Sample records for strenuous exercise reduce

  1. Response of erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate to strenuous exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Ramsey; S. William Pipoly

    1979-01-01

    Summary  Since increases of erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) have been shown to enhance the release of oxygen from hemoglobin, experiments were designed to evaluate the response of 2,3-DPG to two different workloads in 13 fasted human subjects. No significant mean change in 2,3-DPG was found following 16 min of strenuous exercise on a bicycle ergometer, but when the subjects were subjected later

  2. Time course of stabilometric changes after a strenuous treadmill exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Nardone; Jessica Tarantola; Massimo Galante; Marco Schieppati

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To detect the effect of a strenuous exercise on equilibrium and to quantify its time course.Participants and Methods: Body sway area, sway path, and center of foot pressure were recorded in eight young able-bodied subjects, standing quietly with feet together, with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), on a dynamometric platform, before and after treadmill walking for 25min,

  3. Response of immature chicken meniscus to strenuous exercise: biochemical studies of proteoglycan and collagen.

    PubMed

    Pedrini-Mille, A; Pedrini, V A; Maynard, J A; Vailas, A C

    1988-01-01

    Male white Leghorn chickens were exercised on a treadmill at 70-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption starting at 4 weeks and continuing up to 20 weeks of age. The effect of the strenuous exercise regime on the extracellular matrix of menisci was followed through studies of proteoglycans and collagen. Avian menisci contain type I collagen, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, which increase with age in amount and degree of aggregation, and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, which decrease with age. Five weeks of exercise cause a premature decrease of dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, while the chondroitin sulfate-containing molecules become significantly more aggregated than those of the tissue of age-matched controls. Strenuous exercise also causes a significant decrease in the number of pyridinoline crosslinks per mole of collagen in the menisci of young runners. The exercise-induced changes of proteoglycan and collagen occur only during the period of active growth, and all parameters return to normal when the animals reach skeletal maturity. The early proteoglycan aggregation and dermatan sulfate decrease induced by exercise are probably an adaptation to the increased loading. Although the mechanism by which strenuous exercise reduces or delays the formation of collagen pyridinoline crosslinks in menisci of skeletally immature animals is unknown, their decrease could negatively affect the mechanical properties of the tissue during the period of active growth. PMID:3125312

  4. Strenuous exercise increases late outgrowth endothelial cells in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Thorell, Daniel; Borjesson, Mats; Larsson, Pia; Ulfhammer, Erik; Karlsson, Lena; DuttaRoy, Smita

    2009-11-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and late outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) seem to play an important role in vessel formation. While EPCs seem to exert their function mainly through a paracrine effect, the OECs can develop into mature endothelial cells and form tubular structures. Exercise is known to increase angiogenic factors that can mobilize EPCs; however, the effect on OECs is not known. We investigated the response to a single session of strenuous exercise on OECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammatory cell levels in the healthy. Eleven healthy subjects performed 1 h of spinning exercise. Blood samples were collected at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for cell culture and biochemical analysis. OEC colonies doubled one hour after the spinning session (baseline 4.5 +/- 4.3 vs. 9.0 +/- 3.7, P < 0.05). Serum VEGF increased from 194 +/- 107 pg/ml at baseline to 224 +/- 111 pg/ml after 1 h, p = ns and neutrophilic granulocytes increased from 3.73 +/- 1.38 at baseline to 9.08 +/- 10.5 at 1 h (P < 0.01). The increased levels of OECs, VEGF and neutrophilic granulocytes declined gradually at the following time points. VEGF levels and neutrophilic granulocytes were highly correlated to OEC levels, r = 0.903 (VEGF) and r = 0.85 (neutrophilic granulocytes), respectively. Strenuous physical activity increases OEC colonies and is correlated to serum VEGF and neutrophilic granulocytes levels. An acute exercise-induced inflammatory response might be responsible for the VEGF release and subsequent increase of OECs. The clinical importance of these findings remains to be elucidated. PMID:19672617

  5. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  6. Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Nelson; Mark J. Haykowsky; Jonathan R. Mayne; Richard L. Jones; Stewart R. Petersen

    2008-01-01

    Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise. J Appl Physiol 106: 395-402, 2009. First published November 13, 2008; doi:10.1152\\/japplphysiol.91193.2008.— The purpose of this study was to investigate left-ventricular function during strenuous exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). With the use of two-dimensional echocardiography, images of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired during sustained exercise (3

  7. Sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs depresses three blood copper enzyme activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. DiSilvestro; K. W. Hinchcliff; A. Blostein-Fujii

    2005-01-01

    Studies show mixed conclusions about acute responses of copper status to strenuous exercise. Because copper function involves\\u000a metalloenzyme activities, which might take days to change, the present study examined the response of three copper metalloenzyme\\u000a activities to sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs. A race lasting 12–15 d depressed activities for both plasma ceruloplasmin\\u000a and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in dogs

  8. Effects of self-contained breathing apparatus on ventricular function during strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Haykowsky, Mark J; Mayne, Jonathan R; Jones, Richard L; Petersen, Stewart R

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate left-ventricular function during strenuous exercise with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). With the use of two-dimensional echocardiography, images of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired during sustained exercise (3 x 10 min) under two conditions: 1) SCBA, or 2) low resistance breathing valve. Twenty healthy men volunteered for the study, and in each condition subjects wore fire protective equipment. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cavity areas during systole and diastole (ESCA and EDCA, respectively), esophageal pressure, ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, perceived physical, thermal and respiratory distress, and core temperature were measured at regular intervals. Urine specific gravity (<1.020 g/ml) and hematological variables were used to infer hydration status. All subjects began both trials in a euhydrated state. No differences were found between conditions for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, ventilation rate, oxygen consumption, perceived distress, or any hematological variables. Peak expiratory esophageal pressure was always higher (P < 0.05), while EDCA and stroke area (SA) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) with the SCBA. ESCA, end-systolic transmural pressure (ESTMP), and LV contractility (ESTMP/ESCA) were similar between conditions. Sustained exercise with fire protective equipment resulted in significant reductions in EDCA, ESCA, and SA from the start of exercise, which was associated with a 6.3 +/- 0.8% reduction in plasma volume, an increase in core temperature (37.0 +/- 0.4 to 38.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C), and a significant increase in heart rate (146.9 +/- 2.1 to 181.7 +/- 2.4 beats/min) throughout exercise. The results from this study support research by others showing that increased intrathoracic pressure reduces LV preload (EDCA); however, the novelty of the present study is that when venous return is compromised by sustained exercise and heat stress, SA cannot be maintained. PMID:19008481

  9. Effects of Strenuous Exercise on Stallion Sperm Quality 

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Jennifer L.

    2012-10-19

    ) were exercised 4 d/wk for 90 min for 12 wk, while non-exercising stallions (CN) were tied in the shade. Semen was collected from stallions for 5 consecutive days every 4 wk to evaluate semen quality (raw, 24 h and 48 h cooled). Subcutaneous scrotal...

  10. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Strenuous Exercise in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ning-Ning

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by strenuous exercise in rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: a sedentary control group, an exercise control group, and three treatment exercise groups administered increasing doses of resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Resveratrol was administered by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, the rats performed a strenuous exercise on the treadmill, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. The results showed that resveratrol supplementation had protective effects against strenuous exercise-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by lowering the levels of LDH, CK, MDA, 4-HNE, and 8-OHdG in the serum or muscle of rats. These beneficial effects are probably owing to the inherent antioxidant activities of resveratrol. PMID:26157555

  11. Oxidation of lactate in rats after short-term strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Hatta, H; Atomi, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Shinohara, S; Yamada, S

    1988-12-01

    Oxidation of lactate and glucose was investigated in rats after short-term strenuous running to exhaustion at a speed of 80-110 m.min-1, lasting about 100 sec. Immediately after the exercise, 4 microCi of [U-14C]lactate (LA and AR) or 9.4 microCi of [U-14C]glucose (GL) was injected into the aorta through an indwelling catheter. In AR, the rats ran at a speed of 25 m.min-1 for 20 min after injection of [U-14C]lactate. Expired gas was collected by a bottomless metabolism chamber while the rats were on the treadmill for 120 min. Blood lactate concentration tended to decrease faster in AR than in LA. Peak evolution of 14CO2 expiration occurred at 12.5 min recovery in LA, 7.5 min of recovery in AR, and 35 min of recovery in GL. Cumulative percent recovery of 14C as 14CO2 was 48.5% +/- 2.8% in LA, 74.0% +/- 2.9% in AR, and 18.6% +/- 1.6% (mean +/- SE) in GL. Significant differences were found in these rates between groups (P less than 0.01). It was suggested that a great deal of lactate was oxidized directly, not after conversion to glucose in rats after short-term strenuous exercise to exhaustion and mild exercise following strenuous exercise (active recovery) enhanced lactate oxidation. PMID:3253233

  12. Strenuous exercise increases late outgrowth endothelial cells in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Thorell; Mats Borjesson; Pia Larsson; Erik Ulfhammer; Lena Karlsson; Smita DuttaRoy

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and late outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) seem to play an important role in vessel formation.\\u000a While EPCs seem to exert their function mainly through a paracrine effect, the OECs can develop into mature endothelial cells\\u000a and form tubular structures. Exercise is known to increase angiogenic factors that can mobilize EPCs; however, the effect\\u000a on OECs is

  13. Encapsulation of iron in liposomes significantly improved the efficiency of iron supplementation in strenuously exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zi; Liu, Shangyuan; Wang, Huijie; Gao, Guofen; Yu, Peng; Chang, Yanzhong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of iron liposome supplementation, a rat model of exercise-associated anemia was established by subjecting the animals to high-intensity running exercises for 4 weeks. Rats with confirmed anemia were strenuously exercised for another 2 weeks while receiving iron supplements by intragastric administration of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) liposomes or heme iron liposomes. Control groups were administered equivalent amounts of FAC, heme iron, or blank liposomes. Subsequently, complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, and liver iron levels were tested to determine the efficiency of iron liposomes in relieving anemia. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were also detected to determine potential side effects of iron supplementation. The CBC, as well as serum iron and liver iron contents, significantly increased and reached much higher levels in anemic rats treated with iron liposomes, compared with those of control groups. The increase of SOD and decrease of MDA levels were also observed after supplementation with iron liposomes. These results demonstrate that iron liposomes can efficiently relieve the iron deficiency in strenuously exercised rats and may potentially be used as a supplement for the treatment of exercise-associated iron deficiency anemia with minimal side effects. PMID:25296704

  14. Dietary nucleotide improves markers of immune response to strenuous exercise under a cold environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strenuous exercise has been classically associated to immune-suppression and consequently to an increased risk of infections, especially at the upper respiratory tract. The administration of dietary nucleotides has been demonstrated useful to maintain the immune function in situations of stress and thus could be an appropriate strategy to counteract the decline of the immune function associated to strenuous exercise. The aim of the present study was to asses the impact of a specific nucleotide formulation (Inmunactive®) on the markers of immune function of athletes after a heavy exercise bout under cold conditions. Methods Twenty elite male taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into two groups of 10 subjects that were supplemented with placebo (P) or Inmunactive (I) at 480 mg/day during 30 days. At baseline (day 0) and after 4 wk of supplementation (day 30) each subject undertook an exhaustion exercise test using a cycloergometer. Skin temperature, core temperature, heart rate, lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the test. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after each exercise test for determination of blood cell concentrations, PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-LP) and salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Results Exercise tests induced neutrophilia and reduction in lymphocyte blood counts on day 0 and on day 30 in both groups. However, the I group exhibited a faster recovery from the lymphopenic response than the P group, so that lymphocyte levels were higher after 150 min (P?exercise-evoked decrease at baseline. Conclusions These findings suggest that supplementation with a nucleotide-based product for 4 weeks could counteract the impairment of immune function after heavy exercise. PMID:23566489

