 upregulated, 35 downregulated). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the main mechanisms and biofunctions involved were significantly associated with immunological and inflammatory responses. Real-time PCR was performed on 26 gene products to validate the array data. PMID:21070292

Capomaccio, S; Cappelli, K; Barrey, E; Felicetti, M; Silvestrelli, M; Verini-Supplizi, A

2010-12-01

24

Studies on Erythrocyte Destruction Due to Strenuous Muscular Exercise Which Causes 'Sport Anemia,' and Analysis of Causes of 'March Hematuria.'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is well known that a temporary anemia occurs frequently in the early period of training to the strenuous physical exercise. This anemia is named 'sports anemia'. Yamada clarified its cause as due to an increased fragility of the red blood cells. In oth...

K. Hirakawa H. Yoshimura

1968-01-01

25

The effect of strenuous exercise and ß-adrenergic blockade on the visual performance of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesised that the visual performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, will be impaired by strenuous exercise as a result of metabolic stress (blood lactacidosis) that activates the Root effect and limits the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood flowing to the eye. The ability to resolve high contrast objects on a moving background, as a measure of visual performance, was

N. A. Herbert; R. M. G. Wells

2002-01-01

26

Left ventricular systolic performance during prolonged strenuous exercise in female triathletes  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of prolonged strenuous exercise (PSE) on left ventricular (LV) systolic function has not been well studied in younger female triathletes. This study examined LV systolic function prior to, during and immediately following PSE (i.e., 40 km bicycle time trial followed by a 10 km run) in 13 younger (29 ± 6 years) female triathletes. Methods Two-dimensional echocardiographic images were obtained prior to, at 30-minute intervals during and immediately following PSE. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, end-diastolic and end-systolic cavity areas were measured at each time point. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic measures were also combined to obtain LV end-systolic wall stress and myocardial contractility (i.e., systolic blood pressure – end-systolic cavity area relation). Results Subjects exercised at an intensity equivalent to 90 ± 3% of maximal heart rate. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure – end-systolic cavity area relation and fractional area change increased while end-diastolic and end-systolic cavity areas decreased during exertion. Conclusions PSE is associated with enhanced LV systolic function secondary to an increase in myocardial contractility in younger female triathletes.

McGavock, Jonathan; Haykowsky, Mark; Warburton, Darren; Taylor, Dylan; Quinney, Arthur; Welsh, Robert

2003-01-01

27

Rectus sheath hematoma caused by non-contact strenuous exercise mimicking acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

A healthy 26-year-old man visited the Emergency Department due to right lower quadrant pain of 2 days' duration that developed after wakeboarding. There was no history of direct trauma to the abdomen. Physical examination revealed tenderness and rebound tenderness on the right lower quadrant area. There was no palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was undertaken to discern the causes of acute abdomen, including acute appendicitis. CT revealed a small-size rectus sheath hematoma beneath the lower end of the right rectus muscle. The patient was admitted for supportive care including pain control and was discharged with improvement after 5 days. Rectus sheath hematoma can be caused by not only a direct blow but also non-contact strenuous exercise, for example, wakeboarding in this case. Although the majority of rectus sheath hematomas are self-limiting, some can cause peritoneal irritation signs, mimicking acute abdomen, and eventually lead to unnecessary laparotomy without clinical suspicion and ancillary tests including CT scan and ultrasonography. PMID:18722739

Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Tae Han; Cha, Sung Jae; Kim, Seung Ho

2008-08-23

28

The effect of strenuous exercise and beta-adrenergic blockade on the visual performance of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

PubMed

It is hypothesised that the visual performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, will be impaired by strenuous exercise as a result of metabolic stress (blood lactacidosis) that activates the Root effect and limits the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood flowing to the eye. The ability to resolve high contrast objects on a moving background, as a measure of visual performance, was quantified pre- and post-exercise using the optomotor response. Strenuous exercise induced a metabolic acidosis (8.0 mmol l(-1) blood lactate) and a significant red cell swelling response but no change in the optomotor response threshold (120 min of arc) was observed. Beta-adrenergic blockade (propranolol) abolished post-exercise red cell swelling but optomotor response thresholds were still maintained at 120 min of arc despite a significant blood lactate load (7.8 mmol l(-1)). The choroid rete mirabile of the trout is extremely well developed (rete area:eye area = 0.39) and may maintain visual performance by ensuring a relatively direct supply of oxygen to the central regions of the avascular retina. Exercised fish under beta-adrenergic blockade exhibited an enhanced optomotor response at 240-300 min of arc. Assuming that these responses reflect "tunnel vision", adrenergic regulation of red cell function may preserve a high ocular PO(2) gradient that satisfies the oxygen demand of peripheral retinal cells. PMID:12444472

Herbert, N A; Wells, R M G

2002-10-16

29

Raised troponin T and echocardiographic abnormalities after prolonged strenuous exercise--the Australian Ironman Triathlon  

PubMed Central

Background There is concern about whether cardiac damage occurs as a result of prolonged strenuous exercise. Objective To investigate whether competing in a triathlon is associated with cardiac damage based on a sustained increase in cardiac troponin?T (cTnT), and whether such an increase correlates with echocardiographic changes Methods cTnT and echocardiographic measurements were made in 38 participants in the 2001 Australian ironman triathlon. cTnT was measured the day before, immediately after, and the day following the race. Echocardiography was done the day before, immediately after, and two to six weeks later for measurement of ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output, wall motion analysis, and global left ventricular function (LVF). Results No subject had detectable cTnT in the pre?race sample. Following the race, 32 subjects (86.5%) had detectable levels of cTnT (>0.01?ng/ml), with six (16.2%) having >0.10?ng/ml. The day after the race, nine subjects (23.7%) still had detectable cTnT, with two recording a level >0.10?ng/ml. Previously described echocardiographic changes of “cardiac fatigue” were observed in the whole cohort. There was a modest but significant correlation between change in ejection fraction and peak cTnT level (p?=?0.02, r?=?0.39). Athletes with a post?race cTnT >0.10?ng/ml had a greater decrease in global LVF (p?=?0.02) and a trend toward a greater fall in ejection fraction and stroke volume than athletes with cTnT levels <0.10?ng/ml. Cardiac output fell in the group with cTnT >0.10?ng/ml (p>0.05). Conclusions Participation in ironman triathlon often resulted in persistently raised cTnT levels, and the troponin rise was associated with echocardiographic evidence of abnormal left ventricular function. The clinical significance and long term sequelae of such damage remains to be determined.

Tulloh, L; Robinson, D; Patel, A; Ware, A; Prendergast, C; Sullivan, D; Pressley, L

2006-01-01

30

Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of acute moderate alcohol intake on muscular performance during recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Eleven healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed a beverage containing 1g/kg bodyweight ethanol (as vodka and orange juice) (ALC). On another occasion they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed an isocaloric quantity of orange juice (OJ). Measurement of maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced across the knee, plasma creatine kinase (CK) concentrations and muscle soreness were made before and at 36 and 60h following each exercise bout. All measures of muscle performance were significantly reduced at 36 and 60h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise measures (all p<0.05). The greatest decreases in peak strength were observed at 36h with losses of 12%, 28% and 19% occurring for OJ isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions, respectively. However, peak strength loss was significantly greater in ALC with the same performance measures decreasing by 34%, 40% and 34%, respectively. Post-exercise plasma creatine kinase activity and ratings of muscle soreness were not different between conditions (both p>0.05). These results indicate that consumption of even moderate amounts of alcohol following eccentric-based exercise magnifies the normally observed losses in dynamic and static strength. Therefore, to minimise exercise related losses in muscle function and expedite recovery, participants in sports involving eccentric muscle work should avoid alcohol-containing beverages in the post-event period. PMID:19230764

Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

2009-02-20

31

Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon.Methods: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. Samples were analysed for urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, creatine

J E Smith; G Garbutt; P Lopes; D Tunstall Pedoe

2004-01-01

32

Changes in serum leptin levels in strenuous exercise and its relation to zinc deficiency in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the possible changes in serum leptin concentration caused by acute exercise and the effects\\u000a of zinc deficiency on these changes. Forty male rats were divided into control-control, control-elercise, zinc-deficient-control,\\u000a and zinc-deficient-exercise groups (10 rats in each). Control-exercise and zinc-deficient-exercise groups performed exercisse\\u000a at 6 m\\/min speed on a rodent treadmill for 60 min or until

Hakki Gökbel; Abdülkerim Kasim Baltaci; Ka?an Üçok; Nilsel Okudan; Rasim Mo?ulkoç

2005-01-01

33

Increased plasma concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 after strenuous exercise associated with muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in leukocyte migration from the circulation and intervention\\u000a at sites of inflammation. We investigated the effects of various types of exercise on circulating levels of soluble ICAM-1\\u000a (sICAM-1) in normal healthy male adults. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 were measured before and after bicycle ergometer\\u000a exercise at intensity of 80% maximal oxygen

Takayuki Akimoto; Masahiro Furudate; Makoto Saitoh; Koichi Sugiura; Takahiro Waku; Takao Akama; Ichiro Kono

2002-01-01

34

Increased plasma concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 after strenuous exercise associated with muscle damage.  

PubMed

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in leukocyte migration from the circulation and intervention at sites of inflammation. We investigated the effects of various types of exercise on circulating levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) in normal healthy male adults. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 were measured before and after bicycle ergometer exercise at intensity of 80% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2mag) (16 min), 42 km endurance running and 30-min downhill running at intensity of ventilation threshold (VT). The plasma sICAM-1 level increased 1 day after the endurance running (12%) and downhill running (14%), but not after ergometer exercise. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations also increased 1 day after running. Our data suggest that exercise associated with muscle damage and/or inflammation results in increased levels of plasma sICAM-1. The physiological significance of post-exercise high plasma sICAM-1 levels is not clear at this stage, but changes in plasma sICAM-1 may reflect the status of the immune system. PMID:11990724

Akimoto, Takayuki; Furudate, Masahiro; Saitoh, Makoto; Sugiura, Koichi; Waku, Takahiro; Akama, Takao; Kono, Ichiro

2002-01-01

35

The influence of respiratory acid-base changes on muscle performance and excitability of the sarcolemma during strenuous intermittent hand grip exercise.  

PubMed

Acidification has been reported to provide protective effects on force production in vitro. Thus, in this study, we tested if respiratory acid-base changes influence muscle function and excitability in vivo. Nine subjects performed strenuous, intermittent hand grip exercises (10 cycles of 15 s of work/45 s of rest) under respiratory acidosis by CO(2) rebreathing, alkalosis by hyperventilation, or control. The Pco(2), pH, K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), and Na(+) concentration were measured in venous and arterialized blood. Compound action potentials (M-wave) were elicited to examine the excitability of the sarcolemma. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded to estimate the central drive to the muscle. The lowest venous pH during the exercise period was 7.24 ± 0.03 in controls, 7.31 ± 0.05 with alkalosis, and 7.17 ± 0.04 with acidosis (P < 0.001). The venous [K(+)] rose to similar maximum values in all conditions (6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/l). The acidification reduced the decline in contraction speed (P < 0.001) but decreased the M-wave area to 73.4 ± 19.8% (P < 0.001) of the initial value. After the first exercise cycle, the M-wave area was smaller with acidosis than with alkalosis, and, after the second cycle, it was smaller with acidosis than with the control condition (P < 0.001). The duration of the M-wave was not affected. Acidification diminished the reduction in performance, although the M-wave area during exercise was decreased. Respiratory alkalosis stabilized the M-wave area without influencing performance. Thus, we did not find a direct link between performance and alteration of excitability of the sarcolemma due to changes in pH in vivo. PMID:22162523

Hilbert, M; Shushakov, V; Maassen, N

2011-12-08

36

Differential responses of serum and salivary interleukin-6 to acute strenuous exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical exercise is associated with elevation of serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) because of its production in the muscles. The use of IL-6 measurements in saliva has been proposed in the field of immunopathology, mainly involving salivary gland disease. We evaluated the responses of serum and salivary IL-6 in two different groups of athletes submitted to different types of controlled

M. Minetto; A. Rainoldi; M. Gazzoni; M. Terzolo; P. Borrione; A. Termine; L. Saba; A. Dovio; A. Angeli; P. Paccotti

2005-01-01

37

Rectus sheath haematoma: a rare presentation of non-contact strenuous exercises  

PubMed Central

Rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) is a well?documented but uncommon clinical condition. It is usually a self?limiting condition but can present as a life?threatening emergency. RSH after non?contact vigorous exercise is unknown. Two such cases secondary to yoga and laughter therapy sessions, respectively, are reported. One of them required surgical intervention, whereas the other was successfully treated conservatively.

Sharma, Hemant; Shekhawat, Narayan Singh; Bhandari, Sudhir; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed Ashraf

2007-01-01

38

Effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on axial and peripheral bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill training exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed the effects of sodium bicarbonate supplement on bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill training. Sixty female\\u000a Wistar rats (93-days-old; mean initial weight 261 ± 16 g) were studied. One group of 15 rats was killed at the beginning of\\u000a the experiments (basal control group), while another group of 15 rats was not manipulated (Exer?NaB?). Another group of

Horaeio Rico; Enriqlieta Paez; Luis Aznar; Emma R. Hernández; Cristina Seco; Luis F. Villa; Juan J. Gervas

2001-01-01

39

Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon. Methods: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. Samples were analysed for urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, myoglobin, troponin I, full blood count, a clotting screen, and D-dimers. The results before and after exercise were compared. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all variables. Results: Significant increases were found in CK, CK-MB, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin following the marathon. However, there was no significant change in the level of troponin I. There was also evidence of activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades following the marathon, with a reduction in activated partial thromboplastin time, a reduction in fibrinogen, and an increase in D-dimers. Conclusions: The results confirm previous individual studies on marathon running and the biochemical and haematological tests routinely carried out in hospital. These are affected by prolonged exercise, and "abnormal" results in these tests may be normal after prolonged exercise and therefore not diagnostic of a disease process. The results of investigations in patients who have been exercising should be interpreted with caution.

Smith, J; Garbutt, G; Lopes, P; Pedoe, D

2004-01-01

40

Effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee beverages on oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in rats.  

PubMed

Many authors attribute the antioxidant activity of brewed coffee to its caffeine content. In addition, caffeine intake has been associated with increased performance during physical exercise. This study analyzed the in vivo effects of drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee (8%, w/v) on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats subjected to intense exercise. It was observed that exercise induced lipid peroxidation (estimated using malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (evaluated by determining the formation of carbonyl groups) in the muscle (P?exercise (P?exercise. PMID:22173821

Viana, André Luiz Machado; Fonseca, Miriam das Dores Mendes; Meireles, Elisson Lamin Jerônimo; Duarte, Stella Maris da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Paula, Fernanda Borges de Araujo

2012-03-01

41

Different effects of strenuous eccentric exercise on the accumulation of neutrophils in muscle in women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sex differences in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), torque, and accumulation\\u000a of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) neutrophils in eccentric-exercised muscle. A group of 10 female and 12 male subjects took part\\u000a in this study. The subjects completed a pre-test using the descriptor differential scale (DDS) to describe DOMS, and tests\\u000a of concentric and

Donna L. MacIntyre; W. Darlene Reid; Donald M. Lyster; Donald C. McKenzie

2000-01-01

42

Effects of Alprazolam Supplementation on Vertebral and Femoral Bone Mass in Rats on Strenuous Treadmill Training Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The ability of alprazolam to diminish cortisol response and favor ovarian function could make it useful in the prevention\\u000a of osteopenia in athletes in selected cases. A sample of 45 female Wistar rats, all 93 days old and with a mean initial weight\\u000a of 267 ± 17 g, were studied. Rats were exposed to a high-performance level of exercise

H Rico; J. J. Gervas; E. R. Hernández; C. Seco; L. F. Villa; M. Revilla; A. Sanchez-Atrio

1999-01-01

43

Twenty-four hour, ambulatory blood pressure responses following acute exercise: impact of exercise intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Mild to moderate acute, endurance exercise has generally been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive (HT) individuals. Whether a slightly more strenuous bout of exercise can elicit a greater and more prolonged BP reduction is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two, 30-min exercise bouts, conducted at 50% and 75%

TJ Quinn; Timothy J Quinn

2000-01-01

44

Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and Reduced Exercise Capacity  

PubMed Central

Rationale: The relationship between interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) and exercise capacity has not been comprehensively evaluated. Objectives: To assess the validity of the 6-minute walk test in subjects with ILA, and to examine the association between ILA and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Methods: Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the strength of the relationships between 6MWD and relevant measures of dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and pulmonary function in a cohort of 2,416 people who smoke from the COPDGene study. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the strength of the association between ILA and 6MWD. Measurements and Main Results: In all subjects, and in those with ILA, 6MWD in COPDGene was associated with relevant clinical and physiologic measures. The mean 6MWD in COPDGene subjects with ILA was 386 m (SD, 128 m), and 82% and 19% of subjects with ILA had 6MWDs less than or equal to 500 and 250 m, respectively. ILA was associated with a reduced 6MWD in univariate (?30 m; 95% confidence interval, ?50 to ?10; P = 0.004) and multivariate models (?19 m; 95% confidence interval, ?33 to ?5; P = 0.008). Compared with subjects without ILA, subjects with ILA had an 80% and 77% increase in their odds to have a walk distance limited to less than or equal to 500 and 250 m, respectively. Although these findings were dependent on ILA subtype, they were not limited to those with COPD. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that ILA is associated with measurable decrements in the 6MWD of people who smoke. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00608764).

Doyle, Tracy J.; Washko, George R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Divo, Miguel J.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O.

2012-01-01

45

Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the exercise group when compared to the non-exercise group. In conclusion, Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women. Key points Pilates-based exercises improve dynamic balance, reaction time and muscle strength in the elderly. Pilates exercise may reduce the number of falls in elderly women by increasing these fitness parameters.

Irez, Gonul Babayigit; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Evin, Ruya; Irez, Salih Gokhan; Korkusuz, Feza

2011-01-01

46

Aerobic exercise and chocolate as means for reducing learned helplessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the effects of 10 min of aerobic exercise, a chocolate snack, or guided imagery as a means of reducing the learned helplessness effects due to the experience of an unsolvable task. It was hypothesized that exposure to unsolvable tasks would lead to a higher level of anxiety, engagement in more task-irrelevant cognitions, and a poorer performance on

Matisyohu Weisenberg; Yael Gerby; Mario Mikulincer

1993-01-01

47

Effect of High Intensity Exercise Training on Central Hemodynamic Responses to Exercise in Men With Reduced Left Ventricular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high intensity exercise training on left ventricular function and hemodynamic responses to exercise in patients with reduced ventricular function.Background. Results of studies on central hemodynamic adaptations to exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure have been contradictory, and some research has suggested that training causes further myocardial

Paul Dubach; Jonathan Myers; Gerald Dziekan; Ute Goebbels; Walter Reinhart; Peter Muller; Peter Buser; Peter Stulz; Paul Vogt; Reto Ratti

1997-01-01

48

Reduced sweating threshold during exercise-induced hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods have been proposed previously for evaluating thermoregulatory responses to isolated core temperature perturbations. One involves clamping skin temperature at 28°C by water immersion and elevating core temperature by exercise. In the other, core temperature is reduced by central venous infusion of cold fluid while skin temperature is kept constant near 36°C. The sweating-to-shivering temperature range determined using the

Michael Lopez; Daniel I. Sessler; Kristin Walter; Thomas Emerick; Anitha Ayyalapu

1995-01-01

49

Diaphragmatic breathing reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1?h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals. PMID:19875429

Martarelli, Daniele; Cocchioni, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Pompei, Pierluigi

2011-02-10

50

Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1?h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

Martarelli, Daniele; Cocchioni, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Pompei, Pierluigi

2011-01-01

51

Exercise-training reduces BAT thermogenesis in rats.  

PubMed

In the energy balance equation, physical activity represents one component of energy expenditure. From various studies it appears that exercise-training does not affect clearly thermogenesis which depends on brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. In the present work we examine how exercise-training can influence food intake and body weight regulation in relation to BAT thermogenesis. The proton conductance of the uncoupling protein of BAT was examined in male adult Wistar trained 2 h/day for 20 days and compared to that of sedentary (2 h of fasting instead of exercise) or control animals. All animals were provided with separate sources of the 3 macronutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrate) containing an identical percentage of vitamins, salt mixture and cellulose powder. At the end of training, rats were placed at 5 degrees C during 10 days, then during 4 days at 28 degrees C. This condition has been demonstrated to favour and amplify BAT responsiveness to moderate modifications of stimulation. The body weight of trained rats became significantly lower than that of the control and sedentary rats and this difference persisted all throughout the experiment. When placed at 5 degrees C, all rats increased their total ingestion: control rats enhanced fat intake, while sedentary and trained rats enhanced carbohydrate ingestion. When placed at 28 degrees C, all rats had identical total energy and that of the 3 items intakes. BAT proton conductance was about 40% lower in the trained compared with the sedentary plus the control rats. This indicated a lower BAT thermogenic activity in the trained animals. It could be concluded that exercise-training in rats induces negative energy balance; the reduced BAT activity could restrain weight loss and overeating. PMID:7610127

Larue-Achagiotis, C; Rieth, N; Goubern, M; Laury, M C; Louis-Sylvestre, J

1995-05-01

52

Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... part of any spondylitis program, along with good posture habits and medication to reduce pain and stiffness. ... spondylitis exercise program will help you maintain good posture, flexibility and eventually help to lessen pain. In ...

53

Clenbuterol reduces degeneration of exercised or aged dystrophic (mdx) muscle.  

PubMed

Evidence of dystrophic muscle degeneration in the hind limb muscles of young (20-week-old) treadmill-exercised or aged (87-week-old) sedentary mdx mice was greatly reduced by treatment with clenbuterol, a beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist. Daily treadmill exercise for 10 weeks increased the size of regions within the mdx plantaris but not the soleus or gastrocnemius muscles, in which necrotic muscle fibers or the absence of fibers was observed. Clenbuterol reduced the size of these abnormal regions from 21% of total muscle cross-sectional area to levels (4%) found in sedentary mdx mice. In addition, the muscles obtained from aged clenbuterol-treated mdx or wild-type mice did not display the extensive fibrosis or fiber loss observed in untreated mdx mice. These observations are consistent with a mechanism of dystrophic muscle degeneration caused by work load-induced injury that is cumulative with aging and is opposed by beta(2)-adrenoceptor activation. Optimization of beta(2)-agonist treatment of muscular dystrophy in mdx mice may lead to a useful therapeutic modality for human forms of the disease. PMID:10716762

Zeman, R J; Peng, H; Danon, M J; Etlinger, J D

2000-04-01

54

Abnormal cardiac enzyme responses after strenuous exercise: alternative diagnostic aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial estimations of activities of creatine kinase and its MB isoenzyme, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase and of concentrations of alpha1-acid glycoprotein were performed in 15 healthy well-trained male marathon runners. Estimations were made initially within three days before a race and then one, 24, and 96 hours after the race. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy was carried out

E M Ohman; K K Teo; A H Johnson; P B Collins; D G Dowsett; J T Ennis; J H Horgan

1982-01-01

55

Plasma antioxidant status and cell injury after severe physical exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strenuous exercise leads to an increase in metabolic rate, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and compromised antioxidant defense systems. To study the effects of oxidative stress during strenuous exercise, a homogeneous group of 31 male subjects participated in a 6-month, 5 days\\/week training schedule involving two extreme marches of 50 km and 80 km at sea level, separated by

Shlomit Chevion; Danny S. Moran; Yuval Heled; Yoav Shani; Gilad Regev; Benny Abbou; Eduard Berenshtein; Earl R. Stadtman; Yoram Epstein

2003-01-01

56

Exercise and diabetes.  

PubMed

Diet and exercise form the foundation of a healthy lifestyle. These are especially important for people living with diabetes mellitus, as they are the most practical non-pharmacological means by which patients may significantly improve their blood glucose levels. Exercise increases insulin sensitivity (both short and long term), lowers blood sugar levels, reduces body fat and improves cardiovascular (CV) function. Because of this, exercise offers enormous benefit to patients with diabetes. Blood glucose levels can significantly drop during and after physical activities, due to the increased utilisation of glucose as a fuel during exercise and the up-regulation of glucose transport into working muscles. Therefore, patients (especially those with type 1 diabetes) must account for the effects of exercise and adjust their medications and nutrition accordingly. Improvements in real-time continuous glucose monitoring and optimisation of basal insulin dosing may offer significant benefit to preventing hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes who regularly exercise. Diverse exercise programmes and devices can also assist patients in monitoring their activities as well as motivating them to achieve their exercise goals. For patients with type 1 diabetes, questions such as how much, how long, how strenuous and what kind of exercise must be addressed in order for healthcare professionals to offer maximum benefit to their patients. Additionally, since patients with type 2 diabetes often have other significant co-morbidities such as obesity and CV disease, care providers must evaluate each patient's risk factors before designing an exercise programme. Several publications in the last year have addressed these issues and may serve as a valuable resource to provide safe and effective recommendations to patients and their healthcare providers. To be included in the Exercise and Diabetes chapter for the 2010 YEARBOOK, we reviewed leading peer-reviewed manuscripts that were published in the period July 2009 to June 2010. PubMed was used in the initial screening of articles. PMID:21323815

Zisser, H; Gong, P; Kelley, C M; Seidman, J S; Riddell, M C

2011-02-01

57

Exhausting handgrip exercise reduces the blood flow in the active calf muscle exercising at low intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calf and forearm blood flows (Q\\u000acalf and Q\\u000aforearm respectively), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen uptake of six men and women were studied during combined leg and handgrip exercise to determine whether a reduction of exercise-induced hyperaemia would occur in the active leg when exhausting rhythmic handgrip exercise at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was superimposed upon

Atsuko Kagaya; Mitsuru Saito; Futoshi Ogita; Minoru Shinohara

1994-01-01

58

The Efficacy of Exercise in Reducing Depressive Symptoms among Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of exercise to reduce depressive symptoms among cancer survivors. In addition, we examined the extent to which exercise dose and clinical characteristics of cancer survivors influence the relationship between exercise and reductions in depressive symptoms. Methods We conducted a systematic search identifying randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions among adult cancer survivors, examining depressive symptoms as an outcome. We calculated effect sizes for each study and performed weighted multiple regression moderator analysis. Results We identified 40 exercise interventions including 2,929 cancer survivors. Diverse groups of cancer survivors were examined in seven exercise interventions; breast cancer survivors were examined in 26; prostate cancer, leukemia, and lymphoma were examined in two; and colorectal cancer in one. Cancer survivors who completed an exercise intervention reduced depression more than controls, d+?=??0.13 (95% CI: ?0.26, ?0.01). Increases in weekly volume of aerobic exercise reduced depressive symptoms in dose-response fashion (??=??0.24, p?=?0.03), a pattern evident only in higher quality trials. Exercise reduced depressive symptoms most when exercise sessions were supervised (??=??0.26, p?=?0.01) and when cancer survivors were between 47–62 yr (??=?0.27, p?=?0.01). Conclusion Exercise training provides a small overall reduction in depressive symptoms among cancer survivors but one that increased in dose-response fashion with weekly volume of aerobic exercise in high quality trials. Depressive symptoms were reduced to the greatest degree among breast cancer survivors, among cancer survivors aged between 47–62 yr, or when exercise sessions were supervised.

Brown, Justin C.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Pescatello, Linda S.; Ryan, Stacey M.; Pescatello, Shannon M.; Moker, Emily; LaCroix, Jessica M.; Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Johnson, Blair T.

2012-01-01

59

The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

2012-01-01

60

The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

2012-01-01

61

Reduced-Calorie Dietary Weight Loss, Exercise, and Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women: Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose Estrogens and androgens are elevated in obesity and associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but the effect of weight loss on these biomarkers is unknown. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of a reduced-calorie weight loss diet and exercise on serum sex hormones in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods We conducted a single-blind, 12-month, randomized controlled trial from 2005 to 2009. Participants (age 50 to 75 years; body mass index > 25.0 kg/m2, exercising < 100 minutes/wk) were randomly assigned using a computer-generated sequence to (1) reduced-calorie weight loss diet (“diet”; n = 118), (2) moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (“exercise”; n = 117), (3) combined reduced-calorie weight loss diet and moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (“diet + exercise”; n = 117), or (4) control (n = 87). Outcomes were estrone concentration (primary) and estradiol, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (secondary). Results Mean age and body mass index were 58 years and 30.9 kg/m2, respectively. Compared with controls, estrone decreased 9.6% (P = .001) with diet, 5.5% (P = .01) with exercise, and 11.1% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Estradiol decreased 16.2% (P < .001) with diet, 4.9% (P = .10) with exercise, and 20.3% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. SHBG increased 22.4% (P < .001) with diet and 25.8% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free estradiol decreased 21.4% (P < .001) with diet and 26.0% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free testosterone decreased 10.0% (P < .001) with diet and 15.6% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Greater weight loss produced stronger effects on estrogens and SHBG. Conclusion Weight loss significantly lowered serum estrogens and free testosterone, supporting weight loss for risk reduction through lowering exposure to breast cancer biomarkers.

Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Wang, Chia-Chi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine R.; Mason, Caitlin; Imayama, Ikuyo; Kong, Angela; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E.; Blackburn, George L.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; McTiernan, Anne

2012-01-01

62

Prolonged exercise decreases serum leptin concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum leptin and free fatty acid concentrations were determined in two groups of subjects undergoing strenuous exercise: 12 men who fasted overnight and then pedaled a stationary ergometer for 2 hours, and 14 nonfasting ultramarathon runners. Blood samples were collected before exercise, immediately after cessation of exercise, and 6 to 24 hours after the end of the exercise period. Two

Michael Landt; George M. Lawson; Jane M. Helgeson; Victor G. Davila-Roman; Jack H. Ladenson; Allan S. Jaffe; Robert C. Hickner

1997-01-01

63

Physiology: Exercise and reduced muscle mass in starlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscles are often viewed as force- producing structures that increase or decrease in size according to their activity. But an increased muscle mass, although desirable for extra power, may also impose unwanted costs. Here we show that flight-muscle mass in starlings induced to perform more take-off flights actually decreases as a result of exercise. Our findings indicate that birds can

John P. Swaddle; Andrew A. Biewener

2000-01-01

64

Hyperbaric hyperoxia reduces exercising forearm blood flow in humans  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia during exercise augments blood flow in active muscles to maintain the delivery of O2 at normoxic levels. However, the impact of hyperoxia on skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise is not completely understood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the hyperemic response to forearm exercise during hyperbaric hyperoxia would be blunted compared with exercise during normoxia. Seven subjects (6 men/1 woman; 25 ± 1 yr) performed forearm exercise (20% of maximum) under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Forearm blood flow (FBF; in ml/min) was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1) was calculated from FBF and blood pressure (in mmHg; brachial arterial catheter). Studies were performed in a hyperbaric chamber with the subjects supine at 1 atmospheres absolute (ATA) (sea level) while breathing normoxic gas [21% O2, 1 ATA; inspired Po2 (PiO2) ? 150 mmHg] and at 2.82 ATA while breathing hyperbaric normoxic (7.4% O2, 2.82 ATA, PiO2 ? 150 mmHg) and hyperoxic (100% O2, 2.82 ATA, PiO2 ? 2,100 mmHg) gas. Resting FBF and FVC were less during hyperbaric hyperoxia compared with hyperbaric normoxia (P < 0.05). The change in FBF and FVC (? from rest) during exercise under normoxia (204 ± 29 ml/min and 229 ± 37 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1, respectively) and hyperbaric normoxia (203 ± 28 ml/min and 217 ± 35 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1, respectively) did not differ (P = 0.66–0.99). However, the ?FBF (166 ± 21 ml/min) and ?FVC (163 ± 23 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1) during hyperbaric hyperoxia were substantially attenuated compared with other conditions (P < 0.01). Our data suggest that exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle is highly dependent on oxygen availability during hyperoxia.

Joyner, Michael J.; Claus, Paul L.; Curry, Timothy B.

2011-01-01

65

Nitroglycerin reduces myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise despite vascular tolerance.  

PubMed

The long-term benefits of nitroglycerin (NTG) therapy are limited by the development of vascular tolerance and endothelial dysfunction in conductance coronary arteries. We have determined whether nitrate tolerance extends to NTG effects on myocardial O2 consumption (MV(O2)) and the ability of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) to modulate MV(O2) during exercise. In chronically instrumented dogs (n = 8), hemodynamic and MV(O2) responses to treadmill exercise were measured before, during tolerance (3 and 7 days of NTG delivery), and 7 days after NTG withdrawal. Acute NTG delivery caused a parallel downward shift of the MV(O2)-triple product (TP) relations and reversed the disproportionate increases in MV(O2) caused by the blockade of NO formation. After 7 days of continuous transdermal NTG delivery, vascular tolerance was displayed as a >75% reduction of coronary blood flow (CBF) responses to NTG boluses. Despite vascular nitrate tolerance, MV(O2)-TP relations were shifted downward compared with pre-NTG exercise. Seven days after NTG withdrawal, vascular responses to boluses of NTG had recovered from tolerance, and MV(O2)-TP relations during exercise were back to pre-NTG level. At that time, blockade of NO formation failed to alter MV(O2)-TP relations. Thus NTG caused a sustained reduction of cardiac MV(O2), independent of metabolic demand during exercise, despite tolerance of the coronary microcirculation. NTG-induced vascular tolerance and MV(O2) reductions were reversible by NTG withdrawal, but endogenous NO-dependent modulation of O2 consumption was severely impaired. PMID:16272202

Parent, Robert; Leblanc, Normand; Lavallée, Michel

2005-11-04

66

Diastolic Function Is Reduced in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes in Response to Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine whether adolescents with type 1 diabetes have left ventricular functional changes at rest and during acute exercise and whether these changes are affected by metabolic control and diabetes duration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study evaluated 53 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 22 control adolescents. Baseline data included peak exercise capacity and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Left ventricular functional parameters were obtained at rest and during acute exercise using magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS Compared with nondiabetic control subjects, adolescents with type 1 diabetes had lower exercise capacity (44.7 ± 09 vs. 48.5 ± 1.4 mL/kg fat-free mass [FFM]/min; P < 0.05). Stroke volume was reduced in the diabetes group at rest (1.86 ± 0.04 vs. 2.05 ± 0.07 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.02) and during acute exercise (1.89 ± 0.04 vs. 2.17 ± 0.06 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01). Diabetic adolescents also had reduced end-diastolic volume at rest (2.94 ± 0.06 vs. 3.26 ± 0.09 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01) and during acute exercise (2.78 ± 0.05 vs. 3.09 ± 0.08 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01). End-systolic volume was lower in the diabetic group at rest (1.08 ± 0.03 vs. 1.21 ± 0.04 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01) but not during acute exercise. Exercise capacity and resting and exercise stroke volumes were correlated with glycemic control but not with diabetes duration. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents with type 1 diabetes have reduced exercise capacity and display alterations in cardiac function compared with nondiabetic control subjects, associated with reduced stroke volume during exercise.

Gusso, Silmara; Pinto, Teresa E.; Baldi, James C.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Hofman, Paul L.

2012-01-01

67

Prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among strenuously trained adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThere is a lack of awareness among physicians, dieticians, and public health planners as to the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among adolescents undergoing strenuous physical training. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among male adolescents undergoing such activity.

Drorit Merkel; Michael Huerta; Itamar Grotto; Dalit Blum; Orna Tal; Eliezer Rachmilewitz; Eitan Fibach; Yoram Epstein; Ofer Shpilberg

2005-01-01

68

Exercise ameliorates cognition impairment due to restraint stress-induced oxidative insult and reduced BDNF level.  

PubMed

We assessed whether chronic treadmill exercise attenuated restraint stress-induced cognition impairment. Although serum corticosterone was not significantly altered by exercise, the restraint-induced increases in hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) were reduced by chronic exercise. The exercise paradigm also reversed stress-induced reductions in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which increased cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and AKT activation. We verified the relationship between oxidative stress and BDNF signaling by treating primary hippocampal cultures with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which reduced BDNF and phosphorylated CREB and AKT (p-CREB, p-AKT) in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed these decreases in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that chronic exercise can ameliorate repeated stress-induced cognitive impairment by detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hippocampus and activating BDNF signaling. PMID:23535373

Kwon, Dong-Ho; Kim, Bum-Soo; Chang, Hyukki; Kim, Young-In; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Leem, Yea-Hyun

2013-03-25

69

Biomechanical analyses of paramedics simulating frequently performed strenuous work tasks.  

PubMed

Firefighters performing emergency rescue functions are at an elevated risk of musculoskeletal injuries. The objective of the current study was to analyze the biomechanical stresses placed on the body based on simulations of the following strenuous and frequently performed emergency rescue tasks: (1) transferring a patient from a bed to a stretcher using bedsheets, (2) transferring a patient from the ambulance stretcher to a hospital gurney, (3) carrying a victim down a set of stairs and through a landing using a stairchair, (4) carrying a victim down a set of stairs and through a landing using a backboard, and (5) carrying a victim down a straight set of stairs using a stretcher. Postural data were analyzed using the University of Michigan's Three-Dimensional Static Strength Prediction Program and the relative risk of low back disorder (LBD) was quantified using the trunk motion model published by Marras et al. (1993, spine 18, 617-628). Peak compression values and the probabilities from the Marras et al. (1993) model indicated that the most hazardous tasks performed as part of this simulation included pulling a victim from a bed to a stretcher, the initial descent of a set of stairs when using the stretcher, and lifting a victim on a backboard from the floor. Overall, the two models were well correlated in their assessment of the task components modelled (r = 0.78). These data indicate where engineering changes to equipment regularly used by emergency rescue personnel would have the greatest impact in reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injury. PMID:10711979

Lavender, S A; Conrad, K M; Reichelt, P A; Johnson, P W; Meyer, F T

2000-04-01

70

Exercise training enhances rat pancreatic islets anaplerotic enzymes content despite reduced insulin secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endurance exercise has been shown to reduce pancreatic islets glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Anaplerotic\\/cataplerotic\\u000a pathways are directly related to GSIS signaling. However, the effect of endurance training upon pancreatic islets anaplerotic\\u000a enzymes is still unknown. In this sense, we tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise decreases GSIS by reducing anaplerotic\\/cataplerotic\\u000a enzymes content. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one

Claudio C. ZoppiVivian; Vivian C. Calegari; Leonardo R. Silveira; Everardo M. Carneiro; Antonio C. Boschero

71

Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... Hip Knee Ankle Foot, Heel, & Toe View All Exercise Videos From yoga to strength training, get step- ... to your inbox. Sign up now. Read More Exercise Overview Exercise is an essential part of treatment ...