  15. Static and dynamic changes in carotid artery diameter in humans during and after strenuous exercise

    PubMed Central

    Studinger, Péter; Lénárd, Zsuzsanna; Kováts, Zsuzsanna; Kocsis, László; Kollai, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Arterial baroreflex function is altered by dynamic exercise, but it is not clear to what extent baroreflex changes are due to altered transduction of pressure into deformation of the barosensory vessel wall. In this study we measured changes in mean common carotid artery diameter and the pulsatile pressure: diameter ratio (PDR) during and after dynamic exercise. Ten young, healthy subjects performed a graded exercise protocol to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer. Carotid dimensions were measured with an ultrasound wall-tracking system; central arterial pressure was measured with the use of radial tonometry and the generalized transfer function; baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed in the post-exercise period by spectral analysis and the sequence method. Data are given as means ± s.e.m. Mean carotid artery diameter increased during exercise as compared with control levels, but carotid distension amplitude did not change. PDR was reduced from 27.3 ± 2.7 to 13.7 ± 1.0 ?m mmHg?1. Immediately after stopping exercise, the carotid artery constricted and PDR remained reduced. At 60 min post-exercise, the carotid artery dilated and the PDR increased above control levels (33.9 ± 1.4 ?m mmHg?1). The post-exercise changes in PDR were closely paralleled by those in BRS (0.74 ? r ? 0.83, P < 0.05). These changes in mean carotid diameter and PDR suggest that the mean baroreceptor activity level increases during exercise, with reduced dynamic sensitivity; at the end of exercise baroreceptors are suddenly unloaded, then at 1 h post-exercise, baroreceptor activity increases again with increasing dynamic sensitivity. The close correlation between PDR and BRS observed at post-exercise underlies the significance of mechanical factors in arterial baroreflex control. PMID:12766246

  16. Smoking attenuates regular aerobic exercise benefits to episodic free recall immediately following strenuous physical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bunce; Kate Hays; Linda Pring

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which free recall performance is influenced by competing demands on physiological resources dependent on blood-oxygen levels. Fifty-six healthy young adults (mean age ¼ 20 years) were allocated to groups (n1-4 ¼ 14) according to their level of exercise (more than 6 h aerobic exercise per wk, or sedentary 1

  17. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the effects of cooling on skeletal muscle after strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Niitsu, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Goto, Kazushige; Kudo, Hiroki; Itai, Yuji

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the separate effects of cooling during the acute (within 60 min post-exercise) or subacute (24-168 h post-exercise) phase on skeletal muscle after exercise. Twenty-eight male subjects [mean (SD) 23.8 (1.8) years] were randomly assigned to the control (COTG, n=10), cold-water immersion (CWIG, n=9), and double-cold-water immersion groups (DCWIG, n=9). The cold-water immersion (15 min) was administered to the subjects' legs after calf-raise exercise (CWIG: after recording initial post-exercise measures, DCWIG: after recording initial and 24 h post-exercise measures). Magnetic resonance T2-weighted images were obtained to calculate the T2 relaxation time (T2) of the triceps surae muscle before, immediately after, and at the following times post-exercise: 20, 40, and 60 min, and 24, 48, 96 and 168 h. In addition, the ankle joint range of motion, serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and muscle soreness level were investigated before and after exercise. In all groups, significant T2 elevations in the gastrocnemius muscle appeared from immediately after to 60 min after exercise (P<0.05). Thereafter, COTG showed significantly re-elevated T2 levels in the gastrocnemius at 96-168 h post-exercise (P<0.05), while CWIG and DCWIG showed significantly smaller T2 values than the COTG at 96 h post-exercise (P<0.05). In addition, COTG showed larger increases in serum enzymes at 96 h post-exercise (not significant) and significantly greater muscle soreness levels at 48 h post-exercise (P<0.05) than the cooling groups. The results of this study may suggest that cooling has no dramatic effect, but some minor effects on reducing exercise-induced muscle edema in the subacute phase and relieving the extent of the damaged muscle cells. PMID:12627305

  18. Effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on axial and peripheral bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill training exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horaeio Rico; Enriqlieta Paez; Luis Aznar; Emma R. Hernández; Cristina Seco; Luis F. Villa; Juan J. Gervas

    2001-01-01

    We observed the effects of sodium bicarbonate supplement on bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill training. Sixty female\\u000a Wistar rats (93-days-old; mean initial weight 261 ± 16 g) were studied. One group of 15 rats was killed at the beginning of\\u000a the experiments (basal control group), while another group of 15 rats was not manipulated (Exer?NaB?). Another group of

  19. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the effects of cooling on skeletal muscle after strenuous exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Yanagisawa; Mamoru Niitsu; Hiroshi Yoshioka; Kazushige Goto; Hiroki Kudo; Yuji Itai

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a The purpose of this study was to investigate the separate effects of cooling during the acute (within 60 min post-exercise)\\u000a or subacute (24–168 h post-exercise) phase on skeletal muscle after exercise. Twenty-eight male subjects [mean (SD) 23.8 (1.8) years]\\u000a were randomly assigned to the control (COTG, n=10), cold-water immersion (CWIG, n=9), and double-cold-water immersion groups (DCWIG, n=9). The cold-water immersion (15 min) was

  20. Application of a new oxidation-reduction potential assessment method in strenuous exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Stagos, Dimitrios; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Bar-Or, David; Ntontou, Amalia-Maria; Bella, Evangelia; Becker, Aphrodite Tousia; Statiri, Argyro; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-07-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to test a novel method for assessing oxidative stress, the RedoxSYS™ diagnostic system, a holistic, fast, minimally invasive, and requiring small sample volume method, that measures two parameters, the static (sORP) and the capacity (cORP) oxidation-reduction potential. Methods The redox status of 14 athletes participating in a mountain marathon race was assessed. Redox status in blood obtained 1 day before the race and immediately after the race was assessed using the RedoxSYS diagnostic system as well as conventional oxidative stress markers such as glutathione levels (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (CARB), and total antioxidant activity. Results The results showed that after the race, the sORP was increased significantly by 7% indicating oxidative stress induction, while cORP was decreased by 14.6% but not significantly. Moreover, the conventional oxidative stress markers GSH and CAT were decreased significantly by 13.1 and 23.4%, respectively, while TBARS and CARB were increased significantly by 26.1 and 15.6%, respectively, after the race indicating oxidative stress induction. Discussion The present study demonstrated for the first time that the RedoxSYS diagnostic system can be used for evaluating the exercise-induced oxidative stress in athletes. PMID:25494543

  1. A study for prevention of chronic fatigue. part 2. effects of strenuous physical exercise performed in a training camp on serum enzyme activity levels and subjective fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kumae, T; Kurakake, S; Arakawa, H; Uchiyama, I

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to develop a simple and rapid method of estimating levels of fatigue so that chronic fatigue can be prevented. Long-distance runners belonging to a successful corporate team (Group A; 25 males) and representative runners at the prefectural level (Group B; 14 males) participated in this study. We examined the effects of strenuous physical exercise on serum enzyme activity and the fatigue level felt by the runners (subjective fatigue).The following parameters were measured on two consecutive mornings during a training period: physical characteristics, serum-biochemistry using the dry-chemistry method, and subjective fatigue determined using the questionnaire regarding subjective symptoms authorized by the Japan Association of Industrial Health and the Profile of Mood State (POMS). Group A was divided into A-Senior (17 males; highest performance level) and A-Freshman (8 males) subgroups according to the length of employment within the corporation (one year or more and less than one year, respectively).The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) were significantly lower in the A-Senior group than the other groups and this group displayed the "iceberg" POMS profile at both examinations. Some significant correlations between the elements of POMS and serum enzyme activity levels were observed among all three groups during both examinations. The decline of serum CK levels tended to accompany a decrease in "Fatigue" according to POMS among 9 of 17 members of the A-Senior group. This tendency between the A-Senior and the A-Freshman groups statistically differed according to theX - square analysis.Our results suggest that the effects of physical stress on serum enzyme activity levels and subjective fatigue are affected by performance levels. Physical fatigue seemed to be reflected by serum CK levels. Monitoring subjective fatigue while measuring serum enzyme activity levels using the dry-chemistry method immediately provides clinical value to players and coaches on site, and should therefore help to prevent a shift from "overreaching" to "overtraining". PMID:21432516

  2. Effects of intermittent hypoxia and light aerobic exercise on circulating stem cells and side population, after strenuous eccentric exercise in trained rats.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Ferreira, Inês; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Rizo-Roca, David; García Godoy, Maria Dolors; Rico, Laura G; Rubi-Sans, Gerard; Torrella, Joan Ramon; Pagès, Teresa; Petriz, Jordi; Viscor, Ginés

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to address if intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) exposure can help to increase the number of peripheral blood circulating progenitor cells and side population (SP) stem cells, in order to establish the usefulness of this intervention for skeletal muscle repair, because these cells play a role in tissue regeneration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in two basal states: untrained and trained and compared with 1, 3, 7 and 14 days stages of damage recovery of trained rats that had suffered skeletal muscle injury. Three experimental groups were studied: rats with passive recovery (CTRL); rats exposed to IHH after muscle damage (HYP); and, trained rats that, in addition to IHH, performed light aerobic exercise sessions (EHYP). We observed an increase in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (mean = 0.153% of cells) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (mean = 0.0020% of cells) in EHYP on day 7. Also these cells showed characteristics of more primitive progenitors in comparison to the other experimental groups (mean = 0.107% of cells), as deduced by retention of the promising fluorescent probe Vybrant Dye Cycle Violet. We concluded that intermittent exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in combination with light aerobic exercise increased the number of HSCs and EPCs on the 7th day in EHYP group, although the exercise-induced stimulus showed a reverse effect on SP kinetics. PMID:25266982

  3. There are at least 40 Benefits of Exercise Reduce the risk of premature death

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    There are at least 40 Benefits of Exercise Reduce the risk of premature death Reduce the Risk levels Helps reduce depression All of the benefits above can be achieved from regular, moderate exercise Exercise improves your mood. Helps you to look good Exercise can put the spark back into your sex life

  4. Exercise training reduces insulin resistance in postmyocardial infarction rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhua; Tian, Zhenjun; Zang, Weijin; Jiang, Hongke; Li, Youyou; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Shengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) induces cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). This study examines the effects of MI-related IR on vasorelaxation and its underlying mechanisms, with a specific focus on the role of exercise in reversing the impaired vasorelaxation. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+Exercise. MI+Exercise rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill training. Cardiac contraction, myocardial and arterial structure, vasorelaxation, levels of inflammatory cytokines, expression of eNOS and TNF-?, and activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined in aortas. MI significantly impaired endothelial structure and vasodilation (P < 0.05–0.01), as indicated by decreased arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin. MI also attenuated the myocardial contractile response, decreased aortic PI3K/Akt/eNOS expression and phosphorylation by insulin, and increased IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? expression and p38 MAPK activity (P < 0.05–0.01). Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in aortas, facilitated myocardial contractile response and arterial vasorelaxation to ACh and insulin, and increased arterial PI3K/Akt/eNOS activity. Moreover, exercise markedly reversed increased p38 MAPK activity and normalized inflammatory cytokines in post-MI arteries. Inhibition of PI3K with LY-294002, and eNOS with L-NAME significantly blocked arterial vasorelaxation and PI3K/Akt/eNOS phosphorylation in response to insulin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction in response to insulin plays an important role in MI-related IR. The reversal of IR by exercise is most likely associated with normalizing inflammatory cytokines, increasing the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS, and reducing the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:25907785

  5. Effects of reduced frequency breathing on arterial hypoxemia during exercise.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Mutoh, Y; Kobayashi, H; Miyashita, M

    1987-01-01

    It is uncertain that exercise with reduced frequency breathing (RFB) results in arterial hypoxemia. This study was designed to investigate whether RFB during exercise creates a true hypoxic condition in arterial blood by examining arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) directly. Six subjects performed ten 30 s periods of exercise on a Monark bicycle ergometer at a work rate of 210 W alternating with 30 s rest intervals. The breath was controlled to use 1 s each for inspiration and expiration, and two trials with different breathing patterns were used; a continuous breathing (CB) trial and an RFB trial consisting of four seconds of breath-holding at functional residual capacity (FRC). Alveolar oxygen pressure during exercise showed a slight but significant (p less than 0.05) reduction with RFB as compared to CB. However, a marked increase in alveolar-arterial pressure difference for oxygen (A-aDO2) (p less than 0.05) with RFB over CB resulted in a marked (p less than 0.05) reduction in arterial oxygen pressure. Consequently, SaO2 fell as low as 88.8% on average. Additional examination of RFB with breath-holding at total lung capacity showed no increases in A-aDO2 in spite of the same amount of hypoventilation as compared with that at FRC. These results indicate that RFB during exercise can result in arterial hypoxemia if RFB is performed with breath-holding at FRC, this mechanism being closely related to the mechanical responses due to lung volume restriction. PMID:3653092

  6. Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent

    E-print Network

    Palmeri, Thomas

    Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise. Aims: To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR) monitoring (60

  7. Bovine colostrum and immune function after exercise.

    PubMed

    Davison, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous and/or prolonged exercise causes transient perturbations in immune function. It is well accepted that this is one mechanism contributing to the higher occurrence of infection (e.g. upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)) in athletes, especially endurance athletes. URTI or upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms can negatively affect training and competition performance but athletes must train intensively to be successful. Therefore, interventions that can legitimately enhance immune function and reduce URTI risk can be of benefit to athletes. Bovine colostrum supplementation has been investigated as a possible nutritional countermeasure to enhance (or maintain) immune function, and reduce URTI risk, following strenuous or prolonged exercise and during intensive training periods. There is convincing evidence that daily supplementation with bovine colostrum, for a number of weeks (and preliminary evidence for acute effects after a single dose), can maintain intestinal barrier integrity, immune function and reduce the chances of suffering URTI or URT symptoms in athletes or those undertaking heavy training. The mechanisms are not fully understood at present but there is preliminary evidence suggesting that the effects on immune function are attributable, at least in part, to small bioactive components that survive digestion and are biologically available after consumption, but further work is required. In summary, the balance of existing evidence does support the notion that bovine colostrum is beneficial for certain groups of athletes, such as those involved in strenuous training (e.g. endurance athletes), in terms of immunity and resistance to infection. PMID:23075556

  8. Diaphragmatic breathing reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martarelli, Daniele; Cocchioni, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Pompei, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1?h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals. PMID:19875429

  9. Reduced Tic Symptomatology in Tourette Syndrome After an Acute Bout of Exercise: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Elena; Glazebrook, Cris; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2014-04-28

    In light of descriptive accounts of attenuating effects of physical activity on tics, we used an experimental design to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on tic expression in young people (N = 18) with Tourette Syndrome (TS). We compared video-based tic frequency estimates obtained during an exercise session with tic rates obtained during pre-exercise (baseline) and post-exercise interview-based sessions. Results showed significantly reduced tic rates during the exercise session compared with baseline, suggesting that acute exercise has an attenuating effect on tics. Tic rates also remained reduced relative to baseline during the post-exercise session, likely reflecting a sustained effect of exercise on tic reduction. Parallel to the observed tic attenuation, exercise also had a beneficial impact on self-reported anxiety and mood levels. The present findings provide novel empirical evidence for the beneficial effect of exercise on TS symptomatology bearing important research and clinical implications. PMID:24778432

  10. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  11. How Do Humans Control Physiological Strain during Strenuous Endurance Exercise?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Esteve-Lanao; Alejandro Lucia; Jos J. Dekoning; Carl Foster; Conrad P. Earnest

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundDistance running performance is a viable model of human locomotion.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo evaluate the physiologic strain during competitions ranging from 5–100 km, we evaluated heart rate (HR) records of competitive runners (n = 211). We found evidence that: 1) physiologic strain (% of maximum HR (%HRmax)) increased in proportional manner relative to distance completed, and was regulated by variations in running

  12. Quercetin reduces susceptibility to influenza infection following stressful exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD J Mark Davis (University of South Carolina Exercise Science)

    2008-06-14

    Exercise stress is associated with increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection. We have shown that exercise stress can increase susceptibility to infection. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, has been reported to inhibit infectivity and replication of a broad spectrum of viruses and may offset the increase in susceptibility to infection associated with stressful exercise. This study examined the effects of quercetin feedings on susceptibility to the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) following stressful exercise. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: exercise-placebo, exercise-quercetin, control-placebo, or control-quercetin. Exercise consisted of a run to fatigue (140 min) on a treadmill for 3 consecutive days. Quercetin (12.5 mg/kg) was administered via gavage for 7 days before viral challenge. At 30 min after the last bout of exercise or rest, mice (n = 23Â?30) were intranasally inoculated with a standardized dose of influenza virus (0.04 hemagglutinating units). Mice were monitored daily for morbidity (time to sickness), symptom severity, and mortality (time to death) for 21 days. Exercise stress was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5Â?7 (P < 0.05)]; quercetin offset the increase in susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5Â?7 (P < 0.05)] that was associated with stressful exercise. These data suggest that short-term quercetin feedings may prove to be an effective strategy to lessen the impact of stressful exercise on susceptibility to respiratory infection.

  13. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  14. Shock and impact reduction in moderate and strenuous landing activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songning Zhang; Timothy R. Derrick; William Evans; Yeon-Joo Yu

    2008-01-01

    Shock reduction has been well studied in moderate activities such as walking and running. However, there is a clear lack of research concerning shock wave transmission and reduction in more strenuous landing activities. In this study, we examined the impact of shock transmission and reduction in landing activities with varied mechanical demands. Ten active males were recruited for the study.

  15. Postural analysis of paramedics simulating frequently performed strenuous work tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A Lavender; Karen M Conrad; Paul A Reichelt; Fred T. Meyer; Paul W Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Paramedics who perform emergency rescue functions are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries. Through an interview and survey process firefighters, many of whom are cross-trained paramedics in a consortium of 14 suburban fire departments, identified and rated tasks that were perceived to be both strenuous and frequently performed. The objective of the current study was to describe the working postures and

  16. Clinical utility of exercise training in heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

  17. Reduced catecholamine response to exercise in amenorrheic athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found an array of endocrine disturbances related to energy deprivation in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Purpose: We examined the catecholamine response to exercise in five eumenorrheic (EU) and five amenorrheic (AM) athletes, matched by age (mean T SEM: EU = 29.8 T 2.5 ...

  18. Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    Exercise - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society ... Living Well with MS Health and Wellness Exercise Exercise In addition to being essential to general health ...

  19. Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PT Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important ... BACK: Nutrition More Exercises Information Back to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...

  20. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-06-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms. PMID:24911173

  1. Haemodynamic changes induced by submaximal exercise before a dive and its consequences on bubble formation

    PubMed Central

    Blatteau, Jean?Eric; Boussuges, Alain; Gempp, Emmanuel; Pontier, Jean?Michel; Castagna, Olivier; Robinet, Claude; Galland, Francois?Michel; Bourdon, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of a submaximal exercise performed 2?h before a simulated dive on bubble formation and to observe the haemodynamic changes and their influence on bubble formation. Participants and methods 16 trained divers were compressed in a hyperbaric chamber to 400?kPa for 30?min and decompressed at a rate of 100?kPa/min with a 9?min stop at 130?kPa (French Navy MN90 procedure). Each diver performed two dives 3?days apart, one without exercise and one with exercise before the dive. All participants performed a 40?min constant?load submaximal and calibrated exercise, which consisted of outdoor running 2?h before the dive. Circulating bubbles were detected with a precordial Doppler at 30, 60 and 90?min after surfacing. Haemodynamic changes were evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Results A single bout of strenuous exercise 2?h before a simulated dive significantly reduced circulating bubbles. Post?exercise hypotension (PEH) was observed after exercise with reductions in diastolic and mean blood pressure (DBP and MBP), but total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Stroke volume was reduced, whereas cardiac output was unchanged. Simulated diving caused a similar reduction in cardiac output independent of pre?dive exercise, suggesting that pre?dive exercise only changed DBP and MBP caused by reduced stroke volume. Conclusion A single bout of strenuous exercise 2?h before a dive significantly reduced the number of bubbles in the right heart of divers and protected them from decompression sickness. Declining stroke volume and moderate dehydration induced by a pre?dive exercise might influence inert gas load and bubble formation. PMID:17138641

  2. Head hair reduces sweat rate during exercise under the sun.

    PubMed

    Coelho, L G M; Ferreira-Junior, J B; Martini, A R P; Borba, D A; Coelho, D B; Passos, R L F; Fonseca, M A da; Moura-Lima, F A S; Prado, L S; Rodrigues, L O C

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of human head hair on thermoregulation during exercise carried out under solar radiation. 10 healthy male subjects (mean±SD: 25.1±2.5 yr; height: 176.2±4.0?cm; weight: 73.7±6.7?kg; VO(2max) 56.2±5.3?mLO(2)·kg (-1)·min (-1)) took part in 2 1 h-long trials of continuous exercise on a treadmill at 50% VO2(max) under solar radiation that were separated by at least 2 days. Whereas for the first trial they retained their natural head hair (HAIR), in the second trial their hair was totally shaved (NOHAIR). Several properties were measured, including environmental heat stress (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index - WBGT, °C), heart rate, rectal temperature, skin temperature, head temperature, and global sweat rate. The main findings were that whereas there was a lower sweat rate in the HAIR condition (HAIR: 7.08±0.79 vs. NOHAIR: 7.67±0.79?g·m (-2)·min (-1); p=0.03), there were no significant differences in any of the other variables between the HAIR and NOHAIR trials. In conclusion, the presence of head hair resulted in a lower sweat rate. PMID:20683812

  3. AB 1. Prevalence and etiology of reduced exercise capacity among patients with scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, Afroditi K.; Siakka, Panagiota; Pitsiou, Georgia; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Chavouzis, Nikolaos; Paspala, Asimina; Boura, Panagiota; Garyfallos, Alexandros; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Stanopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Background Scleroderma is a connective tissue disorder characterized by reduced exercise tolerance. The aim of the study is: (I) to estimate the prevalence of decreased maximum exercise capacity, (II) to investigate the cause of this functional limitation (respiratory or cardiovascular disorders) and (III) to study potential differences of clinical, radiological, functional characteristics and blood serology among scleroderma patients with functional limitation of different etiology. Material and methods A consecutive population of 82 scleroderma patients (11.9% male; 49.8 years old and 88.1% female; 54.9 years old), who were evaluated at the respiratory physiology laboratory of the Respiratory Failure Unit, constituted the study population. Patients underwent spirometry, measurement of diffusion capacity, resting Doppler echocardiography and maximum cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer. Data on previous thorax computed tomography and blood serology were also recorded. Breathing Reserve at the end of exercise was calculated as: BR = (FEV1 ×40) - peak minute ventilation. Patients with BR <11 lt presented with respiratory limitation, the ones with peak oxygen uptake (VO2 max%) <75% predicted presented with circulatory limitation, while the ones with both BR ?11 lt and VO2 max% ?75% presented with normal maximum exercise capacity. Results Exercise capacity was normal in 37.8% of patients (group N), reduced exercise capacity due to respiratory limitation in 12.2% (group R) and reduced exercise capacity due to circulatory limitation in 50% (group C). Patients of group R, compared to those of group C, were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 years old; P=0.018), had a more severe respiratory restriction (measured by TLC%) (61.3 vs. 84.5; P<0.001), presented with pulmonary hypertension less often (P=0.048) and reached a lower VO2 max% (67.8% vs. 71.1%). Neither autoantibodies subtype (Anti sc70 or ACA), nor systemic arterial pressure during exercise differed between the two groups. Conclusions: Reduced exercise capacity occurs very often among patients with scleroderma. The most common cause is circulatory limitation, while the less frequent respiratory limitation occurs among older patients with more severe lung involvement.

  4. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chirapa Puntawangkoon; Dalane W Kitzman; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Craig A Hamilton; Barbara Nicklas; Xiaoyan Leng; Peter H Brubaker; W Gregory Hundley

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Older heart failure (HF) patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF) due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (aged 68 ± 10 years)

  5. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Schaffer, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) ?-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in ?1 and ?2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPAR? and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance. PMID:25478210

  6. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-? (P < 0.05) and TGF-? (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  7. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-? (P < 0.05) and TGF-? (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  8. Can Active Seniors Gain Stress-Reducing Results From Acute Exercise?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger T. Couture; Jochen Bocksnick

    Not all senior citizens stop being active after society considers them past their prime. Though mental strategies are frequently construed as the treatment of choice for reducing anxiety, a body of literature has shown that somatic interventions such as acute exercises have relaxing effects on young adults and could be effective particularly for seniors as well. This study examined the

  9. Potentiation of left ventricular function at a reduced exercise level: Assessment by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    McMeekin, J.; Wahl, R.; Le Grand, V.; Juni, J.; Wu-Connolly, L.