72

Exercise-induced endotoxemia: the effect of ascorbic acid supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strenuous, long-duration aerobic exercise results in endotoxemia due to increased plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leading to cytokine release, oxidative stress, and altered gastrointestinal function. However, the effect of short-term strenuous aerobic exercise either with or without antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced endotoxemia is unknown. A significant increase in the concentration of bacterial LPS (endotoxin) was noted in the venous circulation

Tony Ashton; Ian S Young; Gareth W Davison; Christopher C Rowlands; Jane McEneny; Catherine Van Blerk; Eleri Jones; John R Peters; Simon K Jackson

2003-01-01

73

Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery 25% and decreased 11+/-4 mmHg (P<0.001) together with OCI (6.2+/-0.7 to 4.8+/-0.5, P<0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8+/-4 mmHg (P<0.05) and OCI to 3.8+/-0.5 (P<0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor. PMID:20403976

Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C

2010-04-19

74

Gene deletion of P2Y4 receptor lowers exercise capacity and reduces myocardial hypertrophy with swimming exercise.  

PubMed

Nucleotides released within the heart under pathological conditions can be involved in cardioprotection or cardiac fibrosis through the activation purinergic P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors, respectively. We previously demonstrated that adult P2Y(4)-null mice display a microcardia phenotype related to a cardiac angiogenic defect. To evaluate the functional consequences of this defect, we performed here a combination of cardiac monitoring and exercise tests. We investigated the exercise capacity of P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null mice in forced swimming and running tests. Analysis of their stress, locomotion, and resignation was realized in open field, black and white box, and tail suspension experiments. Exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated after repeated and prolonged exercise in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null hearts. We showed that P2Y(4)-null mice have a lower exercise capacity in both swimming and treadmill tests. This was not related to decreased motivation or increased stress, since open field, white and black box, and mouse tail suspension tests gave comparable results in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null mice. Heart rate and blood pressure rose normally in P2Y(4)-null swimming mice equipped with a telemetric implant. On the contrary, we observed a delayed recovery of postexercise blood pressure after exercise in P2Y(4)-null mice. The heart rate increment in response to catecholamines was also similar in P2Y(4) wild-type and P2Y(4)-null implanted mice, which is consistent with a similar level of cardiac ?-receptor expression. Interestingly, the heart of P2Y(4)-null mice displayed a reduced sympathetic innervation associated with a decreased norepinephrine level. We also demonstrated that exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was lower in P2Y(4)-null mice after repeated and prolonged exercise. This was associated with a lower increase in cardiomyocyte size and microvessel density. In conclusion, besides its role in cardiac development, P2Y(4) receptor could constitute an important regulator of acute and chronic response to exercise. PMID:22865387

Horckmans, Michael; Léon-Gómez, Elvira; Robaye, Bernard; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Dessy, Chantal; Communi, Didier

2012-08-03

75

The effect of selenium supplementation on elements distribution in liver of rats subject to strenuous swimming.  

PubMed

The present study aims to explore how selenium supplementation affects the element distribution in the liver tissue of rats subjected to strenuous swimming exercise. Thirty-two Spraque-Dawley male rats were equally divided into the four groups: Group 1, normal control group. Group 2, selenium-supplemented, non-swimming (0.6 mg/kg/day sodium selenite) group. Group 3, swimming, no supplementation group. Group 4, swimming, selenium-supplemented (0.6 mg/kg/day sodium selenite) group. After one month, the animals were decapitated and liver tissue samples were collected to determine the levels of lead, cobalt, boron, molybdenum, chromium, sulfur, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, iron, zinc and selenium. The chromium, molybdenum, iron, sodium and potassium values were higher in the swimming groups, relative to controls. Group 3 had significantly lower lead levels (p<0.001). The highest cobalt levels were obtained in the Group 1 and that of the Group 2 was higher than in the Groups 3 and 4. The boron values in the Group 3 were higher than those in all other groups. The copper and magnesium levels were higher in the Groups 3 and 4, compared to the Groups 1 and 2. The highest phosphorus levels were found in the Group 1. The highest selenium and zinc values were obtained in the Group 2 and those of the Group 4 were higher than in the Groups 1 and 3. Group 1 had higher selenium and zinc levels than the Group 3. The results of the present study demonstrated that selenium-supplemented rats subjected to strenuous swimming exercise had distinct elements distribution in liver tissue. Also, selenium supplementation offsets the decrease in zinc levels in rats subjected to vigorous swimming (Tab. 3, Ref. 20). PMID:23253021

Sivrikaya, A; Akil, M; Bicer, M; Kilic, M; Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R

2013-01-01

76

Haemodynamic changes induced by submaximal exercise before a dive and its consequences on bubble formation  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effects of a submaximal exercise performed 2?h before a simulated dive on bubble formation and to observe the haemodynamic changes and their influence on bubble formation. Participants and methods 16 trained divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 400?kPa for 30?min and decompressed at a rate of 100?kPa/min with a 9?min stop at 130?kPa (French Navy MN90 procedure). Each diver performed two dives 3?days apart, one without exercise and one with exercise before the dive. All participants performed a 40?min constant?load submaximal and calibrated exercise, which consisted of outdoor running 2?h before the dive. Circulating bubbles were detected with a precordial Doppler at 30, 60 and 90?min after surfacing. Haemodynamic changes were evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Results A single bout of strenuous exercise 2?h before a simulated dive significantly reduced circulating bubbles. Post?exercise hypotension (PEH) was observed after exercise with reductions in diastolic and mean blood pressure (DBP and MBP), but total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Stroke volume was reduced, whereas cardiac output was unchanged. Simulated diving caused a similar reduction in cardiac output independent of pre?dive exercise, suggesting that pre?dive exercise only changed DBP and MBP caused by reduced stroke volume. Conclusion A single bout of strenuous exercise 2?h before a dive significantly reduced the number of bubbles in the right heart of divers and protected them from decompression sickness. Declining stroke volume and moderate dehydration induced by a pre?dive exercise might influence inert gas load and bubble formation.

Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Boussuges, Alain; Gempp, Emmanuel; Pontier, Jean-Michel; Castagna, Olivier; Robinet, Claude; Galland, Francois-Michel; Bourdon, Lionel

2007-01-01

77

Does Exercise Reduce Cancer-Related Fatigue in Hospitalised Oncology Patients? A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe primary aim was to find out if exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue in hospitalised oncology patients. Controlled trials of fatigue outcomes after exercise in hospitalised oncology patients were obtained by searching electronic databases. Two reviewers completed data extraction and quality assessment independently. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined and a meta-analysis completed. Five relevant trials evaluated

Meaghan Arnold; Nicholas F. Taylor

2010-01-01

78

The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand\\/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between\\u000a two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed\\u000a two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each\\u000a bout was separated by a 15-min recovery

David Barr; Thomas Reilly; Warren Gregson

2011-01-01

79

Exercise Without Weight Loss Does Not Reduce C-Reactive Protein: The INFLAME Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Numerous cross-sectional studies have observed an inverse association between CRP and physical activity. Exercise-training trials have produced conflicting results, but none of these studies were specifically designed to examine CRP. The objective of the Inflammation and Exercise study (INFLAME) was to examine whether aerobic exercise training without dietary intervention can reduce CRP in individuals with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods The study was a randomized, controlled trial of 162 sedentary men and women with elevated CRP (?2.0 mg/L). Participants were randomized into a non-exercise control group or an exercise group that trained for 4 months. The primary outcome was change in CRP. Results The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 49.7 (10.9) years and a mean body mass index of 31.8 (4.0) kg/m2. The median (IQR) and mean baseline CRP levels were 4.1 (2.5, 6.1) and 4.8 (3.4) mg/L, respectively. In the exercise group, median exercise compliance was 99.9%. There were no differences in median (IQR) change in CRP between the control and exercise groups (0.0 [?0.5, 0.9] versus 0.0 [?0.8, 0.7] mg/L, p=0.4). The mean (95% CI) change in CRP adjusted for gender and baseline weight was similar in the control and exercise groups with no significant difference between groups (0.5 [?0.4, 1.3] versus 0.4 [?0.5, 1.2] mg/L, p=0.9). Change in weight was correlated with change in CRP. Conclusions Exercise training without weight loss is not associated with a reduction in CRP.

Church, Timothy S.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Thompson, Angela M.; Priest, Elisa; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Sanders, Travis; Ross, Robert; Blair, Steven N.

2010-01-01

80

Low-Intensity Exercise Reduces the Prevalence of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANDERS, R. J. F., J. W. M. VAN DIJK, and L. J. C. VAN LOON. Low-Intensity Exercise Reduces the Prevalence of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 219-225, 2010. Introduction: Glycemic instability is a severely underestimated problem in type 2 diabetes treatment. Therapeutic targets should aim to reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions.

RALPH J. F. MANDERS; JAN-WILLEM M. VAN DIJK; LUC J. C. VAN LOON

2010-01-01

81

Swainson’s thrushes in migratory disposition exhibit reduced immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that the immune system, which protects an organism from parasitic and pathogenic infections, is frequently\\u000a suppressed when animals are engaged in activities involving strenuous exercise. We tested the hypothesis that birds reduce\\u000a immune function during the migratory period in preparation for the anticipated heightened energetic demands of long flights.\\u000a Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus), captured in fall, were held

Jennifer C. Owen; Frank R. Moore

2008-01-01

82

[Metabolic states at athletes in the strenuous muscular activity of variable character].  

PubMed

Investigated dynamics of metabolic conditions at athletes in strenuous muscular activity of variable character. The sportsmen of high qualification specializing in bicycle and skating sports, performed in vitro work on a bicycle ergometer at level of critical power at the maximum consumption of oxygen. In two additional series of experiences each of examinees has performed work on critical power by the initial accelerations making 28% from limiting duration of exercise of 45 and 108 seconds. At work on critical power on a course of performance of exercise consecutive change of metabolic conditions with a phase initial a log-period, fast exponential increase to level of the critical power, the subsequent maintenance of critical power and final dissociation of functions of an aerobic metabolism at increase of local exhaustion was traced. It is established that the most effective concerning work maintenance at level of critical power are short-term (no more than 10 s) initial accelerations on the power corresponding to 45-second limiting exercises: these accelerations stimulate development of functions of an aerobic metabolism and don't lead to exhaustion anaerobic resources and to development of the expressed local exhaustion in the end of work. PMID:23101368

Volkov, N I; Tambovtseva, R V; Iurikov, R V

83

Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium) may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF). Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last minute of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible) and 13 did not (R, resistant). The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-week exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running; S n?=?9; R n?=?8) or 10-week sedentary (S n?=?14; R n?=?5) groups. At the end of the 10-week period, the exercise?+?ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P?exercise trained resistant and susceptible animals. Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise training can restore a more normal NCX1 level in dogs susceptible to VF, improving cystolic calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction.

Kukielka, Monica; Holycross, Bethany J.; Billman, George E.

2010-01-01

84

Late exercise reduces neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Delayed secondary biochemical and cellular changes after traumatic brain injury continue for months to years, and are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Physical activity can reduce inflammation and facilitate recovery after brain injury. Here, we investigated the time-dependent effects, and underlying mechanisms of post-traumatic exercise initiation on outcome after moderate traumatic brain injury using a well-characterized mouse controlled cortical impact model. Late exercise initiation beginning at 5weeks after trauma, but not early initiation of exercise at 1week, significantly reduced working and retention memory impairment at 3months, and decreased lesion volume compared to non-exercise injury controls. Cognitive recovery was associated with attenuation of classical inflammatory pathways, activation of alternative inflammatory responses and enhancement of neurogenesis. In contrast, early initiation of exercise failed to alter behavioral recovery or lesion size, while increasing the neurotoxic pro-inflammatory responses. These data underscore the critical importance of timing of exercise initiation after trauma and its relation to neuroinflammation, and challenge the widely held view that effective neuroprotection requires early intervention. PMID:23313314

Piao, Chun-Shu; Stoica, Bogdan A; Wu, Junfang; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Zhao, Zaorui; Cabatbat, Rainier; Loane, David J; Faden, Alan I

2013-01-08

85

Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity

Daniele Martarelli; Mario Cocchioni; Stefania Scuri; Pierluigi Pompei

2009-01-01

86

Exercise Reduces Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Obesity-Related Liver Diseases.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: Weight reduction remains the most common therapy advocated for the treatment of obesity-related liver diseases. Recently, a beneficial effect of exercise regimens for liver dysfunction, independent of weight reduction, has been reported. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was conducted to determine whether exercise training without dietary restriction in obese, middle-aged men influences the pathophysiology of abnormal liver function. METHODS: A total of 108 subjects who completed a 12-week exercise training program without any dietary restriction were analyzed in this study; these results were compared to those of 104 subjects who completed a 12-week dietary restriction program. Furthermore, 42 of these subjects (from both groups) who had abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis by NAFLD fibrosis score were analyzed to obtain a more concrete outcome for exercise-training effects. RESULTS: In exercise training, although the magnitude of body-weight reduction (-?3.1% vs. -8.5%), waist circumference (-?4.0% vs. -7.1%), and visceral adipose tissue area (-?12.2% vs. -22.5%) was significantly more modest than that achieved by dietary restriction, exercise training elicited equivalent reductions in serum ALT and ?GT levels (-?20.6% vs. -16.1% and -?25.7% vs. -34.0%), and equivalent improvement of insulin resistance (-?29.7% vs. -26.9%). Moreover, exercise training remarkably increased the serum adiponectin level (+?33.4% vs. +?15.1%). Importantly, for subjects with abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis, exercise training was effective in reducing the serum levels of inflammation and oxidative stress markers; ferritin and TABRS (-?25.0% vs. +?1.1% and -?33.5% vs. -10.5%). CONCLUSION: Exercise training benefits the management of obesity-related liver diseases independent of detectable weight reduction. Particularly, these effects seem to be acquired through an improvement in the hepatic inflammatory condition and its related oxidative stress levels. PMID:23698242

Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Warabi, Eiji; Shoda, Junichi

2013-05-21

87

Exercise \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOCUS POINTS • Exercise behavior occurs commonly in anorexia nervosa (AN) and appears to be highly reinforcing to individuals with this disorder. • Authors adapted a clinical survey used to mea- sure dependence to drugs of abuse to assess exercise behavior among subjects with AN. • Forty-eight percent of individuals assessed endorsed symptoms consistent with exercise dependence in the previous

Diane A. Klein; Andrew S. Bennett; Janet Schebendach; Richard W. Foltin; Michael J. Devlin; B. Timothy Walsh

2004-01-01

88

Local inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins independently reduces forearm exercise hyperaemia in humans  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of synthesis of either nitric oxide (NO) or vasodilating prostaglandins (PGs) would not alter exercise hyperaemia significantly, but combined inhibition would synergistically reduce the hyperaemia. Fourteen subjects performed 20 min of moderate rhythmic forearm exercise (10% maximal voluntary contraction). Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by Doppler ultrasound. Saline or study drugs were infused (2 ml min?1) into the forearm via a brachial artery catheter to locally inhibit synthesis of NO and PGs during steady state exercise (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), 25 mg over 5 min to inhibit NO synthase (NOS); and ketorolac, 3 mg over 5 min to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX)). After achieving steady state exercise over 5 min (control), l-NAME was infused for 5 min, followed by 2 min saline, then by a 5 min infusion of ketorolac, and finally by 3 min of saline (n = 7). Drug order was reversed in seven additional subjects, such that single inhibition of NOS or COX was followed by combined inhibition. FBF during exercise decreased to 83 ± 2% of control exercise (100%) with NOS inhibition, followed by a transient decrease to 68 ± 2% of control during COX inhibition. However, FBF returned to levels similar to those achieved during NOS inhibition within 2 min (80 ± 3% of control) and remained stable through the final 3 min of exercise. When COX inhibition was performed first, FBF decreased transiently to 88 ± 4% of control (P < 0.01), and returned to control saline levels by the end of ketorolac infusion. Addition of l-NAME reduced FBF to 83 ± 3% of control, and it remained stable through to the end of exercise. Regardless of drug order, FBF was ?80% of steady state control exercise (P < 0.01) during the last 30 s of exercise. We conclude that (1) NO provides a significant, consistent contribution to hyperaemia, (2) PGs contribute modestly and transiently, suggesting a redundant signal compensates for the loss of vasodilating PGs, and (3) NO and PG signals appear to contribute independently to forearm exercise hyperaemia.

Schrage, William G; Joyner, Michael J; Dinenno, Frank A

2004-01-01

89

Muscle blood flow is reduced with dehydration during prolonged exercise in humans.  

PubMed

1. The present study examined whether the blood flow to exercising muscles becomes reduced when cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance decline with dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat. A secondary aim was to determine whether the upward drift in oxygen consumption (VO2) during prolonged exercise is confined to the active muscles. 2. Seven euhydrated, endurance-trained cyclists performed two bicycle exercise trials in the heat (35 C; 40-50 % relative humidity; 61 +/- 2 % of maximal VO2), separated by 1 week. During the first trial (dehydration trial, DE), they bicycled until volitional exhaustion (135 +/- 4 min, mean +/- s.e.m.), while developing progressive dehydration and hyperthermia (3.9 +/- 0.3 % body weight loss; 39.7 +/- 0.2 C oesophageal temperature, Toes). In the second trial (control trial), they bicycled for the same period of time while maintaining euhydration by ingesting fluids and stabilizing Toes at 38.2 +/- 0.1 C after 30 min exercise. 3. In both trials, cardiac output, leg blood flow (LBF), vascular conductance and VO2 were similar after 20 min exercise. During the 20 min-exhaustion period of DE, cardiac output, LBF and systemic vascular conductance declined significantly (8-14 %; P < 0.05) yet muscle vascular conductance was unaltered. In contrast, during the same period of control, all these cardiovascular variables tended to increase. After 135 +/- 4 min of DE, the 2.0 +/- 0.6 l min-1 lower blood flow to the exercising legs accounted for approximately two-thirds of the reduction in cardiac output. Blood flow to the skin also declined markedly as forearm blood flow was 39 +/- 8 % (P < 0.05) lower in DE vs. control after 135 +/- 4 min. 4. In both trials, whole body VO2 and leg VO2 increased in parallel and were similar throughout exercise. The reduced leg blood flow in DE was accompanied by an even greater increase in femoral arterial-venous O2 (a-vO2) difference. 5. It is concluded that blood flow to the exercising muscles declines significantly with dehydration, due to a lowering in perfusion pressure and systemic blood flow rather than increased vasoconstriction. Furthermore, the progressive increase in oxygen consumption during exercise is confined to the exercising skeletal muscles. PMID:9824726

González-Alonso, J; Calbet, J A; Nielsen, B

1998-12-15

90

Plasma triglyceride concentrations are rapidly reduced following individual bouts of endurance exercise in women.  

PubMed

It is known that chronic endurance training leads to improvements in the lipoprotein profile, but less is known about changes that occur during postexercise recovery acutely. We analyzed triglyceride (TG), cholesterol classes and apolipoproteins in samples collected before, during and after individual moderate- and hard-intensity exercise sessions in men and women that were isoenergetic between intensities. Young healthy men (n = 9) and young healthy women (n = 9) were studied under three different conditions with diet unchanged between trials: (1) before, during and 3 h after 90 min of exercise at 45% VO(2)peak (E45); (2) before, during and 3 h after 60 min of exercise at 65% VO(2)peak (E65), and (3) in a time-matched sedentary control trial (C). At baseline, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in women than men (P < 0.05). In men and in women, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and LDL peak particle size were unaltered by exercise either during exertion or after 3 h of recovery. In women, but not in men, average plasma TG was significantly reduced below C at 3 h postexercise by approximately 15% in E45 and 25% in E65 (P < 0.05) with no significant difference between exercise intensities. In summary, plasma TG concentration rapidly declines following exercise in women, but not in men. These results demonstrate an important mechanism by which each individual exercise session may incrementally reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. PMID:20217117

Henderson, Gregory C; Krauss, Ronald M; Fattor, Jill A; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Luke-Zeitoun, Mona; Brooks, George A

2010-03-09

91

Reduced Exercise Tolerance and Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment with Remote Secondhand Smoke Exposure  

PubMed Central

Rationale Flight attendants who worked on commercial aircraft before the smoking ban in flights (pre-ban FAs) were exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS). We previously showed never-smoking pre-ban FAs to have reduced diffusing capacity (Dco) at rest. Methods To determine whether pre-ban FAs increase their Dco and pulmonary blood flow () during exercise, we administered a symptom-limited supine-posture progressively increasing cycle exercise test to determine the maximum work (watts) and oxygen uptake () achieved by FAs. After 30 min rest, we then measured Dco and at 20, 40, 60, and 80 percent of maximum observed work. Results The FAs with abnormal resting Dco achieved a lower level of maximum predicted work and compared to those with normal resting Dco (mean±SEM; 88.7±2.9 vs. 102.5±3.1%predicted ; p?=?0.001). Exercise limitation was associated with the FAs' FEV1 (r?=?0.33; p?=?0.003). The Dco increased less with exercise in those with abnormal resting Dco (mean±SEM: 1.36±0.16 vs. 1.90±0.16 ml/min/mmHg per 20% increase in predicted watts; p?=?0.020), and amongst all FAs, the increase with exercise seemed to be incrementally lower in those with lower resting Dco. Exercise-induced increase in was not different in the two groups. However, the FAs with abnormal resting Dco had less augmentation of their Dco with increase in during exercise (mean±SEM: 0.93±0.06 vs. 1.47±0.09 ml/min/mmHg per L/min; p<0.0001). The Dco during exercise was inversely associated with years of exposure to SHS in those FAs with ?10 years of pre-ban experience (r?=??0.32; p?=?0.032). Conclusions This cohort of never-smoking FAs with SHS exposure showed exercise limitation based on their resting Dco. Those with lower resting Dco had reduced pulmonary capillary recruitment. Exposure to SHS in the aircraft cabin seemed to be a predictor for lower Dco during exercise.

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Sadeghi, Nasrat; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M.

2012-01-01

92

A mechanism to explain how regular exercise might reduce the risk for clinical prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies report that regular physical activity can reduce the risk for prostate cancer. This study was conducted to investigate possible mechanisms to explain the epidemiological data. Serum from sedentary controls or men with regular (5 days\\/week) aerobic exercise was used to stimulate lymph node cancer of the prostate (LNCaP) tumor cells in vitro. Growth and apoptosis were assessed and

R. James Barnard; Pak Shan Leung; William J. Aronson; Pinchas Cohen; Lawrence A. Golding

2007-01-01

93

Exercise during a 3Min Decompression Stop Reduces Postdive Venous Gas Bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

DUJIC´, ? Z., I. PALADA, A. OBAD, D. DUPLAN? CIC´, D. BAKOVIC´, and Z. VALIC. Exercise during a 3-Min Decompression Stop Reduces Postdive Venous Gas Bubbles. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 8, pp. 1319-1323, 2005. Purpose: Decompression sickness is initiated by the formation of gas bubbles in tissue and blood if the divers return to surface pressure too

IVAN PALADA; ANTE OBAD; ZORAN VALIC

2005-01-01

94

Exercise Conditioning Reduces the Risk of Neurologic Decompression Illness in Swine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Broome JR, Dutka AJ, McNamee GA Exercise conditioning reduces the risk of neurologic decompression illness in swine. Undersea Hyperbaric Med 1995; 22(l);73-85 -During development of a pig model of neurologic decompression illness (DCI) we noted that tread...

J. R. Broome A. J. Dutka G. A. McNamee

1995-01-01

95

Foot Cooling Reduces Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia in Men with Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAGOBIAN, T. A., K. A. JACOBS, B. J. KIRATLI, and A. L. FRIEDLANDER. Foot Cooling Reduces Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia in Men with Spinal Cord Injury. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 411- 417, 2004. The number of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) participating in sports at recreational and elite levels is on the rise. However, loss of

TODD A. HAGOBIAN; KEVIN A. JACOBS; B. JENNY KIRATLI; ANNE L. FRIEDLANDER

2004-01-01

96

Possible Beneficial Effect of Exercise, by Reducing Oxidative Stress, on the Incidence of Preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that regular exercise enhances antioxidative enzymes in pregnant women, which reduce oxidative stress and, thus, the incidence of preeclampsia. Oxidative stress with enhanced lipid peroxide formation could lead to endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia. Other conditions, such as increased transferrin saturation and decreased iron-binding capac- ity, directly and indirectly promote the process of oxidative stress and subsequent endothe- lial

Seonae Yeo; Sandra T. Davidge

2001-01-01

97

Exercise training enhances rat pancreatic islets anaplerotic enzymes content despite reduced insulin secretion.  

PubMed

Endurance exercise has been shown to reduce pancreatic islets glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways are directly related to GSIS signaling. However, the effect of endurance training upon pancreatic islets anaplerotic enzymes is still unknown. In this sense, we tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise decreases GSIS by reducing anaplerotic/cataplerotic enzymes content. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups as follows: control sedentary group (CTL), trained 1 day per week (TRE1×), trained 3 days per week (TRE3×) and trained 5 days per week (TRE5x) and submitted to an 8 weeks endurance-training protocol. After the training protocol, pancreatic islets were isolated and incubated with basal (2.8 mM) and stimulating (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations for GSIS measurement by radioimmunoassay. In addition, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) content were quantified by western blotting. Our data showed that 8 weeks of chronic endurance exercise reduced GSIS by 50% in a dose-response manner according to weekly exercise frequency. PYC showed significant twofold increase in TRE3×. PYC enhancement was even higher in TRE5× (p < 0.0001). PDH and PDK4 reached significant 25 and 50% enhancement, respectively compared with CTL. ACL and GDH also reported significant 50 and 75% increase, respectively. The absence of exercise-induced correlations among GSIS and anaplerotic/cataplerotic enzymes suggests that exercise may control insulin release by activating other signaling pathways. The observed anaplerotic and cataplerotic enzymes enhancement might be related to ?-cell surviving rather than insulin secretion. PMID:21287194

Zoppi, Claudio C; Calegari, Vivian C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C

2011-02-02

98

Exercise training reduces fibrosis and matrix metalloproteinase dysregulation in the aging rat heart  

PubMed Central

Aging impairs function in the nonischemic heart and is associated with mechanical remodeling. This process includes accumulation of collagen (i.e., fibrosis) and dysregulation of active matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Exercise training (ET) improves cardiac function, but the pathways of protection remain poorly understood. Young (3 mo) and old (31 mo) FBNF1 rats were assigned into sedentary and exercise groups, with ET group rats training on a treadmill 45 min/d, 5 d/wk for 12 wk. Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM), histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Western blot analyses were performed on the left ventricle and septum. NLOM, IHC, and histological imaging revealed that ET reduced age-associated elevation of collagen type I fibers. Active MMP-1, active MMP-2, and MMP-14 in the ECM fraction of the left ventricle were reduced by aging, an effect abrogated by ET. Tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) was elevated with age but protected by ET. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), upstream regulator of TIMP-1, increased with age but was attenuated by ET. Therefore, exercise training could protect the aging heart against dysregulation of MMPs and fibrosis by suppressing elevation of TIMP-1 and TGF-?.—Kwak, H.-B., Kim, J.-H., Joshi, K., Yeh, A., Martinez, D. A., Lawler, J. M. Exercise training reduces fibrosis and matrix metalloproteinase dysregulation in the aging rat heart.

Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Kim, Jong-hee; Joshi, Kumar; Yeh, Alvin; Martinez, Daniel A.; Lawler, John M.

2011-01-01

99

Whole body heat loss is reduced in older males during short bouts of intermittent exercise.  

PubMed

Studies in young adults show that a greater proportion of heat is gained shortly following the start of exercise and that temporal changes in whole body heat loss during intermittent exercise have a pronounced effect on body heat storage. The consequences of short-duration intermittent exercise on heat storage with aging are unclear. We compared evaporative heat loss (HE) and changes in body heat content (?Hb) between young (20-30 yr), middle-aged (40-45 yr), and older males (60-70 yr) of similar body mass and surface area, during successive exercise (4 × 15 min) and recovery periods (4 × 15 min) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) and under fixed environmental conditions (35°C/20% relative humidity). HE was lower in older males vs. young males during each exercise (Ex1: 283 ± 10 vs. 332 ± 11 kJ, Ex2: 334 ± 10 vs. 379 ± 5 kJ, Ex3: 347 ± 11 vs. 392 ± 5 kJ, and Ex4: 347 ± 10 vs. 387 ± 5 kJ, all P < 0.02), whereas HE in middle-aged males was intermediate to that measured in young and older adults (Ex1: 314 ± 13, Ex2: 355 ± 13, Ex3: 371 ± 13, and Ex4: 365 ± 8 kJ). HE was not significantly different between groups during the recovery periods. The net effect over 2 h was a greater ?Hb in older (267 ± 33 kJ; P = 0.016) and middle-aged adults (245 ± 16 kJ; P = 0.073) relative to younger counterparts (164 ± 20 kJ). As a result of a reduced capacity to dissipate heat during exercise, which was not compensated by a sufficiently greater rate of heat loss during recovery, both older and middle-aged males had a progressively greater rate of heat storage compared with young males over 2 h of intermittent exercise. PMID:23883671

Larose, Joanie; Wright, Heather E; Stapleton, Jill; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Hardcastle, Stephen; Kenny, Glen P

2013-07-24

100

Prenatal Stretching Exercise and Autonomic Responses: Preliminary Data and a Model for Reducing Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and it increases maternal risk for future cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships among stretching exercise, autonomic cardiac response, and the development of preeclampsia. Design Secondary data analysis. Methods Heart rate and pulse pressure were longitudinally examined in this secondary data analysis among women who engaged in stretching exercise daily from 18 weeks of gestation to the end of pregnancy compared with women who did walking exercise daily during the same time period. A total of 124 women were randomized to either stretching (n=60) or walking (n=64) in the parent study. Findings Heart rates in the stretching group were consistently lower than those in the walking group. Conclusions Based on the results of this secondary data analyses, a physiologic framework for possible beneficial effects of stretching exercise by enhancing autonomic responses on reducing risks for preeclampsia is proposed and discussed. Clinical Relevance If the protective effect is established, stretching exercise can be translated into nursing intervention for prenatal care.

Yeo, SeonAe

2010-01-01

101

Molecular aspects involved in swimming exercise training reducing anhedonia in a rat model of depression.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from depression frequently display hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in elevated cortisol levels. One main symptom of this condition is anhedonia. There is evidence that exercise training can be used as a rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an aerobic exercise training protocol on the depressive-like behavior, anhedonia, induced by repeated dexamethasone administration. The study was carried out on adult male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups: the "control group" (C), "exercise group" (E), "dexamethasone group" (D) and the "dexamethasone plus exercise group" (DE). The exercise training consisted of swimming (1 h/d, 5 d/wk) for 3 weeks, with an overload of 5% of the rat body weight. Every day rats were injected with either dexamethasone (D/DE) or saline solution (C/E). Proper positive controls, using fluoxetine, were run in parallel. Decreased blood corticosterone levels, reduced adrenal cholesterol synthesis and adrenal weight (HPA disruption), reduced preference for sucrose consumption and increased immobility time (depressive-like behavior), marked hippocampal DNA oxidation, increased IL-10 and total brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; pro-plus mature-forms) and a severe loss of body mass characterized the dexamethasone-treated animals. Besides increasing testosterone blood concentrations, the swim training protected depressive rats from the anhedonic state, following the same profile as fluoxetine, and also from the dexamethasone-induced impaired neurochemistry. The data indicate that physical exercise could be a useful tool in preventing and treating depressive disorders. PMID:21712072

Sigwalt, A R; Budde, H; Helmich, I; Glaser, V; Ghisoni, K; Lanza, S; Cadore, E L; Lhullier, F L R; de Bem, A F; Hohl, A; de Matos, F J; de Oliveira, P A; Prediger, R D; Guglielmo, L G A; Latini, A

2011-06-15

102

Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans.  

PubMed

Pharmacological sodium nitrate supplementation has been reported to reduce the O2 cost of submaximal exercise in humans. In this study, we hypothesized that dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate in the form of beetroot juice (BR) would reduce the O2 cost of submaximal exercise and enhance the tolerance to high-intensity exercise. In a double-blind, placebo (PL)-controlled, crossover study, eight men (aged 19-38 yr) consumed 500 ml/day of either BR (containing 11.2 +/- 0.6 mM of nitrate) or blackcurrant cordial (as a PL, with negligible nitrate content) for 6 consecutive days and completed a series of "step" moderate-intensity and severe-intensity exercise tests on the last 3 days. On days 4-6, plasma nitrite concentration was significantly greater following dietary nitrate supplementation compared with PL (BR: 273 +/- 44 vs. PL: 140 +/- 50 nM; P < 0.05), and systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (BR: 124 +/- 2 vs. PL: 132 +/- 5 mmHg; P < 0.01). During moderate exercise, nitrate supplementation reduced muscle fractional O2 extraction (as estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy). The gain of the increase in pulmonary O2 uptake following the onset of moderate exercise was reduced by 19% in the BR condition (BR: 8.6 +/- 0.7 vs. PL: 10.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P < 0.05). During severe exercise, the O2 uptake slow component was reduced (BR: 0.57 +/- 0.20 vs. PL: 0.74 +/- 0.24 l/min; P < 0.05), and the time-to-exhaustion was extended (BR: 675 +/- 203 vs. PL: 583 +/- 145 s; P < 0.05). The reduced O2 cost of exercise following increased dietary nitrate intake has important implications for our understanding of the factors that regulate mitochondrial respiration and muscle contractile energetics in humans. PMID:19661447

Bailey, Stephen J; Winyard, Paul; Vanhatalo, Anni; Blackwell, Jamie R; Dimenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Tarr, Joanna; Benjamin, Nigel; Jones, Andrew M

2009-08-06

103

Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Exercise in hypoxia is associated with reduced muscle oxidative function and impaired exercise tolerance. We hypothesised that dietary nitrate supplementation (which increases plasma [nitrite] and thus NO bioavailability) would ameliorate the adverse effects of hypoxia on muscle metabolism and oxidative function. In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, nine healthy subjects completed knee-extension exercise to the limit of tolerance (Tlim), once in normoxia (20.9% O2; CON) and twice in hypoxia (14.5% O2). During 24 h prior to the hypoxia trials, subjects consumed 0.75 L of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (9.3 mmol nitrate; H-BR) or 0.75 L of nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (0.006 mmol nitrate; H-PL). Muscle metabolism was assessed using calibrated 31P-MRS. Plasma [nitrite] was elevated (P < 0.01) following BR (194 ± 51 nm) compared to PL (129 ± 23 nm) and CON (142 ± 37 nM). Tlim was reduced in H-PL compared to CON (393 ± 169 vs. 471 ± 200 s; P < 0.05) but was not different between CON and H-BR (477 ± 200 s). The muscle [PCr], [Pi] and pH changed at a faster rate in H-PL compared to CON and H-BR. The [PCr] recovery time constant was greater (P < 0.01) in H-PL (29 ± 5 s) compared to CON (23 ± 5 s) and H-BR (24 ± 5 s). Nitrate supplementation reduced muscle metabolic perturbation during exercise in hypoxia and restored exercise tolerance and oxidative function to values observed in normoxia. The results suggest that augmenting the nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway may have important therapeutic applications for improving muscle energetics and functional capacity in hypoxia.

Vanhatalo, Anni; Fulford, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, James R; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

2011-01-01

104

Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia.  

PubMed

Exercise in hypoxia is associated with reduced muscle oxidative function and impaired exercise tolerance. We hypothesised that dietary nitrate supplementation (which increases plasma [nitrite] and thus NO bioavailability) would ameliorate the adverse effects of hypoxia on muscle metabolism and oxidative function. In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, nine healthy subjects completed knee-extension exercise to the limit of tolerance (T(lim)), once in normoxia (20.9% O(2); CON) and twice in hypoxia (14.5% O(2)). During 24 h prior to the hypoxia trials, subjects consumed 0.75 L of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (9.3 mmol nitrate; H-BR) or 0.75 L of nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (0.006 mmol nitrate; H-PL). Muscle metabolism was assessed using calibrated (31)P-MRS. Plasma [nitrite] was elevated (P < 0.01) following BR (194 ± 51 nm) compared to PL (129 ± 23 nm) and CON (142 ± 37 nM). T(lim) was reduced in H-PL compared to CON (393 ± 169 vs. 471 ± 200 s; P < 0.05) but was not different between CON and H-BR (477 ± 200 s). The muscle [PCr], [P(i)] and pH changed at a faster rate in H-PL compared to CON and H-BR. The [PCr] recovery time constant was greater (P < 0.01) in H-PL (29 ± 5 s) compared to CON (23 ± 5 s) and H-BR (24 ± 5 s). Nitrate supplementation reduced muscle metabolic perturbation during exercise in hypoxia and restored exercise tolerance and oxidative function to values observed in normoxia. The results suggest that augmenting the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway may have important therapeutic applications for improving muscle energetics and functional capacity in hypoxia. PMID:21911616

Vanhatalo, Anni; Fulford, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, James R; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

2011-09-12

105

Strenuous resistive breathing induces proinflammatory cytokines and stimulates the HPA axis in humans.  

PubMed

Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), powerful stimulants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increase in response to whole body exercise. Strenuous inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB), a form of clinically relevant "exercise" for the respiratory muscles, produces beta-endorphin through a largely unknown mechanism. We investigated (in 11 healthy humans) whether strenuous IRB produces proinflammatory cytokines and beta-endorphin in parallel with stimulation of the HPA axis, assessed by concurrent measurement of ACTH. Subjects underwent either severe [at 75% of maximal inspiratory pressure (P(m) (max))] or moderate (at 35% of P(m) (max)) IRB. Plasma cytokines, beta-endorphin, and ACTH were measured at rest (point R), at the point at which the resistive load could not be sustained (point F), and at exhaustion [15 min later (point E)]. During severe IRB, IL-1beta increased from 0.83 +/- 0.12 pg/ml at point R to 1.88 +/- 0. 53 and 4.06 +/- 1.27 pg/ml at points F and E, respectively (P < 0. 01). IL-6 increased from 5.30 +/- 1.02 to 10.33 +/- 2.14 and 11.66 +/- 2.29 pg/ml at points F and E, respectively (P = 0.02). ACTH and beta-endorphin fluctuated from 20.87 +/- 5.49 and 25.03 +/- 3.97 pg/ml at point R to 22.97 +/- 4.41 and 26.32 +/- 3.93 pg/ml, respectively, at point F and increased to 46.96 +/- 8.55 and 40.32 +/- 5.94 pg/ml, respectively, at point E (P < 0.01, point E vs. point F). There was a positive correlation between the IL-6 at point F and the ACTH and beta-endorphin at point E (r = 0.88 and 0.94, respectively; P < 0.01) as well as between the increase in IL-6 (between points R and F) and the increases in ACTH and beta-endorphin (between points F and E, r = 0.91 and 0.92, respectively; P < 0.01). Moderate IRB did not produce any change. We conclude that severe IRB produces proinflammatory cytokines and stimulates the HPA axis in humans secondary to the production of cytokines (especially IL-6). PMID:10516239

Vassilakopoulos, T; Zakynthinos, S; Roussos, C

1999-10-01

106

Plasma antioxidant status and cell injury after severe physical exercise  

PubMed Central

Strenuous exercise leads to an increase in metabolic rate, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and compromised antioxidant defense systems. To study the effects of oxidative stress during strenuous exercise, a homogeneous group of 31 male subjects participated in a 6-month, 5 days/week training schedule involving two extreme marches of 50 km and 80 km at sea level, separated by 2 weeks of regular training. Each participant carried 35 kg of extra weight. Blood samples were drawn imediately before and after each march. Twenty-nine subjects completed the 50-km march, and only 16 completed the 80-km march. Plasma levels of reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbate, and dehydroascorbate did not undergo significant changes during either march. However, the 50- and 80-km marches led to 25% and 37% increases, respectively, in plasma levels of uric acid; due presumably to increases in the metabolic rate and consequent pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism. Both marches led to ?10-fold increase leakage of creatine phosphokinase into the plasma. Likewise, plasma levels of aspartate transaminase, a characteristic marker of liver injury, increased ?4-fold. Plasma levels of bilirubin, creatine, urea, and glucose also increased. Plasma protein carbonyl content, a marker of protein oxidative damage, decreased significantly during each march. These results are discussed with respect to the consideration that elevation of the respiration rate during exercise leads to production of more reactive oxygen species than the antioxidant systems can scavenge. Plausible explanations for leakage of molecules into the plasma are discussed.