    1984-01-01

    Many patients can't maintain peak workload (P) for prolonged imaging. The authors evaluated the effect of a reduced workload following maximal supine bicycle exercise on left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion in 16 pts. with CAD (greater than or equal to50% stenosis in greater than or equal to1 major coronary artery) and 9 normals who underwent symptom-limited RVG. After acquisition of resting and maximal exercise LAO views, the pts. exercise level was decreased to 60% of the peak workload achieved. A repeat LAO view was then obtained at the reduced workload (post peak) (PP) 4-8 min. after the P. A significant increase in ejection fraction from Peak to PP was seen in the entire patient group, from 62-66% (p<.005). Pts. with CAD increased from 58% to 62% (p<.01), while normals tended to increase from 69% to 73% (p=.16). PP wall motion also tended to improve compared with Peak wall motion in 12 cases studied. PPEF-PEF was not significantly different between patients with CAD and normals. The PPEF-rest EF difference (PPEF-REF) was significantly different at 13.8 in normals and 7 in pts. with CAD (p<.015). The Peak EF-rest EF difference (PEF-REF) was 9.8 in normals and 2.3 in pts. with CAD (p<.02). PPEF-REF, PEF-REF, and the presence of CAD wre correlated with Peak exercise level in watts (r=.56-.68; p=<.03). Thus, the PPEF-REF and PEF-REF were related to both exercise level and presence of CAD in this series. Improved EF occurs with PP workloads in pts. with CAD and tends to occur in normals. Wall motion also tends to improve in both groups. These occurrences must be considered in interpreting RVGs obtained at reduced workloads after Peak exercise has been achieved.

  10. Cognitive function following treadmill exercise in thermal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Morley, Julia; Beauchamp, Gillian; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Reis, Steven E; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David

    2012-05-01

    Occupational injuries are common among firefighters who perform strenuous physical exertion in extreme heat. The thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters inhibits normal thermoregulation, placing the firefighter at risk of hypohydration and hyperthermia that may result in cognitive decline. We tested whether cognitive function changes after treadmill exercise in TPC. In an initial study (Cog 1), ten healthy volunteers performed up to 50 min of treadmill exercise while wearing TPC in a heated room. A battery of neurocognitive tests evaluating short-term memory, sustained and divided attention, and reaction time was administered immediately before and after exercise. In a follow-up study (Cog 2), 19 healthy volunteers performed a similar exercise protocol with the battery of cognitive tests administered pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and serially up to 120 min after exercise. Subjects performed 46.4 ± 4.6 and 48.1 ± 3.6 min of exercise in the Cog 1 and Cog 2, respectively. In both studies heart rate approached age predicted maximum, body mass was reduced 1.0-1.5 kg, and body core temperature increased to levels similar to what is seen after fire suppression. Neurocognitive test scores did not change immediately after exercise. Recall on a memory test was reduced 60 and 120 min after exercise. The mean of the 10 slowest reaction times increased in the 120 min after exercise. Fifty minutes of treadmill exercise in TPC resulted in near maximal physiologic strain but alterations in neurocognitive performance were not noted until an hour or more following exercise in TPC. PMID:21892644

  11. Fasting and recovery from exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Burke

    2010-01-01

    Recovery after strenuous exercise involves processes that are dependent on fluid and food intake. Current sports nutrition guidelines provide recommendations for the quantity and timing of consumption of nutrients to optimise recovery issues such as refuelling, rehydration and protein synthesis for repair and adaptation. Recovery of immune and antioxidant systems is important but less well documented. In some cases, there

  12. Roles played by histamine in strenuous or prolonged masseter muscle activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Hiroyuki; Niijima-Yaoita, Fukie; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kumamoto, Hiroyuki; Watanbe, Makoto; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Tadano, Takeshi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2013-12-01

    Bruxism and/or clenching, resulting in fatigue or dysfunction of masseter muscles (MM), may cause temporomandibular disorders. Functional support of the microcirculation is critical for prolonged muscle activity. Histamine is a regulator of the microcirculation and is supplied by release from its stores and/or by de novo production via the induction of histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Interleukin (IL)-1, a cytokine involved in temporomandibular disorders, is an inducer of HDC. In the present study, we examined the roles of histamine, HDC and IL-1 in MM activity. Experiments were conducted using our R+G+ model. A mouse restrained (R+) inside a narrow cylinder (front end blocked with a thin plastic strip) gnaws away (G+) the strip to escape, with the weight reduction in the strip serving as an index of MM activity. Fexofenadine (a peripherally acting histamine H1 receptor antagonist) reduced MM activity in normal mice. Both H1 receptor-deficient and HDC-deficient mice exhibited low MM activity. Prolonged R+G+ induced HDC activity in MM. Mast cell-deficient mice exhibited strikingly low HDC induction in MM (and also in the quadriceps femoris muscle) in response to muscle activity or IL-1?. Mast cells were present around blood vessels and nerves in the epimysium and perimysium of MM. These results, together with others reported previously, suggest that: (i) peripheral histamine supports strenuous MM activity; (ii) strenuous MM activity stimulates mast cells to release histamine and to induce HDC (which replenishes the histamine pool in mast cells, possibly mediated by IL-1); and (iii) peripheral histamine H1 receptor antagonists may be effective in treating temporomandibular disorders or preventing prolonged clenching and/or bruxism. PMID:24138758

  13. Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Fulford, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, James R; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Exercise in hypoxia is associated with reduced muscle oxidative function and impaired exercise tolerance. We hypothesised that dietary nitrate supplementation (which increases plasma [nitrite] and thus NO bioavailability) would ameliorate the adverse effects of hypoxia on muscle metabolism and oxidative function. In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, nine healthy subjects completed knee-extension exercise to the limit of tolerance (Tlim), once in normoxia (20.9% O2; CON) and twice in hypoxia (14.5% O2). During 24 h prior to the hypoxia trials, subjects consumed 0.75 L of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (9.3 mmol nitrate; H-BR) or 0.75 L of nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (0.006 mmol nitrate; H-PL). Muscle metabolism was assessed using calibrated 31P-MRS. Plasma [nitrite] was elevated (P < 0.01) following BR (194 ± 51 nm) compared to PL (129 ± 23 nm) and CON (142 ± 37 nM). Tlim was reduced in H-PL compared to CON (393 ± 169 vs. 471 ± 200 s; P < 0.05) but was not different between CON and H-BR (477 ± 200 s). The muscle [PCr], [Pi] and pH changed at a faster rate in H-PL compared to CON and H-BR. The [PCr] recovery time constant was greater (P < 0.01) in H-PL (29 ± 5 s) compared to CON (23 ± 5 s) and H-BR (24 ± 5 s). Nitrate supplementation reduced muscle metabolic perturbation during exercise in hypoxia and restored exercise tolerance and oxidative function to values observed in normoxia. The results suggest that augmenting the nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway may have important therapeutic applications for improving muscle energetics and functional capacity in hypoxia. PMID:21911616

  14. Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484

  15. Peak lifting velocities of men and women for the reduced inertia squat exercise using force control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Paulus; Raoul F. Reiser II; Wade O. Troxell

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine peak velocities for the reduced inertia squat exercise at various resistance\\u000a levels based on an isometric strength assessment for both men and women. On a Smith machine modified for pneumatic resistance,\\u000a 12 males and 12 females previously trained college-age participants performed a maximal isometric strength assessment with\\u000a knee angles of 90°, 110°,

  16. Physical exercise protects myenteric neurons and reduces parasitemia in Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Neide Martins; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; de Oliveira Dalálio, Márcia Machado; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Braga, Caroline Felício; de Araújo, Silvana Marques

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the parasitemia, nitrergic neurons, and cytokines in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice subjected to moderate physical exercise, forty male Swiss mice, 30days of age, were divided: Trained Control (TC), Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Control (SC), and Sedentary Infected (SI). The moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill lasted 8weeks. Three days after completing the moderate physical exercise program, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, and parasitemia was evaluated from day 4 to day 22 after inoculation. After 75days of infection, cytokines were measured and colonic neurons were quantified using immunofluorescence to identify neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The results were analyzed using analysis of variance - Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, to 5% significance. Moderate physical exercise reduced the parasite peak on day 8 of infection and total parasitemia (p<0.05), contributed to survival of number of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons (p<0.01) and promoted neuronal hypertrophy of the neurons (p<0.05), increased the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-? (p<0.01) and transforming growth factor-? (p>0.05), providing beneficial effects to the host by acting on the immune system to preserve nitrergic neurons. PMID:24667137

  17. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

  18. Chronic endurance exercise training: a condition of inadequate blood pressure regulation and reduced tolerance to LBNP.

    PubMed

    Raven, P B; Pawelczyk, J A

    1993-06-01

    We review the hypotheses presented to account for the anecdotal and literature-based reports that chronic endurance exercise training reduces orthostatic tolerance. The findings from cross-sectional investigations of unfit subjects and endurance athletes are examined, as well as limited data from recent investigations of the changes in orthostatic tolerance and blood pressure regulation that occur after 8 d to 8 months of endurance exercise training. Statistical models have not found wide variations in maximal aerobic power (VO2max) to contribute to the prediction of orthostatic responses. However, research data are generally consistent that the orthostatic tolerance of athletes whose VO2max exceeds 65 ml.kg-1.min-1 is lower than that of sedentary control subjects. These two findings suggest that it is exercise training, rather than VO2max, that reduces orthostatic tolerance. Findings from a recent longitudinal investigation corroborate this theory. We conclude that at least four factors associated with exercise training contribute to the development of orthostatic intolerance. These include: a) increased limb compliance (although its effect is likely to be trivial), b) eccentric ventricular hypertrophy, and c) increases in total blood volume, which may attenuate cardiopulmonary baroreflex responsiveness, shift ventricular function to a steeper portion of the ventricular compliance curve, and increase the inhibitory effect of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors on carotid baroreflex responsiveness; and d) an independent effect that reduces carotid and aortic baroreflex responsiveness. These mechanisms mimic changes observed in pathological states such as heart failure and hypertension. Our conclusions are best summarized by Greenleaf et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 51:298-305, 1981): "Trained men can run, but they cannot stand.'' PMID:8321109

  19. Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Denise; Knez, Wade; Sinclair, Wade

    2010-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants are molecules that reduce the damage associated with oxidative stress by counteracting free radicals. Regular exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle, although it can increase oxidative stress. As a typical vegetarian diet comprises a wide range of antioxidant-rich foods, it is plausible that the consumption of these foods will result in an enhanced antioxidant system capable of reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a relationship between a vegetarian diet and lower risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers has been established. This review explores the current available evidence linking exercise, vegetarians, antioxidants, and oxidative stress. PMID:20845212

  20. Reduced Ventricular Arrhythmogeneity and Increased Electrical Complexity in Normal Exercised Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dor-Haim, Horesh; Berenfeld, Omer; Horowitz, Michal; Lotan, Chaim; Swissa, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Background The mechanisms whereby aerobic training reduces the occurrence of sudden cardiac death in humans are not clear. We test the hypothesis that exercise-induced increased resistance to ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) involve an intrinsic remodeling in healthy hearts. Methods and Results Thirty rats were divided into a sedentary (CTRL, n?=?16) and two exercise groups: short- (4 weeks, ST, n?=?7) and long-term (8 weeks, LT, n?=?7) trained groups. Following the exercise program hearts were isolated and studied in a Langendorff perfusion system. An S1–S2 pacing protocol was applied at the right ventricle to determine inducibility of VT/VF. Fast Fourier transforms were applied on ECG time-series. In-vivo measurements showed training-induced increase in aerobic capacity, heart-to-body weight ratio and a 50% low-to-high frequency ratio reduction in the heart rate variability (p<0.05). In isolated hearts the probability for VF decreased from 26.1±14.4 in CTRL to 13.9±14.1 and 6.7±8.5% in the ST and LT, respectively (p<0.05). Duration of VF also decreased from 19.0±5.7 in CTRL to 8.8±7.1 and 6.0±5.8 sec in ST and LT respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, the pacing current required for VF induction increased following exercise (2.9±1.7 vs. 5.4±2.1 and 8.5±0.9 mA, respectively; p<0.05). Frequency analysis of ECG revealed an exercise-induced VF transition from a narrow single peak spectrum at 17 Hz in CTRL to a broader range of peaks ranging between 8.8 and 22.5 Hz in the LT group (p<0.05). Conclusion Exercise in rats leads to reduced VF propensity associated with an intrinsic cardiac remodeling related to a broader spectral range and faster frequency components in the ECG. PMID:23825553

  1. Effect of local cooling on short-term, intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young S; Robergs, Robert A; Schneider, Suzanne M

    2013-07-01

    The widespread belief that local cooling impairs short-term, strenuous exercise performance is controversial. Eighteen original investigations involving cooling before and intermittent cooling during short-term, intensive exercise are summarized in this review. Previous literature examining short-term intensive exercise and local cooling primarily has been limited to the effects on muscle performance immediately or within minutes following cold application. Most previous cooling studies used equal and longer than 10 minutes of pre-cooling, and found that cooling reduced strength, performance and endurance. Because short duration, high intensity exercise requires adequate warm-up to prepare for optimal performance, prolonged pre-cooling is not an effective method to prepare for this type of exercise. The literature related to the effect of acute local cooling immediately before short duration, high intensity isotonic exercise such as weight lifting is limited. However, local intermittent cooling during short-term, high intense exercise may provide possible beneficial effects; first, by pain reduction, caused by an "irritation effect" from hand thermal receptors which block pain sensation, or second, by a cooling effect, whereby stimulation of hand thermal receptors or a slight lowering of blood temperature might alter central fatigue. PMID:23085975

  2. Regular and moderate exercise before experimental sepsis reduces the risk of lung and distal organ injury.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Carla C; Silva, Johnatas D; Samary, Cynthia S; Guimarães, Isabela H; Marques, Patrícia S; Oliveira, Gisele P; do Carmo, Luana G R R; Goldenberg, Regina C; Bakker-Abreu, Ilka; Diaz, Bruno L; Rocha, Nazareth N; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2012-04-01

    Physical activity modulates inflammation and immune response in both normal and pathologic conditions. We investigated whether regular and moderate exercise before the induction of experimental sepsis reduces the risk of lung and distal organ injury and survival. One hundred twenty-four BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to two groups: sedentary (S) and trained (T). Animals in T group ran on a motorized treadmill, at moderate intensity, 5% grade, 30 min/day, 3 times a week for 8 wk. Cardiac adaptation to exercise was evaluated using echocardiography. Systolic volume and left ventricular mass were increased in T compared with S group. Both T and S groups were further randomized either to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture surgery (CLP) or sham operation (control). After 24 h, lung mechanics and histology, the degree of cell apoptosis in lung, heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine villi, and interleukin (IL)-6, KC (IL-8 murine functional homolog), IL-1?, IL-10, and number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and peritoneal lavage (PLF) fluids as well as plasma were measured. In CLP, T compared with S groups showed: 1) improvement in survival; 2) reduced lung static elastance, alveolar collapse, collagen and elastic fiber content, number of neutrophils in BALF, PLF, and plasma, as well as lung and distal organ cell apoptosis; and 3) increased IL-10 in BALF and plasma, with reduced IL-6, KC, and IL-1? in PLF. In conclusion, regular and moderate exercise before the induction of sepsis reduced the risk of lung and distal organ damage, thus increasing survival. PMID:22267391

  3. Maturation and Strenuous Training in Young Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of research studies suggesting that girls who exercise vigorously may experience disruptions in maturational processes suggests that carefully-monitored sports participation and training have no effect on growth and maturation. (Author/CB)

  4. Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R.; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia?dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishment by assessment of tissue oxygenation maximal change and recovery change, respectively. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled, of whom 9 (age 33.3 ± 4.4 years, five males) completed the study. Each subject took part in three MRI visits, with dietary nitrate (7cl concentrated beetroot juice) consumed before the third visit. During each visit fMRIs were conducted concurrently with plantar flexion exercise at workloads of 15% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found between visits 1 and 2 in the fMRI measures. A decrease in maximal change was found at 15% MVC in soleus between visits 2 and 3 (5.12 ± 2.36 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.004) and between visits 1 and 3 (4.43 ± 2.12 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.043), but not at 25% MVC or within gastrocnemius. There was no difference in recovery change between visits. We found that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces tissue oxygenation alterations during physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This effect is more prominent in muscles with predominantly type 1 fibers and at lower workloads. This indicates that in healthy subjects dietary nitrate predominantly affects skeletal muscle energy efficiency with no change in oxygen delivery. PMID:25052493

  5. Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility\\/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL18, CRP, and IL6 independent of ?-blockers, BMI, and psychosocial factors in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Kohut; D. A. McCann; D. W. Russell; D. N. Konopka; J. E. Cunnick; W. D. Franke; M. C. Castillo; A. E. Reighard; E. Vanderah

    2006-01-01

    Increased serum levels of inflammatory mediators have been associated with numerous disease states including atherosclerosis, Type II diabetes, hypertension, depression, and overall mortality. We hypothesized that a long-term exercise intervention among older adults would reduce serum inflammatory cytokines, and this reduction would be mediated, in part, by improvements in psychosocial factors and\\/or by ?-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. Adults ?age 64 were

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Exercise, Via Reduced Leptin Levels, in Obese Women with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Fornieles-Gonzalez, Gabriel; Rosety, Miguel Angel; Rosety, Ignacio; Diaz, Antonio; Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2012-11-19

    Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, our aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, eleven of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-week aerobic training programme. They attended 3 sessions/week, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30-40 min) at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate, and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex and BMI. Fat mass percentage and distribution were measured and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and post-intervention. This protocol was approved by an Institutional Ethics Committee. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants' VO2max (20.2±5.8vs.23.7±6.3ml/kg/min;p<0.001), and plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced in the intervention group (54.2±6.7vs.45.7±6.1ng/ml;p=0.026). Further significant correlations between plasma leptin and indices of obesity were found. In contrast, no significant changes were found in adiponectin levels (p>0.05). None of tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training programme reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome. PMID:23170751

  7. Efficacy of Chinese Eye Exercises on Reducing Accommodative Lag in School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Ming; Kang, Meng-Tian; Peng, Xiao-xia; Li, Si-Yuan; Wang, Yang; Li, Lei; Yu, Jing; Qiu, Li-Xin; Sun, Yun-Yun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Sun, Xin; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial. Methods A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine); sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints); and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage). Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score. Results Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10D) than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03D) and eyes closed group (0.07D) (P = 0.04). The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0%) than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8%) and the eyes closed group (34.9%) (P = 0.03). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes. Conclusion Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the long-term. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01756287 PMID:25742161

  8. Long-term effects of low-intensity exercise training on fat metabolism in weight-reduced obese men.

    PubMed

    Van Aggel-Leijssen, Dorien P; Saris, Wim H; Hul, Gabby B; Van Baak, Marleen A

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term continuation of low-intensity exercise training on weight maintenance, substrate metabolism, and beta-adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation in weight-reduced obese men. Preceding this part of the study, subjects lost 15 +/- 6 kg of body weight by energy restriction with or without low-intensity exercise training. Twenty-nine subjects (diet group, n = 15; diet + exercise group, n = 14) participated in the follow-up study of 40 weeks in which the former diet + exercise group continued their exercise training program. Pre- and postfollow-up, measurements of body weight, body composition, maximal aerobic capacity and substrate oxidation during rest, exercise, and recovery with or without infusion of the beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol (PRP), were performed. Over the follow-up period, body weight, fat mass, and fat free mass increased in both groups (P <.0001) without differences between groups. Attendance at exercise training sessions was negatively correlated with regain of body weight (r = -.6, P <.05). Relative fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and beta-adrenergic-mediated fat oxidation during rest, exercise, and recovery were maintained over the follow-up period in both groups. Continuation of low-intensity exercise training after weight reduction did not limit regain of body weight, unless exercise training was frequently performed. Relative (beta-adrenergic-mediated) fat oxidation and energy expenditure were maintained at postdiet level whether or not low-intensity exercise training was performed during follow-up. PMID:12145773

  9. Short-term exercise reduces markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fealy, Ciaran E.; Haus, Jacob M.; Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Pagadala, Mangesh; Flask, Chris A.; McCullough, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased hepatocyte apoptosis is a hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and contributes to the profibrogenic state responsible for the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Strategies aimed at reducing apoptosis may result in better outcomes for individuals with NAFLD. We therefore examined the effect of a short-term exercise program on markers of apoptosis—plasma cytokeratin 18 (CK18) fragments, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), soluble Fas (sFas), and sFas ligand (sFasL)—in 13 obese individuals with NAFLD [body mass index 35.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2, >5% intrahepatic lipid (IHL) assessed by 1H-MR spectroscopy]. Exercise consisted of treadmill walking for 60 min/day on 7 consecutive days at ?85% of maximal heart rate. Additionally, subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a maximal oxygen consumption (V?o2max) test before and after the exercise intervention. The Matsuda index was used to assess insulin sensitivity. We observed significant decreases in CK18 fragments (558.4 ± 106.8 vs. 323.4 ± 72.5 U/l, P < 0.01) and ALT (30.2 ± 5.1 vs. 24.3 ± 4.8 U/l, P < 0.05), and an increase in whole body fat oxidation (49.3 ± 6.1 vs. 69.4 ± 7.1 mg/min, P < 0.05), while decreases in circulating sFasL approached statistical significance (66.5 ± 6.0 vs. 63.0 ± 5.7 pg/ml, P = 0.06), as did the relationship between percent change in circulating CK18 fragments and ALT (r = 0.55, P = 0.05). We also observed a significant correlation between changes in fat oxidation and circulating sFasL (rho = ?0.65, P < 0.05). There was no change in IHL following the intervention (18.2 ± 2.5 vs. 17.5 ± 2.1%, NS). We conclude that short-term exercise reduces a circulatory marker of hepatocyte apoptosis in obese individuals with NAFLD and propose that changes in the proapoptotic environment may be mediated through improved insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative capacity. PMID:22582214

  10. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  11. In humans the oxygen uptake slow component is reduced by prior exercise of high as well as low intensity.

    PubMed

    Koppo, K; Bouckaert, J

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine to what extent prior high- or low-intensity cycling, yielding the same amount of external work, influenced the oxygen uptake (VO2) slow component of subsequent high-intensity cycling. The 12 subjects cycled in two protocols consisting of an initial 3 min period of unloaded cycling followed by two periods of constant-load exercise separated by 3 min of rest and 3 min of unloaded cycling. In protocol 1 both periods of exercise consisted of 6 min cycling at a work rate corresponding to 90% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Protocol 2 differed from protocol 1 in that the first period of exercise consisted of a mean of 12.1 (SD 0.8) min cycling at a work rate corresponding to 50% VO2peak. The difference between the 3rd min VO2 and the end VO2 (deltaVO2(6-3)) was used as an index of the VO2 slow component. Prior high-intensity exercise significantly reduced deltaVO2(6-3). The deltaVO2(6-3) was also reduced by prior low-intensity exercise despite an unchanged plasma lactate concentration at the start of the second period of exercise. The reduction was more pronounced after prior high- than after prior low-intensity exercise (59% and 28%, respectively). The results of this study show that prior exercise of high as well as low intensity reduces the VO2 slow component and indicate that a metabolic acidosis is not a necessary condition to elicit a reduction in deltaVO2(6-3). PMID:11192065

  12. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts. PMID:20948515

  13. Capsiate supplementation reduces oxidative cost of contraction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health. PMID:26030806

  14. Capsiate Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Cost of Contraction in Exercising Mouse Skeletal Muscle In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Kazuya; Tonson, Anne; Pecchi, Émilie; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Fur, Yann; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David; Giannesini, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Chronic administration of capsiate is known to accelerate whole-body basal energy metabolism, but the consequences in exercising skeletal muscle remain very poorly documented. In order to clarify this issue, the effect of 2-week daily administration of either vehicle (control) or purified capsiate (at 10- or 100-mg/kg body weight) on skeletal muscle function and energetics were investigated throughout a multidisciplinary approach combining in vivo and in vitro measurements in mice. Mechanical performance and energy metabolism were assessed strictly non-invasively in contracting gastrocnemius muscle using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Regardless of the dose, capsiate treatments markedly disturbed basal bioenergetics in vivo including intracellular pH alkalosis and decreased phosphocreatine content. Besides, capsiate administration did affect neither mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 gene expression nor both basal and maximal oxygen consumption in isolated saponin-permeabilized fibers, but decreased by about twofold the Km of mitochondrial respiration for ADP. During a standardized in vivo fatiguing protocol (6-min of repeated maximal isometric contractions electrically induced at a frequency of 1.7 Hz), both capsiate treatments reduced oxidative cost of contraction by 30-40%, whereas force-generating capacity and fatigability were not changed. Moreover, the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis during the post-electrostimulation recovery period remained unaffected by capsiate. Both capsiate treatments further promoted muscle mass gain, and the higher dose also reduced body weight gain and abdominal fat content. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to its anti-obesity effect, capsiate supplementation improves oxidative metabolism in exercising muscle, which strengthen this compound as a natural compound for improving health. PMID:26030806