Chevion, Shlomit; Moran, Danny S.; Heled, Yuval; Shani, Yoav; Regev, Gilad; Abbou, Benny; Berenshtein, Eduard; Stadtman, Earl R.; Epstein, Yoram

2003-01-01

107

Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... better bladder and bowel function, less fatigue and depression, a more positive attitude, and increased participation in social activities. Since 1996, several additional studies have confirmed the benefits of exercise. Inactivity in people with or without MS can ...

108

Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Part I: Exercising Nonpharmacologic Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essential hypertension is diagnosed with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. Studies indicate exercise can be a clinically useful treatment, though strenuous exercise may be contraindicated for some. The article discusses the physician's role in diagnosis, nonpharmacologic interventions, exercise safety and effectiveness, and…

Daniels, Stephen Ra.; Loggie, Jennifer M. H.

1992-01-01

109

Oxidant, antioxidant and physical exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a normal process in the life of aerobic organisms. Under physiological conditions, these deleterious species are mostly removed by the cellular antioxidant systems, which include antioxidant vitamins, protein and non-protein thiols, and antioxidant enzymes. Since the antioxidant reserve capacity in most tissues is rather marginal, strenuous physical exercise characterized by a remarkable increase

Alok K. Banerjee; Amritlal Mandal; Dipanjan Chanda; Sajal Chakraborti

2003-01-01

110

Fasting and recovery from exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery after strenuous exercise involves processes that are dependent on fluid and food intake. Current sports nutrition guidelines provide recommendations for the quantity and timing of consumption of nutrients to optimise recovery issues such as refuelling, rehydration and protein synthesis for repair and adaptation. Recovery of immune and antioxidant systems is important but less well documented. In some cases, there

Louise Burke

2010-01-01

111

Reduced Satellite Cell Numbers and Myogenic Capacity in Aging Can Be Alleviated by Endurance Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMuscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and\\/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet

Gabi Shefer; Gat Rauner; Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni; Dafna Benayahu

2010-01-01

112

Peak lifting velocities of men and women for the reduced inertia squat exercise using force control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to determine peak velocities for the reduced inertia squat exercise at various resistance\\u000a levels based on an isometric strength assessment for both men and women. On a Smith machine modified for pneumatic resistance,\\u000a 12 males and 12 females previously trained college-age participants performed a maximal isometric strength assessment with\\u000a knee angles of 90°, 110°,

David C. Paulus; Raoul F. Reiser II; Wade O. Troxell

2008-01-01

113

Exercise reduces gonadal atrophy caused by short photoperiod or blinding of hamsters.  

PubMed

The effect of voluntary exercise upon several reproductive parameters was assessed in male Syrian hamsters. Forty-two animals were caged in five groups and then blinded: Ten housed five per plastic cage; eight housed individually in plastic cages; six housed individually in plastic cages with 15 cm exercise wheels in the cage; eight housed in Wahmann steel activity cages with 36 cm wheels locked to prevent rotation; ten housed in functional Wahmann running wheel cages. At 16 weeks after blinding, animals with access to functional running wheels had significantly larger testes (3.7 +/- 1.0 g) than those with no wheels or locked wheels (1.86 +/- 0.6 g; mean +/- SD; p less than 0.001). These results suggested that voluntary exercise reduces testicular atrophy caused by blinding. A second experiment was run in which the animals were subjected to a short photoperiod (LD 6:18) for 12 weeks instead of blinding. Similar results were obtained except that access to the small exercise wheels did not affect testicular atrophy: Mean testicular mass of animals in individual cages = 0.79 +/- 0.3 g, small wheels = 0.74 +/- 0.4 g, functional Wahmann wheels, 2.56 +/- 1.0 g, locked Wahmann wheels 0.52 +/- 0.1 g (p less than 0.01). PMID:3526367

Gibbs, F P; Petterborg, L J

1986-01-01

114

The difference in respiratory and blood gas values during recovery after exercise with spontaneous versus reduced breathing frequency.  

PubMed

Extrapolation from post-exercise measurements has been used to estimate respiratory and blood gas parameters during exercise. This may not be accurate in exercise with reduced breathing frequency (RBF), since spontaneous breathing usually follows exercise. This study was performed to ascertain whether measurement of oxygen saturation and blood gases immediately after exercise accurately reflected their values during exercise with RBF. Eight healthy male subjects performed an incremental cycling test with RBF at 10 breaths per minute. A constant load test with RBF (B10) was then performed to exhaustion at the peak power output obtained during the incremental test. Finally, the subjects repeated the constant load test with spontaneous breathing (SB) using the same protocol as B10. Pulmonary ventilation (VE), end-tidal oxygen (PETO2), and carbon dioxide pressures (PETCO2) and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were measured during both constant load tests. The partial pressures of oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2) in capillary blood were measured during the last minute of exercise, immediately following exercise and during the third minute of recovery. At the end of exercise RBF resulted in lower PETO2, SaO2 and PO2, and higher PETCO2 and PCO2 when compared to spontaneous breathing during exercise. Lower SaO2 and PETO2 were detected only for the first 16s and 20s of recovery after B10 compared to the corresponding period in SB. There were no significant differences in PO2 between SB and B10 measured immediately after the exercise. During recovery from exercise, PETCO2 remained elevated for the first 120s in the B10 trial. There were also significant differences between SB and B10 in PCO2 immediately after exercise. We conclude that RBF during high intensity exercise results in hypoxia; however, due to post-exercise hyperpnoea, measurements of blood gas parameters taken 15s after cessation of exercise did not reflect the changes in PO2 and SaO2 seen during exercise. Key pointsIn some sports, the environment is inappropriate for direct measurement of respiratory and blood gas parameters during exercise. To overcome this problem, extrapolation from post-exercise measurements has often been used to estimate changes in respiratory and blood gas parameters during exercise.The possibility of hypoxia and hypercapnia during exercise with reduced breathing frequency has been tested by measuring capillary blood sampled after the exercise.Reduced breathing frequency during high intensity exercise results in hypoxia; however, due to marked post-exercise hyperventilation, measurements of blood gas parameters taken 15 s after the cessation of exercise did not yield any changes in these parameters.Despite hyperventilation during recovery, hypercapnia could be detected by measuring blood gas parameters within 15 s after the exercise with reduced breathing frequency. PMID:24150010

Kapus, Jernej; Ušaj, Anton; Kapus, Venceslav; Strumbelj, Boro

2009-09-01

115

Walk or run? Is high-intensity exercise more effective than moderate-intensity exercise at reducing cardiovascular risk?  

PubMed

The benefits of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease are irrefutable. However, the optimum 'dose' of exercise in order to derive the maximum cardiovascular benefit is not certain. Current national and international guidelines advocate the benefits of moderate-intensity exercise. The relative benefits of vigorous versus moderate-intensity exercise have been studied in large epidemiological studies, addressing coronary heart disease and mortality, as well as smaller randomized clinical trials which assessed effects on cardiovascular risk factors. There is evidence that exercise intensity, rather than duration or frequency, is the most important variable in determining cardioprotection. Applying this evidence into practice must take into account the impact of baseline fitness, compliance and the independent risk associated with a sedentary lifestyle. This review aims to evaluate the role of exercise intensity in the reduction of cardiovascular risk, and answer the question: should you be advising your patients to walk or run? PMID:22194404

Rankin, A J; Rankin, A C; MacIntyre, P; Hillis, W S

2011-12-22

116

Strong exercise stress exacerbates dermatitis in atopic model mice, NC/Nga mice, while proper exercise reduces it.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis is well known to exacerbate by stress. How the influence of exercise stress on the skin symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis has not been clarified. The purpose of our research is to investigate how different strength of exercise stress acts on atopic dermatitis. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional NC/Nga male mice were used for the experiments. Conventional mice but not SPF group spontaneously develop dermal symptom similar to that of patients with atopic dermatitis at their age of 7 weeks. They were given two types of stress, mild (20 m/min for 60 min) or strong exercise (25 m/min for 90 min), using a treadmill four times per day. The dermal symptom of the conventional group was strongly exacerbated by strong exercise but ameliorated by mild exercise. Under the standard experimental conditions, plasma concentrations of ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and substance P in conventional mice increased markedly with concomitant exacerbation of the symptom. The plasma concentrations of these proteins elevated after strong exercise but decreased after mild exercise. Under the conventional conditions, plasma levels of ?-endorphin increased with time by some mechanisms enhanced by the mild exercise. These observations suggested that exercise-induced stress significantly affect the symptom of atopic dermatitis in a pivotal manner depending on the plasma levels of TGF-?, ?-MSH, substance P and ?-endorphin. PMID:21087324

Orita, Kumi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Inoue, Risa; Sato, Eisuke F; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Inoue, Masayasu

2010-09-07

117

Reduced Satellite Cell Numbers and Myogenic Capacity in Aging Can Be Alleviated by Endurance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary. Methodology Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo). The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro). We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging.

Shefer, Gabi; Rauner, Gat; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Benayahu, Dafna

2010-01-01

118

Long-term exercise treatment reduces oxidative stress in the hippocampus of aging rats.  

PubMed

Exercise can exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions of older subjects and it can also play an important role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. At the same time it is perceivable that limited information is available on the nature of molecular pathways supporting the antioxidant effects of exercise in the brain. In this study 12-month old, middle-aged female Wistar rats were subjected to daily moderate intensity exercise on a rodent treadmill for a period of 15weeks which covered the early aging period unmasking already some aging-related molecular disturbances. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the amount of protein carbonyls, the levels of antioxidant intracellular enzymes superoxide dismutases (SOD-1, SOD-2) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the hippocampus. In addition, to identify the molecular pathways that may be involved in ROS metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, the activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the protein level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were measured. Our results revealed a lower level of ROS associated with a reduced amount of protein carbonyls in the hippocampus of physically trained rats compared to sedentary controls. Furthermore, exercise induced an up-regulation of SOD-1 and GPx enzymes, p-AMPK and PGC-1?, that can be related to an improved redox balance in the hippocampus. These results suggest that long-term physical exercise can comprises antioxidant properties and by this way protect neurons against oxidative stress at the early stage of aging. PMID:22982624

Marosi, K; Bori, Z; Hart, N; Sárga, L; Koltai, E; Radák, Z; Nyakas, C

2012-09-12

119

Pulmonary system limitations to endurance exercise performance in humans.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence over the past 25 years depicts the healthy pulmonary system as a limiting factor of whole-body endurance exercise performance. This brief overview emphasizes three respiratory system-related mechanisms which impair O(2) transport to the locomotor musculature [arterial O(2) content (C(aO(2))) × leg blood flow (Q(L))], i.e. the key determinant of an individual's aerobic capacity and ability to resist fatigue. First, the respiratory system often fails to prevent arterial desaturation substantially below resting values and thus compromises C(aO(2)). Especially susceptible to this threat to convective O(2) transport are well-trained endurance athletes characterized by high metabolic and ventilatory demands and, probably due to anatomical and morphological gender differences, active women. Second, fatiguing respiratory muscle work (W(resp)) associated with strenuous exercise elicits sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction in limb-muscle vasculature, which compromises Q(L). This impact on limb O(2) transport is independent of fitness level and affects all individuals, but only during sustained, high-intensity endurance exercise performed above ?85% maximal oxygen uptake. Third, excessive fluctuations in intrathoracic pressures accompanying W(resp) can limit cardiac output and therefore Q(L). Exposure to altitude exacerbates the respiratory system limitations observed at sea level, further reducing C(aO(2)) and substantially increasing exercise-induced W(resp). Taken together, the intact pulmonary system of healthy endurance athletes impairs locomotor muscle O(2) transport during strenuous exercise by failing to ensure optimal arterial oxygenation and compromising Q(L). This respiratory system-related impact exacerbates the exercise-induced development of fatigue and compromises endurance performance. PMID:22125308

Amann, Markus

2011-11-28

120

Reducing resistance and denial by exercising ambivalence during the treatment of addiction.  

PubMed

Stage change models and motivational enhancement therapies have significantly influenced the therapeutic tactics clinicians employ in the treatment of addictive behaviors. While motivational enhancement strategies have addressed client ambivalence to increase motivation to change, this article suggests that focusing on ambivalence during treatment has even wider clinical utility than previously thought. Resistance reduction concentrates on exercising ambivalence without an investment in clients changing, thereby strengthening client tolerance for ambivalent thoughts and feelings. Exercising ambivalence reduces resistance to treatment and change by validating a wide array of possible outcomes through detailed exploration of how a behavior pattern works for a client. Since resistance reduction does not require clients to want to change for therapy to progress, exploring the decision-making process becomes paramount. A general discussion of the resistance reduction model, ambivalence, and how clients present for treatment precedes clinical case examples. PMID:11239735

Shaffer, H J; Simoneau, G

2001-01-01

121

Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.

2013-01-01

122

Exercise to reduce the escalation of cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Concurrent access to an exercise wheel decreases cocaine self-administration under short access (5 h/day for 5 days) conditions and suppresses cocaine-primed reinstatement in adult rats. Objective The effect of exercise (wheel running) on the escalation of cocaine intake during long access (LgA, 6 h/day for 26 days) conditions was evaluated. Methods Adolescent and adult female rats acquired wheel running, and behavior was allowed to stabilize for 3 days. They were then implanted with an iv catheter and allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg, iv) during 6-h daily sessions for 16 days with concurrent access to either an unlocked or a locked running wheel. Subsequently, for ten additional sessions, wheel access conditions during cocaine self-administration sessions were reversed (i.e., locked wheels became unlocked and vice versa). Results In the adolescents, concurrent access to the unlocked exercise wheel decreased responding for cocaine and attenuated escalation of cocaine intake irrespective of whether the locked or unlocked condition came first. However, cocaine intake increased when the wheel was subsequently locked for the adolescents that had initial access to an unlocked wheel. Concurrent wheel access either before or after the locked wheel access did not reduce cocaine intake in adults. Conclusions Wheel running reduced cocaine intake during LgA conditions in adolescent but not adult rats, and concurrent access to the running wheel was necessary. These results suggest that exercise prevents cocaine seeking and that this effect is more pronounced in adolescents than adults.

Anker, Justin J.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

2013-01-01

123

Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many athletes, especially female athletes and participants in endurance and aesthetic sports and sports with weight classes, are chronically energy deficient. This energy deficiency impairs performance, growth and health. Reproductive disorders in female athletes are caused by low energy availability (defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure), perhaps specifically by low carbohydrate availability, and not by the stress

F A Hellebrandt

1940-01-01

124

Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution of tendinosis symptoms remains questionable.

Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

2007-01-01

125

Effects of exercise stress on the endocannabinoid system in humans under field conditions.  

PubMed

The effects of physical exercise stress on the endocannabinoid system in humans are almost unexplored. In this prospective study, we investigated in a crossover design and under field conditions at different altitudes the effects of physical exercise on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in 12 trained healthy volunteers. For determination of alterations on the ECS three different protocols were analyzed: Protocol A (physical exercise at lower altitude) involved strenuous hiking below 2,100 m, whereas Protocol B (physical exercise by active ascent to high altitude) involved hiking up to 3,196 m, an accommodation at the cottage and a descent the next day. Protocol C (passive ascent) included a helicopter ascent to 3,196 m, an overnight stay at this altitude and a flight back to the base camp the following day. The cumulative hiked altitude in Protocol A and B was comparable (~1,650 m). The blood EC concentrations of anandamide increased significantly in Protocol A/B from baseline (T0) 0.12 ± 0.01/0.16 ± 0.02 (mean ± SEM) to 0.27 ± 0.02/0.42 ± 0.02 after exercise (T1) (p < 0.05). Anandamide levels in Protocol C remained stable at 0.20 ± 0.02. We conclude that the ECS is activated upon strenuous exercise whereas the combination with hypoxic stress further increases its activity. The reduced partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude alone did not affect this system. In summary, physical exercise activates the endocannabinoid system, whereas the combination with high altitude enhances this activation. This discloses new perspectives to adaptation mechanisms to physical exercise. PMID:22101870

Feuerecker, M; Hauer, D; Toth, R; Demetz, F; Hölzl, J; Thiel, M; Kaufmann, I; Schelling, G; Choukèr, A

2011-11-19

126

Reduced metaboreflex control of blood pressure during exercise in individuals with intellectual disability: a possible contributor to exercise intolerance.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males performed a testing protocol involving 3-min periods of baseline, HG exercise (at 30% MVC), circulatory occlusion, and recovery. The same protocol was repeated without occlusion. At baseline, no differences were detected between groups in beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume, and peripheral resistance. IID were able to sustain an exercise MAP response at comparable levels to the control group exerting similar peripheral resistance; however, IID exhibited a blunted chronotropic response to HG and a diminished exercise vagal withdrawal compared to controls. During occlusion, IID exhibited a lower pressor response than their control peers, associated with a lower increase in peripheral resistance during this task. In conclusion, although intellectual disabilities can be the consequence of many different genes, IID share common deficits in the chronotropic response to exercise and a blunted metaboreflex-induced pressor response. PMID:23000635

Dipla, K; Zafeiridis, A; Papadopoulos, S; Koskolou, M; Geladas, N; Vrabas, I S

2012-09-19

127

Creatine supplementation reduces increased homocysteine concentration induced by acute exercise in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism after acute\\u000a aerobic and anaerobic exercise. A total of 112 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: aerobic exercise (A), aerobic exercise\\u000a plus creatine supplementation (ACr), anaerobic exercise (An), and anaerobic exercise plus creatine-supplemented (AnCr). Creatine\\u000a supplementation consisted of the addition of 2%

Rafael Deminice; Helio Vannucchi; Lívia Maria Simões-Ambrosio; Alceu Afonso Jordao

128

Muscle cell electrical hyperpolarization and reduced exercise hyperkalemia in physically conditioned dogs.  

PubMed Central

Contracting muscle cells release K ions into their surrounding interstitial fluid, and some of these ions, in turn, enter venous plasma. Thereby, intense or exhaustive exercise may result in hyperkalemia and potentially dangerous cardiotoxicity. Training not only reduces hyperkalemia produced by exercise but in addition, highly conditioned, long-distance runners may show resting hypokalemia that is not caused by K deficiency. To examine the factors underlying these changes, dogs were studied before and after 6 wk of training induced by running on the treadmill. Resting serum [K] fell from 4.2 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 meq/liter (P less than 0.001), muscle intracellular [K] rose from 139 +/- 7 to 148 +/- 14 meq/liter (P less than 0.001), and directly measured muscle cell membrane potential (Em) in vivo rose from -92 +/- 5 to -103 +/- 5 mV (P less than 0.001). Before training, resting Em of isolated intercostal muscle in vitro was -87 +/- 5 mV, and after incubation in 10(-4) M ouabain, Em fell to -78 +/- 5 mV. After training, resting Em of intercostal muscle rose to -95 +/- 4, but fell to -62 +/- 4 mV during incubation in 10(-4) M ouabain. The measured value for the Em was not completely explained by the increased ratio of intracellular to extracellular [K] or by the potassium diffusion potential. Skeletal muscle sarcolemmal Na,K-ATPase activity (microM inorganic phosphate mg-1 protein h-1) increased from 0.189 +/- 0.028 to 0.500 +/- 0.076 (P less than 0.05) after training, whereas activities of Mg2+ -dependent ATPase and 5'nucleotidase did not change. In untrained dogs, exercise to the point of exhaustion elevated serum [K] from 4.4 +/- 0.5 to 6.0 +/- 1.0 meq/liter (P less than 0.05). In trained dogs, exhaustive exercise was associated with elevation of serum [K] from 3.8 +/- 0.3 to 4.2 +/- 0.4 (NS). The different response of serum [K] to exercise after training was not explainable by blood pH. Basal insulin levels rose from 7.0 +/- 0.7 microU/ml in the untrained dogs to 9.9 +/- 1.0 microU/ml (P less than 0.05) after training. Although insulin might have played a role in the acquired electrical hyperpolarization, the reduced exercise-produced hyperkalemia after training was not reversed by blockade of insulin release with somatostatin. Although the fundamental mechanisms underlying the cellular hyperpolarization were not resolved, our observations suggest that increased Na-K exchange across the sarcolemmal membrane, the increase of Na,K-ATPase activity and possibly increased electrogenicity of the sodium pump may all play a role in the changes induced by training. Images

Knochel, J P; Blachley, J D; Johnson, J H; Carter, N W

1985-01-01

129

Maturation and Strenuous Training in Young Female Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of research studies suggesting that girls who exercise vigorously may experience disruptions in maturational processes suggests that carefully-monitored sports participation and training have no effect on growth and maturation. (Author/CB)|

Zimmerman, David R.

1987-01-01

130

Triathlete characterization and response to prolonged strenuous competition.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize triathletes and to assess their responses to prolonged, strenuous competition. Nine triathletes (6 males, 3 females) participated. Mean V0(2)max and percentage of body fat were 72.0 ml X kg-1 X min-1 and 7.1%, respectively, in the four males who finished in the top 15. This compared to values of 58.4 ml X kg-1 X min-1/10.2% and 58.7 ml X kg-1 X min-1/12.6% in the other males and females, respectively. In the 5 wk preceding competition (Hawaii "Ironman Triathlon World Championship") the average daily training of the four top 15 male competitors consisted of swimming 2720 m, running 13.6 km, and biking 84.0 km. This was approximately 1.5 times greater than that of the other athletes. The average training diet was 59% carbohydrate, 21% fat, and 20% protein. Immediately following competition, SGOT, SGPT, and serum LDH were increased 700, 262, and 222% (P less than 0.004), respectively, and still remained marginally elevated 5-6 d later (P less than 0.02). Immediately following competition, serum triglycerides remained unchanged, while serum glucose, glycerol, and nonesterified fatty acids increased 52, 248, and 191% (P less than 0.005), respectively. By 5-6 d post-competition glucose had returned to normal, while triglycerides were elevated 94% (P less than 0.005) and nonsterified fatty acids were decreased 58% (P less than 0.01). PMID:3959855

Holly, R G; Barnard, R J; Rosenthal, M; Applegate, E; Pritikin, N

1986-02-01

131

Diet and exercise training reduce blood pressure and improve autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension.  

PubMed

Despite mortality from heart disease has been decreasing, the decline in death in women remains lower than in men. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, approaches to prevent or delay the onset of HT would be valuable in women. Given this background, we investigated the effect of diet and exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension (PHT). Ten women with PHT (39 ± 6 years, mean ± standard deviation) and ten with normotension (NT) (35 ± 11 years) underwent diet and exercise training for 12 weeks. Autonomic modulation was assessed through heart rate (HR) and systolic BP (SBP) variability, using time and frequency domain analyses. At preintervention, women with PHT had higher SBP (PHT: 128 ± 7 vs. NT: 111 ± 6 mmHg, p < 0.05) and lower HR variability [standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (SDNN), PHT: 41 ± 18 vs. NT: 60 ± 19 ms, p < 0.05]. At post-intervention, peak oxygen consumption and muscular strength increased (p < 0.05), while body mass index decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). However, SBP decreased (118 ± 8 mmHg, p < 0.05 vs. preintervention) and total HR variability tended to increase (total power: 1,397 ± 570 vs. 2,137 ± 1,110 ms(2), p = 0.08) only in the group with PHT; consequently, HR variability became similar between groups at post-intervention (p > 0.05). Moreover, reduction in SBP was associated with augmentation in SDNN (r = -0.46, p < 0.05) and reduction in low-frequency power [LF (n.u.); r = 0.46, p < 0.05]. In conclusion, diet and exercise training reduced SBP in women with PHT, and this was associated with augmentation in parasympathetic and probably reduction in sympathetic cardiac modulation. PMID:22270484

Sales, Allan R K; Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Rocha, Natália G; Medeiros, Renata F; Castro, Renata R T; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

2012-01-24

132

Use of tea-derived, theaflavin enriched extract to increase exercise performance and reduce exercise recovery time  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention provides various methods such as a method for enhancing athletic exercise performance of a subject by administering to the subject a composition comprising a physiologically acceptable carrier and an extract of tea, wherein the extract comprises at least 20% by weight of theaflavins and wherein the composition is administered in an amount effective to enhance the subject's athletic performance.

Arent; Shawn M. (Piscataway, NJ)

2013-10-22

133

The role of exercise in reducing the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication of pregnancy and is particularly prevalent among obese women. Both GDM and obesity confer significant comorbidities for the mother and her offspring, including perinatal complications, excessive fetal growth and long-term risks for maternal and offspring obesity and diabetes. Exercise has well-documented health benefits and reduces peripheral insulin resistance in nonpregnant individuals, a major risk factor for the development of diabetes. Observational studies conducted in large population-based cohorts suggest that women who are the most active before pregnancy are less insulin-resistant in late pregnancy and have lower rates of GDM. This article will review the evidence supporting a role for exercise in the prevention of GDM, the management of glycemic control in women with established GDM, and the reduction of GDM-associated maternal and offspring health consequences. Wherever possible, the discussion will focus on studies carried out on obese women. However, there are many areas where strong evidence is lacking in obese populations, and it may be inferred from similar studies performed in normal weight pregnant women. PMID:24161309

Hopkins, Sarah A; Artal, Raul

2013-11-01

134

Influence of acute exercise on human platelet responsiveness: possible involvement of exercise-induced oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to evaluate in sedentary male subjects the effects of an acute bout of strenuous and moderate exercise\\u000a on ex vivo platelet responsiveness and its possible relationship with exercise-associated modifications of oxidant-antioxidant\\u000a status. An increased ADP- and collagen-evoked platelet aggregation associated with modified membrane fluidity and ion homeostasis\\u000a was observed after exhaustive exercise. After

M. Tozzi-Ciancarelli; M. Penco; C. Di Massimo

2002-01-01

135

Regular voluntary exercise reduces anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We embarked on a study to delineate the behavioural changes in mice after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise. As an initial behavioural characterization, we exposed the control and exercising mice to a modified hole board and an open field test. As compared to control mice, exercising animals showed clear signs of increased behavioural inhibition (e.g. a longer latency to enter

Elke Binder; Susanne K. Droste; Frauke Ohl; Johannes M. H. M. Reul

2004-01-01

136

Dose-dependent effect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cycling exercise is unrelated to systolic blood pressure.  

PubMed

This double-blind, within-subjects experiment examined the effects of ingesting two doses of caffeine on perceptions of leg muscle pain and blood pressure during moderate intensity cycling exercise. Low caffeine consuming college-aged males (N=12) ingested one of two doses of caffeine (5 or 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight) or placebo and 1 h later completed 30 min of moderate intensity cycling exercise (60% VO2peak). The order of drug administration was counter-balanced. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately before and 1 h after drug administration. Perceptions of leg muscle pain as well as work rate, blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded during exercise. Caffeine increased resting systolic pressure in a dose-dependent fashion but these blood pressure effects were not maintained during exercise. Caffeine had a significant linear effect on leg muscle pain ratings [F(2,22)=14.06; P < 0.0001; eta2=0.56 ]. The mean (+/-SD) pain intensity scores during exercise after ingesting 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, 5 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, and placebo were 2.1+/-1.4, 2.6+/-1.5, and 3.5+/-1.7, respectively. The results support the conclusion that caffeine ingestion has a dose-response effect on reducing leg muscle pain during exercise and that these effects do not depend on caffeine-induced increases in systolic blood pressure during exercise. PMID:15157690

O'Connor, Patrick J; Motl, Robert W; Broglio, Steven P; Ely, Matthew R

2004-06-01

137

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression  

PubMed Central

Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as “similar.” Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as “similar.” Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as “similar,” while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information.

Dery, Nicolas; Pilgrim, Malcolm; Gibala, Martin; Gillen, Jenna; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; MacQueen, Glenda; Becker, Suzanna

2013-01-01

138

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression.  

PubMed

Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as "similar." Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as "similar." Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as "similar," while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information. PMID:23641193

Déry, Nicolas; Pilgrim, Malcolm; Gibala, Martin; Gillen, Jenna; Wojtowicz, J Martin; Macqueen, Glenda; Becker, Suzanna

2013-04-30

139

Mean Platelet Volume and Exercise Stress Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Long-term moderate or strenuous physical activity is associated with a considerable reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However acute exercise leads to a transient activation of the thrombotic system. Healthy individuals can react this by increasing their fibrinolytic capacity acutely. However, patients with ischemic heart disease, lacking fibrinolytic potential, may be at considerable risk for acute ischemic events if

Mehmet Birhan Yilmaz; Ersin Saricam; Senay Funda Biyikoglu; Yesim Guray; Umit Guray; Hatice Sasmaz; Sule Korkmaz

2004-01-01

140

Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners.  

PubMed

Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance. PMID:1483754

Conlay, L A; Sabounjian, L A; Wurtman, R J

1992-10-01

141

Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise

Francis M Finucane; Jessica Horton; Lisa R Purslow; David B Savage; Soren Brage; Hervé Besson; Kenneth Horton; Ema Lucia De Rolfe; Alison Sleigh; Stephen J Sharp; Helen J Martin; Avan Aihie Sayer; Cyrus Cooper; Ulf Ekelund; Simon J Griffin; Nicholas J Wareham

2009-01-01

142

Reduced mechanical efficiency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but normal peak VO2 with small muscle mass exercise.  

PubMed

We studied six patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FEV1 = 1.1 +/- 0.2 L, 32% of predicted) and six age- and activity level-matched control subjects while performing both maximal bicycle exercise and single leg knee-extensor exercise. Arterial and femoral venous blood sampling, thermodilution blood flow measurements, and needle biopsies allowed the assessment of muscle oxygen supply, utilization, and structure. Maximal work rates and single leg VO2max (control subjects = 0.63 +/- 0.1; patients with COPD = 0.37 +/- 0.1 L/minute) were significantly greater in the control group during bicycle exercise. During knee-extensor exercise this difference in VO2max disappeared, whereas maximal work capacity was reduced (flywheel resistance: control subjects = 923 +/- 198; patients with COPD = 612 +/- 81 g) revealing a significantly reduced mechanical efficiency (work per unit oxygen consumed) with COPD. The patients had an elevated number of less efficient type II muscle fibers, whereas muscle fiber cross-sectional areas, capillarity, and mitochondrial volume density were not different between the groups. Therefore, although metabolic capacity per se is unchanged, fiber type differences associated with COPD may account for the reduced muscular mechanical efficiency that becomes clearly apparent during knee-extensor exercise, when muscle function is no longer overshadowed by the decrement in lung function. PMID:14500263

Richardson, Russell S; Leek, Bryan T; Gavin, Timothy P; Haseler, Luke J; Mudaliar, Sundar R D; Henry, Robert; Mathieu-Costello, Odile; Wagner, Peter D

2003-09-18

143

Short-term Aerobic Exercise Reduces Nitroglycerin-induced Orthostatic Intolerance in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims/Hypothesis Older adults are at a high risk for syncope due to orthostatic intolerance (OI), and this risk increases with comorbid type 2 diabetes and vasoactive medications. Despite many benefits, previous investigations have shown worsening OI with aerobic training. We examined whether aerobic exercise reduced OI in older adults with type 2 diabetes who were given a short-acting vasoactive agent (nitroglycerin). Methods Forty older adults (25 males and 15 females, mean age 71.4 ± 0.7 years, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years) with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Subjects were randomized to each of 2 groups: an aerobic group (3 months of vigorous aerobic exercise) and a nonaerobic (no aerobic exercise) group. Exercise sessions were supervised by a certified exercise trainer 3 times per week. After being given 400 ?g of sublingual nitroglycerin, each subject was placed in a 70° head-up tilt for 30 minutes. Results When the 2 groups were compared using a Cox proportional hazards model, tilt table tolerance was significantly better in the aerobic group as compared to in the nonaerobic group (?2MC = 7.271, P = 0.007). Conclusions Our findings indicate that a relatively short aerobic exercise intervention can improve postnitroglycerin orthostatic tolerance in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

Madden, Kenneth M.; Lockhart, Chris K.; Potter, Tiffany F.; Cuff, Darcye J.; Meneilly, Graydon S.

2013-01-01

144

Prolonged exercise reduces Ca 2+ release in rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged exercise decreased the rate of Ca+ release in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles isolated from rat muscle by 20–30% when release was initiated by 5, 10, and 20 µM AgNO3. [3H]Ryanodine binding was also depressed by 20% in SR vesicles isolated from the exercised animals. In contrast, the maximum amount of Ca2+ released by Ag+ remained unaffected by exercise. The

Terence G. Favero; Isaac N. Pessah; Gary A. Klug

1993-01-01

145

Daily exercise lowers blood pressure and reduces visceral adipose tissue areas in overweight Japanese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the link between a reduction in blood pressure (BP) and daily exercise. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical intervention study with exercise education. Subjects: 43 overweight Japanese men aged 32–59 years (BMI, 29.0±2.3 kg\\/m2) at baseline. Among the participants, a randomly selected 23 overweight men (BMI, 28.5±1.7) were further enrolled into the 10 months exercise program. Measurements: BP

Nobuyuki Miyatake; Kayo Takahashi; Jun Wada; Hidetaka Nishikawa; Akie Morishita; Hisao Suzuki; Mie Kunitomi; Hirofumi Makino; Shohei Kira; Masafumi Fujii

2003-01-01

146

Treadmill exercise reduces self-administration of morphine in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise can activate the same pathways as morphine. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of short-term and mid-term exercises on the self-administration of morphine in rats. Male Wistar rats were initially trained to receive small pellets of food by pressing the active lever in self-administration apparatus. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Saline, Morphine, Exercise

Mahmoud Hosseini; Hojjat Allah Alaei; Asieh Naderi; Mohammad Reza Sharifi; Reza Zahed

2009-01-01

147

Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose To date, little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats. Methods A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) consisting of 200 jumps per week (200J/w), given at 40 jumps per day (40J/d) for 5 days per week (5d/w) (8STP24E), followed by 24 weeks of exercise at loads of either 10J/d or 20J/d or 40J/d, for either 5d/w, or 3d/w, or 1d/w. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP) concentrations, and tibial fat free dry weight were measured. Results Tibial mass was significantly higher in 8STP than 8S. No changes were evident in serum markers of bone turnover parameters after 8STP. Significant increases in tibial mass were observed in rats that continued to exercise at workloads of 30J/w and above after 8STP. Serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations increase whereas serum 1CTP concentrations decrease in rats given workloads of 40J/w and above. Conclusions It appears, an exercise load of 30J/w, i.e. 10J/d for 3d/w, was the minimum level of continuous exercise load that was required to maintain the 8STP-induced bone gains. In addition, significant increases in bone mass in young rats following 8STP might not always be reflected by changes in serum levels of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and 1CTP.

Ooi, Foong Kiew; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Singh, Harbindar Jeet

2012-01-01

148

Delayed blood pressure recovery ratio might indicate increased arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with reduced aerobic exercise capacity.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Cardiopulmonary fitness is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Abnormal systolic blood pressure (SBP) response during recovery has been found to have diagnostic role for detecting cardiovascular risk. Aim of the study was to determine whether increased arterial stiffness associates with reduced aerobic exercise capacity after maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in a cohort of recently diagnosed hypertensive patients with a delayed decline in SBP during recovery. Methods: Eighty-four hypertensive patients with recently diagnosed I-II essential hypertension and under treatment with RAAS antagonists ± HCTZ, underwent pulse wave velocity (PWV) estimation and a maximal CPET. Fifty-four healthy normotensive subjects served as a control group. Blood pressure recovery ratio (BPRR) was defined as the SBP after 3 min recovery divided by SBP at peak exercise. Results: PWV was significantly increased in hypertensives vs normotensives (p < 0.001). A non-independent, reverse association between PWV and VO2PEAK was revealed in hypertensives with delayed BPRR (r = - 0.49, p < 0.05). Age and sex independently predicted VO2PEAK in hypertensives with delayed BPRR. Conclusions: Delayed blood pressure response detected during recovery in treated hypertensives implies a reverse relationship between any given impaired aerobic exercise capacity and expected persistent peripheral vascular resistance during exercise. PMID:23373532

Kontsas, Konstantinos; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Trivilou, Paraskevi; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Tzortzis, Stavros; Liazos, Ioannis; Alevras, Panagiotis; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Kremastinos, Dimitrios; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria; Lekakis, John

2013-02-01

149

Treadmill exercise reduces self-administration of morphine in male rats.  