  15. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. However, despite suggestions that caffeine may enhance resistance exercise performance, research is equivocal on the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. It has also been suggested that dampened perception of perceived exertion and pain perception might be an explanation for any possible enhancement of resistance exercise performance due to caffeine ingestion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on repetitions to failure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise to failure. Eleven resistance trained individuals (9 males, 2 females, mean age±SD=26.4±6.4 years), took part in this double-blind, randomised cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Resistance exercise sessions consisted of bench press, deadlift, prone row and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Results indicated that participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the presence of caffeine (p=0.0001). Mean±S.D of repetitions to failure was 19.6±3.7 and 18.5±4.1 in caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively. There were no differences in peak heart rate or peak blood lactate values across conditions (both p >0.05). RPE was significantly lower in the caffeine compared to the placebo condition (p=0.03) and was significantly higher during lower body exercises compared to upper body exercises irrespective of substance ingested (p=0.0001). For muscle pain perception, a significant condition by exercise interaction (p=0.027) revealed that muscle pain perception was lower in the caffeine condition, irrespective of exercise. With caffeine, pain perception was significantly higher in the deadlift and back squat compared to the bench press. However, with placebo, pain perception was significantly higher for the deadlift and back squat compared to the prone row only. Therefore, acute caffeine ingestion not only enhances resistance exercise performance to failure but also reduces perception of exertion and muscle pain. PMID:23834545

  16. Aerobic exercise reduces levels of cardiovascular and sympathoadrenal responses to mental stress in subjects without prior evidence of myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, J A; Fredrikson, M; Kuhn, C M; Ulmer, R L; Walsh-Riddle, M; Appelbaum, M

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-seven healthy type A men (mean age 42 years) were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise training group or to a strength and flexibility training group. Before exercise, subjects underwent comprehensive physiologic and behavioral assessments, including graded exercise treadmill testing with direct measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) and measurement of cardiovascular (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and rate pressure product) and neuroendocrine (epinephrine and norepinephrine) responses to mental arithmetic. The aerobic exercise consisted of walking and jogging at an intensity of greater than or equal to 70% maximal heart rate reserve for 1 hour 3 times/week for 12 consecutive weeks. The strength training consisted of 1 hour of circuit Nautilus training 2 times/week for 12 weeks. At the completion of the exercise program, all subjects underwent repeat testing. For the aerobic group, peak VO2 increased significantly from 33.6 to 38.4 ml/kg/min (p less than 0.001), whereas the strength group only achieved a slight increase from 34.5 to 35.6 ml/kg/min (difference not significant). During the mental arithmetic, the aerobic group experienced a greater reduction in levels of heart rate, diastolic blood pressure and rate pressure product than the strength group (after completing the exercise training programs). The aerobic group also tended to secrete less epinephrine and to show a faster recovery than the strength group after the exercise program. In addition, the aerobic group tended to exhibit less cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress after exercise training. These data suggest that aerobic exercise reduces levels of cardiovascular and sympathoadrenal responses during and after mental stress. PMID:2294687

  17. Central blockade of nitric oxide transmission impairs exercise-induced neuronal activation in the PVN and reduces physical performance.

    PubMed

    Lima, Paulo M A; Santiago, Henrique P; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2014-09-01

    The blockade of central nitric oxide (NO) signaling modifies the thermoregulatory and metabolic adjustments that occur during exercise, thereby impairing physical performance. However, the brain areas involved in this response remain unknown. Nitrergic neurons are present in the hypothalamic areas that are activated during exercise and participate in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, such as, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). To investigate whether brain NO signaling affects thermoregulation during exercise through the activation of hypothalamic neurons, rats underwent acute submaximal treadmill exercise (18 mmin(-1), 5% inclination) until fatigue received an intracerebroventricular injection of 1.43 ?mol N?-nitro-l-arginine metil ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or saline (SAL). Skin tail temperature (Tsk) and internal body temperature (Ti) were continuously recorded and c-Fos expression was determined in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME treatment reduced physical performance by 48%, which was positively correlated with tail vasodilation capacity, which was reduced by 28%, and negatively correlated with heat storage rate (HSR), which was increased by 38%. Physical exercise until fatigue increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME-treatment significantly reduced the exercise-induced c-Fos expression in the PVN, whereas it had no effect in the SON. Interestingly, the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the PVN was closely correlated with physical performance and inversely associated with HSR. Thus, the inhibition of central NO attenuates neuronal activation induced by exercise in the PVN, impairs the autonomic regulation of heat dissipation, and anticipates the fatigue. Brain NO seems to play a role in exercise performance through the regulation of neuronal activation in the PVN, but not in the SON, although the SON neurons are also activated by running exercise. Moreover, this role in performance mediated by neuronal activation in the PVN can be related with the improvement of thermoregulatory adjustments that occur during exercise. PMID:25234442

  18. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Older heart failure (HF) patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF) due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (aged 68 ± 10 years) without large (aorta) or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery) vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a) peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2), b) physical function, c) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d) determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min) compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min) (p = 0.01). Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p < 0.001). After submaximal exercise, the change in superficial femoral LBF was reduced in HF participants (79 ± 92 ml/min) compared to healthy elderly (222 ± 108 ml/min; p = 0.002). This occurred even though submaximal stress-induced measures of the flow in the descending aorta (5.0 ± 1.2 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3 L/min; p = 0.87), and the stress-resting baseline difference in aortic flow (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.7 ± 0.8 L/min; p = 0.75) were similar between the 2 groups. Importantly, the difference in submaximal exercise induced superficial femoral LBF between the 2 groups persisted after accounting for age, gender, body surface area, LVEF, and thigh muscle area (p ? 0.03). Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow. PMID:19922666

  19. Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys

    2013-06-01

    Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 °C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:?CAA declined 75 ± 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P < 0.001), but was unchanged in BAL (P = 0.061). Exercise time was shorter in TYR-free (59.8 ± 19.0 min vs. 66.2 ± 16.9 min in TYR-free and BAL respectively; P = 0.036). Heart rate (P = 0.298), core (P = 0.134) and skin (P = 0.384) temperature, RPE (P > 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:?CAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat. PMID:23288035

  20. Physical Exercise Reduces the Expression of RANTES and Its CCR5 Receptor in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Baturcam, Engin; Tiss, Ali; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said

    2014-01-01

    RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-?, IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue. PMID:24895488

  1. Physical exercise reduces the expression of RANTES and its CCR5 receptor in the adipose tissue of obese humans.

    PubMed

    Baturcam, Engin; Abubaker, Jehad; Tiss, Ali; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; Hammad, Maha; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said; Dehbi, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF- ? , IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1 ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue. PMID:24895488

  2. Load Variation Influences on Joint Work During Squat Exercise in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Logan, Rachel L.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercises that load the axial skeleton, such as the parallel squat, are incorporated as a critical component of a space exercise program designed to maximize the stimuli for bone remodeling and muscle loading. Astronauts on the International Space Station perform regular resistance exercise using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Squat exercises on Earth entail moving a portion of the body weight plus the added bar load, whereas in microgravity the body weight is 0, so all load must be applied via the bar. Crewmembers exercising in microgravity currently add approx.70% of their body weight to the bar load as compensation for the absence of the body weight. This level of body weight replacement (BWR) was determined by crewmember feedback and personal experience without any quantitative data. The purpose of this evaluation was to utilize computational simulation to determine the appropriate level of BWR in microgravity necessary to replicate lower extremity joint work during squat exercise in normal gravity based on joint work. We hypothesized that joint work would be positively related to BWR load.

  3. Quercetin intake with exercise modulates lipoprotein metabolism and reduces atherosclerosis plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Study objectives We proposed that mice supplemented with quercetin, a class of flavonoids known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, will have profound effects on the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis when combined with exercise. Study design Forty C57BL6 LDLr ?/? mice were divided into four groups (n?=?10): control untreated (NN); control group supplemented with 100 ?g/day of quercetin (NQ); exercise group (EN); and exercise group supplemented with 100 ?g/day of quercetin (EQ). All animals were fed atherogenic diet. The exercise groups were run on a treadmill for 30 minutes, 15 m/min for 5 days/week for 30 days. After 30 day animals were sacrificed and tissues were harvested. Results and conclusion Mice supplemented with quercetin during exercise sessions had 78% atherosclerotic plaque reduction compared to control mice and 40% less atherosclerotic plaque formation compared to control group supplemented with quercetin. The manifestation of the combination of quercetin supplementation with exercise was more evident in the pro-reverse cholesterol transport genes, indicating a plausible mechanism for their combined beneficial effect. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), is multifactorial and therefore its treatment approaches and the ability to regress the plaque are complicated. Data from research on animal models and clinical studies have indicated that moderate daily exercise can alleviate the risk for the development of atherosclerotic plaques, while the same has not been true for the supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24890098

  4. Explosives detection by sniffer dogs following strenuous physical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irit Gazit; Joseph Terkel

    2003-01-01

    Reduced olfactory efficiency in sniffer dogs results mainly from overheating, and causes physiological and behavioural resources to be diverted from concentration on the assigned task and applied instead to methods of body cooling. Dogs do not possess sweat glands, and panting is the main means of cooling the body. Since a dog can either sniff or pant, but can never

  5. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study published October 8, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain is associated with exercise capacity in failing hearts with preserved and reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hasselberg, Nina E.; Haugaa, Kristina H.; Sarvari, Sebastian I.; Gullestad, Lars; Andreassen, Arne K.; Smiseth, Otto A.; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Aims Heart failure patients with reduced and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) show reduced exercise capacity. We explored the relationship between exercise capacity and systolic and diastolic myocardial function in heart failure patients. Methods and results Exercise capacity, by peak oxygen uptake (VO2), was assessed in 100 patients (56 ± 12 years, NYHA functional class: 2.5 ± 0.9, EF: 42 ± 19%). LV systolic function, as EF and global longitudinal strain (GLS), and right ventricular function were assessed by echocardiography. Left atrial volume index and the ratio of peak early diastolic filling velocity (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e?) were measures of diastolic function. Thirty-seven patients had heart failure with preserved EF (HFpEF), defined as EF ?50% and echocardiographic diastolic dysfunction. LV GLS and peak pulmonary arterial systolic pressure were independently correlated to peak VO2 in the total study population and in HFpEF separately. LV GLS was superior to EF in identifying patients with impaired peak VO2 <20 mL/kg/min as shown by receiver operating characteristic analyses [areas under curves 0.93 (0.89–0.98) vs. 0.85 (0.77–0.93), P < 0.05]. In patients with HFpEF, GLS was reduced below normal (?17.5 ± 3.2%) and correlated to E/e? (R = 0.45, P = 0.005) and left atrial volume index (R = 0.48, P = 0.003), while EF did not. Conclusion GLS correlated independently to peak VO2 in patients with reduced and preserved EF and was superior in identifying patients with reduced exercise capacity. In HFpEF, systolic function by GLS was impaired. There was a significant relationship between diastolic function and GLS, confirming a coupling between diastolic and longitudinal systolic function in HFpEF. PMID:25552469