PubMed

Exercise can activate the same pathways as morphine. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of short-term and mid-term exercises on the self-administration of morphine in rats. Male Wistar rats were initially trained to receive small pellets of food by pressing the active lever in self-administration apparatus. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Saline, Morphine, Exercise 1 (11 days) and Exercise 2 (30 days). Their jugular vein was cannulated. The animals were placed in self-administration apparatus and allowed to self-administer morphine (0.5mg per infusion all test groups) or saline (Saline group) during consecutive days, for 2h/sessions. In the group 1 the rats were running before each session of self-administration and of group Exercise 2, 30 days before surgery as well as before each session. The pressing numbers of active and passive levers in each group and among different groups were compared. The number of active lever pressing of Morphine group was significantly higher than Saline group (p<0.001). In Exercise 1 and Exercise 2 groups, the number of active lever pressing was significantly lower than Morphine group (p<0.001). As exercise can activate many neurotransmitter systems involved in the addiction process and increase the release of endorphins, it is likely that could decrease the morphine self-administration in this experimental setup. PMID:19131225

Hosseini, Mahmoud; Alaei, Hojjat Allah; Naderi, Asieh; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Zahed, Reza

2009-01-07

150

Rectus Sheath Hematoma Caused by Non-Contact Strenuous Exercise Mimicking Acute Appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A healthy 26-year-old man visited the Emergency Department due to right lower quadrant pain of 2 days' duration that developed after wakeboarding. There was no history of direct trauma to the abdomen. Physical examination revealed tenderness and rebound tenderness on the right lower quadrant area. There was no palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was undertaken to

Je Hyeok Oh; Tae Han Kim; Sung Jae Cha; Seung Ho Kim

2010-01-01

151

Plasma glucagon and catecholamines during exhaustive short-term exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Plasma glucagon and catecholamine levels were measured in male athletes before and after exhaustive 15 min continuous running and strenuous intermittent short-term exercise (3×300 m). Blood lactate levels were higher after the intermittent exercise (mean 16.7 mmol×l–1) than after the continuous running (mean 7.1 mmol×l–1). Plasma glucagon concentration increased during continuous running and intermittent exercise by 41% and 55%, respectively,

H. NÄveri; K. Kuoppasalmi; M. HÄrkönen

1985-01-01

152

Abnormalities in exercising skeletal muscle in congestive heart failure can be explained in terms of decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis, reduced metabolic efficiency, and increased glycogenolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To distinguish between the effects of reduced oxidative capacity and reduced metabolic efficiency on skeletal muscle bioenergetics during exercise in patients with congestive heart failure. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Patients were studied by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during aerobic exercise and recovery, and results compared with controls. RESULTS: In flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (26 patients) there was a 30% decrease

G. J. Kemp; C. H. Thompson; J. R. Stratton; F. Brunotte; M. Conway; S. Adamopoulos; L. Arnolda; G. K. Radda; B. Rajagopalan

1996-01-01

153

Effect of Postexercise Recovery Procedures Following Strenuous Stair-climb Running  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effects of hot\\/cold water immersion, static stretching, and no recovery (control) interventions on leg strength, rowing performance, and indicators of muscle soreness\\/damage in the 72 hours following strenuous stair-climb running. Club (n = 14) and elite (Sports Institute) (n = 6) rowers performed the training run on three separate occasions. After each run, participants completed a

Elisa Robey; Brian Dawson; Carmel Goodman; John Beilby

2009-01-01

154

Mechanistic Studies on Reduced Exercise Performance and Cardiac Deconditioning with Simulated Zero Gravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated wi...

C. M. Tipton

1991-01-01

155

Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment  

Cancer.gov

Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study published October 8, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

156

High calcium diet reduces blood pressure in exercised and nonexercised hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of long-term high calcium diet and physical exercise and their combined effects on the development of hypertension, plasma and tissue atrial natriuretic peptide, and arterial function were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats with Wistar-Kyoto rats serving as normotensive controls. Hypertensive rats were made to exercise by running on a treadmill up to 900 m\\/day. Calcium supplementation was instituted

Kirsimarja Sallinen; Pertti Arvola; Heikki Wuorela; Heikki Ruskoaho; Heikki Vapaatalo; Ilkka Pörsti

1996-01-01

157

?-Alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral ingestion of ?-alanine, the rate-limiting precursor in carnosine synthesis, has been shown to elevate the muscle\\u000a carnosine content. Carnosine is thought to act as a physiologically relevant pH buffer during exercise but direct evidence\\u000a is lacking. Acidosis has been hypothesised to influence oxygen uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise. The present\\u000a study aimed to investigate whether oral ?-alanine supplementation

Audrey Baguet; Katrien Koppo; Andries Pottier; Wim Derave

2010-01-01

158

Verapamil acutely reduces ventricular-vascular stiffening and improves aerobic exercise performance in elderly individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe tested the hypothesis that acute intravenous verapamil acutely enhances aerobic exercise performance in healthy older individuals in association with a combined reduction of ventricular systolic and arterial vascular stiffnesses.BACKGROUNDAge-related vascular stiffening coupled with systolic ventricular stiffening may limit cardiovascular reserve and, thus, exercise performance in aged individuals.METHODSNineteen healthy volunteers with mean age 70 ± 10 years underwent maximal-effort upright

Chen-Huan Chen; Masaru Nakayama; Maurice Talbot; Erez Nevo; Barry Fetics; Gary Gerstenblith; Lewis C Becker; David A Kass

1999-01-01

159

Alpha 1 -adrenergic blockade reduces exercise-induced regional myocardial ischemia in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of selective a1-adrenoceptor blockade on regional myocardial blood flow and contractile function during exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was determined in nine dogs having chronic single vessel coronary stenosis (ameroid constrictor). Treadmill exercise performed after ß-adrenoceptor blockade (1.0 mg\\/kg i.v. propranolol), to block potential prejunctional effects recently recognized with a-blockade, elicited severe regional myocardial ischemia with a steady-state reduction of

B. D. Guth; T. Miura; E. Thaulow; G. Heusch; John Ross

1993-01-01

160

Decreased nerve growth factor upregulation is a mechanism for reduced mechanical hyperalgesia after the second bout of exercise in rats.  

PubMed

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is reduced when the same exercise is repeated after a certain interval. However, the mechanism for this adaptation, called a repeated bout effect, is still not well understood. Recently, we showed that upregulated nerve growth factor (NGF) triggered by B2 bradykinin receptor (B2R) activation in exercised muscle was responsible for DOMS. In this study, we investigated whether NGF upregulation was reduced after repeated bouts of exercise in rats, and if so, whether this change occurred upstream of B2R. A bout of 500 lengthening contractions (LC) was applied on day 0 and again 5 days later. DOMS was evaluated by the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the exercised extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Mechanical hyperalgesia and NGF mRNA upregulation in EDL were observed after the first LC, but not after the second LC. We then injected HOE140, a B2R antagonist with effects lasting only several hours, once before the first LC. This blocked the development of mechanical hyperalgesia and NGF mRNA upregulation not only after the first LC but also after the second LC. This suggests that adaptation occurred upstream of B2R, as the influence of the first LC was limited to that area by HOE140. PMID:23134144

Urai, H; Murase, S; Mizumura, K

2012-11-08

161

Creatine supplementation reduces oxidative stress biomarkers after acute exercise in rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle and plasma markers of oxidative stress after acute aerobic exercise. A total of 64 Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 32) and creatine-supplemented group (n = 32). Creatine supplementation consisted of the addition of 2% creatine monohydrate to the diet. After 28 days, the rats performed an acute moderate aerobic exercise bout (1-h swimming with 4% of total body weight load). The animals were killed before (pre) and at 0, 2 and 6 h (n = 8) after acute exercise. As expected, plasma and total muscle creatine concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the creatine-supplemented group compared to control. Acute exercise increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and total lipid hydroperoxide. The same was observed in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. Creatine supplementation decreased these markers in plasma (TBARS: pre 6%, 0 h 25%, 2 h 27% and 6 h 20%; plasma total lipid hydroperoxide: pre 38%, 0 h 24%, 2 h 12% and 6 h 20%, % decrease). Also, acute exercise decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio in soleus muscle, which was prevented by creatine supplementation (soleus: pre 8%, 0 h 29%, 2 h 30% and 6 h 44%, % prevention). The results show that creatine supplementation inhibits increased oxidative stress markers in plasma and muscle induced by acute exercise. PMID:22009139

Deminice, Rafael; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

2011-10-19

162

Prophylactic tolperisone for post-exercise muscle soreness causes reduced isometric force--a double-blind randomized crossover control study.  

PubMed

The role of tolperisone hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant in relieving painful muscle spasm is recently being discussed. The present study hypothesizes that the prophylactic use of tolperisone hydrochloride may effectively relieve post-exercise muscle soreness, based on the spasm theory of exercise pain. Twenty male volunteers, aged 25.2 +/- 0.82 years (mean +/- SEM) participated in 10 sessions in which they received oral treatment with placebo or the centrally acting muscle relaxant tolperisone hydrochloride (150 mg) three times daily for 8 days, in randomized crossover double-blind design. Time course assessments were made for pressure pain threshold, Likert's pain score (0-5), pain areas, range of abduction, isometric force, and electromyography (EMG) root mean square (RMS) during maximum voluntary isometric force on day 1 and 6, immediately after an eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle, and 24 and 48 h after the exercise. Treatment with placebo or tolperisone hydrochloride was initiated immediately after the assessments on the first day baseline assessments. On the sixth day baseline investigations were repeated and then the subjects performed six bouts of standardized intense eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle for provocation of post-exercise muscle soreness (PEMS). Perceived intensity of warmth, tiredness, soreness and pain during the exercise bouts were recorded on a 10 cm visual analogue pain scale. VAS scores and pressure pain thresholds did not differ between tolperisone and placebo treatment. All VAS scores increased during the exercise bouts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 as compared to bout 1. Increased pain scores and pain areas were reported immediately after, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Pressure pain thresholds were reduced at 24 and 48 h after the exercise in the exercised hand. Range of abduction of the index finger was reduced immediately after the exercise and was still reduced at 24 h as compared to the non-exercised hand. The EMG RMS amplitude was also reduced immediately after the exercise, but was increased at 24 and 48 h. Isometric force was reduced immediately after the exercise as compared to days 1, 6, and the 24 and 48 h post-exercise assessments with a greater reduction following the tolperisone hydrochloride treatment and the reduction was more in tolperisone group as compared to the placebo group. The results suggest, that the prophylactic intake of tolperisone hydrochloride provides no relief to pain in course of post-exercise muscle soreness but results in reduction in isometric force. PMID:12935792

Bajaj, Prem; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Svensson, Peter

2003-01-01

163

Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise  

PubMed Central

Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame), and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45?min rest?+?60?min self-paced intense exercise) differing only in their fluid intake: 1) carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C)); 2) 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA)); 3) water (W); and 4) aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A)). Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43%) between pre-exercise and 30?min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

2012-01-01

164

Cardiopulmonary Effects of Stressful Exercise at Altitude (4,000 FT) of Individuals with Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS or SCT). Annual Report April 1, 1985 - April 30, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Controversy persists regarding the risks assumed by individuals with SCT while engaged in activities that would involve a greater likelihood of exposure to hypoxic environments and other stress situations such as performing strenuous exercise especially a...

I. M. Weisman R. J. Zeballos

1986-01-01

165

Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20–50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive

H P F PETERS; W R DE VRIES; G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN; L M A AKKERMANS

2001-01-01

166

Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score). Methods Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. Results LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p < 0.05). LoGIx and HiGIx decreased the Z-score similarly, as each intervention decreased blood pressure, TG, FPG, and WC (p < 0.05). HiGIx tended to suppress NEFA during insulin stimulation compared to LoGIx (p = 0.06). Conclusions Our findings highlight that exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet.

Malin, Steven K.; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Kelly, Karen R.; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

2012-01-01

167

Antibody and CD8+ T cell memory response to influenza A/PR/8/34 infection is reduced in treadmill-exercised mice, yet still protective.  

PubMed

Moderate exercise may decrease the severity of influenza infection and reduce lung viral load. The possibility that an exercise-associated reduction in lung viral load early in infection could contribute to decreased serum antibody and reduced memory response were investigated. BALB/c mice exercised for 8 wk and were then infected with influenza A/PR/8/34 (intranasal route). Influenza-specific serum antibody was assessed for 6 mo post primary infection, at which time mice were infected again with influenza A/PR/8/34. After primary infection, exercise reduced morbidity/mortality, attenuated lung cytokines, and decreased serum anti-influenza IgG and IgG2a from day 14 to day 180 post primary infection. After secondary infectious challenge, exercised mice did not show any signs of illness, but had reduced serum anti-influenza IgG and IgG2a, increased IgG1, and reduced influenza-specific recruited and resident CD8+ granzyme B+ T cells within the lungs. When influenza virus was administered by an intraperitoneal route during primary infection, exercise did not alter serum anti-influenza IgG, IgG1, or IgG2a, suggesting the exercise effect was specific to the lung environment. Exercise-induced enhancement of respiratory host defense to primary influenza infection results in decreased serum antibody and lung CD8+ T cell memory response, but does not compromise resistance to secondary infectious challenge. PMID:23493360

Warren, Kristi; Thompson, Nicholas; Wannemuehler, Michael; Kohut, Marian

2013-03-14

168

Five Exercises Can Reduce Neck, Shoulder Pain Of Women Office Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Study finds physiological changes in one muscle help ease pain." This press release describes the experimental design and findings from the published study "Effect of contrasting physical exercise on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles" by Lars L. Andersen, Jesper L. Andersen, Charlotte Suetta, Michael Kjaer, Karen Sogaard, and Gisela Sjogaard in Journal of Applied Physiology, September 2009.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2009-11-18

169

Exercise training does not reduce hyperlipidemia in pigs fed a high-fat diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pig is often used as a model for studying lipoprotein metabolism as it relates to human atherosclerosis, but few studies have examined the complete lipoprotein profile and related enzymes in swine ingesting an atherogenic diet. We examined whether exercise training would moderate the effects of an atherogenic diet on lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in miniature swine. Male

Tom R. Thomas; Jonathan Pellechia; R. Scott Rector; Grace Y. Sun; Michael S. Sturek; M. Harold Laughlin

2002-01-01

170

Reduced Cardiorespiratory Fitness after Stroke: Biological Consequences and Exercise-Induced Adaptations  

PubMed Central

Evidence from several studies consistently shows decline in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness and physical function after disabling stroke. The broader implications of such a decline to general health may be partially understood through negative poststroke physiologic adaptations such as unilateral muscle fiber type shifts, impaired hemodynamic function, and decrements in systemic metabolic status. These physiologic changes also interrelate with reductions in activities of daily living (ADLs), community ambulation, and exercise tolerance, causing a perpetual cycle of worsening disability and deteriorating health. Fortunately, initial evidence suggests that stroke participants retain the capacity to adapt physiologically to an exercise training stimulus. However, despite this evidence, exercise as a therapeutic intervention continues to be clinically underutilized in the general stroke population. Far more research is needed to fully comprehend the consequences of and remedies for CR fitness impairments after stroke. The purpose of this brief review is to describe some of what is currently known about the physiological consequences of CR fitness decline after stroke. Additionally, there is an overview of the evidence supporting exercise interventions for improving CR fitness, and associated aspects of general health in this population.

Billinger, Sandra A.; Coughenour, Eileen; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn J.; Ivey, Frederick M.

2012-01-01

171

A Comparison of Exercise and Meditation in Reducing Physiological Response to Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of brief treadmill exercise and meditation with a placebo-control treatment for reduction in several physiological and psychological measures of stress, anxiety, and tension before and after a written final examination in 48 high-test anxiety subjects. The subjects, 24 men and 24 women,…

Sime, Wesley E.

172

Molecular aspects involved in swimming exercise training reducing anhedonia in a rat model of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients suffering from depression frequently display hyperactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in elevated cortisol levels. One main symptom of this condition is anhedonia. There is evidence that exercise training can be used as a rehabilitative intervention in the treatment of depressive disorders. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an

A. R. Sigwalt; H. Budde; I. Helmich; V. Glaser; K. Ghisoni; S. Lanza; E. L. Cadore; F. L. R. Lhullier; A. F. de Bem; A. Hohl; F. J. de Matos; P. A. de Oliveira; R. D. Prediger; L. G. A. Guglielmo; A. Latini

2011-01-01

173

Exercise Minimizes Weight Regain By Reducing Appetite, Burning Fat, And Lowering 'Defended' Body Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

APS Press Release of Journal Article "Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long term weight loss" by Paul S. MacLean, Janine A. Higgins, Holly R. Wyatt, Edward L. Melanson, Ginger C. Johnson, Matthew R. Jackman, Erin D. Giles, Ian E. Brown and James O. Hill, found in American Journal of Physiology ÃÂ Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2009-09-02

174

Health Opportunities with Physical Exercise (HOPE): social contextual interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in urban settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity interventions targeting social and physical environments of the urban poor hold promise in improving health outcomes in underserved communities. This study randomly assigned overweight, sedentary, economically disadvantaged adults to one of three interven- tion conditions at The Hope and Healing Center, a large inner-city health facility providing numerous options for exercise. Within the tenets of Social Action Theory,

M. Coday; L. M. Klesges; R. J. Garrison; K. C. Johnson; M. O'Toole; G. S. Morris

2002-01-01

175

Reducing resistance and denial by exercising ambivalence during the treatment of addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stage change models and motivational enhancement therapies have significantly influenced the therapeutic tactics clinicians employ in the treatment of addictive behaviors. While motivational enhancement strategies have addressed client ambivalence to increase motivation to change, this article suggests that focusing on ambivalence during treatment has even wider clinical utility than previously thought. Resistance reduction concentrates on exercising ambivalence without an investment

Howard J Shaffer; Gary Simoneau

2001-01-01

176

Acute Renal Failure with Severe Loin Pain and Patchy Renal Ischemia after Anaerobic Exercise in Patients with or without Renal Hypouricemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute renal failure induced by rhabdomyolysis after strenuous exercise is well known. We describe here a new type of acute renal failure with severe loin pain which develops after anaerobic exercise (ALPE), for example, 200-meter track racing. The patients complained of severe loin pain several hours after exercise and presented at the emergency room. Since our first description 118 cases

Isao Ishikawa

2002-01-01

177

Short-term hypoxic exposure at rest and during exercise reduces lung water in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise increase pulmonary arterial pressure, cause pulmonary capillary recruitment, and may influence the ability of the lungs to regulate fluid. To examine the influence of hypoxia, alone and combined with exercise, on lung fluid balance, we studied 25 healthy subjects after 17-h exposure to 12.5% inspired oxygen (barometric pressure = 732 mmHg) and sequentially after exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer with 12.5% inspired oxygen. We also studied subjects after a rapid saline infusion (30 ml/kg over 15 min) to demonstrate the sensitivity of our techniques to detect changes in lung water. Pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and alveolar-capillary conductance (D(M)) were determined by measuring the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Lung tissue volume and density were assessed using computed tomography. Lung water was estimated by subtracting measures of Vc from computed tomography lung tissue volume. Pulmonary function [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume after 1 s (FEV(1)), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF(50))] was also assessed. Saline infusion caused an increase in Vc (42%), tissue volume (9%), and lung water (11%), and a decrease in D(M) (11%) and pulmonary function (FVC = -12 +/- 9%, FEV(1) = -17 +/- 10%, FEF(50) = -20 +/- 13%). Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise resulted in increases in Vc (43 +/- 19 and 51 +/- 16%), D(M) (7 +/- 4 and 19 +/- 6%), and pulmonary function (FVC = 9 +/- 6 and 4 +/- 3%, FEV(1) = 5 +/- 2 and 4 +/- 3%, FEF(50) = 4 +/- 2 and 12 +/- 5%) and decreases in lung density and lung water (-84 +/- 24 and -103 +/- 20 ml vs. baseline). These data suggest that 17 h of hypoxic exposure at rest or with exercise resulted in a decrease in lung water in healthy humans. PMID:16902060

Snyder, Eric M; Beck, Kenneth C; Hulsebus, Minelle L; Breen, Jerome F; Hoffman, Eric A; Johnson, Bruce D

2006-08-10

178

Infections and exercise in high-performance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elite athlete has a potentially increased sensitivity to respiratory infections, rendering protective measures particularly important. Some other infections that may appear in clusters in the sports setting, such as gastroenteritis, leptospirosis, herpes simplex and viral hepatitis, also require special precautionary attention. Strenuous exercise during ongoing infection and fever may be hazardous and should always be avoided. In addition, early

Göran Friman; Lars Wesslén

2000-01-01

179

Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.  

PubMed

Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge. PMID:23904096

Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

2013-08-01

180

Supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) reduces signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in man.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of beta-hydroxyl-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) supplementation on signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise. Six non-resistance trained male subjects performed an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle damage on two separate occasions, performed on the dominant or non-dominant arm in a counter-balanced crossover design. Subjects were assigned to an HMB/KIC (3 g HMB and 0.3 g alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, daily) or placebo treatment for 14 d prior to exercise in the counter-balanced crossover design. One repetition maximum (1RM), plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girth, and range of motion (ROM) were determined pre-exercise, at 1h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-exercise. DOMS and the percentage changes in 1RM, limb girth, and ROM all changed over the 72 h period (P < 0.05). HMB//IC supplementation attenuated the CK response, the percentage decrement in 1RM, and the percentage increase in limb girth (P < 0.05). In addition, DOMS was reduced at 24 h post-exercise (P < 0.05) in the HMB/KIC treatment. In conclusion, 14 d of HMB and KIC supplementation reduced signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in non-resistance trained males following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise. PMID:16286672

van Someren, Ken A; Edwards, Adam J; Howatson, Glyn

2005-08-01

181

Extrinsic Threshold PEEP Reduces Post-exercise Dyspnea in COPD Patients: A Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Cross-over Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Most patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complain of dyspnea during and following exercise, and the development of intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is thought to contribute to lung hyperinflation and dyspnea. Many people with COPD use pursed lip breathing (PLB) in an attempt to produce extrinsic PEEP to reduce lung hyperinflation and dyspnea during and following exertion. We hypothesized that the use of a threshold, extrinsic PEEP device would reduce post-exercise dyspnea in people with COPD. Methods: A double blind, crossover study was conducted on post-exercise dyspnea in 8 patients with COPD whose exercise tolerance was limited by dyspnea. Subjects performed two identical 6-minute treadmill bouts that led to a Borg dyspnea rating of at least 5/10. Dyspnea, heart rate, and oxygen-hemoglobin saturation (SpO2) were recorded at rest, every 2 minutes during exercise and at 2, 5, and 10 minutes post-exercise. Immediately following the exercise bouts, the subjects used either a threshold PEEP device for 6 breaths at 10 cm H2O or a Sham device. Results: Heart rate and SpO2 were not different between treatments any time point before, during, or after exercise. Dyspnea ratings were not different between devices at rest or during exercise, but were lower in the post-exercise period following use of PEEP (p < 0.05). When asked which device, if any, the subjects would prefer to use to relieve post-exercise dyspnea, 7 of 8 chose the PEEP device and one had no preference. Conclusions: We found that the use of a PEEP device can help reduce postexercise dyspnea in patients with COPD.

Davenport, Paul W

2011-01-01

182

Enhanced glucose availability for working muscles reduces exercise hyperthermia in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Body temperature and metabolic responses to 2 h treadmill exercise in dogs given glucose intravenously (25–30 mg·kg–1· min–1 throughout the run) were compared with those measured in the same animals with elevated plasma FFA concentrations (soya bean oil ingestion+intravenous heparin) and in control experiments (24 h fasting). In comparison with control conditions enhanced glucose availability for the working muscles caused

Barbara Kruk; Krystyna Nazar; Hanna Kaciuba-U?ci?ko; Stanis?aw Koz?owski

1987-01-01

183

Diet and exercise interventions reduce intrahepatic fat content and improve insulin sensitivity in obese older adults.  

PubMed

Both obesity and aging increase intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, which leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of diet and diet in conjunction with exercise on IHF content and associated metabolic abnormalities in obese older adults. Eighteen obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) older (>or=65 years old) adults completed a 6-month clinical trial. Participants were randomized to diet (D group; n = 9) or diet + exercise (D+E group; n = 9). Primary outcome was IHF quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Secondary outcomes included insulin sensitivity (assessed by oral glucose tolerance), body composition (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical function (VO(2 peak) and strength), glucose, lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Body weight (D: -9 +/- 1%, D+E: -10 +/- 2%, both P < 0.05) and fat mass (D: -13 +/- 3%, D+E -16 +/- 3%, both P < 0.05) decreased in both groups but there was no difference between groups. IHF decreased to a similar extent in both groups (D: -46 +/- 11%, D+E: -45 +/- 8%, both P < 0.05), which was accompanied by comparable improvements in insulin sensitivity (D: 66 +/- 25%, D+E: 68 +/- 28%, both P < 0.05). The relative decreases in IHF correlated directly with relative increases in insulin sensitivity index (ISI) (r = -0.52; P < 0.05). Improvements in VO(2 peak), strength, plasma triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, and diastolic BP occurred in the D+E group (all P < 0.05) but not in the D group. Diet with or without exercise results in significant decreases in IHF content accompanied by considerable improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese older adults. The addition of exercise to diet therapy improves physical function and other obesity- and aging-related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:19390517

Shah, Krupa; Stufflebam, Abby; Hilton, Tiffany N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Villareal, Dennis T

2009-04-23

184

Fatigue in repeated-sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between each individual’s anaerobic power reserve (APR) [i.e.,\\u000a the difference between the maximum anaerobic (P\\u000a ana) and aerobic power (P\\u000a aer)] and fatigability during repeated-sprint exercise and (2) to examine the acute effects of repeated sprints on neuromuscular\\u000a activity, as evidenced by changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signals.

Alberto Mendez-Villanueva; Peter Hamer; David Bishop

2008-01-01

185

A single session of resistance exercise does not reduce postprandial lipaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of a single session of resistance exercise on postprandial lipaemia. Eleven healthy normolipidaemic men with a mean age of 23 (standard error??=??1.4) years performed two trials at least 1 week apart in a counterbalanced randomized design. In each trial, participants consumed a test meal (1.2?g fat, 1.1?g carbohydrate, 0.2?g protein and 68 kJ?·?kg body mass)

Stephen F Burns; Heather Corrie; Ester Holder; Thomas Nightingale; David J Stensel

2005-01-01

186

Effect of strenuous strength training on the NaK pump concentration in skeletal muscle of well-trained men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how strenuous strength training affected the Na-K pump concentration in the knee extensor muscle of well-trained\\u000a men and whether leg muscle strength and endurance was related to the pump concentration. First, the pump concentration, taken\\u000a as 3H-ouabain binding, was measured in top alpine skiers since strength training is important to them. Second, well-trained subjects\\u000a carried out strenuous

Jon Ingulf Medbø; Einar Jebens; Harald Vikne; Per Egil Refsnes; Petter Gramvik

2001-01-01

187

An enhanced exercise and cognitive programme does not appear to reduce incident delirium in hospitalised patients: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if a programme of progressive resistance exercise, mobilisation and orientation, in addition to usual care, was superior to usual care alone in the prevention of incident delirium in older hospitalised patients. Design A randomised controlled trial. Setting The study was performed at a secondary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia between May 2005 and December 2007. Participants 648 consecutive medical inpatients aged 65?years or older who had been in hospital for less than 48?h and who did not have delirium. Intervention Participants were randomly allocated to a twice-daily programme of progressive resistance exercise tailored to individual ability, mobilisation and orientation in addition to usual care or to usual care alone. Measurements Delirium was measured using the Confusion Assessment Method at baseline and every 48?h until discharge. Secondary outcome measures were severity and duration of delirium, discharge destination and length of stay. Results Delirium occurred in 4.9% (95% CI 2.3% to 7.3%) of the intervention group (15/305) and in 5.9% (20/339; 95% CI 3.8% to 9.2%) of the group receiving usual care. No difference was observed between groups (?2; p=0.5). The intervention had no effect on delirium duration, severity, discharge destination or length of stay. Conclusion A programme of progressive resistance exercise and orientation was not effective in reducing incident delirium in hospitalised elderly patients.

Jeffs, Kimberley J; Berlowitz, David J; Grant, Shane; Lawlor, Vicki; Graco, Marnie; de Morton, Natalie A; Savige, Judith A; Lim, Wen K

2013-01-01

188

Reduced AMPK-ACC and mTOR signaling in muscle from older men, and effect of resistance exercise.  

PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy-sensitive enzyme that controls numerous metabolic and cellular processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is another energy/nutrient-sensitive kinase that controls protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study we determined whether older versus younger men have alterations in the AMPK and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle, and examined the effect of a long term resistance type exercise training program on these signaling intermediaries. Older men had decreased AMPK?2 activity and lower phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream signaling substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). mTOR phosphylation also was reduced in muscle from older men. Exercise training increased AMPK?1 activity in older men, however, AMPK?2 activity, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and mTOR, were not affected. In conclusion, older men have alterations in the AMPK-ACC and mTOR pathways in muscle. In addition, prolonged resistance type exercise training induces an isoform-selective up regulation of AMPK activity. PMID:23000302

Li, Mengyao; Verdijk, Lex B; Sakamoto, Kei; Ely, Brian; van Loon, Luc J C; Musi, Nicolas

2012-09-19

189

Exercise-induced anaphylactic reaction to shellfish.  

PubMed

The syndrome of immediate type I food hypersensitivity, mediated by tissue-bound IgE antibody and mast cell histamine release, is well recorded in the medical literature. This case study represents a previously undescribed late food hypersensitivity, induced only by strenuous exercise. Identification of this new syndrome illustrates classical epidemiologic analysis, improves medical advice for the allergic and athletically inclined, and raises new questions in the areas of allergy and immunology. PMID:447945

Maulitz, R M; Pratt, D S; Schocket, A L

1979-06-01

190

Spurious Hb mass increases following exercise.  

PubMed

Sensitivity of the Athlete Blood Passport for blood doping could be improved by including total haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)), but this measure may be unreliable immediately following strenuous exercise. We examined the stability of Hb(mass) following ultra-endurance triathlon (3.8 km swim, 180 km bike, 42.2 km run). 26 male sub-elite triathletes, 18 Racers and 8 Controls, were tested for Hb(mass) using CO re-breathing, twice 1-5 days apart. Racers were measured before and 1-3 h after the triathlon. Controls did no vigorous exercise on either test day. Serum haptoglobin concentration and urine haemoglobin concentration were measured to assess intravascular haemolysis. There was a 3.2% (p<0.01) increase in Racers' Hb(mass) from pre-race (976 g ± 14.6%, mean ±% coefficient of variation) to post-race (1 007 g ± 13.8%), as opposed to a - 0.5% decrease in Controls (pre-race 900 g ± 13.9%, post-race 896 g ± 12.4%). Haptoglobin was - 67% (p<0.01) reduced in Racers (pre-race 0.48 g / L ± 150%, post-race 0.16 g / L ± 432%), compared to - 6% reduced in Controls (pre-race 1.08 g / L ± 37%, post-race 1.02 g / L ± 37%). Decreased serum haptoglobin concentration in Racers, which is suggestive of mild intravascular blood loss, was contrary to the apparent Hb(mass) increase post-race. Ultra-endurance triathlon racing may confound the accuracy of post-exercise Hb(mass) measures, possibly due to splenic contraction or an increased rate of CO diffusion to intramuscular myoglobin. PMID:22706938

Gough, C E; Eastwood, A; Saunders, P U; Anson, J M; Gore, C J

2012-06-15

191

Increasing exercise intensity reduces heterogeneity of glucose uptake in human skeletal muscles.  

PubMed

Proper muscle activation is a key feature of survival in different tasks in daily life as well as sports performance, but can be impaired in elderly and in diseases. Therefore it is also clinically important to better understand the phenomenon that can be elucidated in humans non-invasively by positron emission tomography (PET) with measurements of spatial heterogeneity of glucose uptake within and among muscles during exercise. We studied six healthy young men during 35 minutes of cycling at relative intensities of 30% (low), 55% (moderate), and 75% (high) of maximal oxygen consumption on three separate days. Glucose uptake in the quadriceps femoris muscle group (QF), the main force producing muscle group in recreational cycling, and its four individual muscles, was directly measured using PET and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. Within-muscle heterogeneity was determined by calculating the coefficient of variance (CV) of glucose uptake in PET image voxels within the muscle of interest, and among-muscles heterogeneity of glucose uptake in QF was expressed as CV of the mean glucose uptake values of its separate muscles. With increasing intensity, within-muscle heterogeneity decreased in the entire QF as well as within its all four individual parts. Among-muscles glucose uptake heterogeneity also decreased with increasing intensity. However, mean glucose uptake was consistently lower and heterogeneity higher in rectus femoris muscle that is known to consist of the highest percentage of fast twitch type II fibers, compared to the other three QF muscles. In conclusion, these results show that in addition to increased contribution of distinct muscle parts, with increases in exercise intensity there is also an enhanced recruitment of muscle fibers within all of the four heads of QF, despite established differences in muscle-part specific fiber type distributions. Glucose uptake heterogeneity may serve as a useful non-invasive tool to elucidate muscle activation in aging and diseased populations. PMID:23284929

Heinonen, Ilkka; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kemppainen, Jukka; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

2012-12-20

192

Increasing Exercise Intensity Reduces Heterogeneity of Glucose Uptake in Human Skeletal Muscles  

PubMed Central

Proper muscle activation is a key feature of survival in different tasks in daily life as well as sports performance, but can be impaired in elderly and in diseases. Therefore it is also clinically important to better understand the phenomenon that can be elucidated in humans non-invasively by positron emission tomography (PET) with measurements of spatial heterogeneity of glucose uptake within and among muscles during exercise. We studied six healthy young men during 35 minutes of cycling at relative intensities of 30% (low), 55% (moderate), and 75% (high) of maximal oxygen consumption on three separate days. Glucose uptake in the quadriceps femoris muscle group (QF), the main force producing muscle group in recreational cycling, and its four individual muscles, was directly measured using PET and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. Within-muscle heterogeneity was determined by calculating the coefficient of variance (CV) of glucose uptake in PET image voxels within the muscle of interest, and among-muscles heterogeneity of glucose uptake in QF was expressed as CV of the mean glucose uptake values of its separate muscles. With increasing intensity, within-muscle heterogeneity decreased in the entire QF as well as within its all four individual parts. Among-muscles glucose uptake heterogeneity also decreased with increasing intensity. However, mean glucose uptake was consistently lower and heterogeneity higher in rectus femoris muscle that is known to consist of the highest percentage of fast twitch type II fibers, compared to the other three QF muscles. In conclusion, these results show that in addition to increased contribution of distinct muscle parts, with increases in exercise intensity there is also an enhanced recruitment of muscle fibers within all of the four heads of QF, despite established differences in muscle-part specific fiber type distributions. Glucose uptake heterogeneity may serve as a useful non-invasive tool to elucidate muscle activation in aging and diseased populations.

Kemppainen, Jukka; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

2012-01-01

193

A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.  

PubMed

The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized that a 12-week controlled aerobic exercise program without weight loss reduces visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat content and decreases insulin resistance in sedentary Hispanic adolescents. Twenty-nine postpubertal (Tanner stage IV and V), Hispanic adolescents, 15 obese (7 boys, 8 girls; 15.6 +/- 0.4 years; 33.7 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2); 38.3 +/- 1.5% body fat) and 14 lean (10 boys, 4 girls; 15.1 +/- 0.3 years; 20.6 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2); 18.9 +/- 1.5% body fat), completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program (4 x 30 min/week at > or =70% of peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)peak)). Measurements of cardiovascular fitness, visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat content (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)), and insulin resistance were obtained at baseline and postexercise. In both groups, fitness increased (obese: 13 +/- 2%, lean: 16 +/- 4%; both P < 0.01). In obese participants, intramyocellular fat remained unchanged, whereas hepatic fat content decreased from 8.9 +/- 3.2 to 5.6 +/- 1.8%; P < 0.05 and visceral fat content from 54.7 +/- 6.0 to 49.6 +/- 5.5 cm(2); P < 0.05. Insulin resistance decreased indicated by decreased fasting insulin (21.8 +/- 2.7 to 18.2 +/- 2.4 microU/ml; P < 0.01) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) (4.9 +/- 0.7 to 4.1 +/- 0.6; P < 0.01). The decrease in visceral fat correlated with the decrease in fasting insulin (R(2) = 0.40; P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in any parameter in lean participants except a small increase in lean body mass (LBM). Thus, a controlled aerobic exercise program, without weight loss, reduced hepatic and visceral fat accumulation, and decreased insulin resistance in obese adolescents. PMID:19696755

van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J; Chu, Zili D; Sauer, Pieter J J; Haymond, Morey W; Rodriguez, Luisa M; Sunehag, Agneta L

2009-08-20

194

An update on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction with and without asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is defined as transient, reversible bronchoconstriction that develops after strenuous\\u000a exercise. It is a heterogeneous syndrome made up of a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from the asymptomatic military recruit\\u000a whose condition is detected by diagnostic exercise challenge to the athlete with known asthma to the elite athlete for whom\\u000a EIB represents an overuse or injury syndrome. If

Chris Randolph

2009-01-01

195

Effects of Estrogen on Muscle Damage in Response to an Acute Resistance Exercise Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creatine Kinase (CK) is used as a measure of exercise-induced muscle membrane damage. During acute eccentric (muscle lengthening) exercise, muscle sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and Z-lines are damaged, thus causing muscle proteins and enzymes to leak into the interstitial fluid.\\u000aStrenuous eccentric exercise produces an elevation of oxygen free radicals, which further increases muscle damage. Muscle soreness and fatigue can be

Megan R. Wolf

2009-01-01

196

Diastolic function is associated with quality of life and exercise capacity in stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.  

PubMed

Exercise capacity and quality of life (QOL) are important outcome predictors in patients with systolic heart failure (HF), independent of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF). LV diastolic function has been shown to be a better predictor of aerobic exercise capacity in patients with systolic dysfunction and a New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification ?II. We hypothesized that the currently used index of diastolic function E/e' is associated with exercise capacity and QOL, even in optimally treated HF patients with reduced LVEF. This prospective study included 44 consecutive patients aged 55±11 years (27 men and 17 women), with LVEF<0.50 and NYHA functional class I-III, receiving optimal pharmacological treatment and in a stable clinical condition, as shown by the absence of dyspnea exacerbation for at least 3 months. All patients had conventional transthoracic echocardiography and answered the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire, followed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT). In a multivariable model with 6MWT as the dependent variable, age and E/e' explained 27% of the walked distance in 6MWT (P=0.002; multivariate regression analysis). No association was found between walk distance and LVEF or mitral annulus systolic velocity. Only normalized left atrium volume, a sensitive index of diastolic function, was associated with decreased QOL. Despite the small number of patients included, this study offers evidence that diastolic function is associated with physical capacity and QOL and should be considered along with ejection fraction in patients with compensated systolic HF. PMID:24036912

Bussoni, M F; Guirado, G N; Roscani, M G; Polegato, B F; Matsubara, L S; Bazan, S G Z; Matsubara, B B

2013-08-30

197

Reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is an effective and natural form of muscle function but, when repeated with sufficient intensity or duration, it may lead to muscle damage and functional defects. A reduced tolerance to impact has been reported, which may be partly attributed to a reduced stretch-reflex potentiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of

P. V. Komi; T. Horita; H. Kyröläinen; T. E. S. Takala; C. Nicol

1996-01-01

198

Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain  

PubMed Central

The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss.

Steig, Amy J.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Higgins, Janine A.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Eckel, Robert H.; Hill, James O.

2011-01-01

199

Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain.  

PubMed

The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L; Wyatt, Holly R; Eckel, Robert H; Hill, James O; MacLean, Paul S

2011-06-29

200

Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure  

SciTech Connect

Ten highly trained endurance athletes were studied to determine the effects of exposure to low ozone (O/sub 3/) concentrations on simulated competitive endurance performance and associated physiological and subjective symptom responses. Each subject was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA), and to 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ while performing a 1 h competitive simulation protocol on a bicycle ergometer. Endurance performance was evaluated by the number of subjects unable to complete rides (last 30 min at an intense work load of approximately 86% VO/sub 2/max). All subjects completed the FA exposure, whereas one, five, and seven subjects did not complete the 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in the inability of subjects to complete the competitive simulations with increasing O/sub 3/ concentration, including a significant difference between the 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ and FA exposure. Significant decreases (P less than 0.05) were also observed following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, in forced vital capacity (-7.8 and -9.9%), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-5.8 and -10.5%). No significant O/sub 3/ effect was observed for exercise respiratory metabolism or ventilatory pattern responses. However, the number of reported subjective symptoms increased significantly following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ protocols. These data demonstrate significant decrements in simulated competitive endurance performance and in pulmonary function, with accompanying enhanced subjective symptoms, following exposure to low O/sub 3/ levels commonly observed in numerous metropolitan environments during the summer months.

Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.

1986-08-01

201

Resistance exercise did not alter intramuscular adipose tissue but reduced retinol-binding protein-4 concentration in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Lipid accumulation in muscle is associated with diminished insulin sensitivity. It was hypothesized that resistance exercise decreases muscular adipose tissue and reduces the level of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), which is linked to adipose tissue and insulin sensitivity in diabetics. Forty-four women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to three groups for a period of 12 weeks: control (asked to maintain a sedentary lifestyle); resistance exercise (elastic band exercise at moderate intensity five times per week); and aerobic exercise (walking for 60 min at moderate intensity five times per week). Subcutaneous (SCAT), subfascial (SFAT) and intramuscular (IMAT) adipose tissues at mid-thigh level were assessed using computed tomography, and RBP4 level and insulin sensitivity (fractional disappearance rate of insulin, k(ITT)) were assessed before and after intervention. Changes in SCAT, SFAT, IMAT, RBP4 and k(ITT) were similar among the three groups. Within-group analysis revealed that body mass index and waist circumference decreased significantly in both exercise groups, but RBP4 decreased significantly only with resistance exercise. Resistance exercise did not alter muscular adipose tissue or improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:20819415

Ku, Y H; Han, K A; Ahn, H; Kwon, H; Koo, B K; Kim, H C; Min, K W

202

Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial  

PubMed Central

Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572

Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Herve; Horton, Kenneth; Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen J; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

2009-01-01

203

Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept) study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. Methods Eight, healthy men (27.1?±?6.9 yrs old) who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising <150 minutes per week) were randomly assigned to ingest MSM at either 1.5 grams per day or 3.0 grams per day for 30 days (28 days before and 2 days following exercise). Before and after the 28 day intervention period, subjects performed 18 sets of knee extension exercise in an attempt to induce muscle damage (and to be used partly as a measure of exercise performance). Sets 1–15 were performed at a predetermined weight for 10 repetitions each, while sets 16–18 were performed to muscular failure. Muscle soreness (using a 5-point Likert scale), fatigue (using the fatigue-inertia subset of the Profile of Mood States), blood antioxidant status (glutathione and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity [TEAC]), and blood homocysteine were measured before and after exercise, pre and post intervention. Exercise performance (total work performed during sets 16–18 of knee extension testing) was also measured pre and post intervention. Results Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p?=?0.080), with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p?=?0.073 with 3.0 grams; p?=?0.087 for both dosages combined). TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p?=?0.035), while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p?=?0.007). No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p?>?0.05). Conclusion MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance.

2012-01-01

204

The effects of repeated maximal voluntary isokinetic eccentric exercise on recovery from muscle damage.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether performing repeated bouts of maximal voluntary isokinetic eccentric exercise (MAX1) on 3 (MAX3) and 6 days (MAX6) after the initial bout would produce significant changes in the indirect markers of muscle damage and total work. A secondary purpose was to determine whether participants' psychological maximal effort was equivalent to the physiological maximal effort during muscle soreness. Male university students were assigned randomly to a control group (n = 12) and a group that repeated the exercise (EX; n = 12). The MAX1 was 3 x 10 repetitions of the nondominant elbow flexors on the Cybex 6000 system at a speed of 60 deg/s. The EX group performed the same exercise 3 days and 6 days after MAX1. The range of motion and maximal isometric force (MIF), muscle soreness index, plasma creatine kinase, and glutamic-oxaloacetate transaminase activities were measured before and every 24 hr for 9 days after MAX1 for both groups. MIF was also assessed once before and immediately after each MAX for the EX group. There were no significant changes (p > .05) between the groups for all criterion measures, except for total amount of work (p < .05). It is concluded that strenuous voluntary isokinetic eccentric exercise performed with damaged muscles does not appear to exacerbate damage or influence the recovery process. Although individuals could perform repeated MAXs, the total work performed was significantly reduced. This has practical implications in strength training for coaches and athletes during muscle damage. PMID:10999263

Chen, T C; Hsieh, S S

2000-09-01

205

A DYNAMIC EXERCISE IN REDUCING DEER-VEHICLE COLLISIONS: MANAGEMENT THROUGH VEHICLE MITIGATION TECHNIQUES AND HUNTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) nationwide are estimated to be in excess of $1 billion annually. In this study, factors contributing to the abundance of DVCs are identified and the potential effectiveness of various deer management strategies in reducing DVCs is investigated. The added benefits of such strategies are also evaluated in a bioeconomic context by comparing alternative outcomes

Kurt A. Schwabe; Peter W. Schuhmann; M. Tonkovich

2002-01-01

206

The phosphodiesterases type 5 inhibitor tadalafil reduces the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in men during cycle ergometric exercise.  

PubMed

Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may influence human physiology, health, and performance by also modulating endocrine pathways. We evaluated the effects of a 2-day tadalafil administration on adenohypophyseal and adrenal hormone adaptation to exercise in humans. Fourteen healthy males were included in a double-blind crossover trial. Each volunteer randomly received two tablets of placebo or tadalafil (20 mg/day with a 36-h interval) before a maximal exercise was performed. After a 2-wk washout, the volunteers were crossed over. Blood samples were collected at -30 and -15 min and immediately before exercise, immediately after, and during recovery (+15, +30, +60, and +90 min) for adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), ?-endorphin, growth hormone (GH), prolactin, cortisol (C), corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) assays. C-to-CBG (free cortisol index, FCI) and DHEAS-to-C ratios were calculated. Exercise intensity, perceived exertion rate, O? consumption, and CO? and blood lactate concentration were evaluated. ACTH, GH, C, corticosterone, and CBG absolute concentrations and/or areas under the curve (AUC) increased after exercise after both placebo and tadalafil. Exercise increased DHEAS only after placebo. Compared with placebo, tadalafil administration reduced the ACTH, C, corticosterone, and FCI responses to exercise and was associated with higher ?-endorphin AUC and DHEAS-to-C ratio during recovery, without influencing cardiorespiratory and performance parameters. Tadalafil reduced the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during exercise by probably influencing the brain's nitric oxide- and cGMP-mediated pathways. Further studies are necessary to confirm our results and to identify the involved mechanisms, possible health risks, and potential clinical uses. PMID:22318947

Di Luigi, Luigi; Sgrò, Paolo; Baldari, Carlo; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Crescioli, Clara; Bianchini, Serena; Romanelli, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Guidetti, Laura

2012-02-07

207

Cost-effectiveness of diet and exercise interventions to reduce overweight and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To analyze whether two dietary weight loss interventions—the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) program and a low-fat diet program— would be cost-effective in Australia, and to assess their potential to reduce the disease burden related to excess body weight.Design:We constructed a multi-state life-table-based Markov model in which the distribution of body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart

M Forster; J L Veerman; J J Barendregt; T Vos

2011-01-01

208

High-intensity exercise and carbohydrate-reduced energy-restricted diet in obese individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous high glycemic load and inactivity challenge glucose homeostasis and fat oxidation. Hyperglycemia and high intramuscular\\u000a glucose levels mediate insulin resistance, a precursor state of type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate whether a carbohydrate\\u000a (CHO)-reduced diet combined with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) enhances the beneficial effects of the diet alone\\u000a on insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation in obese

Francesco Sartor; Helma M. de Morree; Verena Matschke; Samuele M. Marcora; Athanasios Milousis; Jeanette M. Thom; Hans-Peter Kubis

2010-01-01

209

Exercise behaviour and attitudes among fourth-year medical students at the University of British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the physical activity (PA) levels and counseling attitudes of Canadian undergraduate medical students. Design Online or paper survey. Setting The University of British Columbia (UBC). Participants Fourth-year medical students at UBC from 2007 to 2010. Main outcome measures Physical activity levels, relationship between exercise behaviour and attitudes toward counseling, and student perception of training in the area of exercise prescription. Results A total of 546 out of 883 students participated in the survey (62% response rate). Sixty-four percent of students met the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology 2011 recommendations for PA. Attitudes toward healthy living were related to PA levels, but the rate of counseling patients about exercise was not; however, students who engaged in more strenuous PA were more likely to perceive exercise counseling as being highly relevant to future clinical practice (P = .018). Overall, 69% of students perceived exercise counseling to be highly relevant to clinical practice, but 86% thought that their training in this area was less than extensive. Conclusion Fourth-year UBC medical students engage in more strenuous PA than average age-matched Canadians, which affects their attitudes toward perceived future counseling practices. Encouraging more student participation in strenuous PA and encouraging academic training in the area of exercise counseling might be important next steps in preparing future physicians to effectively prescribe exercise to their patients.

Holtz, Kaila A.; Kokotilo, Kristen J.; Fitzgerald, Barbara E.; Frank, Erica

2013-01-01

210

Post-exercise alcohol ingestion exacerbates eccentric-exercise induced losses in performance.  

PubMed

The effect of acute alcohol intake on muscular performance in both the exercising and non-exercising legs in the days following strenuous eccentric exercise was investigated to ascertain whether an interaction between post-exercise alcohol use and muscle damage causes an increase in damage-related weakness. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed either a beverage containing 1 g of ethanol per kg bodyweight ethanol (as vodka and orange juice; ALC) or a non-alcoholic beverage (OJ). At least 2 weeks later they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed the other beverage. Measurement of peak and average peak isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced by the quadriceps of both exercising and non-exercising legs was made before and 36 and 60 h post-exercise. Greatest decreases in exercising leg performance were observed at 36 h with losses of 28.7, 31.9 and 25.9% occurring for OJ average peak isometric, concentric, and eccentric torques, respectively. However, average peak torque loss was significantly greater in ALC with the same performance measures decreasing by 40.9, 42.8 and 44.8% (all p < 0.05). Performance of the non-exercising leg did not change significantly under either treatment. Therefore, consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol after damaging exercise magnifies the loss of force associated with strenuous eccentric exercise. This weakness appears to be due to an interaction between muscle damage and alcohol rather than the systemic effects of acute alcohol consumption. PMID:20012446

Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

2009-12-11

211

Exercise Trajectories of Women from Entry to a 6-Month Cardiac Rehabilitation Program to One Year after Discharge  

PubMed Central

Background. Physical activity is associated with reduced mortality and morbidity. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective intervention for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Unfortunately, women are less likely to engage in, or sustain, regular physical activity. Objectives were to (1) describe women's guidelines-based levels of physical activity during and after CR and (2) determine the physical activity trajectories of women from entry to CR to one year after CR. Methods and Results. A prospective, longitudinal study of 203 women with CVD enrolled in a 6-month CR program. Physical activity was measured using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LSI), focusing on moderate-strenuous activity. Data were analyzed using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and logistic regression. Mean scores on the LSI showed women to be “active” at all follow-up points. LCGA revealed a two-class model, respectively, called “inactive relapsers” and “moderately active relapsers.” Predictors of the “moderately active relapsers” class were employment status and diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Conclusions. Women achieved the recommended physical activity levels by the end of CR and sustained them until one year after CR. LCGA allowed us to determine the class trajectories associated with moderate-strenuous activity and, from these, to identify implications for targeted intervention.

Arthur, Heather M.; Blanchard, Chris; Gunn, Elizabeth; Kodis, Jennifer; Walker, Steven; Toner, Brenda

2013-01-01

212

The Feasibility of Reducing and Measuring Sedentary Time among Overweight, Non-Exercising Office Workers  

PubMed Central

This study examined the feasibility of reducing free-living sedentary time (ST) and the convergent validity of various tools to measure ST. Twenty overweight/obese participants wore the activPAL (AP) (criterion measure) and ActiGraph (AG; 100 and 150 count/minute cut-points) for a 7-day baseline period. Next, they received a simple intervention targeting free-living ST reductions (7-day intervention period). ST was measured using two questionnaires following each period. ST significantly decreased from 67% of wear time (baseline period) to 62.7% of wear time (intervention period) according to AP (n = 14, P < 0.01). No other measurement tool detected a reduction in ST. The AG measures were more accurate (lower bias) and more precise (smaller confidence intervals) than the questionnaires. Participants reduced ST by ~5%, which is equivalent to a 48_min reduction over a 16-hour waking day. These data describe ST measurement properties from wearable monitors and self-report tools to inform sample-size estimates for future ST interventions.

Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Libertine, Amanda; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty

2012-01-01

213

Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p?exercise in both treatment groups. During the 60 hour recovery period, a significant (p?=?0.047) interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p?exercise and interestingly coincided with a gradual increase in plasma antioxidant capacity, whereas biomarkers for inflammation were still elevated after 60 hours recovery. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise and blueberry consumption. These findings may benefit the sporting community who should consider dietary interventions that specifically target health and performance adaptation.

2012-01-01

214

Review of Exercise-Induced Muscle Injury: Relevance for Athletic Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury is well understood as the product of unfamiliar or strenuous physical activity. Eccentric or lengthening actions are primarily responsible for inducing injury, which subsequently leads to a variety of signs and symptoms. Although significant research supports this finding, most observations are specific to untrained individuals. In addition, many protocols designed both to induce muscle injury and

Michael J. Falvo; Richard J. Bloomer

2006-01-01

215

Effects of Exercise and Dietary Protein Levels on Body Composition in Humans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two levels of protein (200 and 100 gm/day) were fed to two groups of young adults who exercised strenuously for 40 days. From body volume, total body water mass, 40 K whole body counting, and potassium balances, it was determined that the 2.10 kg gain in ...

H. J. Krzywicki C. F. Consolazio H. L. Johnson N. F. Witt

1978-01-01

216

Protective effects of polysaccharide from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on the swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of derivatives of galactosides and glucosides in a polysaccharide extract from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice. Exhaustive swimming exercise significantly increases the degree of lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde content and reduces the antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Our findings revealed that chronic oral treatment with the extract elevates enzymatic activities of SOD and GPx accompanied by a corresponding decrease in malondialdehyde. The antioxidative activities of these compounds against exercise-induced oxidative stress are correlated with various activities such as reducing the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, enhancing antioxidative defenses, and increasing the production of SOD and GPx activity and expression in different tissues. These compounds may be involved in glycogen metabolism to meet the requirement of working skeletal muscles and act as antioxidants by terminating the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation to maintain the morphological stability of mitochondria in spinal motor neurons. These observations suggest that E. kansui has antioxidative and antifatigue properties and can be given as prophylactic and (or) therapeutic supplements for increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and preventing lipid peroxidation during strenuous exercise. PMID:17218972

Yu, Farong; Lu, Shunqing; Yu, Fahong; Feng, Shutao; McGuire, Peter M; Li, Rende; Wang, Rui

2006-10-01

217

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.AimsTo examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.DesignParticipants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using

Maciej S. Buchowski; Natalie N. Meade; Evonne Charboneau; Sohee Park; Mary S. Dietrich; Ronald L. Cowan; Peter R. Martin; Antonio Verdejo García

2011-01-01

218

Physical Activity and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk: A Multinational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk among 1,463 breast cancer cases and 4,862 controls in a multinational study. All subjects were asked how many times and for how long they exercised or engaged in strenuous physical labor per week. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk.

Luke D. Ratnasinghe; Ramakrishna V. Modali; Michael B. Seddon; Teresa A. Lehman

2010-01-01

219

Aerobic exercise prevents age-dependent cognitive decline and reduces anxiety-related behaviors in middle-aged and old rats.  

PubMed

Recent research involving human and animals has shown that aerobic exercise of moderate intensity produces the greatest benefit on brain health and behavior. In this study we investigated the effects on cognitive function and anxiety-related behavior in rats at different ages of aerobic exercise, performed regularly throughout life. We designed an aerobic training program with the treadmill running following the basic principles of human training, and assuming that rats have the same physiological adaptations. The intensity was gradually adjusted to the fitness level and age, and maintained at 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption (max.VO(2)). In middle age (8 months) and old age (18 months), we studied the cognitive response with the radial maze (RM), and anxiety-related behaviors with the open field (OF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM). Aerobically trained (AT) rats had a higher cognitive performance measured in the RM, showing that exercise had a cumulative and amplifier effect on memory and learning. The analysis of age and exercise revealed that the effects of aerobic exercise were modulated by age. Middle-aged AT rats were the most successful animals; however, the old AT rats met the criteria more often than the middle-aged sedentary controls (SC), indicating that exercise could reverse the negative effects of sedentary life, partially restore the cognitive function, and protect against the deleterious effects of aging. The results in the OF and EPM showed a significant decrease in key indicators of anxiety, revealing that age affected most of the analyzed variables, and that exercise had a prominent anxiolytic effect, particularly strong in old age. In conclusion, our results indicated that regular and chronic aerobic exercise has time and dose-dependent, neuroprotective and restorative effects on physiological brain aging, and reduces anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:22183054

Pietrelli, A; Lopez-Costa, J; Goñi, R; Brusco, A; Basso, N

2011-12-08

220

The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background: The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indirectly shows the muscle’s oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold), in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods: The RER, O2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml•kg?1•min?1), during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results: Endurance trained men presented higher O2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05) of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance.

Ramos-Jimenez, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Torres, Rosa P.; Torres-Duran, Patricia V.; Romero-Gonzalez, Jaime; Mascher, Dieter; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco A.

2008-01-01

221

Exercise-Training in Young Drosophila melanogaster Reduces Age-Related Decline in Mobility and Cardiac Performance  

PubMed Central

Declining mobility is a major concern, as well as a major source of health care costs, among the elderly population. Lack of mobility is a primary cause of entry into managed care facilities, and a contributing factor to the frequency of damaging falls. Exercise-based therapies have shown great promise in sustaining mobility in elderly patients, as well as in rodent models. However, the genetic basis of the changing physiological responses to exercise during aging is not well understood. Here, we describe the first exercise-training paradigm in an invertebrate genetic model system. Flies are exercised by a mechanized platform, known as the Power Tower, that rapidly, repeatedly, induces their innate instinct for negative geotaxis. When young flies are subjected to a carefully controlled, ramped paradigm of exercise-training, they display significant reduction in age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance. Fly lines with improved mitochondrial efficiency display some of the phenotypes observed in wild-type exercised flies. The exercise response in flies is influenced by the amount of protein and lipid, but not carbohydrate, in the diet. The development of an exercise-training model in Drosophila melanogaster opens the way to direct testing of single-gene based genetic therapies for improved mobility in aged animals, as well as unbiased genetic screens for loci involved in the changing response to exercise during aging.

Piazza, Nicole; Gosangi, Babina; Devilla, Shawn; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert

2009-01-01

222

Metabolic and behavioral vulnerability related to weight regain in reduced-obese men might be prevented by an adequate diet–exercise intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether it was possible to prevent the metabolic and behavioral vulnerability related to weight regain generally observed in a reduced-obese state with a supervised diet–exercise clinical intervention. In this regard, the anthropometric and physiological effects of a body weight loss program were studied in 11 obese men and the impact of

Jean-Philippe Chaput; Catherine Pelletier; Jean-Pierre Després; Simone Lemieux; Angelo Tremblay

2007-01-01

223

Dietary and exercise practices of college-aged female bodybuilders.  

PubMed

The college-aged female bodybuilders in this study consumed nutrient-dense, low-fat foods and participated in strenuous exercise to develop their physiques. Non-competitors maintained consistent energy intake, exercise patterns, and body weight throughout the study period. In contrast, competitors exhibited periods of caloric restriction and excess associated with the pre- and post-competition events. This study indicates that college-aged female bodybuilders have food intake and exercise patterns that are unique to the sport. PMID:2768748

Lamar-Hildebrand, N; Saldanha, L; Endres, J

1989-09-01

224

Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormone replacement therapy, who were not smoking and who had a physically light occupation more often took part in strenuous sports. Women who had been treated for malignancies or with back problems exercised to the same extent as women in the general population. CONCLUSION: About a third of the post-menopausal women exercised on a regular basis, if exercise involved in getting to and from work was not counted. Since regular physical exercise has many health benefits, more women should be encouraged to take part in regular physical exercise. Factors probably associated with level of education and general awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle positively influenced the likelihood of these women to be physically active on a regular basis. A previous malignant disease or current back problems did not prevent women from taking part in exercise on a regular basis. Images Figure 1

Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

1997-01-01

225

Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. However, despite suggestions that caffeine may enhance resistance exercise performance, research is equivocal on the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. It has also been suggested that dampened perception of perceived exertion and pain perception might be an explanation for any possible enhancement of resistance

Michael J. Duncan; Michelle Stanley; Natalie Parkhouse; Kathryn Cook; Mike Smith

2011-01-01

226

Resistance exercise reduces liver fat and its mediators in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLifestyle interventions focusing on weight loss remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management. Despite this, the weight losses achieved in research trials are not easily replicated in the clinic and there is an urgent need for therapies independent of weight loss. Aerobic exercise is not well sustained and the effectiveness of the better tolerated resistance exercise upon

Kate Hallsworth; Gulnar Fattakhova; Kieren G Hollingsworth; Christian Thoma; Sarah Moore; Roy Taylor; Christopher P Day; Michael I Trenell

2011-01-01

227

The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers  

PubMed Central

Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360

Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

2012-01-01

228

Myasthenia gravis and endurance exercise.  

PubMed

This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him. PMID:22311063

Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo

2012-08-01

229

Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy (808?nm) in Skeletal Muscle After Resistance Exercise Training in Rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 808?nm laser applied after a resistance training protocol, on biochemical markers and the morphology of skeletal muscle in rats. Background data: Strenuous physical activity results in fatigue and decreased muscle strength, impaired motor control, and muscle pain. Many biochemical and biophysical interventions have been studied in an attempt to accelerate the recovery process of muscle fatigue. Among these, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be effective in increasing skeletal muscle performance in in vivo studies and in clinical trials. However, little is known about the effects of LLLT on muscle performance after resistance training. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CG), trained group (TG), and trained and laser-irradiated group (TGL). The resistance training program was performed three times per week for 5 weeks, and consisted of a climbing exercise, with weights attached to the tail of the animal. Furthermore, laser irradiation was performed in the middle region of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of both legs, after the exercise protocol. Results: Analysis demonstrated that TGL demonstrated significantly reduced resting lactate level and decreased muscle glycogen depletion than the animals that were exercised only, and significantly increased the cross-section area of TA muscle fibers compared with thoseo in the other groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach in increasing muscle performance during a resistance exercise protocol. PMID:24102167

Patrocinio, Tatiane; Sardim, Andre Cabral; Assis, Livia; Fernandes, Kelly Rossetti; Rodrigues, Natalia; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

2013-10-01

230

Exercise training reduces insulin resistance and upregulates the mTOR/p70S6k pathway in cardiac muscle of diet-induced obesity rats.  

PubMed

Obesity and insulin resistance are rapidly expanding public health problems. These disturbances are related to many diseases, including heart pathology. Acting through the Akt/mTOR pathway, insulin has numerous and important physiological functions, such as the induction of growth and survival of many cell types and cardiac hypertrophy. However, obesity and insulin resistance can alter mTOR/p70S6k. Exercise training is known to induce this pathway, but never in the heart of diet-induced obesity subjects. To evaluate the effect of exercise training on mTOR/p70S6k in the heart of obese Wistar rats, we analyzed the effects of 12 weeks of swimming on obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet. Exercise training reduced epididymal fat, fasting serum insulin and plasma glucose disappearance. Western blot analyses showed that exercise training increased the ability of insulin to phosphorylate intracellular molecules such as Akt (2.3-fold) and Foxo1 (1.7-fold). Moreover, reduced activities and expressions of proteins, induced by the high-fat diet in rats, such as phospho-JNK (1.9-fold), NF-kB (1.6-fold) and PTP-1B (1.5-fold), were observed. Finally, exercise training increased the activities of the transduction pathways of insulin-dependent protein synthesis, as shown by increases in Raptor phosphorylation (1.7-fold), p70S6k phosphorylation (1.9-fold), and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation (1.4-fold) and a reduction in atrogin-1 expression (2.1-fold). Results demonstrate a pivotal regulatory role of exercise training on the Akt/mTOR pathway, in turn, promoting protein synthesis and antagonizing protein degradation. PMID:20717955

Medeiros, Cleber; Frederico, Marisa J; da Luz, Gabrielle; Pauli, José R; Silva, Adelino S R; Pinho, Ricardo A; Velloso, Lício A; Ropelle, Eduardo R; De Souza, Cláudio T

2011-03-01

231

Plasma beta-endorphin response of thoroughbred horses to maximal exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten horses underwent a standardised strenuous treadmill exercise test, before, during and after which measurements were made of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations, blood lactate, glucose, haemoglobin and pH, the activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino-transferase, and heart rate, oxygen uptake and expired minute volume. The correlations between the exercise-induced response of beta-endorphin and the changes observed

T Art; P Franchimont; P Lekeux

1994-01-01

232

Combined carbohydrate–protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that adding protein (PRO) to a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement can improve thermoregulatory\\u000a capacity, exercise performance and recovery. However, no study has investigated these effects in a competitive sporting context.\\u000a This study assessed the effects of combined CHO–PRO supplementation on physiological responses and exercise performance during\\u000a 8 days of strenuous competition in a hot environment. Twenty-eight cyclists participating

Andrew J. Cathcart; Scott R. Murgatroyd; Alison McNab; Laura J. Whyte; Chris Easton

233

EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA: FRESH INSIGHTS AND AN OVERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is a common condition affecting 12-15% of the population. Ninety percent of asthmatic individuals and 35-45% of patients with allergic rhinitis are afflicted by EIA, while 3-10% of the general population is also believed to suffer from this condition. EIA is a condition which is more prevalent in strenuous outdoor, cold weather and winter sports. The pathophysiology

R Khajotia

234

Reduced Mechanical Efficiency in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease but Normal Peak VO2 with Small Muscle Mass Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied six patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FEV1 1.1 0.2 L, 32% of predicted) and six age- and activity level-matched control subjects while performing both maxi- mal bicycle exercise and single leg knee-extensor exercise. Arterial and femoral venous blood sampling, thermodilution blood flow measurements, and needle biopsies allowed the assessment of mus- cle oxygen supply, utilization, and

Russell S. Richardson; Bryan T. Leek; Timothy P. Gavin; Luke J. Haseler; Sundar R. D. Mudaliar; Robert Henry; Odile Mathieu-Costello; Peter D. Wagner

235

Dose-dependent effect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cycling exercise is unrelated to systolic blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This double-blind, within-subjects experiment examined the effects of ingesting two doses of caffeine on perceptions of leg muscle pain and blood pressure during moderate intensity cycling exercise. Low caffeine consuming college-aged males (N=12) ingested one of two doses of caffeine (5 or 10mg·kg?1 body weight) or placebo and 1 h later completed 30 min of moderate intensity cycling exercise (60%

Patrick J. O'Connor; Robert W. Motl; Steven P. Broglio; Matthew R. Ely

2004-01-01

236

Upper arm intermittent ischaemia reduces exercise-related increase of platelet reactivity in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess whether upper arm ischaemia influences exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia and platelet activation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).DesignCrossover study.SettingUniversity hospital.PatientsTwenty patients (17 men) of mean±SD age 64±8 years with stable CAD.InterventionsPatients underwent two exercise stress tests (ESTs) on two separate days in a randomised manner: (1) a maximal EST only (EST-1); (2) a maximal EST after intermittent upper

Irma Battipaglia; Giancarla Scalone; Maria Milo; Antonino Di Franco; Gaetano A Lanza; Filippo Crea

2011-01-01

237

Mood changes following exercise.  

PubMed

26 participants completed a mood measure to assess anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension, and vigor immediately before and immediately after two exercise sessions. Analysis showed significant mood enhancement for each exercise session. Follow-up univariate results indicated that Depressed mood scores were reduced significantly and Fatigue scores increased significantly following the first exercise session. Scores after the second exercise session indicated that Depressed mood decreased significantly. There was no interaction. Results lend support for the notion that exercise reduces depressed mood scores. It is suggested that researchers should consider the mechanisms that produce changes in mood following exercise. PMID:12081273

Lane, Andrew M; Crone-Grant, Diane; Lane, Helen

2002-06-01

238

Cardiopulmonary Effects of Acute Stressful Exercise at Altitude (2300m) of Individuals With Sickle Cell Trait (SCT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possible health hazards for persons with Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) when engaged in strenuous exercise and/or environmental hypoxia is not fully defined. During Phase I and II (Annual Reports No. 1, 1985 and No. 2, 1986) of our Sickle Cell Trait research...

I. M. Weisman R. J. Zeballos T. W. Martin

1987-01-01

239

Influence of training on markers of platelet activation in response to a bout of heavy resistance exercise.  

PubMed

Recent connections between platelet activity and cardiovascular disease have raised questions of whether platelet function varies in exercising individuals. Resistance training has been linked to a possible reduction in hyper-aggregability of platelets, especially following acute strenuous exercise. The present investigation was designed to explore the effects of an acute resistance exercise test on the primary hemostatic system in both resistance-trained (RT) and untrained (UT) individuals. Ten RT (five men and five women; age, 26.0 ± 4.5 years; height, 175.12 ± 8.54 cm; weight, 79.56 ± 13.56 kg) and ten UT (five men and five women; age, 26.4 ± 6.2 years; height, 170.31 ± 7.45 cm; weight 67.88 ± 16.90 kg) individuals performed an Acute Exhaustive Resistance Exercise Test (AERET; six sets of ten repetitions of squats at 80 % of the 1-Repetition Maximum (RM)). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after, and at 15, 60, and 120 min following the AERET. Blood samples were analyzed for platelet count, von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag), beta-thromboglobulin (?-TG), and platelet factor 4 (PF4). B-TG showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between RT and UT at +15 and +60 min. Both groups showed a main effect for time in platelet count, vWF, and ?-TG following the AERET, whereas PF4 remained unchanged. All blood variables returned to baseline 120 min after exercise. Compared with UT, RT demonstrated reduced platelet activation in response to an acute bout of heavy resistance exercise. Reduced platelet activation may be attributed to training status, as shown by a reduction in plasma concentrations of B-TG in the RT group. PMID:23636696

Creighton, Brent C; Kupchak, Brian R; Aristizabal, Juan C; Flanagan, Shawn D; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Volk, Brittanie M; Comstock, Brett A; Volek, Jeff S; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

2013-04-30

240

The effects of moderate-, strenuous and over-training on oxidative stress markers, DNA repair, and memory, in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested the hypothesis that training with moderate- (MT), strenuous- (ST), or over- (OT) load can cause alterations in memory, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA damage, activity of 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in rat brain. Rat memory was assessed by a passive avoidance test and the ST and OT group demonstrated improved memory. The content

Helga Ogonovszky; István Berkes; Shuzo Kumagai; Takao Kaneko; Shoichi Tahara; Sataro Goto; Zsolt Radák

2005-01-01

241

Effect of caffeine ingestion on lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo following strenuous cycling.  

PubMed

Caffeine ingestion is associated with increases in the concentration of plasma epinephrine and epinephrine is associated with alterations in immune cell trafficking and function following intensive exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeine ingestion on plasma epinephrine concentration, lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo, as measured by the expression the CD69 surface antigen, before and after intensive cycling. On two occasions, following an overnight fast and 60 h abstention from caffeine containing foods and drinks, eight endurance trained males cycled for 90 min at 70% O(2 max) 60 min after ingesting caffeine (6 mg kg(-1 )body mass; CAF) or placebo (PLA). Venous blood samples were collected at pre-treatment, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 1 h post-exercise. Plasma epinephrine concentrations were significantly higher in CAF compared with PLA at pre-exercise [0.28 (0.05) nmol l(-1) versus 0.08 (0.03) nmol l(-1), P<0.01; mean (SE)] and immediately post-exercise [1.02 (0.16) nmol l(-1) versuss 0.60 (0.13) nmol l(-1), P<0.01]. Compared with pre-treatment, numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells decreased by 54% and 55%, respectively, in CAF at 1 h post-exercise (both P<0.01) but did not significantly differ in PLA. Compared with PLA, in CAF the percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+) cells was 5-fold higher at post-exercise (P<0.05) and 5.5-fold higher at 1 h post-exercise (P=0.01). Compared with PLA, in CAF the percentage of CD8(+)CD69(+) cells was 2-fold higher at pre-exercise (P<0.05) and 1.7-fold higher at post-exercise (P<0.05). These findings suggest that caffeine ingestion is associated with alterations in lymphocyte subset trafficking and expression of CD69 in vivo following prolonged, intensive exercise. PMID:15578203

Bishop, Nicolette C; Fitzgerald, Christina; Porter, Penny J; Scanlon, Gabriella A; Smith, Alice C

2004-12-01

242

Non-Cooperative Exercise Boundaries and Regulation under Uncertainty: The Case of Cost-Reducing R&D  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the concept of the exercise boundary as an analytical tool in determining when an optimizing agent might undertake an irreversible action under uncertainty. to situations where the objective function of optimizing agents depends on decisions taken by other agents. By using the case of cost redusing R&D in a fixed numbers oligopoly under demand and technological uncertainty,

Anastasios Xepapadeas

2001-01-01

243

A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

244

Allium Vegetable Diet Can Reduce the Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress but Does Not Alter Plasma Cholesterol Profile in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and Methods: This study investigated the effect of Allium vegetable intake on the antioxidative activity and on the plasma cholesterol profile during exercise in rats. Ninety rats were fed either a control diet or a diet with added Allium sativum (AS), Allium cepa (AC), Allium fistulosum (AF), or Allium tuberosum (AT) for 4 weeks and were then subdivided into

Eun-Young Choi; Youn-Ok Cho

2006-01-01

245

Reduced central blood volume and cardiac output and increased vascular resistance during static handgrip exercise in postural tachycardia syndrome.  

PubMed

Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is characterized by exercise intolerance and sympathoactivation. To examine whether abnormal cardiac output and central blood volume changes occur during exercise in POTS, we studied 29 patients with POTS (17-29 yr) and 12 healthy subjects (18-27 yr) using impedance and venous occlusion plethysmography to assess regional blood volumes and flows during supine static handgrip to evoke the exercise pressor reflex. POTS was subgrouped into normal and low-flow groups based on calf blood flow. We examined autonomic effects with variability techniques. During handgrip, systolic blood pressure increased from 112 +/- 4 to 139 +/- 9 mmHg in control, from 119 +/- 6 to 143 +/- 9 in normal-flow POTS, but only from 117 +/- 4 to 128 +/- 6 in low-flow POTS. Heart rate increased from 63 +/- 6 to 82 +/- 4 beats/min in control, 76 +/- 3 to 92 +/- 6 beats/min in normal-flow POTS, and 88 +/- 4 to 100 +/- 6 beats/min in low-flow POTS. Heart rate variability and coherence markedly decreased in low-flow POTS, indicating uncoupling of baroreflex heart rate regulation. The increase in central blood volume with handgrip was absent in low-flow POTS and blunted in normal-flow POTS associated with abnormal splanchnic emptying. Cardiac output increased in control, was unchanged in low-flow POTS, and was attenuated in normal-flow POTS. Total peripheral resistance was increased compared with control in all POTS. The exercise pressor reflex was attenuated in low-flow POTS. While increased cardiac output and central blood volume characterizes controls, increased peripheral resistance with blunted or eliminated in central blood volume increments characterizes POTS and may contribute to exercise intolerance. PMID:17616747

Stewart, Julian M; Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S

2007-07-06

246

Agility and Perturbation Training Techniques in Exercise Therapy for Reducing Pain and Improving Function in People With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Impairment-based exercise programs have yielded only small to moderate benefits in reducing pain and improving function in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). It has previously been proposed that adding agility and perturbation training to exercise programs for people with knee OA may improve treatment effects for pain and function. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of adding agility and perturbation techniques to standard exercise therapy compared with the standard exercise program alone for people with knee OA. Design This was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting The study was conducted in the outpatient physical therapy clinic of a large, university-based health center. Participants One hundred eighty-three people with knee OA (122 women, 61 men) participated. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either a group that received agility and perturbation training with standard exercise therapy or a group that received only the standard exercise program. Measurements The outcome measures were self-reported knee pain and function, self-reported knee instability, a performance-based measure of function, and global rating of change. Results Although both groups exhibited improvement in self-reported function and in the global rating of change at the 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up periods, there were no differences between groups on these outcomes. There was no reduction in knee pain or improvement in performance-based function in either group. Limitations It is possible that more-intense application of the interventions or application of the interventions to participants with knee OA who were at greater risk for falling may have yielded additive effects of the agility and perturbation training approach. Conclusions Both intervention groups exhibited improvement in self-reported function and the global rating of change. Our results, however, did not support an additive effect of agility and perturbation training with standard exercise therapy in our sample of individuals with knee OA. Further study is needed to determine whether there are subgroups of individuals who might achieve an added benefit with this approach.

Piva, Sara R.; Gil, Alexandra B.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Oddis, Chester V.; Irrgang, James J.

2011-01-01

247

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: Effects on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular response to exercise  

SciTech Connect

Many patients with coronary artery disease treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) have a history of previous myocardial injury resulting in a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). The effects of successful PTCA on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function in these patients were compared to treatment in patients with normal left ventricular EF. There were 21 patients with a normal EF (mean EF 59 +/- 2%) (Group I) and 15 patients with reduced EF (mean EF 43 +/- 1%) (Group II). Before PTCA a similar degree of reversible myocardial ischemia was present on thallium scintigraphy. At peak exercise left ventricular EF in the Group I patients decreased by 4 +/- 1% compared to 8 +/- 1% in Group II. At one month following successful PTCA there was resolution of reversible myocardial ischemia in both groups. No changes in EF at rest were observed. At the same level of exercise as before PTCA the mean EF was 5 +/- 1% higher than the pretreatment value in Group I and 10 +/- 1% higher in Group II. Thus in this study reversible myocardial ischemia was associated with severe compromise in the left ventricular response to exercise which was substantially improved by PTCA.