  7. Aerobic exercise but not resistance exercise reduces intrahepatic lipid content and visceral fat and improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Deldin, Anthony R.; White, David; Kim, YoonMyung; Libman, Ingrid; Rivera-Vega, Michelle; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Sandoval, Sandra; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether regular exercise alone (no caloric restriction) is a useful strategy to reduce adiposity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors in obese girls. We examined the effects of aerobic (AE) vs. resistance exercise (RE) alone on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese girls. Forty-four obese adolescent girls (BMI ?95th percentile, 12–18 yr) with abdominal obesity (waist circumference 106.5 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to 3 mo of 180 min/wk AE (n = 16) or RE (n = 16) or a nonexercising control group (n = 12). Total fat and VAT were assessed by MRI and intrahepatic lipid by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Intermuscular AT (IMAT) was measured by CT. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic (80 mU·m2·min?1) euglycemic clamp. Compared with controls (0.13 ± 1.10 kg), body weight did not change (P > 0.1) in the AE (?1.31 ± 1.43 kg) and RE (?0.31 ± 1.38 kg) groups. Despite the absence of weight loss, total body fat (%) and IMAT decreased (P < 0.05) in both exercise groups compared with control. Compared with control, significant (P < 0.05) reductions in VAT (??15.68 ± 7.64 cm2) and intrahepatic lipid (??1.70 ± 0.74%) and improvement in insulin sensitivity (?0.92 ± 0.27 mg·kg?1·min?1 per ?U/ml) were observed in the AE group but not the RE group. Improvements in insulin sensitivity in the AE group were associated with the reductions in total AT mass (r = ?0.65, P = 0.02). In obese adolescent girls, AE but not RE is effective in reducing liver fat and visceral adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity independent of weight loss or calorie restriction. PMID:24045865

  8. Exercise in heart failure patients supported with a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mette Holme; Gustafsson, Finn

    2015-04-01

    After implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD), exercise capacity in heart failure patients remains reduced with peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) values averaging from 11 to 20 ml/kg/min. Total cardiac output in CF-LVAD patients during exercise is predominantly determined by pump speed, the pressure difference across the pump, and in some cases ejection through the aortic valve. Fixed pump speed utilized in CF-LVADs may provide insufficient support, resulting in a moderate cardiac output increase during increased physical strain. Ongoing studies are evaluating whether pump speed changes in response to varied loading conditions may enable LVADs to provide sufficient support even during strenuous exercise. In the currently used devices, evidence suggests that focus on optimizing non-cardiac peripheral parameters is vital. Extra-cardiac potentially reversible factors are anemia with low oxygen-carrying capacity, obesity and general deconditioning with low muscle mass. In addition, exercise training in CF-LVAD patients can improve peak VO2. To design interventions to improve functional capacity in patients treated with modern durable LVADs, a detailed understanding of exercise physiology in a continuous-flow circulatory system is necessary. In this review we address the different components of exercise physiology in LVAD patients and point out potential solutions or areas of future research. PMID:25577562

  9. Prophylactic tolperisone for post-exercise muscle soreness causes reduced isometric force--a double-blind randomized crossover control study.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Prem; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Svensson, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The role of tolperisone hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant in relieving painful muscle spasm is recently being discussed. The present study hypothesizes that the prophylactic use of tolperisone hydrochloride may effectively relieve post-exercise muscle soreness, based on the spasm theory of exercise pain. Twenty male volunteers, aged 25.2 +/- 0.82 years (mean +/- SEM) participated in 10 sessions in which they received oral treatment with placebo or the centrally acting muscle relaxant tolperisone hydrochloride (150 mg) three times daily for 8 days, in randomized crossover double-blind design. Time course assessments were made for pressure pain threshold, Likert's pain score (0-5), pain areas, range of abduction, isometric force, and electromyography (EMG) root mean square (RMS) during maximum voluntary isometric force on day 1 and 6, immediately after an eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle, and 24 and 48 h after the exercise. Treatment with placebo or tolperisone hydrochloride was initiated immediately after the assessments on the first day baseline assessments. On the sixth day baseline investigations were repeated and then the subjects performed six bouts of standardized intense eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle for provocation of post-exercise muscle soreness (PEMS). Perceived intensity of warmth, tiredness, soreness and pain during the exercise bouts were recorded on a 10 cm visual analogue pain scale. VAS scores and pressure pain thresholds did not differ between tolperisone and placebo treatment. All VAS scores increased during the exercise bouts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 as compared to bout 1. Increased pain scores and pain areas were reported immediately after, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Pressure pain thresholds were reduced at 24 and 48 h after the exercise in the exercised hand. Range of abduction of the index finger was reduced immediately after the exercise and was still reduced at 24 h as compared to the non-exercised hand. The EMG RMS amplitude was also reduced immediately after the exercise, but was increased at 24 and 48 h. Isometric force was reduced immediately after the exercise as compared to days 1, 6, and the 24 and 48 h post-exercise assessments with a greater reduction following the tolperisone hydrochloride treatment and the reduction was more in tolperisone group as compared to the placebo group. The results suggest, that the prophylactic intake of tolperisone hydrochloride provides no relief to pain in course of post-exercise muscle soreness but results in reduction in isometric force. PMID:12935792

  10. Differential Cytokine Gene Expression in the Diaphragm in Response to Strenuous Resistive Breathing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodoros Vassilakopoulos; Maziar Divangahi; George Rallis; Osama Kishta; Basil Petrof; Alain Comtois; Sabah N. A. Hussain

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous resistive breathing induces plasma cytokines that do not originate from circulating monocytes. We hypothesized that cytokine production is induced inside the diaphragm in response to resistive loading. Anesthetized, tracheostomized, spontaneously breathing Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1, 3, or 6 hours of inspiratory resistive loading, corresponding to 45-50% of the maximum inspiratory pressure. Unloaded sham-operated rats breath- ing spontaneously

  11. Antibody and CD8+ T cell memory response to influenza A/PR/8/34 infection is reduced in treadmill-exercised mice, yet still protective.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristi; Thompson, Nicholas; Wannemuehler, Michael; Kohut, Marian

    2013-05-15

    Moderate exercise may decrease the severity of influenza infection and reduce lung viral load. The possibility that an exercise-associated reduction in lung viral load early in infection could contribute to decreased serum antibody and reduced memory response were investigated. BALB/c mice exercised for 8 wk and were then infected with influenza A/PR/8/34 (intranasal route). Influenza-specific serum antibody was assessed for 6 mo post primary infection, at which time mice were infected again with influenza A/PR/8/34. After primary infection, exercise reduced morbidity/mortality, attenuated lung cytokines, and decreased serum anti-influenza IgG and IgG2a from day 14 to day 180 post primary infection. After secondary infectious challenge, exercised mice did not show any signs of illness, but had reduced serum anti-influenza IgG and IgG2a, increased IgG1, and reduced influenza-specific recruited and resident CD8+ granzyme B+ T cells within the lungs. When influenza virus was administered by an intraperitoneal route during primary infection, exercise did not alter serum anti-influenza IgG, IgG1, or IgG2a, suggesting the exercise effect was specific to the lung environment. Exercise-induced enhancement of respiratory host defense to primary influenza infection results in decreased serum antibody and lung CD8+ T cell memory response, but does not compromise resistance to secondary infectious challenge. PMID:23493360

  12. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame), and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45?min rest?+?60?min self-paced intense exercise) differing only in their fluid intake: 1) carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C)); 2) 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA)); 3) water (W); and 4) aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A)). Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43%) between pre-exercise and 30?min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone. PMID:22853297

  13. Exercise preconditioning reduces ischemia reperfusion-induced focal cerebral infarct volume through up-regulating the expression of HIF-1?.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Deng, Wenqian; Yuan, Qiongjia; Yang, Huijun

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect and mechanism of exercise preconditioning on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion induced cerebral infarction via rat model; Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups at random: ischemia reperfusion group (IR, n=24), sham group (sham, n=12) and exercise preconditioning group (EP, n=24). Group EP carried out moderate exercise preconditioning for 4 weeks (swimming with non-weight bearing, 60 minutes/day, 6 days/week), Rats in Group EP and IR were established cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury model by Zea Longa's thread method. The cerebral infarct volume in rat of different group was evaluated after 2%TTC staining, expression of HIF-1? in rats' brain was detected by real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochmeistry method and western blot. No cerebral infarction and significant expression of HIF-1? in Group sham. Compared with Group IR, there was smaller infarct volume and stronger HIF-1? expression in Group EP (P<0.05). Moderate exercise preconditioning reduces ischemia reperfusion induced focal cerebral infarct volume through up-regulating the expression of HIF-1?. PMID:25796156

  14. Aerobic Exercise Reduced Oxidative Stress in Saliva of Persons With Down Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean C. Zambrano; Ramón Marquina; Nancy Sulbarán; Antonio J. Rodríguez-Malaver; Rafael A. Reyes

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on uric acid (UA), total antioxidant activity (TAA), oxidative stress (OS) and nitrite a stable nitric oxide (NO) metabolite in saliva from persons with Down syndrome (DS). Stimulated saliva was sampled from 12 participants 1 hour before and immediately after a 1,600-meter walking test. Uric acid

  15. Exercise Minimizes Weight Regain By Reducing Appetite, Burning Fat, And Lowering 'Defended' Body Weight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2009-09-02

    APS Press Release of Journal Article "Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long term weight loss" by Paul S. MacLean, Janine A. Higgins, Holly R. Wyatt, Edward L. Melanson, Ginger C. Johnson, Matthew R. Jackman, Erin D. Giles, Ian E. Brown and James O. Hill, found in American Journal of Physiology Â? Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

  16. Exercise Training Reduces Sympathetic Modulation on Cardiovascular System and Cardiac Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariane Bertagnolli; Paulo C. Schenkel; Cristina Campos; Cristiano T. Mostarda; Dulce E. Casarini; Adriane Belló-Klein; Maria C. Irigoyen; Katya Rigatto

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundSpontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) show increased cardiac sympathetic activity, which could stimulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac damage, and apoptosis. Norepinephrine (NE)-induced cardiac oxidative stress seems to be involved in SHR cardiac hypertrophy development. Because exercise training (ET) decreases sympathetic activation and oxidative stress, it may alter cardiac hypertrophy in SHR. The aim of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether

  17. Exercise and immune function. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Pedersen, B K

    1999-02-01

    Comparison of immune function in athletes and nonathletes reveals that the adaptive immune system is largely unaffected by athletic endeavour. The innate immune system appears to respond differentially to the chronic stress of intensive exercise, with natural killer cell activity tending to be enhanced while neutrophil function is suppressed. However, even when significant changes in the level and functional activity of immune parameters have been observed in athletes, investigators have had little success in linking these to a higher incidence of infection and illness. Many components of the immune system exhibit change after prolonged heavy exertion. During this 'open window' of altered immunity (which may last between 3 and 72 hours, depending on the parameter measured), viruses and bacteria may gain a foothold, increasing the risk of subclinical and clinical infection. However, no serious attempt has been made by investigators to demonstrate that athletes showing the most extreme post-exercise immunosuppression are those that contract an infection during the ensuing 1 to 2 weeks. This link must be established before the 'open window' theory can be wholly accepted. The influence of nutritional supplements, primarily zinc, vitamin C, glutamin and carbohydrate, on the acute immune response to prolonged exercise has been measured in endurance athletes. Vitamin C and glutamine have received much attention, but the data thus far are inconclusive. The most impressive results have been reported in the carbohydrate supplementation studies. Carbohydrate beverage ingestion has been associated with higher plasma glucose levels, an attenuated cortisol and growth hormone response, fewer perturbations in blood immune cell counts, lower granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity, and a diminished pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response. It remains to be shown whether carbohydrate supplementation diminishes the frequency of infections in the recovery period after strenuous exercise. Studies on the influence of moderate exercise training on host protection and immune function have shown that near-daily brisk walking compared with inactivity reduced the number of sickness days by half over a 12- to 15-week period without change in resting immune function. Positive effects on immunosurveillance and host protection that come with moderate exercise training are probably related to a summation effect from acute positive changes that occur during each exercise bout. No convincing data exist that moderate exercise training is linked with improved T helper cell counts in patients with HIV, or enhanced immunity in elderly participants. PMID:10091272

  18. Intensive aerobic and muscle endurance exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No previous studies have examined the effect of intensive exercise in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary impairment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an eight-week intensive aerobic exercise and muscle endurance training program for patients with systemic sclerosis with 50–100% of forced vital capacity. Methods A single-subject experimental design with repeated systematic measures during a six week A-phase (non-interventional baseline period) and an eight week B-phase (exercise intervention period) was used. Three women and one man with median age 66 years and median disease duration of 3.5?years completed aerobic exercise corresponding to 15 on the Borg RPE scale (strenuous) and muscular endurance training three times/week. Physical capacity (six-minute walk test), aerobic capacity (submaximal treadmill test) and muscle endurance in shoulder and hip flexion (Functional Index 2) were assessed every other week throughout the 14-week study. Activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire), quality of life (Short Form 36), Raynaud, Fatigue and Global Health during the recent week (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 14. Results Three participants improved significantly in muscular endurance, and two participants improved significantly or clinically relevant in aerobic capacity. All other variables remained unchanged, except for a trend towards reduced fatigue. Conclusions This eight week exercise program was largely successful with positive effects on aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01813578 PMID:24507585

  19. Plasma triglyceride concentrations are rapidly reduced following individual bouts of endurance exercise in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Henderson; Ronald M. Krauss; Jill A. Fattor; Nastaran Faghihnia; Mona Luke-Zeitoun; George A. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    It is known that chronic endurance training leads to improvements in the lipoprotein profile, but less is known about changes\\u000a that occur during postexercise recovery acutely. We analyzed triglyceride (TG), cholesterol classes and apolipoproteins in\\u000a samples collected before, during and after individual moderate- and hard-intensity exercise sessions in men and women that\\u000a were isoenergetic between intensities. Young healthy men (n = 9)

  20. For Women With PCOS, Acupuncture And Exercise May Bring Relief, Reduce Risks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2006-06-29

    The study, Â?Low-frequency electro-acupuncture and physical exercise decrease high muscle sympathetic nerve activity in polycystic ovary syndromeÂ? was conducted by Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Elizabeth Jedel, Per Olof Janson and Vrsa Bergmann Sverrisdottir, all of the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. The study is in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, published by The American Physiological Society.