Singh, A.; Chandler, S.; Pears, D.; Perry, R.; Murray, R.G.; Shiu, M.F.

1989-05-01

248

Metabolic and behavioral vulnerability related to weight regain in reduced-obese men might be prevented by an adequate diet-exercise intervention.  

PubMed

The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether it was possible to prevent the metabolic and behavioral vulnerability related to weight regain generally observed in a reduced-obese state with a supervised diet-exercise clinical intervention. In this regard, the anthropometric and physiological effects of a body weight loss program were studied in 11 obese men and the impact of weight loss on appetite was measured by visual analogue scales (VAS) and by the use of a standardized buffet-type meal. All the measurements were assessed at the beginning of the intervention (baseline), after 5+/-1 kg body weight loss (Phase 1) and after 10+/-1 kg body weight loss (Phase 2). In Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively, the diet-exercise intervention significantly reduced fat mass, waist circumference, fasting insulin and glucose, resting heart rate, and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The diet-exercise intervention also preserved fat-free mass, resting metabolic rate, resting respiratory quotient, and immune function. No significant difference was observed in appetite sensations between the three time points, either measured with VAS in the fasting state or with the satiety quotient (SQ) calculation. Thus, this study provides evidence that obesity can be managed by adequate and specific lifestyle changes leading to clinical benefits while avoiding side effects potentially promoting an increase in energy intake and body weight relapse. PMID:17651864

Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Pelletier, Catherine; Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Simone; Tremblay, Angelo

2007-06-28

249

A controlled intervention to promote a healthy body image, reduce eating disorder risk and prevent excessive exercise among trainee health education and physical education teachers.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum. PMID:20656796

Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

2010-07-23

250

Energy balance, metabolism, hydration, and performance during strenuous hill walking: the effect of age.  

PubMed

We aimed to examine the effect of age on energy balance, metabolism, hydration, and performance during 10 days of strenuous hill walking. Seventeen male subjects were divided into two groups according to their age. The nine subjects in group 1 constituted the younger group (age 24 +/- 3 yr), whereas eight older subjects were in group 2 (age 56 +/- 3 yr). Both groups completed 10 consecutive days of high-intensity hill walking. Mean (range) daily walking distances and ascent were 21 km (10-35 km) and 1,160 m (800-2,540 m), respectively. Energy intake was calculated from weighed food intake, and energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method. Blood and urine were sampled on alternative days to determine any changes in metabolism and hydration during the 10 days. Subjects also completed a battery of tests that included muscular strength (handgrip), jump performance, cognitive processing time, and flexibility. The younger group remained hydrated, whereas the older group became progressively dehydrated, indicated by a near twofold increase in urine osmolality concentration on day 11. This increased urine osmolality in the older group was highly correlated with impairment in vertical-jump performance (r = -0.86; P < 0.05) and decreased cognitive processing time (r = 0.79; P < 0.05). Despite energy expenditure of approximately 21 MJ/day, body mass was well maintained in both groups. Both groups displayed a marked increase in fat mobilization, reflected in significantly lowered prewalk insulin concentrations and elevated postwalk glycerol and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Despite the dehydration and impaired performance in the older group, blood glucose concentrations were well maintained in both groups, probably mediated via the increased mobilization of fat. PMID:12133883

Ainslie, P N; Campbell, I T; Frayn, K N; Humphreys, S M; MacLaren, D P M; Reilly, T; Westerterp, K R

2002-08-01

251

Effect of a High-Intensity Exercise Training on the Metabolism and Function of Macrophages and Lymphocytes of Walker 256 Tumor-Bearing Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies suggest that moderately intense training promotes augmented immune function, whereas strenuous exercise can cause immunosupression. Because the combat of cancer requires high immune function, high-intensity exer- cise could negatively affect the host organism; however, despite the epidemiologic data, there is a lack of experimental evidence to show that high-intensity training is harmful to the immune system. Therefore, we

ALINE VILLA NOVA BACURAU; MONICA APARECIDA BELMONTE; FRANCISCO NAVARRO

252

Life-long aerobic exercise preserved baseline cerebral blood flow but reduced vascular reactivity to CO2.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To examine the potential benefits of life-long aerobic exercise on brain health, in particular cerebrovascular function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten Masters athletes (MA) (seven males, three females; 74.5 ± 5.8 years) and 10 sedentary elderly individuals (SE) (eight males, two females; 75.4 ± 5.6 years) were recruited and baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) to CO2 were measured on a 3T MRI scanner. Nine sedentary young subjects were also recruited to serve as a control group to verify the age effect. RESULTS: When compared to the SE group, MA showed higher CBF in posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, which are key regions of the default-mode-network and are known to be highly sensitive to age and dementia. CVR in the MA brains were paradoxically lower than that in SE. This effect was present throughout the brain. Within the MA group, individuals with higher VO2max had an even lower CVR, suggesting a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSION: Life-long aerobic exercise preserved blood supply in the brain's default-mode-network against age-related degradation. On the other hand, its impact on the cerebral vascular system seems to be characterized by a dampening of CO2 reactivity, possibly because of desensitization effects due to a higher lifetime exposure. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23526811

Thomas, Binu P; Yezhuvath, Uma S; Tseng, Benjamin Y; Liu, Peiying; Levine, Benjamin D; Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hanzhang

2013-03-22

253

Different modalities of exercise to reduce visceral fat mass and cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome: the RESOLVE* randomized trial.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Opinions differ over the exercise modalities that best limit cardiovascular risk (CVR) resulting from visceral obesity in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). As little is known about the combined effects of resistance and endurance training at high volumes under sound nutritional conditions, we aimed to analyze the impact of various intensities of physical activity on visceral fat and CVR in individuals with MetS. METHODS: 100 participants, aged 50-70years, underwent a diet restriction (protein intake 1.2g/kg/day) with a high exercise volume (15-20h/week). They were randomized to three training groups: moderate-resistance-moderate-endurance (re), high-resistance-moderate-endurance (Re), or moderate-resistance-high-endurance (rE). A one-year at-home follow-up (M12) commenced with a three-week residential program (Day 0 to Day 21). We measured the change in visceral fat and body composition by DXA, MetS parameters, fitness, the Framingham score and carotid-intima-media-thickness. RESULTS: 78 participants completed the program. At D21, visceral fat loss was highest in Re (-18%, p<.0001) and higher in rE than re (-12% vs. -7%, p<.0001). Similarly, from M3, visceral fat decreased more in high-intensity-groups to reach a visceral fat loss of -21.5% (Re) and -21.1% (rE)>-13.0% (re) at M12 (p<.001). CVR, MetS parameters and fitness improved in all groups. Visceral fat loss correlated with changes in MetS parameters. CONCLUSION: Increased intensity in high volume training is efficient in improving visceral fat loss and carotid-intima-media-thickness, and is realistic in community dwelling, moderately obese individuals. High-intensity-resistance training induced a faster visceral fat loss, and thus the potential of resistance training should not be undervalued (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00917917). PMID:23714599

Dutheil, Frédéric; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Walther, Guillaume; Vinet, Agnès; Sapin, Vincent; Verney, Julien; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Duclos, Martine; Obert, Philippe; Courteix, Daniel

2013-05-25

254

Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Long distance running causes acute muscle damage resulting in inflammation and decreased force production. Endurance athletes use NSAIDs during competition to prevent or reduce pain, which carries the risk of adverse effects. Tart cherries, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may have a protective effect to reduce muscle damage and pain during strenuous exercise. This study aimed to assess the effects of tart cherry juice as compared to a placebo cherry drink on pain among runners in a long distance relay race. Methods The design was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Fifty-four healthy runners (36 male, 18 female; 35.8 ± 9.6 yrs) ran an average of 26.3 ± 2.5 km over a 24 hour period. Participants ingested 355 mL bottles of tart cherry juice or placebo cherry drink twice daily for 7 days prior to the event and on the day of the race. Participants assessed level of pain on a standard 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at baseline, before the race, and after the race. Results While both groups reported increased pain after the race, the cherry juice group reported a significantly smaller increase in pain (12 ± 18 mm) compared to the placebo group (37 ± 20 mm) (p < .001). Participants in the cherry juice group were more willing to use the drink in the future (p < 0.001) and reported higher satisfaction with the pain reduction they attributed to the drink (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ingesting tart cherry juice for 7 days prior to and during a strenuous running event can minimize post-run muscle pain.

2010-01-01

255

Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations

Maggie L. Grabow; Scott N. Spak; Tracey Holloway; Brian Stone Jr.; Adam C. Mednick; Jonathan A. Patz

2012-01-01

256

Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

1998-01-01

257

Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

1998-01-01

258

Acute high-intensity interval exercise reduces the postprandial glucose response and prevalence of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

High-volume endurance exercise (END) improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but many individuals cite 'lack of time' as a barrier to regular participation. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a time-efficient method to induce physiological adaptations similar to END, but little is known regarding the effect of HIT in T2D. Using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), we examined the 24-h blood glucose response to one session of HIT consisting of 10 × 60 s cycling efforts at ~90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 60 s rest. Seven adults with T2D underwent CGM for 24-h on two occasions under standard dietary conditions: following acute HIT and on a non-exercise control day (CTL). HIT reduced hyperglycaemia measured as proportion of time spent above 10 mmol/l (HIT: 4.5 ± 4.4 vs. CTL: 15.2 ± 12.3%, p = 0.04). Postprandial hyperglycaemia, measured as the sum of post-meal areas under the glucose curve, was also lower after HIT vs. CTL (728 ± 331 vs. 1142 ± 556 mmol/l·9 h, p = 0.01). These findings highlight the potential for HIT to improve glycaemic control in T2D. PMID:22268455

Gillen, J B; Little, J P; Punthakee, Z; Tarnopolsky, M A; Riddell, M C; Gibala, M J

2012-02-20

259

Exercise, Lymphokines, Calories, and Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of epidemiological studies suggesting that exercise reduces the risk of cancer concludes that exercise may help defend against cancer by preventing obesity, stimulating lymphokines, and/or facilitating other healthful changes in behavior. (Author/CB)|

Eichner, Edward R.

1987-01-01

260

Protocol for Work place adjusted Intelligent physical exercise reducing Musculoskeletal pain in Shoulder and neck (VIMS): a cluster randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Specific strength training is a promising type of physical exercise for relieving neck and shoulder pain in office workers. However, the optimal combination of frequency and exercise duration, as well as the importance of exercise supervision, is unknown. The VIMS study investigates in

Lars L Andersen; Mette K Zebis; Mogens T Pedersen; Kirsten K Roessler; Christoffer H Andersen; Mette M Pedersen; Helene Feveile; Ole S Mortensen; Gisela Sjøgaard

2010-01-01

261

[Changes in neutrophil immune functions under different exercise stresses].  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the known effects of exercise on neutrophil immune functions of athletes. We measured three neutrophil immune functions (i.e., phagocytic activity (PA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and serum opsonic activity (SOA)) in various types of exercise. The following is our recent findings. (1) A regular exercise increases ROS production and decreases PA. We call this change a normal pattern, and an abnormal pattern except this change. (2) A prolonged, strenuous activity (e.g., rugby match and marathon) decreases both ROS production and PA. This is one of the abnormal pattern. (3) The exercise loading performed after a camp training decreases ROS production whereas PA does not change. This is another abnormal pattern. (4) When judoists who had stopped judo training for 6 months restarted their training, the exercise loading at the beginning of their training decreases PA whereas ROS production does not change. This is another abnormal pattern. (5) A regular exercise 2 months after the beginning of their training increases ROS production and decreases PA. This change is a normal pattern. SOA showed a similar pattern of changes to ROS under all conditions. The changes in neutrophil immune functions after performing various exercises might result from the balance between external factors (intensity and style of exercise) and internal factors (e.g., fatigue and physical pain). Therefore, the changes in three neutrophil immune functions after exercise might be an index of athletes' condition. PMID:21701084

Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

2011-05-01

262

Serum keratan sulfate transiently increases in the early stage of osteoarthritis during strenuous running of rats: protective effect of intraarticular hyaluronan injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis is influenced by genetic and environment factors, including mechanical stress; however, the relationship between running and the development of osteoarthritis remains a matter of controversy. We investigated whether osteoarthritic change could be obtained in a rat strenuous running model, whether serum keratan sulfate in rats could be detected by HPLC and was associated with onset or progression of

Tao Tang; Takeshi Muneta; Young-Jin Ju; Akimoto Nimura; Kyosuke Miyazaki; Hiroyuki Masuda; Tomoyuki Mochizuki; Ichiro Sekiya

2008-01-01

263

Exercise training performed simultaneously to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in mice  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of concurrent exercise in the degree of the insulin resistance in mice fed with a high-fat diet, and assess adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) and endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 in different tissues. Methods Twenty-four mice were randomized into four groups (n?=?6): chow standard diet and sedentary (C); chow standard diet and simultaneous exercise training (C-T); fed on a high-fat diet and sedentary (DIO); and fed on a high-fat diet and simultaneous exercise training (DIO-T). Simultaneously to starting high-fat diet feeding, the mice were submitted to a swimming exercise training protocol (2 x 30 minutes, with 5 minutes of interval/day), five days per week, for twelve weeks (90 days). Animals were then euthanized 48 hours after the last exercise training session, and adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue were extracted for an immunoblotting analysis. Results IR, IRs, and Akt phosphorylation decreased in the DIO group in the three analyzed tissues. In addition, the DIO group exhibited ADIPOR1 (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue), ADIPOR2 (liver), and APPL1 reduced when compared with the C group. However, it was reverted when exercise training was simultaneously performed. In parallel, ADIPOR1 and 2 and APPL1 protein levels significantly increase in exercised mice. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that exercise training performed concomitantly to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in the hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle tissue.

2012-01-01

264

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced asthma, or more appropriately, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), occurs in 80 to 90% of individuals with asthma and in approximately 11% of the general population without asthma. EIB is characterised by post-exercise airways obstruction resulting in reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) of greater than 10% compared with pre-exercise values. The mechanism of EIB remains elusive, although both cooling and drying of airways play prominent roles. Cold, dry inhaled air during exercise or voluntary hyperventilation is the most potent stimulus for EIB. Inflammatory mediators play central roles in causing the post-exercise airways obstruction. Diagnosis of EIB requires the use of an exercise test. The exercise can be a field or laboratory based test, but should be of relatively high intensity (80 to 90% of maximal heart rate) and duration (at least 5 to 8 minutes). Pre- and post-exercise pulmonary function should be compared, and post exercise pulmonary function determined over 20 to 30 minutes for characterisation of EIB. A pre- to post-exercise drop in FEV(1) of greater than 10% is abnormal. Approaches to treatment of EIB include both nonpharmacological and pharmacological strategies. A light exercise warm up prior to moderate to heavy exercise reduces the severity of EIB. More recently, studies have supported a role for dietary salt as a modifier of the severity of EIB, suggesting that salt restrictive diets should reduce symptoms of EIB. Short acting, inhaled beta(2)-agonists constitute the most used prophylactic treatment for EIB. However, antileukotriene agents are emerging as effective, well tolerated, long-term treatments for EIB. PMID:12149043

Gotshall, Robert W

2002-01-01

265

Posture Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... Search You are here Home » Posture Exercises Posture Exercises When a person develops kyphosis, the posture becomes ... and strengthen the back. Try the following two exercises to keep your spine more limber and flexible. ...

266

Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed

Hanna van Waart; Martijn M. Stuiver; Wim H van Harten; Gabe S. Sonke; Neil K. Aaronson

2010-01-01

267

The effectiveness of hand cooling at reducing exercise-induced hyperthermia and improving distance-race performance in wheelchair and able-bodied athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of reducing core temperature in postexercise hyperthermic subjects and to assess if hand cooling (HC) improves subsequent timed distance performance. Following a detailed measurement check on the use of insulated auditory canal temperature (T(ac)), eight wheelchair (WA) athletes and seven male able-bodied (AB) athletes performed two testing sessions, comprising a 60-min exercise protocol and 10-min recovery period, followed by a performance trial (1 km and 3 km for WA and AB, respectively) at 30.8 degrees C (SD 0.2) and 60.6% (SD 0.2) relative humidity. In a counterbalanced order, HC and a no-cooling condition was administered during the 10-min recovery period before the performance trial. Nonsignificant condition x time interactions for both WA (F(15,75) = 1.5, P = 0.14) and AB (F(15,90) = 1.2, P = 0.32) confirmed that the exercise-induced changes (Delta) in T(ac) were similar before each intervention. However, the exercise-induced increase was evidently greater in AB compared with WA (2.0 vs. 1.3 degrees C change, respectively). HC produced DeltaT(ac) of -0.4 degrees C (SD 0.4) and -1.2 degrees C (SD 0.2) in comparison (WA and AB, respectively), and simple-effects analyses suggested that the reductions in T(ac) were noteworthy after 4 min of HC. HC had an impact on improving AB performances by -4.0 s (SD 11.5) (P < 0.05) and WA by -20.5 s (SD 24.2) (P > 0.05). In conclusion, extraction of heat through the hands was effective in lowering T(ac) in both groups and improving 3-km performance in the AB athletes and trends toward positive gains for the 1-km performance times of the WA group. PMID:18436695

Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria; Swainson, Michelle; Boyd, Craig; Atkinson, Greg; Tolfrey, Keith

2008-04-24

268

Sport Nutrition in Childhood: Meeting the Metabolic Demands of Growth and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goals of childhood are optimal growth and maturation. These developmental processes demand positive energy and nitrogen balance. Regular physical activity can enhance childhood development; however, strenuous physical training may reduce the body’s stores of energy and nitrogen, both of which must be replaced through the diet. Physically active adolescents are susceptible to disordered eating, which can lead to

C. L. Zanker

2006-01-01

269

Update on the relationship between magnesium and exercise.  

PubMed

Magnesium is involved in numerous processes that affect muscle function including oxygen uptake, energy production and electrolyte balance. Thus, the relationship between magnesium status and exercise has received significant research attention. This research has shown that exercise induces a redistribution of magnesium in the body to accommodate metabolic needs. There is evidence that marginal magnesium deficiency impairs exercise performance and amplifies the negative consequences of strenuous exercise (e.g., oxidative stress). Strenuous exercise apparently increases urinary and sweat losses that may increase magnesium requirements by 10-20%. Based on dietary surveys and recent human experiments, a magnesium intake less than 260 mg/day for male and 220 mg/day for female athletes may result in a magnesium-deficient status. Recent surveys also indicate that a significant number of individuals routinely have magnesium intakes that may result in a deficient status. Athletes participating in sports requiring weight control (e.g., wrestling, gymnastics) are apparently especially vulnerable to an inadequate magnesium status. Magnesium supplementation or increased dietary intake of magnesium will have beneficial effects on exercise performance in magnesium-deficient individuals. Magnesium supplementation of physically active individuals with adequate magnesium status has not been shown to enhance physical performance. An activity-linked RNI or RDA based on long-term balance data from well-controlled human experiments should be determined so that physically active individuals can ascertain whether they have a magnesium intake that may affect their performance or enhance their risk to adverse health consequences (e.g., immunosuppression, oxidative damage, arrhythmias). PMID:17172008

Nielsen, F H; Lukaski, H C

2006-09-01

270

Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Improve Exercise Capacity and Reduce Dyspnea During Functional Activities in People with Emphysema  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population.

2009-01-01

271

Lung volume reduction surgery and pulmonary rehabilitation improve exercise capacity and reduce dyspnea during functional activities in people with emphysema.  

PubMed

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population. PMID:20467532

Beling, Janna

2009-06-01

272

Long-term effects of two psychological interventions on physical exercise and self-regulation following coronary rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cardiac rehabilitation programs, patients learn how to adopt a healthier lifestyle, including regular, strenuous physical\\u000a activity. Long-term success is only modest despite good intentions. To improve exercise adherence, a 3-group experiment was\\u000a designed that included innovative psychological interventions. All 3 groups underwent a standard care rehabilitation program.\\u000a Patients in the 2 treatment groups were instructed not only to produce

Falko F. Sniehotta; Urte Scholz; Ralf Schwarzer; Bärbel Fuhrmann; Ulrich Kiwus; Heinz Völler

2005-01-01

273

Influence of repetitive open sea dives and physical exercises on right-to-left shunting in healthy divers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Paradoxical gas embolism through right-to-left (R\\/L) shunts is considered as a potential cause of certain types of decompression sickness.Aim:To assess whether 4 months of repetitive diving and strenuous exercises would lead to an increased prevalence of R\\/L shunting in a group of military divers.Methods:Using a standardised contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler technique, 17 divers were re-examined for the presence of a R\\/L

J-E Blatteau; C Pény; J-M Pontier; E Gempp; P Louge

2008-01-01

274

Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT COOPER, C. B. Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.,Vol. 33, No. 7, Suppl., pp. S671?S679, 2001. Endurance exercise training (EXT) is singly the most important aspect of rehabilitation for patients with chronic pulmonary disease. When effective, this modality of physical reconditioning leads to improved functional exercise capacity and reduced breathlessness. Early implementation is

CHRISTOPHER B. COOPER

2001-01-01

275

Leptin and exercise.  

PubMed

Short-term exercise (<60 min) studies suggest that leptin concentrations are not acutely affected in healthy males and females. Most reports of reductions in serum leptin may be attributed to circadian rhythms or hemoconcentration. For long-term (> or =60 min) exercise, a reduction in leptin concentrations reported from 1 to 3 hr of running or cycling has been attributed to diurnal reduction in circulating leptin, independent of exercise. Exercise that produces a sufficient energy imbalance (kilocalorie intake versus kilocalorie expenditure) suppresses 24-hr mean and amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of leptin in women. Suppression of leptin concentrations may be counterbalanced by feeding and may explain consistent reports of reductions in leptin concentrations following extreme bouts of exercise such as marathons or ultramarathons. In addition, leptin concentrations are reduced 48 hr after long-term aerobic exercise and long-term resistance exercise is associated with delayed leptin reduction 9 hr postexercise. Training studies have documented that short-term exercise training (< or =12 weeks) does not affect leptin levels, with the exception of patients with type 2 diabetes. Exercise training protocols that result in reduced fat mass will lower leptin concentrations, thus, most investigators have reported leptin concentrations after accounting for fat loss. There are disparate findings concerning long-term (>12 weeks) training studies, with a number of studies finding no effect of training on leptin concentrations other than effects induced by fat loss, and other studies finding reductions in leptin concentrations after accounting for fat loss. Exercise training-induced reductions in leptin levels have been attributed to alterations in energy balance, improvements in insulin sensitivity, alterations in lipid metabolism, and unknown factors. Hormone replacement does not seem to affect leptin adaptations to training. Patients with type 2 diabetes show delayed effects of short-term resistance exercise on leptin concentrations, reduced leptin levels with long-term training, and appear to be more sensitive to training-induced leptin adaptations than other populations. PMID:12324651

Kraemer, Robert R; Chu, Hongnan; Castracane, V Daniel

2002-10-01

276

Exercise Prescription.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

Ribisl, Paul M.

277

A low-glycemic index diet combined with exercise reduces insulin resistance, postprandial hyperinsulinemia, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide responses in obese, prediabetic humans1234  

PubMed Central

Background: The optimal lifestyle intervention that reverses diabetes risk factors is not known. Objective: We examined the effect of a low–glycemic index (GI) diet and exercise intervention on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in obese, prediabetic individuals. Design: Twenty-two participants [mean ± SEM age: 66 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 34.4 ± 0.8] underwent a 12-wk exercise-training intervention (1 h/d for 5 d/wk at ?85% of maximum heart rate) while randomly assigned to receive either a low-GI diet (LoGIX; 40 ± 0.3 units) or a high-GI diet (HiGIX; 80 ± 0.6 units). Body composition (measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography), insulin sensitivity (measured with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with [6,6-2H2]-glucose), and oral glucose–induced insulin and incretin hormone secretion were examined. Results: Both groups lost equal amounts of body weight (?8.8 ± 0.9%) and adiposity and showed similar improvements in peripheral tissue (+76.2 ± 14.9%) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (+27.1 ± 7.1%) (all P < 0.05). However, oral glucose–induced insulin secretion was reduced only in the LoGIX group (6.59 ± 0.86 nmol in the prestudy compared with 4.70 ± 0.67 nmol in the poststudy, P < 0.05), which was a change related to the suppressed postprandial response of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. When corrected for changes in ? cell glucose exposure, changes in insulin secretion were attenuated in the LoGIX group but became significantly elevated in the HiGIX group. Conclusions: Although lifestyle-induced weight loss improves insulin resistance in prediabetic individuals, postprandial hyperinsulinemia is reduced only when a low-GI diet is consumed. In contrast, a high-GI diet impairs pancreatic ? cell and intestinal K cell function despite significant weight loss. These findings highlight the important role of the gut in mediating the effects of a low-GI diet on type 2 diabetes risk reduction.

Solomon, Thomas PJ; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R; Cook, Marc D; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Watanabe, Richard M; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

2010-01-01

278

High-energy turnover at low temperatures: recovery from exhaustive exercise in Antarctic and temperate eelpouts.  

PubMed

Earlier work on Notothenioids led to the hypothesis that a reduced glycolytic capacity is a general adaptation to low temperatures in Antarctic fish. In our study this hypothesis was reinvestigated by comparing changes in the metabolic status of the white musculature in two related zoarcid species, the stenothermal Antarctic eelpout Pachycara brachycephalum and the eurythermal Zoarces viviparus during exercise and subsequent recovery at 0 degreesC. In both species, strenuous exercise caused a similar increase in white muscle lactate, a drop in intracellular pH (pHi) by about 0.5 pH units, and a 90% depletion of phosphocreatine. This is the first study on Antarctic fish that shows an increase in white muscle lactate concentrations. Thus the hypothesis that a reduced importance of the glycolytic pathway is characteristic for cold-adapted polar fish cannot hold. The recovery process, especially the clearance of white muscle lactate, is significantly faster in the Antarctic than in temperate eelpout. Based on metabolite data, we calculated that during the first hour of recovery aerobic metabolism is increased 6.6-fold compared with resting rates in P. brachycephalum vs. an only 2.9-fold increase in Z. viviparus. This strong stimulation of aerobic metabolism despite low temperatures may be caused by a pronounced increase of free ADP levels, in the context of higher levels of pHi and ATP, which is observed in the Antarctic species. Although basal metabolic rates are identical in both species, the comparison of metabolic rates during situations of high-energy turnover reveals that the stenothermal P. brachycephalum shows a higher degree of metabolic cold compensation than the eurythermal Z. viviparus. Muscular fatigue after escape swimming may be caused by a drop of the free energy change of ATP hydrolysis, which is shown to fall below critical levels for cellular ATPases in exhausted animals of both species. PMID:9841552

Hardewig, I; Van Dijk, P L; Portner, H O

1998-06-01

279

Hypocaloric Diet and Regular Moderate Aerobic Exercise Is an Effective Strategy to Reduce Anthropometric Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Obese Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies show that diet and exercise are important in the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether additional regular moderate aerobic exercise during a treatment with hypocaloric diet has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress and molecular damage in the obese patient. Methods: Oxidative stress of 16 normal-weight (NW) and 32 obese 1 (O1)

Liliana Gutierrez-Lopez; Jose Ruben Garcia-Sanchez; Maria de Jesus Rincon-Viquez; Eleazar Lara-Padilla; Martha P. Sierra-Vargas; Ivonne M. Olivares-Corichi

2012-01-01

280

Cigarette smoking, regular exercise, and peripheral blood flow.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic smoking reduces peripheral blood flow and shear stress, contributing to the increased incidence of peripheral arterial disease in smokers. Currently, it is not known whether physical activity status influences peripheral blood flow among chronic smokers. Blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasound on the common femoral artery in nine young otherwise healthy sedentary smokers (eight males/one female) and nine physically-active smokers (six males/three females). Physically-active smokers performed strenuous exercise 4.4 times/week for 8 h/week. No significant differences in body fat, blood pressure, and total cholesterol were observed between groups. Basal femoral artery blood flow was approximately 50% higher in physically-active smokers compared with sedentary smokers (259+/-108 ml min(-1) versus 173+/-47 ml min(-1), P<0.05). The higher basal femoral artery blood flow in physically-active smokers compared with sedentary smokers was associated with a 47% higher femoral artery vascular conductance (2.99+/-1.2 U versus 2.03+/-0.5 U, P<0.05) and a 39% lower vascular resistance (0.38+/-0.13 U versus 0.53+/-0.15 U, P<0.05). Cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, femoral intima-media thickness, and plasma norepinephrine concentration were not different between the groups. We concluded that smokers who habitually perform physical activity demonstrate greater levels of peripheral blood flow and peripheral vascular conductance. The findings from the present cross-sectional study suggest that chronic smokers may be able to negate, at least in part, the adverse effects of chronic smoking on the peripheral vasculature by performing regular physical activity. PMID:16046216

Anton, Maria M; Cortez-Cooper, Miriam Y; DeVan, Allison E; Neidre, Daria B; Cook, Jill N; Tanaka, Hirofumi

2005-07-25

281

Exercise Headaches  

MedlinePLUS

Exercise headaches Basics In-Depth Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Exercise headaches By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http:// ...

282

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...

283

Effects of C-peptide on blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and glucose utilization in the exercising forearm of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microvascular dysfunction is frequently seen in patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The present study was undertaken to examine whether skeletal muscle microcirculation in Type 1 diabetic patients is influenced by C-peptide. Forearm blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and substrate exchange were studied during strenuous rhythmic forearm exercise on a hand ergometer. Measurements were made before and during i.v. infusion

B.-L. Johansson; B. Linde; J. Wahren

1992-01-01

284

Insulin therapy and exercise.  

PubMed

Medical nutrition therapy and physical exercise are the cornerstones of the diabetes management. Patients with type 1 DM always need exogenous insulin administration, recently available in the form of insulin analogs. In type 2 DM, characterized by increased insulin resistance and progressive decline of the beta-cell function, various antidiabetic medications are used. Most of the subjects with type 2 DM will finally need insulin. The main site of insulin action is the skeletal muscle, while the liver is the main site of glucose storage in the form of glycogen. With the modern diabetes therapies it is possible to rapidly reach and maintain normoglycemia in both types of DM but with the cost of higher incidence of hypoglycemia, especially related to exercise. Regular physical exercise causes a lot of beneficial effects in healthy as well as diabetic subjects of all age groups. In type 1 DM physical exercise is a fundamental element for both physical and mental development. In type 2 DM it has a main role in diabetes control. The increased hepatic glucose production and the increased muscular glucose uptake during exercise are closely interrelated in all exercise intensities. In diabetes mellitus there is a disturbed energy substrate use during exercise leading to either hypo- or hyperglycemia. The influence of low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise on diabetes control has been well studied. The inappropriately high insulinemia combined with the low glucose levels can lead to severe hypoglycemia if proper measures are not taken. Prolonged exercise can also predispose to decreased glucose counter regulation. It is better for the type 1 diabetic subject to postpone the exercise session in very high (>300 mg/dl) or very low (<70 mg/dl) BG levels. Every insulin treated subject is recommended to be checked for any existing diabetic complication before the start of every exercise program. Glucose measurement with glucose meters or sometimes with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) must be made before, during and most importantly after the end of the exercise session. It is recommended either to reduce or suspend the previous insulin dose depending on the insulin regime or to receive extra carbohydrates before, during or after the exercise session or both. Subjects with type 1 DM may participate at almost all the competitive sports if precautions are taken. These measures must be individualized and readjusted, even empirically. In very high intensity exercise (about 80% of VO(2 max)) or when high intensity exercise follows a low intensity one, there is a tendency of the BG to increase due to excessive circulating catecholamines necessitating postexercise short acting insulin. In anaerobic or resistance exercise lactic acid is produced. This exercise type is recommended for people in whom aerobic exercise is contraindicated. These two exercise types can be combined. The incidence of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia in specific forms of resistance exercise as well as the appropriate insulin dose adjustment are not well studied. In conclusion all exercise types are beneficial for both types of diabetes. PMID:21864755

Kourtoglou, Georgios I

2011-08-01

285

Effectiveness of a video-based exercise programme to reduce falls and improve health-related quality of life among older adults discharged from hospital: a pilot randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Falls, loss of health-related quality of life and physical capacity, reduced participation in activities of daily living, and increased fear of falling are all potential outcomes for older adults discharged from hospital. A low-cost video based exercise programme may address this.Design: This study was a randomized controlled trial with blinded outcomes assessment and a six-month follow-up.Subjects and setting: Participants

Terry P Haines; Trevor Russell; Sandra G Brauer; Sheree Erwin; Stephen Urry; Jan Jasiewicz; Peter Condie

2009-01-01

286

Exercise addiction.  

PubMed

This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start. PMID:23329605

Landolfi, Emilio

2013-02-01

287

Exercise at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Information > Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an ... plans to begin exercising with your doctor. Posture Exercises Better poster means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

288

Mechanisms by which exercise training benefits patients with heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical consequences of heart failure are fatigue, dyspnea, and progressive impairment of exercise tolerance. Regular exercise training is associated with health-improving effects. In patients with stable heart failure, exercise training can relieve symptoms, improve exercise capacity and quality of life, as well as reduce hospitalization and, to some extent, risk of mortality. Progressive exercise training is associated with pulmonary, cardiovascular,

Louis J. Ignarro; Francesco Cacciatore; Ettore Crimi; Claudio Napoli

2009-01-01

289

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System  

PubMed Central

There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise.

Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

2012-01-01

290

Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

2004-01-01

291

A 12 WEEKS EXERCISE PROGRAM RESULTED IN REDUCED VISCERAL FAT AND FASTING INSULIN BUT NOT TOTAL AND INTRAMYOCELLULAR FAT IN HISPANIC OBESE ADOLESCENTS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Weight loss is known to improve insulin sensitivity but is difficult to achieve. The independent effects of exercise on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in the absence of overall w...

292

A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

2010-01-01

293

A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

2010-01-01

294

Exercise intolerance.  

PubMed

Patients with heart failure and normal EF have severe chronic exercise intolerance. The pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in this syndrome is incompletely understood, but as in systolic heart failure, it is likely multifactorial. Current data suggest that important contributors include decreased LV diastolic compliance, decreased aortic distensibility, exaggerated exercise systolic blood pressure, relative chronotropic incompetence, and possibly anemia and skeletal muscle remodeling. Because it is a primary determinant of quality of life, can be quantified objectively, is reproducible, and is modifiable, exercise intolerance is an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:16115516

Kitzman, Dalane W

295

Hypocaloric Diet Reduces Exercise-Induced 2- Adrenergic Antilipolytic Effect and 2Adrenergic Receptor mRNA Levels in Adipose Tissue of Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations have shown that 2-adrenoceptor (2-AR) stimulation blunts lipid mobilization during physio- logical activation of the sympathetic nervous system pro- moted by exercise in sc abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in obese men. To investigate the effect of a low calorie diet (LCD) on the 2-adrenergic responsiveness and on the expression of 2-AR and 2-adrenoceptor (2-AR) in SCAAT, 11 obese

V. STICH; F. MARION-LATARD; J. HEJNOVA; N. VIGUERIE; C. LEFORT; H. SULJKOVICOVA; D. LANGIN; M. LAFONTAN; M. BERLAN

2010-01-01

296

Exercise caution.  

PubMed

A recent study into the effects of structured physical exercise for people diagnosed with depression claimed that it did not help. The findings attracted huge media coverage that may have made it harder to persuade patients with depression to take exercise. PMID:22930958

Trueland, Jennifer

297

Can Lifestyle Interventions Do More than Reduce Diabetes Risk? Treating Depression in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes with Exercise and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  

PubMed Central

The epidemic of metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes is global in scope and comprehensive in its impact on individuals, health care systems, and societies. One in four patients with diabetes will experience depression in their lifetime. Comorbid depression is associated with poorer outcomes, greater functional disability, and early mortality. Prior studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise as an efficacious form of treatment for depression in the general population. Few studies have evaluated this strategy in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Program ACTIVE (Appalachians Coming Together to Increase Vital Exercise) was designed to treat depression among adults with type 2 diabetes by pairing aerobic activity with individual cognitive behavioral therapy. This combination treatment approach has been shown to be feasible to implement in a rural environment and promising in terms of depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular outcomes. Data from this study suggest that exercise can be used to achieve multiple benefits for adults with type 2 diabetes. Future work to compare this approach to singular treatment strategies for adults at risk for type 2 diabetes is needed.

de Groot, Mary; Doyle, Todd; Kushnick, Michael; Shubrook, Jay; Merrill, Jennifer; Rabideau, Erin; Schwartz, Frank

2012-01-01

298

Exercise and food factors.  

PubMed

Habitual exercise is beneficial to health as it improves metabolism, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, and maintains the immune system. Appropriate nutrition contributes to acceleration of health promotion due to exercise. Recommended daily allowance is elevated by physical activity and intake of various food factors such carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemicals is required to avoid their shortage. Additional dietary food factors are effective not only in supplementation to satisfy the allowance but also in further acceleration of the benefits of fitness. Dietary nutrition is also important to maintain active function in the elderly by preventing aging-induced muscle atrophy and avoiding intense exercise-induced disorders. Recently, several food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting or alternating the beneficial effects of exercise, maintaining homeostasis, and preventing muscle aging. However, some of these food factors should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence. Also, it is important to understand the physiological changes caused by exercise to use them correctly. This article describes various food factors that have been reported to be effective for improving health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:19367119

Aoi, Wataru

2009-04-07

299

Exercise and multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by fatigue, motor weakness, spasticity, poor balance, heat sensitivity and mental depression. Also, MS symptoms may lead to physical inactivity associated with the development of secondary diseases. Persons with MS are thus challenged by their disability when attempting to pursue an active lifestyle compatible with health-related fitness. Although exercise prescription is gaining favour as a therapeutic strategy to minimise the loss of functional capacity in chronic diseases, it remains under-utilised as an intervention strategy in the MS population. However, a growing number of studies indicate that exercise in patients with mild-to-moderate MS provides similar fitness and psychological benefits as it does in healthy controls. We reviewed numerous studies describing the responses of selected MS patients to acute and chronic exercise compared with healthy controls. All training studies reported positive outcomes that outweighed potential adverse effects of the exercise intervention. Based on our review, this article highlights the role of exercise prescription in the multidisciplinary approach to MS disease management for improving and maintaining functional capacity. Despite the often unpredictable clinical course of MS, exercise programmes designed to increase cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and mobility provide benefits that enhance lifestyle activity and quality of life while reducing risk of secondary disorders. Recommendations for the evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle performance and flexibility are presented as well as basic guidelines for individualised exercise testing and training in MS. Special considerations for exercise, including medical management concerns, programme modifications and supervision, in the MS population are discussed. PMID:15575796

White, Lesley J; Dressendorfer, Rudolph H

2004-01-01

300

Exercise and age  

MedlinePLUS

Age and exercise ... It's never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you've never exercised, or if you stopped exercising for some reason. Being physically ...

301

Circulating cell-free DNA: an up-coming molecular marker in exercise physiology.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations is of importance for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise physiology. Increases of cfDNA due to exercise are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome and might be related to, or trigger adaptations of, immune function induced by strenuous exercise. At the same time, exercise provides a practicable model for studying the phenomenon of cfDNA that is described to be of pathophysiological relevance for different topics in clinical medicine like autoimmune diseases and cancer. In this review, we are summarizing the current knowledge of exercise-based acute and chronic alterations in cfDNA levels and their physiological significance. The effects of acute exercise on cfDNA concentrations have been investigated in resistance exercises and in continuous, stepwise and interval endurance exercises of different durations. cfDNA concentrations peaked immediately after acute exercise and showed a rapid return to baseline levels. Typical markers of skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase, uric acid, C-reactive protein) show delayed kinetics compared with the cfDNA peak response. Exercise parameters such as intensity, duration or average energy expenditure do not explain the extent of increasing cfDNA concentrations after strenuous exercise. This could be due to complex processes inside the human organism during and after physical activity. Therefore, we hypothesize composite effects of different physiological stress parameters that come along with exercise to be responsible for increasing cfDNA concentrations. We suggest that due to acute stress, cfDNA levels increase rapidly by a spontaneous active or passive release mechanism that is not yet known. As a result of the rapid and parallel increase of cfDNA and lactate in an incremental treadmill test leading to exhaustion within 15-20 minutes, it is unlikely that cfDNA is released into the plasma by typical necrosis or apoptosis of cells in acute exercise settings. Recently, rapid DNA release mechanisms of activated immune-competent cells like NETosis (pathogen-induced cell death including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) have been discovered. cfDNA accumulations might comprise a similar kind of cell death including trap formation or an active release of cfDNA. Just like chronic diseases, chronic high-intensity resistance training protocols induced persistent increases of cfDNA levels. Chronic, strenuous exercise protocols, either long-duration endurance exercise or regular high-intensity workouts, induce chronic inflammation that might lead to a slow, constant release of DNA. This could be due to mechanisms of cell death like apoptosis or necrosis. Yet, it has neither been implicated nor proven sufficiently whether cfDNA can serve as a marker for overtraining. The relevance of cfDNA with regard to overtraining status, performance level, and the degree of physical exhaustion still remains unclear. Longitudinal studies are required that take into account standardized and controlled exercise, serial blood sampling, and large and homogeneous cohorts of different athletic achievement. Furthermore, it is important to establish standardized laboratory procedures for the measurement of genomic cfDNA concentrations by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We introduce a new hypothesis based on acute exercise and chronic exposure to stress, and rapid active and passive chronic release of cfDNA fragments into the circulation. PMID:22694348

Breitbach, Sarah; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles

2012-07-01

302

?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (P¼0·004, d ¼ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (P¼0·005, d ¼ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P¼0·08, d ¼ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John

2013-01-03

303

Seismological Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, which was designed for an undergraduate level geology class at Tulane University, asks the student to make evaluations about the Loma Prieta Earthquake and other earthquakes using seismograms, time travel curves, maps and other information.

Nelson, Stephen

304

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...

305

Abnormal coronary vascular response to exercise in dogs with severe right ventricular hypertrophy.  

PubMed Central

Measurements of right coronary artery blood flow, aortic and right ventricular (RV) pressures and heart rate were radiotelemetered during strenuous, spontaneous exercise in normal dogs and dogs with severe RV hypertrophy induced by chronic (5-6 mo) pulmonary artery stenosis. With fixed pulmonic stenosis, dogs with RV hypertrophy exhibited a decrease (P less than 0.01) in arterial pressure during exercise. Under these conditions, exercise increased right coronary artery blood flow and decreased right coronary vascular resistance less (P less than 0.05) in dogs with RV hypertrophy compared with normal. This attenuated response of right coronary artery blood flow of dogs with RV hypertrophy was not observed when arterial pressures remained at preexercise values during exercise. However, regardless of changes in arterial pressures during exercise, all dogs with RV hypertrophy demonstrated a striking postexercise coronary hyperemia (P less than 0.01), suggesting a perfusion deficit of the hypertrophied right ventricle during exercise. These results imply a fundamental defect in the ability of the coronary circulation of the severely hypertrophied right ventricle to provide sufficient nutrient supply in the face of elevated metabolic demands of exercise.

Murray, P A; Vatner, S F

1981-01-01

306

Do exercise motives predict obligatory exercise?  

PubMed

Few studies have examined whether factors predicting obligatory exercise differ by gender. 303 participants completed the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire and the Reason for Exercise Inventory. All variables correlated significantly. However, the correlation between exercising for fitness and obligatory exercise was significantly stronger in women than men. In women, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, fitness, and to enhance mood; in men, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, enjoyment, and perceived attractiveness. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:22365798

Pritchard, Mary E; Beaver, Jessica L

2011-11-26

307

Effect of saline infusion on body temperature and endurance during heavy exercise.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that volume infusion during strenuous exercise, by expanding blood volume, would allow better skin blood flow and better temperature homeostasis and thereby improve endurance time. Nine males exercised to exhaustion at 84.0 +/- 3.14% (SE) of maximum O2 consumption on a cycle ergometer in a double-blind randomized protocol with either no infusion (control) or an infusion of 0.9% NaCl (mean vol 1,280.3 +/- 107.3 ml). Blood samples and expired gases (breath-by-breath), as well as core and skin temperatures, were analyzed. Plasma volume decreased less during exercise with the infusion at 15 min (-13.7 +/- 1.4% control vs. -5.3 +/- 1.7% infusion, P less than 0.05) and at exhaustion (-13.6 +/- 1.2% vs. -1.3 +/- 2.2%, P less than 0.01). The improved fluid homeostasis was associated with a lower core temperature during exercise (39.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C for control and 38.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C for infusion at exhaustion, P less than 0.01) and lower heart rate (194.1 +/- 3.9 beats/min for control and 186.0 +/- 5.1 beats/min for infusion at exhaustion, P less than 0.05). However, endurance time did not differ between control and infusion (21.96 +/- 3.56 and 20.82 +/- 2.63 min, respectively), and neither did [H+], peak O2 uptake, and CO2 production, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2, blood lactate, or blood pressure. In conclusion, saline infusion increases heat dissipation and lowers core temperature during strenuous exercise but does not influence endurance time. PMID:2745343

Deschamps, A; Levy, R D; Cosio, M G; Marliss, E B; Magder, S

1989-06-01

308

Baker's yeast ?-glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk?  

PubMed

Strenuous aerobic exercise is known to weaken the immune system, and while many nutritional supplements have been proposed to boost post-exercise immunity, few are known to be effective. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether 10 d of supplementation with a defined source of baker's yeast ?-glucan (BG, Wellmune WGP®) could minimise post-exercise immunosuppression. Recreationally active men and women (n 60) completed two 10 d trial conditions using a cross-over design with a 7 d washout period: placebo (rice flour) and baker's yeast BG (250 mg/d of ?-1,3/1,6-glucans derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) before a bout of cycling (49 ± 6 min) in a hot (38 ± 2°C), humid (45 ± 2 % relative humidity) environment. Blood was collected at baseline (before supplement), pre- (PRE), post- (POST) and 2 h (2H) post-exercise. Total and subset monocyte concentration was measured by four-colour flow cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production were measured using separate multiplex assays. Total (CD14+) and pro-inflammatory monocyte concentrations (CD14+/CD16+) were significantly greater at POST and 2H (P < 0·05) with BG supplementation. BG supplementation boosted LPS-stimulated production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and interferon-? (IFN-?) at PRE and POST (P < 0·05). Plasma IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-? concentrations were greater at 2H following BG supplementation. It appears that 10 d of supplementation with BG increased the potential of blood leucocytes for the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-?. The key findings of the present study demonstrate that BG may have potential to alter immunity following a strenuous exercise session. PMID:22575076

Carpenter, K C; Breslin, W L; Davidson, T; Adams, A; McFarlin, B K

2012-05-10

309

The effect of repeated endurance exercise on IL-6 and sIL-6R and their relationship with sensations of fatigue at rest.  

PubMed

Strenuous, prolonged exercise increases interleukin-6 (IL-6) release. The effect of IL-6 is dependent on the availability of IL-6 receptors. Few studies have addressed the impact of exercise on IL-6 receptor levels or procalcitonin (PCT), an indicator of systemic inflammation. Changes in these molecules may give insight into cytokine-related mechanisms underlying exercise-related fatigue. Thirteen trained male subjects partook in the study. They cycled a total distance of 468 km over 6 days. Blood samples were obtained prior to and immediately following Day 1 of the study and then each morning prior to exercise. Blood samples were analysed for plasma IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), C-reactive protein (CRP), PCT, creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol concentrations. Subjects also completed mood state questionnaires each day prior to exercise. IL-6 was elevated immediately post-exercise on Day 1 but was unchanged at rest for the duration of the event. In contrast, sIL-6R, CRP, PCT and CK concentrations were unchanged immediately post-exercise on Day 1 but were significantly elevated at rest over the duration of the event compared with pre-event baseline. sIL-6R was highly correlated to CRP. Cortisol concentrations remained unchanged at all time points. In conclusion, strenuous, prolonged exercise stimulated an acute phase response which was maintained throughout the 6-day event. sIL-6R increase is associated with CRP and may affect subjective sensations of post-exercise fatigue at rest. PMID:19097916

Robson-Ansley, Paula; Barwood, Martin; Canavan, Jane; Hack, Susan; Eglin, Clare; Davey, Sarah; Hewitt, Jennifer; Hull, James; Ansley, Les

2008-12-18

310

Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise: a role in inflammation.  

PubMed Central

1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised and the control leg, together with venous blood samples, were obtained prior to exercise and at 45 min, 24, 48 and 96 h after exercise. The time courses of xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity and indicators of muscle damage and inflammation were examined. 2. The number of xanthine oxidase structures observed by immunohistological methods in the exercised muscle was up to eightfold higher than control from day 1 to day 4 after exercise (P < 0.05). The increase was attributed to an enhanced expression of xanthine oxidase in microvascular endothelial cells and an invasion of leucocytes containing xanthine oxidase. 3. The concentration of plasma interleukin-6 was significantly higher 90 min after exercise than before exercise (P < 0.05) and remained higher than pre-exercise levels throughout the 4 days. On day 4 the plasma creatine kinase activity was approximately 150-fold higher (P < 0.05) than resting levels. 4. Despite the increase in xanthine oxidase in the muscle there were no detectable changes in the levels of muscle malondialdehyde or in plasma antioxidant capacity up to 4 days post-exercise. 5. It is concluded that eccentric exercise leads to an increased level of xanthine oxidase in human muscle and that the increase is associated with secondary inflammatory processes. The increase in xanthine oxidase in the muscle occurs mainly in microvascular endothelial cells, but occurs also via infiltrating leucocytes containing xanthine oxidase. A role for leucocytes in xanthine oxidase induction in endothelium is proposed. Images Figure 2

Hellsten, Y; Frandsen, U; Orthenblad, N; Sj?din, B; Richter, E A

1997-01-01

311

Kegel Exercise Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... to know about Bladder Control for Women Kegel Exercise Tips What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

312

Visual system effects of exercise on Mauna Kea at 2,200 and 4,200 meters altitude.  

PubMed

Field exercise studies were performed at two altitudes (2,200 and 4,200 m) in 2 successive years using different sets of young male volunteers. Visual function indices were measured both at sea level and during a strenuous exercise regime at altitude. Volunteers were grouped in the first study by initial rest period (2 days vs. no rest) and in the second by diet (supplemental carbohydrates vs. Meals Ready to Eat rations only). Overall results showed no effect according to grouping, a decrease in average visual acuity at the higher altitude overall, and a decrease in electroretinographic (ERG) photopic flicker responses at moderate altitude. It is concluded that heavy exercise at these altitudes may not have operationally significant effects on ground troops in night vision or target recognition, although the change in ERG parameters does indicate a shift in retinal cone physiology that may have subtler effects. PMID:9121665

Schmeisser, E T; Gagliano, D L; Santiago-Marini, J

1997-03-01

313

Extraversion and Exercise Addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraversion has been suggested as a factor associated with addiction. This claim was tested in relation to exercise addiction. Twelve exercise addicts were compared with 12 nonaddicted individuals who were committed to regular exercise and with 12 nonexercising individuals drawn from the same student population. Addicted exercisers did not differ from nonaddicted exercisers in extraversion, although exercisers as a group

Sarah Mathers; Michael B. Walker

1999-01-01

314

Exercise-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 and IL-8 genes in endurance horses  

PubMed Central

Background The stress response is a critical factor in the training of equine athletes; it is important for performance and for protection of the animal against physio-pathological disorders. In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to acute and strenuous exercise were investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect modifications in transcription levels of the genes for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), which were derived from previous genome-wide expression analysis. Significant up-regulation of these two genes was found in 10 horses that had completed a race of 90–120 km in a time-course experimental design. Conclusion These results suggest that MMP-1 and IL-8 are both involved in the exercise-induced stress response, and this represents a starting point from which to understand the adaptive responses to this phenomenon.

Cappelli, Katia; Felicetti, Michela; Capomaccio, Stefano; Pieramati, Camillo; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea

2009-01-01

315

Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.  

PubMed

Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p < 0.05). "Exercise is hard work for me," "Exercise tires me," and "There are too few places for me to exercise" were the most common perceived barriers. These findings can assist with development of exercise opportunities for power wheelchair users. PMID:23761004

Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

2013-04-01

316

Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen

317

INTERVAL RUNNING EXERCISE REDUCES RUNNING TIME OF 800 METERS DASH WITHOUT CAUSING INCREASED LEVEL OF SGOT - SGPT IN MALE STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF SPORTS SCIENCES, MANADO STATE UNIVERSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effort to gain best achievement in sports by means of exercise has two dilemmatic sides, both for the coaches and sport promoters. On one side, exercise should be done intensely and maximally, but on the other side, it is a known fact that excessive and maximal exercises can damage the body organs. The purposes of this study were to

Alprodit Galatang; Jahja Alex Pangkahila; I Gusti; Ngurah Nal; Ketut Tirtayasa

318

Endurance Exercise Diverts the Balance between Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells  

PubMed Central

Endurance, marathon-type exertion is known to induce adverse changes in the immune system. Increased airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation are well documented in endurance athletes and endurance exercise is considered a major risk factor for asthma in elite athletes. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still to be deduced. We studied the effect of strenuous endurance exercise (marathon and half-ironman triathlon) on CD4+ lymphocyte sub-populations and on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of trained athletes, Endurance exercise induced a significant increase in Th17 cells and a sustained decrease in peripheral blood regulatory T cells (Tregs). While interleukin (IL)-2 levels remained undetectable, post-race serum IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF) ? levels were significantly elevated. Treg levels in sedentary controls' decreased in vitro after incubation with athletes' post-exercise serum, an effect that was attenuated by supplements of IL-2 or anti IL-6 neutralizing antibodies. Our data suggest that exercise-induced changes in serum cytokine levels promote alterations in Tregs and Th17 cell populations, which may divert the subtle balance in the immune system towards inflammation. This may explain allergic and autoimmune phenomena previously reported in endurance athletes and contribute to our understanding of exercise-related asthma.

Bdolach, Nir; Hazan-Halevi, Inbal; Kay, Sigi; Berr, Idit; Reches, Adi; Harishanu, Yair; Grisaru, Dan

2013-01-01

319

Neuroendocrine mediators in the modulation of phagocytosis by exercise: physiological implications.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine mediation of the effects of exercise on macrophage and neutrophil phagocytosis, the organism's first line of defense against external aggression, is reviewed. Exercise modulates the immune system via the actions of "stress hormones". Although stress had long been regarded as generally immunosuppressive, it is now accepted that this is not always true. Indeed exercise-induced stress stimulates the "phagocytic process" of phagocytes. One of the new physiological interpretations emerging from recent studies is that the general stimulation of phagocytosis and other innate mechanisms during strenuous physical activity may counterbalance the decreased lymphoid activity, preventing the entry and survival of microorganisms in situations where the specific responses are depressed. In some cases this behaviour is also medicated by "stress hormones", unlike in lymphocytes in which glucocorticoids and catecholamines both are immunosuppressive. The mediatory role of glucocorticoids in macrophages may also differ between the non-specific functions, like chemotaxis and phagocytosis, and the more specific ones, like antigen-presentation. Neutrophils and monocytes may be stimulated by catecholamines or sympathetic signals, and variations in phagocytosis and catecholamines have been proposed as a good "neuroimmuno-endocrinological marker" in athletes. Other hormones (prolactin, GH, endorphins, thyroid hormones) in general also contribute to the effects of exercise-stress on phagocytosis. This review focuses on a physiological interpretation of the immune response to exercise which differs markedly from the classical immunosuppression-centered view. More studies on in vivo variations of stress hormones during exercise are needed. PMID:14686096

Ortega, Eduardo

2003-01-01

320

Endurance Exercise Diverts the Balance between Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells.  

PubMed

Endurance, marathon-type exertion is known to induce adverse changes in the immune system. Increased airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation are well documented in endurance athletes and endurance exercise is considered a major risk factor for asthma in elite athletes. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still to be deduced. We studied the effect of strenuous endurance exercise (marathon and half-ironman triathlon) on CD4+ lymphocyte sub-populations and on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of trained athletes, Endurance exercise induced a significant increase in Th17 cells and a sustained decrease in peripheral blood regulatory T cells (Tregs). While interleukin (IL)-2 levels remained undetectable, post-race serum IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF) ? levels were significantly elevated. Treg levels in sedentary controls' decreased in vitro after incubation with athletes' post-exercise serum, an effect that was attenuated by supplements of IL-2 or anti IL-6 neutralizing antibodies. Our data suggest that exercise-induced changes in serum cytokine levels promote alterations in Tregs and Th17 cell populations, which may divert the subtle balance in the immune system towards inflammation. This may explain allergic and autoimmune phenomena previously reported in endurance athletes and contribute to our understanding of exercise-related asthma. PMID:24130669

Perry, Chava; Pick, Marjorie; Bdolach, Nir; Hazan-Halevi, Inbal; Kay, Sigi; Berr, Idit; Reches, Adi; Harishanu, Yair; Grisaru, Dan

2013-10-09

321

Effect of Acute Exercise on Upper-Limb Volume in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Strenuous upper-extremity activity and/or exercise have traditionally been prescribed for breast cancer survivors with or at risk of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an acute bout of exercise on upper-limb volume and symptoms in breast cancer survivors, with the intent to provide pilot data to guide a subsequent larger study. Methods: Twenty-three women who regularly participated in dragon-boat racing took part in the study. A single exercise bout was performed at a moderate intensity (rating of perceived exertion: 13–14) for 20 continuous minutes on an arm ergometer. The difference between affected and unaffected limb volume was assessed pre- and post-exercise via measurements of limb circumference at five time points. Results: Although limb volume increased following exercise in both limbs, the difference between the limbs remained stable at each measurement point. Only one participant was found to have an increase in arm-volume difference of >100 ml post intervention, and only four participants reported symptoms of tension and/or heaviness in the affected limb. Conclusion: The results suggest that limb volume in breast cancer survivors increases after an acute bout of upper-limb exercise but that, for the majority of women, the response is not different between affected and unaffected limbs. Future research using a larger sample and more sensitive measurement methods are recommended.

Campbell, Kristin L.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.

2009-01-01

322

Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics.  

PubMed

It has been documented that strenuous exercise not only induces pyrogenesis but also elicits mobilization and functional augmentation of neutrophils and monocytes whereas it suppresses cellular immunity leading to increased susceptibility to infections. As mediators of these phenomena, cytokines released into the circulation have been a recent focus of attention. Indeed, there are as many as one hundred original reports concerning exercise and cytokines, and half of them have been published in rapid succession from 2000, resulting in a tremendous accumulation of new knowledge within such a short term. The first aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize previous studies on systemic cytokine kinetics following exercise, with a special focus on reproducibility and quantitative comparison in human studies using specific immunoassays. Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta have traditionally been understood to be the main inducer cytokines of acute phase reactions, the majority of studies have shown that the circulating concentration of these cytokines is either unchanged following exercise, or exhibits relatively small, delayed increments. Plasma interferon (IFN)-alpha and IFN-gamma do not appear to change following exercise, whereas IL-2 decreases after endurance exercise. The small changes of these proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines could well be mediated by anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6 and IL-10 and cytokine inhibitors (cortisol, prostaglandin E2 and soluble receptors against TNF and IL-2), which are known to increase markedly in the circulation following endurance exercise. Moreover, it has been recently demonstrated that endurance exercise induces systemic release of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), macrophage CSF (M-CSF), IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Although the majority of available data have been obtained following prolonged exercise, it remains to be elucidated whether short-duration intensive exercise also causes rapid systemic cytokine release. In addition, there have been few studies that have simultaneously compared the extent of each cytokine response to exercise from a wider perspective. The second aim of this study was to examine possible changes of not only plasma but also urine concentrations of a broad spectrum of cytokines (16 kinds) following maximal exercise, including the time course of recovery. Although plasma TNF-alpha could not be detected throughout, it was present in urine 2 h after exercise. Plasma IL-1 beta rose significantly 2 h after exercise, but plasma IL-1 ra increased more rapidly and markedly than IL-1 beta, thus IL-1 bioactivity should be blocked at least in the circulation. Although there was only a trend toward increased plasma IL-6 concentrations after exercise, urine IL-6 rose significantly 1 h after exercise, indicating that IL-6 was released systemically but eliminated rapidly into the urine. Furthermore, it is shown for the first time that plasma and urine IL-4 concentrations were significantly elevated 2 h after exercise. Therefore, it is possible that anti-inflammatory cytokines might be released into the circulation as a regulatory mode of the cytokine network for adaptation against systemic inflammatory stress. Additionally, we have demonstrated that plasma concentrations of G-CSF, granulocytemacrophage CSF (GM-CSF), M-CSF, IL-8 and MCP-1 increased immediately after short-duration exercise and that the urine concentrations of these cytokines were much more pronounced than the changes observed in plasma. In conclusion, cytokines that are considered to induce systemic bioactivity following exercise are not only anti-inflammatory cytokines but also colony-stimulating factors and chemokines, which were secreted in an earlier phase of exercise without the kinetic involvement of traditional proinflammatory cytokines. Although the wider physiological and pathological implications are still not clearly understood, these cytokine kinetics may partly ex

Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Yamada, Mutsuo; Totsuka, Manabu; Sato, Koki; Sugawara, Kazuo

2002-01-01

323

Carnitine and physical exercise.  

PubMed

Carnitine plays a central role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. It transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. Carnitine also modulates the metabolism of coenzyme-A (CoA). It is not surprising that the use of supplementary carnitine to improve physical performance has become widespread in recent years, although there is no unequivocal support to this practice. However, critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important because the implications of reduced or increased carnitine concentrations in vivo are not thoroughly understood. Several rationales have been forwarded in support of the potential ergogenic effects of oral carnitine supplementation. However, the following arguments derived from established scientific observations may be forwarded: (i) carnitine supplementation neither enhances FA oxidation in vivo or spares glycogen or postpones fatigue during exercise. Carnitine supplementation does not unequivocally improve performance of athletes; (ii) carnitine supplementation does not reduce body fat or help to lose weight; (iii) in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is fully active already after a few seconds of intense exercise. Carnitine supplementation induces no further activation of PDC in vivo; (iv) despite an increased acetyl-CoA/free CoA ratio, PDC is not depressed during exercise in vivo and therefore supplementary carnitine has no effect on lactate accumulation; (v) carnitine supplementation per se does not affect the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); (vi) during exercise there is a redistribution of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in the muscle but there is no loss of total carnitine. Athletes are not at risk for carnitine deficiency and do not have an increased need for carnitine. Although there are some theoretical points favouring potential ergogenic effects of carnitine supplementation, there is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine supplementation to improve exercise performance. PMID:8857706

Heinonen, O J

1996-08-01

324

Effect of outpatient exercise training programmes in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Advantages of outpatient exercise training are reduced waiting lists, better compliance, reduced time investment by the patient with reduced travel expenses, and less dependence on other people to participate. Therefore, this systematic review studies the effects of outpatient exercise training programmes compared with usual care on exercise capacity, exercise performance, quality of life, and safety in patients with chronic

Suzan van der Meer; Marlies Zwerink; Marco van Brussel; Paul van der Valk; Elly Wajon; Job van der Palen

2012-01-01

325

Voluntary exercise in pregnant rats positively influences fetal growth without initiating a maternal physiological stress response.  

PubMed

The effects of increased physical activity during pregnancy on the health of the offspring in later life are unknown. Research in this field requires an animal model of exercise during pregnancy that is sufficiently strenuous to cause an effect but does not elicit a stress response. Previously, we demonstrated that two models of voluntary exercise in the nonpregnant rat, tower climbing and rising to an erect bipedal stance (squat), cause bone modeling without elevating the stress hormone corticosterone. In this study, these same models were applied to pregnant rats. Gravid Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, tower climbing, and squat exercise. The rats exercised throughout pregnancy and were killed at day 19. Maternal stress was assessed by fecal corticosterone measurement. Maternal bone and soft tissue responses to exercise were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maternal weight gain during the first 19 days of pregnancy was less in exercised than in nonexercised pregnant control rats. Fecal corticosterone levels did not differ between the three maternal groups. The fetuses responded to maternal exercise in a uterine position-dependent manner. Mid-uterine horn fetuses from the squat exercise group were heavier (P < 0.0001) and longer (P < 0.0001) and had a greater placental weight (P = 0.001) than those from control rats. Fetuses from tower-climbing dams were longer (P < 0.0001) and had heavier placentas (P = 0.01) than those from control rats, but fetal weight did not differ from controls. These models of voluntary exercise in the rat may be useful for future studies of the effects of exercise during pregnancy on the developmental origins of health and disease. PMID:21307360

Rosa, Brielle V; Firth, Elwyn C; Blair, Hugh T; Vickers, Mark H; Morel, Patrick C H

2011-02-09

326

[Exercise training in heart failure].  

PubMed

In patients with chronic but stable heart failure (HF) exercise training is a recommended and widely accepted adjunct to an evidence-based management involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. Various pathophysiological mechanisms, such as central hemodynamics, vasculature, ventilation, skeletal muscle function as well as neurohormonal activation and inflammation are responsible for exercise intolerance described in HF patients. There is sufficient and growing evidence that exercise training in HF with reduced (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is effective in improving exercise capacity, HF symptoms and quality of life. The positive effects of exercise training in HF are mediated by an improvement of central hemodynamics, endothelial function, inflammatory markers, neurohumoral activation, as well as skeletal muscle structure and function. In contrast to convincing data from a large meta-analysis, the large HF-ACTION study (Heart Failure-A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of exercise TraiNing) only demonstrated a modest improvement of all cause mortality and hospitalizations in HFrEF. Outcome data in HFpEF are lacking. Whether interval training incorporating variable and higher intensities or the addition of resistance exercise to a standard aerobic prescription is superior in improving clinical status of HF patients is currently being examined. Despite increasing validation of the potential of exercise training in chronic HF, challenges remain in the routine therapeutic application, including interdisciplinary management, financing of long-term exercise programs and the need to improve short-term and long-term adherence to exercise training. PMID:23934196

Edelmann, F; Pieske, B

2013-09-01

327

The Practice and Process of Healthy Exercise: An Investigation of the Treatment of Exercise Abuse in Women with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effectiveness of an exercise program designed to reduce exercise abuse in women who are in residential treatment for eating disorders. One hundred and twenty-seven women who participated in the exercise program were compared to 127 non-participants on weight gain and self-reported obligatory attitudes and beliefs about exercise. The exercise participants were women who were medically cleared

RACHEL M. CALOGERO; KELLY N. PEDROTTY

2004-01-01

328

Mediating Mechanisms in a Program to Reduce Intentions to Use Anabolic Steroids and Improve Exercise Self-Efficacy and Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the mediating mechanisms responsible for the effects of a program designed to reduce intentions to use anabolic steroids, improve nutrition, and increase strength training self-efficacy. Fifteen of 31 high school football teams (N = 1,506 players at baseline) in Oregon and Washington were assigned to receive the intervention. The multicomponent program addressed the social influences promoting ergogenic

David P. MacKinnon; Linn Goldberg; Greg N. Clarke; Diane L. Elliot; JeeWon Cheong; Angela Lapin; Esther L. Moe; Jennifer L. Krull

2001-01-01

329

Augmenting Exercise Systems with Virtual Exercise Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhering to an exercise program is a challenge for everybody who wants to build a healthier body and lifestyle through physical\\u000a exercise. We have developed an Virtual Exercise Environment (VEE) that augments stationary exercise equipment with virtual\\u000a reality techniques to make exercising more enjoyable. Our VEE system consists of a recording system to capture video, distance\\u000a and incline data about

Wei Xu; Jaeheon Jeong; Jane Mulligan

2009-01-01

330

Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  

PubMed

The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

2013-03-01

331

Effects of aerobic exercise on sexual functioning in depressed adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveExercise appears to be generally comparable to antidepressant medication in reducing depressive symptoms. The current study examines the effects of aerobic exercise, compared to antidepressant medication and placebo pill, on sexual function among depressed adults.

Benson M. Hoffman; Michael A. Babyak; Andrew Sherwood; Emily E. Hill; Seema M. Patidar; P. Murali Doraiswamy; James A. Blumenthal

2009-01-01

332

Exercise and inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are both idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that affect 0.5% of Canadians. As yet, there is no known cure for either disease, and symptoms are treated with an array of medicines. The objective of the present review was to present the role of exercise and its impact on all facets of IBD. Exercise has been speculated to be protective against the onset of IBD, but the literature is inconsistent and weak. Preliminary studies reveal that exercise training may be beneficial to reduce stress and symptoms of IBD. Current research also recommends exercise to help counteract some IBD-specific complications by improving bone mineral density, immunological response, psychological health, weight loss and stress management ability. However, the literature advises that some patients with IBD may have limitations to the amount and intensity of exercise that they can perform. In summary, exercise may be beneficial to IBD patients, but further research is required to make a convincing conclusion regarding its role in the management of IBD and to help establish exercise regimens that can account for each IBD patient’s unique presentation.

Narula, Neeraj; Fedorak, Richard N

2008-01-01

333

Benefits of Exercise in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to highlight the importance of exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to demonstrate the multitude of beneficial effects that properly designed exercise training has in this population. RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease characterised by decrements to joint health including joint pain and inflammation, fatigue, increased incidence and progression of cardiovascular disease, and accelerated loss of muscle mass, that is, “rheumatoid cachexia”. These factors contribute to functional limitation, disability, comorbidities, and reduced quality of life. Exercise training for RA patients has been shown to be efficacious in reversing cachexia and substantially improving function without exacerbating disease activity and is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, all RA patients should be encouraged to include aerobic and resistance exercise training as part of routine care. Understanding the perceptions of RA patients and health professionals to exercise is key to patients initiating and adhering to effective exercise training.

Cooney, Jennifer K.; Law, Rebecca-Jane; Matschke, Verena; Lemmey, Andrew B.; Moore, Jonathan P.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Jones, Jeremy G.; Maddison, Peter; Thom, Jeanette M.

2011-01-01

334

Effects of Pulse Current on Endurance Exercise and Its Anti-Fatigue Properties in the Hepatic Tissue of Trained Rats  

PubMed Central

Fatigue is synonymous with a wide spectrum of familiar physiological conditions, from pathology and general health, to sport and physical exercise. Strenuous, prolonged exercise training causes fatigue. Although several studies have investigated the effects of electrical stimulation frequency on muscle fatigue, the effects of percutaneous pulse current stimulation on fatigue in the hepatic tissue of trained rats is still unclear. In order to find an effective strategy to prevent fatigue or enhance recovery, the effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in exercised rats were studied. Rats were subjected to one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise training. After exercise training, rats in the treated group received daily applications of pulse current. All rats were sacrificed after one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise, and the major biochemical indexes were measured in serum and liver. The results demonstrate that pulse current could prolong the exhaustion swimming time, as well as decrease serum ALT, AST and LD levels and liver MDA content. It also elevated serum LDH activity, liver SOD activity and glycogen content. Furthermore, pulse current increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. Taken together, these results show that pulse current can elevate endurance capacity and facilitate recovery from fatigue.

Ju, Xiaowei; Zhu, Lvgang; Huang, Changlin; Huang, Tao; Zuo, Xincheng; Gao, Chunfang

2013-01-01

335

Effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in the hepatic tissue of trained rats.  

PubMed

Fatigue is synonymous with a wide spectrum of familiar physiological conditions, from pathology and general health, to sport and physical exercise. Strenuous, prolonged exercise training causes fatigue. Although several studies have investigated the effects of electrical stimulation frequency on muscle fatigue, the effects of percutaneous pulse current stimulation on fatigue in the hepatic tissue of trained rats is still unclear. In order to find an effective strategy to prevent fatigue or enhance recovery, the effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in exercised rats were studied. Rats were subjected to one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise training. After exercise training, rats in the treated group received daily applications of pulse current. All rats were sacrificed after one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise, and the major biochemical indexes were measured in serum and liver. The results demonstrate that pulse current could prolong the exhaustion swimming time, as well as decrease serum ALT, AST and LD levels and liver MDA content. It also elevated serum LDH activity, liver SOD activity and glycogen content. Furthermore, pulse current increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. Taken together, these results show that pulse current can elevate endurance capacity and facilitate recovery from fatigue. PMID:24116026

Chang, Qi; Miao, Xinfang; Ju, Xiaowei; Zhu, Lvgang; Huang, Changlin; Huang, Tao; Zuo, Xincheng; Gao, Chunfang

2013-10-08

336

Intravascular ADP and soluble nucleotidases contribute to acute prothrombotic state during vigorous exercise in humans  

PubMed Central

Extracellular ATP and ADP trigger vasodilatatory and prothrombotic signalling events in the vasculature. Here, we tested the hypothesis that nucleotide turnover is activated in the bloodstream of exercising humans thus contributing to the enhanced platelet reactivity and haemostasis. Right atrial, arterial and venous blood samples were collected from endurance-trained athletes at rest, during submaximal and maximal cycle ergometer exercise, and after early recovery. ATP-specific bioluminescent assay, together with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis, revealed that plasma ATP and ADP concentrations increased up to 2.5-fold during maximal exercise. Subsequent flow cytometric analysis showed that plasma from exercising subjects significantly up-regulated the surface expression of P-selectin in human platelets and these prothrombotic effects were diminished after scavenging plasma nucleotides with exogenous apyrase. Next, using thin layer chromatographic assays with [?-32P]ATP and 3H/14C-labelled nucleotides, we showed that two soluble nucleotide-inactivating enzymes, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase and nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, constitutively circulate in human bloodstream. Strikingly, serum nucleotide pyrophosphatase and hydrolase activities rose during maximal exercise by 20–25 and 80–100%, respectively, and then declined after 30 min recovery. Likewise, soluble nucleotidases were transiently up-regulated in the venous blood of sedentary subjects during exhaustive exercise. Human serum also contains 5?-nucleotidase, adenylate kinase and nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase; however, these activities remain unchanged during exercise. In conclusion, intravascular ADP significantly augments platelet activity during strenuous exercise and these prothrombotic responses are counteracted by concurrent release of soluble nucleotide-inactivating enzymes. These findings provide a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the enhanced risk of occlusive thrombus formation under exercising conditions.

Yegutkin, Gennady G; Samburski, Sergei S; Mortensen, Stefan P; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose

2007-01-01

337

Exercise and Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... Allergies & Asthma > Exercise and Asthma Health Issues Listen Exercise and Asthma Article Body Almost every child (and ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

338

Why Exercise Is Cool  

MedlinePLUS

... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ... rope, and playing hopscotch are aerobic activities, too! Exercise Strengthens Muscles Another kind of exercise can help ...

339

Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction  

MedlinePLUS

Share | « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced asthma, is a narrowing of the airways causing difficulty moving air out ...

340

Parkinson's Disease: Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy living for everyone. However, for people with PD exercise is not only healthy, but a vital ... exercise could actually help slow the progression of PD? Learn more about the neuroprotective benefits of exercise ...

341

Exercise and Physical Activity  

MedlinePLUS

... exercise videos/DVDs made for older people. • Add music to the exercises if it helps the person with Alzheimer’s disease. Dance to the music if possible. • Break exercises into simple, easy-to- ...

342

Diabetes and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... aerobic exercise include walking, jogging, aerobic dance or bicycling. If you have problems with the nerves in ... stress on your feet. These exercises include swimming, bicycling, rowing or chair exercises. No matter what kind ...

343

Effect of exercise mode on heart rate variability during steady state exercise.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of exercise mode on geometrical, and time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) during steady-state, moderate intensity exercise of the same HR. Seventeen healthy, active male participants volunteered for this study and completed a treadmill VO2max determination. One week later, cardiorespiratory, perceptual and HRV measures were recorded during seated rest (15 min) and consecutive bouts (15 min) of steady-state exercise at 50 and 65% of maximal HR. Exercise was performed using either upper body (arm ergometer), lower body (cycle) or whole body (treadmill) modes. Separated by 1 week and in a random order, participants undertook the same procedures with the remaining exercise modes. Cardiorespiratory, perceptual and HRV responses were determined during rest and steady-state exercise and analysed by two-way (mode vs. stage) repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc pairwise comparisons. Apart from a reduced respiratory rate during lower body exercise, whole and lower body exercise resulted in similar cardiorespiratory, perceptual and HRV responses. Compared to whole or lower body exercise, upper body exercise resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) greater measures of HRV particularly those within the very low (0-0.04 Hz) and low (0.04-0.15 Hz) frequency bands, greater rating of perceived exertion and less oxygen consumption. Upper body, moderate intensity exercise resulted in greater HRV compared to whole or lower body exercise with further studies necessary to elucidate the mechanisms and clinical implications for this greater HRV. PMID:17922138

Leicht, Anthony S; Sinclair, Wade H; Spinks, Warwick L

2007-10-06

344

DIABETES CONTROL WITH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Regular physical activity and exercise are important components in the prevention of diabetes. In addition to lowering blood glucose, exercise improves insulin action, contributes to weight loss, and reduces several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The association between increased levels of...

345

Exercise at menopause: a critical difference.  

PubMed

Even at menopause, fitness can reduce the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, and diabetes, yet only 38% of women over age 19 exercise regularly. A sports medicine expert recommends that exercise be encouraged and prescribed, even for women with a variety of comorbidities. PMID:10089554

Burghardt, M

346

The Exercise Message: More, More, More  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the 2005 Dietary Guidelines made their debut in January, there were gasps of disbelief when it came to the exercise recommendations: ninety minutes of exercise every day? Could they possibly be serious? The recommendations for adults as written in the Executive Summary of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 basically say: æ To reduce the risk of chronic diseases

Winters C; Lang W

347

Non-exercising muscle metabolism during exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycogen decrements have been observed in non-exercising muscles during exercise. We therefore investigated whether the degraded glycogen was retained within the muscle in the form of glycolytic intermediates, or whether it was effluxed from the non-exercising muscles. For these studies a suspension harness was used to unload the hindlimb muscles at rest and during exercise [McDermott et al. (1987) J

John C. McDermott; Geoffrey C. B. Elder; A. Bonen

1991-01-01

348

Media-Augmented Exercise Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

Krueger, T.

2002-01-01

349

Protection against muscle damage in competitive sports players: the effect of the immunomodulator AM3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strenuous physical exercise of the limb muscles commonly results in damage, especially when that exercise is intense, prolonged and includes eccentric contractions. Many factors contribute to exercise-induced muscle injury and the mechanism is likely to differ with the type of exercise. Competitive sports players are highly susceptible to this type of injury. AM3 is an orally administered immunomodulator that reduces

Alfredo Córdova; J Francisco Martin; Eduardo Reyes; Melchor Alvarez-Mon

2004-01-01

350

A low dose of alcohol does not impact skeletal muscle performance after exercise-induced muscle damage.  

PubMed

Moderate, acute alcohol consumption after eccentric exercise has been shown to magnify the muscular weakness that is typically associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). As it is not known whether this effect is dose-dependent, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a low dose of alcohol on EIMD-related losses in muscular performance. Ten healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed either a beverage containing 0.5 g of alcohol per kg bodyweight (as vodka and orange juice) or an isocaloric, isovolumetric non-alcoholic beverage. At least 2 weeks later, they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed the other beverage. Measurement of peak and average peak isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced by the quadriceps was made before and 36 and 60 h post-exercise. Significant decreases in all measures of muscular performance were observed over time under both conditions (all P < 0.05); however, no difference between treatments was evident at any of the measured time points (all P > 0.05). Therefore, consumption of a low dose of alcohol after damaging exercise appears to have no effect on the loss of force associated with strenuous eccentric exercise. PMID:20878178

Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

2010-09-28

351

Effects of Exercise on Hemorheological Parameters of Young Nigerian Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Regular physical exercise is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that acute submaximal exercise has similar effects on rheological parameters of smokers and non- smokers was tested. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three male university undergraduates comprised of 18 smokers and 15 non- smokers were studied. All the subjects underwent submaximal exercise on cycloergometer for

Omolade Augustina AWODU; Ademola Adekunle FAMODU

352

Acute Exercise May Exacerbate Oxidative Stress Response in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Hemodialyzed patients (HD) demonstrate elevated oxidative stress (OXS) levels. Exercise effects on OXS response and antioxidant status of HD was investigated in the present study. Methods: Twelve HD and 12 healthy controls (HC) performed a graded exercise protocol. Blood samples, collected prior to and following exercise, were analyzed for lactate, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced (GSH)

Ioannis G. Fatouros; Ploumis Pasadakis; Apostolos Sovatzidis; Athanasios Chatzinikolaou; Stylianos Panagoutsos; Dimitrios Sivridis; Ioannis Michailidis; Ioannis Douroudos; Kiriakos Taxildaris; Vasilios Vargemezis

2008-01-01

353

Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

Kohler, Fred

354

Exercise Is Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

Elrick, Harold

1996-01-01

355

Exercise Is Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)|

Elrick, Harold

1996-01-01

356

Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: A crossover study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -195?°C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P?exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training. PMID:23614691

Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

2013-04-25

357

New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance  

PubMed Central

The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward ‘central command’ mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal ‘tonic’ activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of ? opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O2 transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes – probably acting in concert with feedforward central command – contribute significantly to preserving O2 transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

Dempsey, Jerome A

2012-01-01

358

Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic\\u000a effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect\\u000a of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the\\u000a impact on subsequent high-intensity exercise performance in the heat. Twelve male

N. D. Clarke; D. P. M. Maclaren; T. Reilly; B. Drust

2011-01-01

359

Effects of aerobic exercise on anxiety sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety sensitivity is a known precursor to panic attacks and panic disorder, and involves the misinterpretation of anxiety-related sensations. Aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce generalized anxiety, and may also reduce anxiety sensitivity through exposure to feared physiological sensations. Accordingly, 54 participants with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores completed six 20-min treadmill exercise sessions at either a high-intensity aerobic (n=29)

Joshua J Broman-Fulks; Mitchell E Berman; Brian A Rabian; Michael J Webster

2004-01-01

360

Scaling laws for capillary vessels of mammals at rest and in exercise.  

PubMed Central

A general derivation is presented for the scaling laws governing the size and number of capillary blood vessels in mammals. The derivation is based on the assumption of three idealized similarity principles known to apply, at least approximately, to resting mammals: (i) size-invariant blood pressure; (ii) size-invariant fraction of blood in the capillaries; and (iii) size-invariant oxygen consumption and uptake, per unit of body mass, during each heart cycle. Results indicate that the radius and length of capillaries, and the number that are open and active in the resting state, should scale with mammal mass to the powers 1/12, 5/24 and 5/8, respectively, consistent with earlier work by the author. Measurements are presented supporting the results. Physiological changes accompanying strenuous exercise are accounted for by a change in the scaling law for capillary number, from scaling exponent 5/8 to 3/4.

Dawson, Thomas H

2003-01-01

361

Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers. PMID:23265023

Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

2012-10-01

362

Effects of exercise on cravings to smoke: The role of exercise intensity and cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research consistently demonstrates that a bout of moderate exercise alleviates cravings to smoke among abstaining smokers. The aims of this study were to examine whether doses of exercise (moderate or vigorous) reduced cravings differently, and whether reductions in cravings were associated with changes in cortisol concentration. Using a within-participant, crossover design, 18 participants conducted three 15-min treatment sessions on separate

Filippe Scerbo; Guy Faulkner; Adrian Taylor; Scott Thomas

2010-01-01

363

Antioxidant status and oxidative stress at rest and in response to acute exercise in judokas and sedentary men.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that acute strenuous exercise is accompanied by an increase in free-radical production and subsequent oxidative stress, in addition to changes in blood antioxidant status. Chronic exercise provides protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress by upregulating endogenous antioxidant defense systems. Little is known regarding the protective effect afforded by judo exercise. Therefore, we determined antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers at rest and in response to acute exercise in 10 competitive judokas and 10 sedentary subjects after mixed exercise (anaerobic followed by aerobic). The subjects performed a Wingate test, followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise performed at 60% of maximal aerobic power. Blood samples were taken, by an intravenous catheter, at rest (R), immediately after the physical exercise (P0), and at 5 (P5), 10 (P10), and 20 (P20) minutes postexercise. The measured parameters included the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, in addition to ?-tocopherol, and total antioxidant status. Malondialdehyde was measured as a representation of lipid peroxidation. At rest, the judokas had higher values for all antioxidant and oxidative stress markers as compared to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of all parameters except for ?-tocopherol increased significantly above resting values for both the judokas and sedentary subjects (p < 0.05) and remained elevated at 20 minutes postexercise. A significant postexercise decrease was observed for ?-tocopherol (p < 0.05) at P20 for judokas and at P5 for sedentary subjects. These data indicate that competitive judo athletes have higher endogenous antioxidant protection compared to sedentary subjects. However, both groups of subjects experience an increase in exercise-induced oxidative stress that is not different. PMID:21869626

El Abed, Kaïs; Rebai, Haitham; Bloomer, Richard J; Trabelsi, Khaled; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Sahnoun, Zouhaier; Hakim, Ahmed; Tabka, Zouhaier

2011-09-01

364

Effects of isometric exercise on pain are mediated by blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to pain is reduced during exercise. The underlying mechanism has yet to be established. One possibility is that a baroreceptor-related mechanism may contribute to this exercise-induced hypoalgesia phenomenon. Accordingly, this study examined whether increases in arterial blood pressure during graded isometric exercise, which activate baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus, could account for any effects of exercise

Christopher Ring; Louisa Edwards; Maria Kavussanu

2008-01-01

365

The best medicine: exercise training normalizes chemosensitivity and sympathoexcitation in heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

ment on reducing adverse outcomes in CHF is now underway (HF-ACTION) (14). Despite relatively limited data, exercise training has become an integral part of Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs. Although patients typically demonstrate increases in exercise capacity, skeletal muscle aerobic capacity, and quality of life following exercise training, the neural and reflex adap- tations to exercise remain poorly understood. In the current

Michael K. Stickland; Jordan D. Miller

2008-01-01

366

Prophylactic bosentan does not improve exercise capacity or lower pulmonary artery systolic pressure at high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in response to high altitude ascent may contribute to decreased exercise capacity. Endothelin receptor antagonists reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, but their effects on exercise capacity at altitude are unknown. We studied the efficacy of bosentan started 5 days prior to ascent on exercise capacity and pulmonary artery

Roger D. Seheult; Katja Ruh; Gary P. Foster; James D. Anholm

2009-01-01

367

Brief bout of exercise alters gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of early- and late-pubertal males.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are stimulated by exercise and contribute not only to host defense, but also to growth, repair, and disease pathogenesis. Whether PBMC gene expression is altered by exercise in children is not known. Ten early pubertal boys (8-12 y) and 10 late pubertal boys (15-18 y) performed ten 2-min bouts of strenuous, constant work rate exercise with 1-min rest intervals. PBMCs were isolated before and after exercise and microarray (Affymetrix U133 + 2 chips) analyzed. Statistical criterion to identify gene expression changes was less than 5% false discovery rate (FDR) with 95% confidence interval. One thousand two hundred forty-six genes were altered in older boys (517 up, 729 down), but only 109 were altered in the younger group (79 up, 30 down). In older boys, 13 gene pathways (using Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer, p < 0.05) were found (e.g. natural killer cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis). Epiregulin gene expression (EREG, a growth factor involved in wound healing) increased in older boys. In older boys exercise altered genes such as TBX21, GZMA, PGTDR, and CCL5 also play roles in pediatric inflammatory diseases like asthma. Sixty-six genes were changed significantly in both groups. The pattern of PBMC gene expression suggests the initiation of an immunologic "danger" signal associated with a sudden change in energy expenditure. PMID:19127215

Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Zaldivar, Frank; Leu, Szu-Yun; Cooper, Dan M

2009-04-01

368

Effects of an 8-Month Exercise Training Program on Off-Exercise Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Purpose An active lifestyle is widely recognized as having a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health. However, no clear consensus exists as to whether exercise training increases overall physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) or whether individuals participating in regular exercise compensate by reducing their off-exercise physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in PAEE in response to aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), or combined aerobic and resistance training (AT/RT). Methods Data are from 82 participants in the Studies of Targeted Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise—Aerobic Training versus Resistance Training study, a randomized trial of overweight (body mass index = 25–35 kg·m?2) adults, in which participants were randomized to receive 8 months of AT, RT, or AT/RT. All subjects completed a 4-month control period before randomization. PAEE was measured using triaxial RT3 accelerometers, which subjects wore for a 5- to 7-d period before and after the exercise intervention. Data reduction was performed with a previously published computer-based algorithm. Results There was no significant change in off-exercise PAEE in any of the exercise training groups. We observed a significant increase in total PAEE that included the exercise training, in both AT and AT/RT but not in RT. Conclusions Eight months of exercise training was not associated with a compensatory reduction in off-exercise physical activity, regardless of exercise modality. The absence of compensation is particularly notable for AT/RT subjects, who performed a larger volume of exercise than did AT or RT subjects. We believe that the extended duration of our exercise training program was the key factor in allowing subjects to reach a new steady-state level of physical activity within their daily lives.

RANGAN, VIKRAM V.; WILLIS, LESLIE H.; SLENTZ, CRIS A.; BATEMAN, LORI A.; SHIELDS, A. TAMLYN; HOUMARD, JOSEPH A.; KRAUS, WILLIAM E.

2013-01-01

369

Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V?O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

2013-01-01

370

Exercise by prescription.  

PubMed

General Practitioners (GPs) see over 90% of their practice population in three years. Over 50% of the adult population is below the perceived level of physical activity as recognised by the Allied Dunbar Physical Activity score (Allied Dunbar, Health Education Authority and Sports Council, 1992). Physical fitness levels in adolescents and children are declining, while the incidence of obesity is increasing. GPs, with their Primary Health Care Team, are in a unique position to be able to discuss the health benefits of regular physical activity with their patients during the consultation and offer, if appropriate, a prescription for a course of physical activity to a local leisure centre or community activity centre. Many communities have facilities for physical activity. These include leisure centres, schools, village and church halls, the home and the general practice surgery. A directory of resources for physical activity for all age groups should be available in the surgery waiting room area. A community co-ordinator can network community facilities and resources to meet individual need. The co-ordinator can be funded by the general practice surgery, Health Authority, Local Authority, Parish or District Council. An agreed protocol for exercise prescription referrals to suitable community facilities can benefit patient health care for a variety of medical, surgical, social and mental conditions. Auditing exercise prescriptions shows a health benefit, with improved quality of living and reduced prescription medicines. PMID:9050296

Browne, D

1997-02-01

371

Boolean Raster Well Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Bowling Green State University Summary This is a paper and pencil exercise using boolean raster grids. The exercise gives students a better understanding of how the GIS software works. ...

Gomezdelcampo, Enrique

372

Isometric exercise (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...

373

Drill and exercise manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Drill and Exercise Manual establishes the organization, responsibilities, and methodology for developing, conducting, and evaluating drills and exercises at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The procedures established in this manual will ensure that DOE...

G. W. Bequette

1992-01-01

374

Exercise and Physical Fitness  

MedlinePLUS

... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

375

Home-Based Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... Surgical Procedures Types of Vestibular Disorders Home-based Exercise What is a Home VRT program? During vestibular ... is little clinical evidence for its effectiveness. What exercises can I do when I don't have ...

376

Diet and Exercise Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... en Español About Otolaryngology ENT History Diet and Exercise Tips Excessive body weight contributes to snoring and ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

377

Exercise for Seniors  

MedlinePLUS

Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

378

Diet and Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

379

Diabetes and exercise  

MedlinePLUS

Exercise is an important part of managing your diabetes. It can help you lose weight, if you are overweight. It also helps prevent weight gain. Exercise helps lower your blood sugar without medicines . It ...

380

Anxiety, Depression, and Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and clinical investigations of the effects of acute and chronic exercise on state anxiety or tension and depression are reviewed. Proposed explanations for the association of exercise with improved mood states are also discussed.

Patricia M. Mihevic

1981-01-01

381

Clinical Applications for Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)|

Goldstein, David

1989-01-01

382

Effect of intense wrestling exercise on leucocytes and adhesion molecules in adolescent boys  

PubMed Central

Background: In adults, exercise is a powerful and natural stimulator of immune cells and adhesion molecules. Far less is known about exercise responses during childhood and adolescence and whether or not exercise in "real life" activities of healthy adolescents influences immune responses. Objective: To determine if strenuous exercise leads to significant changes in leucocyte number and adhesion molecule expression in adolescent boys. Methods: Eleven healthy, high school boys, aged 14–18.5 years, performed a single, typical, 1.5 hour wrestling practice session. Blood was sampled before and after the session. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate changes in immune responses. Results: The exercise led to significant (p<0.05) and robust increases in granulocytes, monocytes, and all lymphocyte subpopulations. The most significant changes were observed for natural killer cells (p<0.0005). The number of T cytotoxic and T helper cells expressing CD62L increased significantly (p<0.002 and p<0.0005 respectively), as did the number of T cytotoxic and T helper cells not expressing CD62L (p<0.003 and p<0.009 respectively). The density of CD62L on lymphocytes decreased significantly with exercise (p<0.0005), whereas CD11a (p<0.01) and CD54 (p<0.01) increased. Conclusions: The data show that an intense wrestling bout in adolescent boys leads to profound stimulation of the immune system. The role of these common changes in overall immune status and the development of the immune and haemopoietic systems has yet to be determined.

Nemet, D; Mills, P; Cooper, D

2004-01-01

383

Exercise-induced DNA damage: is there a relationship with inflammatory responses?  

PubMed

Both a systemic inflammatory response as well as DNA damage has been observed following exhaustive endurance exercise. Hypothetically, exercise-induced DNA damage might either be a consequence of inflammatory processes or causally involved in inflammation and immunological alterations after strenuous prolonged exercise (e.g. by inducing lymphocyte apoptosis and lymphocytopenia). Nevertheless, up to now only few studies have addressed this issue and there is hardly any evidence regarding a direct relationship between DNA or chromosomal damage and inflammatory responses in the context of exercise. The most conclusive picture that emerges from available data is that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) appear to be the key effectors which link inflammation with DNA damage. Considering the time-courses of inflammatory and oxidative stress responses on the one hand and DNA effects on the other the lack of correlations between these responses might also be explained by too short observation periods. This review summarizes and discusses the recent findings on this topic. Furthermore, data from our own study are presented that aimed to verify potential associations between several endpoints of genome stability and inflammatory, immune-endocrine and muscle damage parameters in competitors of an Ironman triathlon until 19 days into recovery. The current results indicate that DNA effects in lymphocytes are not responsible for exercise-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, this investigation shows that inflammatory processes, vice versa, do not promote DNA damage, neither directly nor via an increased formation of RONS derived from inflammatory cells. Oxidative DNA damage might have been counteracted by training- and exercise-induced antioxidant responses. However, further studies are needed that combine advanced -omics based techniques (transcriptomics, proteomics) with state-of-the-art biochemical biomarkers to gain more insights into the underlying mechanisms. PMID:19203084

Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nersesyan, Armen; König, Daniel; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

2008-01-01

384

Plasma nesfatin-1 and glucoregulatory hormone responses to two different anaerobic exercise sessions.  

PubMed

Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorectic protein derived from posttranslational processing of the nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) gene. It is expressed in adipose tissue and is also found in plasma. Nesfatin-1 expression is significantly affected by nutritional status and its actions may be involved in the inhibition of the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Although the effects of physical exercise on several anorectic and orexigenic hormones have been reported, no studies have investigated its effects upon circulating concentrations of nesfatin-1. We investigated the effects of acute strenuous interval exercise and circuit exercise on nesfatin and other hormones affected by metabolic stress. Fourteen provincial and national level young male-kickboxing volunteers participated [age 20.71 ± 2.6 years, height 176.6 ± 2.8 cm, body weight 67.2 ± 3.3 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 21.56 ± 1.42 kg/m(2)]. After an overnight fast, responses to a running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST; 7 sets of 6 × 35 m every 10 s with 1 min rest in between sets) and a non-combat kickboxing session (NCKB; 7 sets of 6 techniques, 20 s per technique with 1 min rest in between sets) were determined. Venous blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 45 as well as 95 min following the exercises. Plasma GH, insulin, glucose and lactate concentrations significantly increased immediately following the RAST and NCKB protocols, however, plasma nesfatin-1 concentrations were not significantly altered. Higher plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations occurred in response to the RAST compared with the NCKB protocols. Although the exercise protocols elicited metabolic stress that significantly altered circulating glucoregulatory hormones, plasma glucose and lactate, there was no significant change in plasma nesfatin-1. A lack of nesfatin-1 response to the exercise protocols may be partially due to the fasting condition. PMID:20625762

Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Kraemer, Robert R; Soltani, Raheleh

2010-07-13

385

Stretch Band Exercise Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

2007-01-01

386

Drill and exercise manual  

SciTech Connect

The Drill and Exercise Manual establishes the organization, responsibilities, and methodology for developing, conducting, and evaluating drills and exercises at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The procedures established in this manual will ensure that DOE Order 5500.3A requirements for a coordinated program if drills and exercises as an integral part of emergency management are met.

Bequette, G.W.

1992-07-01

387

Exercise Prescription for Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many exercise scientists describe physical activity programs as either exercise for health or exercise for fitness. Data on the dose-response gradient for the relation of physical activity or physical fitness to health and function are reviewed herein to examine this hypothesis. This conceptualization is refuted in this paper. Moderate amounts and moderate intensities of activity or fitness are associated with

Steven N. Blair

1995-01-01

388

Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

Young, Jocelyn

389

Rotator Cuff Exercises  

MedlinePLUS

... rotator cuff--the part that helps with circular motion). These exercises should not cause you pain. If you feel any pain, stop exercising. Start again with a lighter weight. Look at the pictures with each exercise so you can use the ...

390

Diastolic dysfunction in exercise and its role for exercise capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diastolic dysfunction is frequent in elderly subjects and in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular disease\\u000a and diabetes mellitus. Patients with diastolic dysfunction demonstrate a reduced exercise capacity and might suffer from congestive\\u000a heart failure (CHF). Presence of symptoms of CHF in the setting of a normal systolic function is referred to as heart failure\\u000a with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF)

A. Barmeyer; K. Müllerleile; K. Mortensen; T. Meinertz

2009-01-01

391

A Meta-Analysis of Core Stability Exercise versus General Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the effects of core stability exercise or general exercise for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Summary of Background Data Exercise therapy appears to be effective at decreasing pain and improving function for patients with chronic LBP in practice guidelines. Core stability exercise is becoming increasingly popular for LBP. However, it is currently unknown whether core stability exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise in patients with chronic LBP. Methods Published articles from 1970 to October 2011 were identified using electronic searches. For this meta-analysis, two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating core stability exercise versus general exercise for the treatment of patients with chronic LBP. Data were extracted independently by the same two individuals who selected the studies. Results From the 28 potentially relevant trials, a total of 5 trials involving 414 participants were included in the current analysis. The pooling revealed that core stability exercise was better than general exercise for reducing pain [mean difference (?1.29); 95% confidence interval (?2.47, ?0.11); P?=?0.003] and disability [mean difference (?7.14); 95% confidence interval (?11.64, ?2.65); P?=?0.002] at the time of the short-term follow-up. However, no significant differences were observed between core stability exercise and general exercise in reducing pain at 6 months [mean difference (?0.50); 95% confidence interval (?1.36, 0.36); P?=?0.26] and 12 months [mean difference (?0.32); 95% confidence interval (?0.87, 0.23); P?=?0.25]. Conclusions Compared to general exercise, core stability exercise is more effective in decreasing pain and may improve physical function in patients with chronic LBP in the short term. However, no significant long-term differences in pain severity were observed between patients who engaged in core stability exercise versus those who engaged in general exercise. Systematic Review Registration http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001717.

Wang, Xue-Qiang; Zheng, Jie-Jiao; Yu, Zhuo-Wei; Bi, Xia; Lou, Shu-Jie; Liu, Jing; Cai, Bin; Hua, Ying-Hui; Wu, Mark; Wei, Mao-Ling; Shen, Hai-Min; Chen, Yi; Pan, Yu-Jian; Xu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Pei-Jie

2012-01-01

392

Return to Full Functioning after Graded Exercise Assessment and Progressive Exercise Treatment of Postconcussion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Exercise assessment and aerobic exercise training for postconcussion syndrome (PCS) may reduce concussion-related physiological dysfunction and symptoms by restoring autonomic balance and improving cerebral blood flow autoregulation. In a descriptive pilot study of 91 patients referred to a university clinic for treatment of PCS, a subset of 63 patients were contacted by telephone for assessment of symptoms and return to full daily functioning. Those who experienced symptoms during a graded exercise treadmill test (physiologic PCS, n = 40) were compared to those who could exercise to capacity (PCS, n = 23). Both groups had been offered progressive exercise rehabilitation. Overall 41 of 57 (72%) who participated in the exercise rehabilitation program returned to full daily functioning. This included 27 of 35 (77%) from the physiologic PCS group, and 14 of 22 (64%) from the PCS group. Only 1 of the 6 patients who declined exercise rehabilitation returned to full functioning. Interpretation of these results is limited by the descriptive nature of the study, the small sample size, and the relatively few patients who declined exercise treatment. Nonetheless, exercise assessment indicates that approximately one third of those examined did not have physiologic PCS.

Baker, John G.; Freitas, Michael S.; Leddy, John J.; Kozlowski, Karl F.; Willer, Barry S.

2012-01-01

393

Exercise in Preventionand Management of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Regular and vigorous physical exercise has been scientifically established as providing strong preventative medicine against\\u000a cancer with the potential to reduce incidence by 40%. The effect is strongest for breast and colorectal cancer; however, evidence\\u000a is accumulating for the protective influence on prostate cancer, although predominantly for more advanced disease and in older\\u000a men. Following cancer diagnosis, exercise prescription

Robert U. Newton; Daniel A. Galvão

2008-01-01

394

Exercise for Better Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity you will learn about components of a basic exercise program. You will also find some tips for making exercise a regular part of your life. Finally you will create a simple exercise program that includes the FIT formula. Doggonit!! You really wanted to just sit on the couch, watch another TV program, and eat a bag of chips. Your conscience, on the other hand, is telling you that you really need to get some exercise. What will you do? Hopefully, you are thinking seriously about some exercise. There are ...

2005-12-01

395

Wallace Creek Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

396

Impaired K+ regulation contributes to exercise limitation in end-stage renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired K+ regulation contributes to exercise limitation in end-stage renal failure.BackgroundPatients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) exhibit grossly impaired maximal exercise performance. This study investigated whether K+ regulation during exercise is impaired in ESRF and whether this is related to reduced exercise performance.MethodsNine stable hemodialysis patients and eight controls (CON) performed incremental cycling exercise to volitional fatigue, with measurement of

Termboon Sangkabutra; David P Crankshaw; Claudia Schneider; Steve F Fraser; Simon Sostaric; Kim Mason; Caroline M Burge; Sandford L Skinner; Lawrence P Mcmahon; Michael J Mckenna

2003-01-01

397

Exercise, Immunity, and Susceptibility to Infection: A J-Shaped Relationship?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epidemiologic data suggest that regular moderate exercise boosts immunity, but intense training may reduce it. Objective data do not clearly show a J-shaped relationship between exercise and immune function. Nutritional, hygienic, exercise, environmental, and pharmacologic strategies can minimize risks of infection. Practical measures to reduce

Shephard, Roy J.; Shek, Pang N.

1999-01-01

398

Has exercise an antifracture efficacy in women?  

PubMed

Exercise in girls during growth seems to confer a high peak bone mineral density (BMD). Exercise in adulthood, in the peri- and postmenopausal period, and in old age prevents bone loss or increases BMD with a magnitude of minor biological significance. However, these changes must be regarded as beneficial compared to the age-related bone loss, which inevitably will occur if no interventions are implemented. Prospective intervention studies also suggest that exercise improves muscle strength, coordination and balance, even in elderly women, all of which are improvements with a potential of reducing the number of falls. A randomised, controlled, prospective, blinded study (the only study design that tests a hypothesis) of exercise with fracture as end point is extremely difficult to conduct, due to the large sample sizes needed. At present, no such studies exist. Retrospective and prospective observational and case-control studies suggest that physical activity in women is associated with reduced fracture risk. This may be correct, but we must never forget that a consistently replicated sampling bias may produce the same outcome. The Achilles heel of exercise is the reduction or the cessation of physical activity, which commonly occurs among middle-aged women when family and work demands reduce the time available for exercise. A higher BMD or improvement in muscle size and muscle strength achieved by exercise during adolescence seems to be eroded on retirement, leaving virtually no remaining benefits in old age, the period when fragility fractures begin to be a problem of increasing magnitude. However, recreational activities seem to maintain some of the musculo-skeletal benefits, but to date we do not know the level of activity needed to retain these benefits. Dose-response relationships need to be quantified, as also the effects on bone size, shape and architecture. Another essential question that we must address is how many fewer fractures will be the result of a community-based exercise campaign. Will efforts by the community to encourage a higher level of physical exercise, with the aim of reducing bone fractures, be cost-effective? The higher level of proof, suggesting that exercise does reduce fragility fractures and thus reduces the total cost for the society, must come from well-designed and well-executed, prospective, randomised, controlled trials. The responsibility of executing these studies lies in the hands of both researchers and the community. PMID:14723782

Karlsson, Magnus

2004-02-01

399

Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n = 18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7?yr) participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72?h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue) between the two menstrual cycle phases were small.

Sipaviciene, Saule; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Kliziene, Irina; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas

2013-01-01

400

Push-up exercise induced thrombosis of the subclavian vein in a young woman: report of a case.  

PubMed

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is common, but only 2%-4% of DVTs involve the upper extremities (Roos in Am J Surg 154:568-73, 1987). Upper extremity DVT has a primary or secondary cause, and primary thrombosis is much rarer than secondary thrombosis. Primary upper extremity DVT comprises effort venous thrombosis and idiopathic thrombosis. Effort subclavian venous thrombosis, also called Paget-Schroetter syndrome, is an uncommon entity, which usually develops after strenuous effort of the upper extremities. Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity has been described in athletes involved in a wide variety of sports, including ball games, combatant sport and heavy athletics, games with rackets or clubs, and aquatic sports (Zell et al. in Angiology 52:337-42, 2001). Push-up exercise is a strengthening exercise for building up strength and endurance in the muscles of the upper arm and shoulders. It is also considered to be a core exercise in shoulder rehabilitation programs to activate the serratus anterior muscle in people with shoulder dysfunction (Ludewig et al. in J Sports Med 32:484-93, 2004). We report what to our knowledge is the first case of effort DVT of an upper extremity caused by push-up exercise. PMID:18030573

Toya, Naoki; Fujita, Tetsuji; Ohki, Takao

2007-11-26

401

Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the pre-workout supplement Assault™ (MusclePharm, Denver, CO, USA) on upper and lower body muscular endurance, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, and choice reaction time in recreationally-trained males. Subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness, and focus were measured to examine associations between psychological factors and human performance. Methods Twelve recreationally-trained males participated in a 3-week investigation (mean +/- SD, age: 28 +/- 5 y, height: 178 +/- 9 cm, weight: 79.2 +/- 15.7 kg, VO2max: 45.7 +/- 7.6 ml/kg/min). Subjects reported to the human performance laboratory on three separate occasions. All participants completed a baseline/familiarization day of testing that included a maximal graded exercise test for the determination of aerobic capacity (VO2max), one-rep maximum (1-RM) for bench and leg press to determine 75% of 1-RM, choice reaction tests, and intermittent critical velocity familiarization. Choice reaction tests included the following: single-step audio and visual, one-tower stationary protocol, two-tower lateral protocol, three-tower multi-directional protocol, and three-tower multi-directional protocol with martial arts sticks. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest either the supplement (SUP) or the placebo (PL) during Visit 2. Subjects were provided with the cross-over treatment on the last testing visit. Testing occurred 20 min following ingestion of both treatments. Results Significant (p < 0.05) main effects for the SUP were observed for leg press (SUP: 13 ± 6 reps, PL: 11 ± 3 reps), perceived energy (SUP: 3.4 ± 0.9, PL: 3.1 ± 0.8), alertness (SUP: 4.0 ± 0.7, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), focus (SUP: 4.1 ± 0.6, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), choice reaction audio single-step (SUP: 0.92 ± 0.10 s, PL: 0.97 ± 0.11 s), choice reaction multi-direction 15 s (SUP: 1.07 ± 0.12 s, PL: 1.13 ± 0.14 s), and multi-direction for 30 s (SUP: 1.10 ± 0.11 s, PL: 1.14 ± 0.13 s). Conclusions Ingesting the SUP before exercise significantly improved agility choice reaction performance and lower body muscular endurance, while increasing perceived energy and reducing subjective fatigue. These findings suggest that the SUP may delay fatigue during strenuous exercise.

2012-01-01

402

Innovative Assessment of Endogenous Estrogen Activity in Persons With Different Habits of Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evidence exists that women exercising have lower estrogen levels than sedentary women. These lower estrogen levels may be the mechanism behind their reduced breast cancer risk. Previous studies included athletes with high exercise levels, and estrogen mea...

A. S. Hamilton

2002-01-01

403

Innovative Assessment of Endogenous Estrogen Activity in Persons with Different Habits of Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evidence exists that women exercising have lower estrogen levels than sedentary women. These lower estrogen levels may be the mechanism behind their reduced breast cancer risk. Previous studies included athletes with high exercise levels, and estrogen mea...

A. Hamilton

2001-01-01

404

Acute effects of aerobic exercise on mood.  

PubMed

Thirty-two female students participated in a single-session experiment during which they carried out two 8-min trials of high-intensity exercise and two 8-min trials of low-intensity exercise. One high- and one low-exercise trial were accompanied by music; the other two trials were accompanied by metronome. Mood was assessed with a modification of the Profile of Mood States before and immediately after each trial. The purpose of the experiment was disguised to reduce the influence of subject expectations on mood responses. Participants were divided into fit and unfit groups based on heart rate responses during high-exercise trials. Overall, high-intensity exercise led to increases in tension/anxiety and fatigue, whereas positive mood changes (vigor and exhilaration) were seen following low-intensity exercise only. No group differences in mood responses were observed. Explanations of these results are considered in light of other literature concerning the acute effects of exercise on mood. PMID:3168978

Steptoe, A; Cox, S

1988-01-01

405

Prediction of Obligatory Exercise by Exercise-Related Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obligatory exercise is a compulsive behavior pattern in which exercise dominates daily life at the expense of other activities and lack of exercise produces withdrawal symptoms. This study examined the hypothesis that obligatory exercise is motivated similarly to eating disorders (cf. S. P. Coen & B. M. Ogles, 1993) and would be predicted by appearance-related imagery. Obligatory exercise (J. K.

Wendy M. Rodgers; Craig R. Hall; Chris M. Blanchard; Krista J. Munroe

2001-01-01

406

Combined carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat.  

PubMed

Laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that adding protein (PRO) to a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement can improve thermoregulatory capacity, exercise performance and recovery. However, no study has investigated these effects in a competitive sporting context. This study assessed the effects of combined CHO-PRO supplementation on physiological responses and exercise performance during 8 days of strenuous competition in a hot environment. Twenty-eight cyclists participating in the TransAlp mountain bike race were randomly assigned to fitness-matched placebo (PLA 76 g L(-1) CHO) or CHO-PRO (18 g L(-1) PRO, 72 g L(-1) CHO) groups. Participants were given enough supplements to allow ad libitum consumption. Physiological and anthropometric variables were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Body mass decreased significantly from race stage 1 to 8 in the PLA group (-0.75 ± 0.22 kg, P = 0.01) but did not change in the CHO-PRO group (0.42 ± 0.42 kg, P = 0.35). Creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were substantially elevated during the race, but were not different between groups (P = 0.82, P = 0.44, respectively). Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the CHO-PRO versus the PLA group (P = 0.04) and the rise in tympanic temperature from pre- to post-exercise was significantly less in CHO-PRO versus PLA (P = 0.01). The CHO-PRO group also completed the 8 stages significantly quicker than the PLA group (2,277 ± 127 vs. 2,592 ± 68 min, respectively, P = 0.02). CHO-PRO supplementation therefore appears to prevent body mass loss, enhance thermoregulatory capacity and improve competitive exercise performance despite no effect on muscle damage. PMID:21259024

Cathcart, Andrew J; Murgatroyd, Scott R; McNab, Alison; Whyte, Laura J; Easton, Chris

2011-01-23

407

Exercise pressor reflex function is altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

In hypertension, exercise elicits excessive elevations in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) increasing the risk for adverse cardiac events and stroke during physical activity. The exercise pressor reflex (a neural drive originating in skeletal muscle), central command (a neural drive originating in cortical brain centres) and the tonically active arterial baroreflex contribute importantly to cardiovascular control during exercise. Each of these inputs potentially mediates the heightened cardiovascular response to physical activity in hypertension. However, given that exercise pressor reflex overactivity is known to elicit enhanced circulatory responses to exercise in disease states closely related to hypertension (e.g. heart failure), we tested the hypothesis that the exaggerated cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension is mediated by an overactive exercise pressor reflex. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of exercise recently developed in our laboratory that selectively stimulates the exercise pressor reflex independent of central command and/or the arterial baroreflex. Activation of the exercise pressor reflex during electrically induced static muscle contraction in the absence of input from central command resulted in significantly larger increases in MAP and HR in male spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats over a wide range of exercise intensities. Similar findings were obtained in animals in which input from both central command and the arterial baroreflex were eliminated. These findings suggest that the enhanced cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension is mediated by an overactive exercise pressor reflex. Potentially, effective treatment of exercise pressor reflex dysfunction may reduce the cardiovascular risks associated with exercise in hypertension.

Smith, Scott A; Williams, Maurice A; Leal, Anna K; Mitchell, Jere H; Garry, Mary G

2006-01-01

408

Exercise: friend or foe in adult congenital heart disease?  

PubMed

Exercise training is beneficial in healthy adults as well as patients with acquired cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease and heart failure. While a reduced exercise capacity is common in adults with congenital heart disease, it is not clear if these patients stand to benefit from exercise training or if it could be potentially detrimental. International recommendations encourage regular exercise in these patients but the evidence base is limited. Data from cardiopulmonary exercise testing suggest a relatively low risk of adverse events during exercise in adults with congenital heart disease. This is also supported by studies investigating the mode of death in this patient group, reporting that only a minority of patients die during exercise. Regarding the benefits of exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease only a few studies with relatively small sample sizes are available pointing to beneficial effects in selected patients. Encouragingly, in none of these short-term studies were detrimental effects observed. Therefore, adult congenital heart disease patients should not be categorically discouraged from physical activity or from participating in non-competitive sports. However, individual exercise prescriptions should be based on a comprehensive assessment of the underlying cardiac condition, possible sequelae, cardiac function, arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, and aortic dimensions. Furthermore, the intensity of exercise should be adapted to individual exercise capacity. PMID:24057770

Tutarel, Oktay; Gabriel, Harald; Diller, Gerhard-Paul

2013-11-01

409

Dietary antioxidants and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary

SCOTT K. POWERS; KEITH C. DERUISSEAU; John Quindry; KARYN L. HAMILTON

2004-01-01

410

Exercise and Memory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

411

Understanding Exercise Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise dependence represents a condition in which an individual exercises excessively, often to the detriment of his or\\u000a her physical and psychological health and wellbeing. Despite substantial investigation of this phenomenon, researchers have\\u000a only recently developed conceptually sound diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence, and have yet to determine a suitably\\u000a convincing mechanism or explanation for its onset and development. Likewise,

Jeremy Adams

2009-01-01

412

Exercise and freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do most people fail to exercise regularly? In light of theory and research, this paper shows that fitness activity is an affront to people’s sense of freedom; thus, it becomes a freedom-killing and leisure-killing activity. People fail to exercise because they cannot overcome the issue of freedom about exercise. Further, unlike other leisure activities, fitness activity also fails to

Seppo E. Iso-Ahola