  1. Minimally supervised multimodal exercise to reduce falls risk in economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Taís L; Alexander, Neil B; Nyquist, Linda V; Montagnini, Marcos L; Santos A, C S; Rodrigues G, H P; Negrão, Carlos E; Trombetta, Ivani C; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD = 4.55) were randomized to 4 mo of multimodal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n = 45), minimally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42), or to nonexercise controls (C, n = 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and 4 mo and compared with the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in timed up-and-go, F(2,73) = 5.82, p = .004, ?2 p = .14, and increase in tandem-walk speed, F(2,73) = 7.71, p < .001 ?2 p = .17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community-dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility. PMID:22952201

  2. An enhanced exercise and cognitive programme does not appear to reduce incident delirium in hospitalised patients: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jeffs, Kimberley J; Berlowitz, David J; Grant, Shane; Lawlor, Vicki; Graco, Marnie; de Morton, Natalie A; Savige, Judith A; Lim, Wen K

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if a programme of progressive resistance exercise, mobilisation and orientation, in addition to usual care, was superior to usual care alone in the prevention of incident delirium in older hospitalised patients. Design A randomised controlled trial. Setting The study was performed at a secondary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia between May 2005 and December 2007. Participants 648 consecutive medical inpatients aged 65?years or older who had been in hospital for less than 48?h and who did not have delirium. Intervention Participants were randomly allocated to a twice-daily programme of progressive resistance exercise tailored to individual ability, mobilisation and orientation in addition to usual care or to usual care alone. Measurements Delirium was measured using the Confusion Assessment Method at baseline and every 48?h until discharge. Secondary outcome measures were severity and duration of delirium, discharge destination and length of stay. Results Delirium occurred in 4.9% (95% CI 2.3% to 7.3%) of the intervention group (15/305) and in 5.9% (20/339; 95% CI 3.8% to 9.2%) of the group receiving usual care. No difference was observed between groups (?2; p=0.5). The intervention had no effect on delirium duration, severity, discharge destination or length of stay. Conclusion A programme of progressive resistance exercise and orientation was not effective in reducing incident delirium in hospitalised elderly patients. PMID:23794558

  3. Both Physical Exercise and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Reduce the Facing-the-Viewer Bias in Biological Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2014-01-01

    Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1) or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2) would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2) would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1) or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2), and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our results provide further support that the facing-the-viewer bias for biological motion stimuli is related to the sociobiological relevance of such stimuli. PMID:24987956

  4. Exercise prescription and thrombogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Shyan Wang

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Lifestyle habits, such as exercise, may significantly influence risk of major vascular thrombotic events. The risk of primary cardiac arrest has been shown to transiently increase during vigorous exercise, whereas regular moderate-intensity exercise is associated with an overall reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. What are the mechanisms underlying these paradoxical effects of vigorous exercise versus exercise training on thrombotic modification?

  5. Voluntary Exercise Can Ameliorate Insulin Resistance by Reducing iNOS-Mediated S-Nitrosylation of Akt in the Liver in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Hideko; Kaneki, Masao; Goto, Sataro; Shimokado, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise can ameliorate insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism, however, remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver plays an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. In this study, we tried to verify our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance by reducing the expression of iNOS and subsequent S-nitrosylation of key molecules of glucose metabolism in the liver. Twenty-one Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 18 non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or exercise group subjected to voluntary wheel running for 20 weeks. The voluntary exercise significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR in the OLETF rats. In addition, the exercise decreased the amount of iNOS mRNA in the liver in the OLETF rats. Moreover, exercise reduced the levels of S-nitrosylated Akt in the liver, which were increased in the OLETF rats, to those observed in the LETO rats. These findings support our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance, at least partly, by suppressing the iNOS expression and subsequent S-nitrosylation of Akt, a key molecule of the signal transduction pathways in glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:26172834

  6. Voluntary Exercise Can Ameliorate Insulin Resistance by Reducing iNOS-Mediated S-Nitrosylation of Akt in the Liver in Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Takamasa; Shinozaki, Shohei; Nakamoto, Hideko; Kaneki, Masao; Goto, Sataro; Shimokado, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise can ameliorate insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism, however, remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver plays an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. In this study, we tried to verify our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance by reducing the expression of iNOS and subsequent S-nitrosylation of key molecules of glucose metabolism in the liver. Twenty-one Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 18 non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or exercise group subjected to voluntary wheel running for 20 weeks. The voluntary exercise significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR in the OLETF rats. In addition, the exercise decreased the amount of iNOS mRNA in the liver in the OLETF rats. Moreover, exercise reduced the levels of S-nitrosylated Akt in the liver, which were increased in the OLETF rats, to those observed in the LETO rats. These findings support our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance, at least partly, by suppressing the iNOS expression and subsequent S-nitrosylation of Akt, a key molecule of the signal transduction pathways in glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:26172834

  7. Mitochondrial uncoupling reduces exercise capacity despite several skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations.

    PubMed

    Schlagowski, A I; Singh, F; Charles, A L; Gali Ramamoorthy, T; Favret, F; Piquard, F; Geny, B; Zoll, J

    2014-02-15

    The effects of mitochondrial uncoupling on skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation and maximal exercise capacity are unknown. In this study, rats were divided into a control group (CTL, n = 8) and a group treated with 2,4-dinitrophenol, a mitochondrial uncoupler, for 28 days (DNP, 30 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in drinking water, n = 8). The DNP group had a significantly lower body mass (P < 0.05) and a higher resting oxygen uptake (Vo2, P < 0.005). The incremental treadmill test showed that maximal running speed and running economy (P < 0.01) were impaired but that maximal Vo2 (Vo2max) was higher in the DNP-treated rats (P < 0.05). In skinned gastrocnemius fibers, basal respiration (V0) was higher (P < 0.01) in the DNP-treated animals, whereas the acceptor control ratio (ACR, Vmax/V0) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), indicating a reduction in OXPHOS efficiency. In skeletal muscle, DNP activated the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, as indicated by changes in the mRNA expression of PGC1-? and -?, NRF-1 and -2, and TFAM, and increased the mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase 1 (P < 0.01). The expression of two mitochondrial proteins (prohibitin and Ndufs 3) was higher after DNP treatment. Mitochondrial fission 1 protein (Fis-1) was increased in the DNP group (P < 0.01), but mitofusin-1 and -2 were unchanged. Histochemical staining for NADH dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle revealed an increase in the proportion of oxidative fibers after DNP treatment. Our study shows that mitochondrial uncoupling induces several skeletal muscle adaptations, highlighting the role of mitochondrial coupling as a critical factor for maximal exercise capacities. These results emphasize the importance of investigating the qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in addition to the amount of mitochondria. PMID:24336883

  8. Regenerated soleus muscle shows reduced creatine kinase efflux after contractile activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-02-01

    Regenerated skeletal muscles show less muscle damage after strenuous muscle exercise. The aim of the studies was to investigate if the regeneration is associated with reduced muscle creatine kinase (CK) efflux immediately after the exercise. Cryolesion was applied to the soleus muscle of 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice. Then total CK efflux was assessed in vitro in the regenerated muscles without exercise or after 100 eccentric contractions. The same measurements were performed in the control muscles, which were not exposed to cryolesion. Regenerated muscles generated weaker (P < 0.05) twitches, but stronger (P < 0.05) 150-Hz and 300-Hz tetani with prolonged (P < 0.01) contraction times compared with the control muscles. There was no difference between regenerated and control muscles in the total CK efflux without exercise, but only control muscles showed an increase (P < 0.001) in the CK efflux after the exercise. Our results suggest that muscle regeneration is associated with modulation of contractile properties and improvement in muscle resistance to damage after eccentric exercise. PMID:25565131

  9. Reduced carbohydrate availability enhances exercise-induced p53 signaling in human skeletal muscle: implications for mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Louhelainen, Jari; Iqbal, Zafar; Cochran, Andrew J; Gibala, Martin J; Gregson, Warren; Close, Graeme L; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2013-03-15

    The mechanisms that regulate the enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity observed when training with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability are currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that reduced CHO availability enhances p53 signaling and expression of genes associated with regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and substrate utilization in human skeletal muscle. In a repeated-measures design, muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained from eight active males before and after performing an acute bout of high-intensity interval running with either high (HIGH) or low CHO availability (LOW). Resting muscle glycogen (HIGH, 467 ± 19; LOW, 103 ± 9 mmol/kg dry wt) was greater in HIGH compared with LOW (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation (P-) of ACC(Ser79) (HIGH, 1.4 ± 0.4; LOW, 2.9 ± 0.9) and p53(Ser15) (HIGH, 0.9 ± 0.4; LOW, 2.6 ± 0.8) was higher in LOW immediately postexercise and 3 h postexercise, respectively (P < 0.05). Before and 3 h postexercise, mRNA content of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, mitochondrial transcription factor A, cytochrome-c oxidase IV, and PGC-1? were greater in LOW compared with HIGH (P < 0.05), whereas carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 showed a trend toward significance (P = 0.09). However, only PGC-1? expression was increased by exercise (P < 0.05), where three-fold increases occurred independently of CHO availability. We conclude that the exercise-induced increase in p53 phosphorylation is enhanced in conditions of reduced CHO availability, which may be related to upstream signaling through AMPK. Given the emergence of p53 as a molecular regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, such nutritional modulation of contraction-induced p53 activation has implications for both athletic and clinical populations. PMID:23364526

  10. Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain.

    PubMed

    Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Giles, Erin D; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L; Wyatt, Holly R; Eckel, Robert H; Hill, James O; MacLean, Paul S

    2011-09-01

    The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

  11. Exercise reduces appetite and traffics excess nutrients away from energetically efficient pathways of lipid deposition during the early stages of weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Steig, Amy J.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Higgins, Janine A.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Mahan, Chad; Melanson, Edward L.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Eckel, Robert H.; Hill, James O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of regular exercise on energy balance, fuel utilization, and nutrient availability, during weight regain was studied in obese rats, which had lost 17% of their weight by a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet. Weight reduced rats were maintained for 6 wk with and without regular treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/wk, 15 m/min). In vivo tracers and indirect calorimetry were then used in combination to examine nutrient metabolism during weight maintenance (in energy balance) and during the first day of relapse when allowed to eat ad libitum (relapse). An additional group of relapsing, sedentary rats were provided just enough calories to create the same positive energy imbalance as the relapsing, exercised rats. Exercise attenuated the energy imbalance by 50%, reducing appetite and increasing energy requirements. Expenditure increased beyond the energetic cost of the exercise bout, as exercised rats expended more energy to store the same nutrient excess in sedentary rats with the matched energy imbalance. Compared with sedentary rats with the same energy imbalance, exercised rats exhibited the trafficking of dietary fat toward oxidation and away from storage in adipose tissue, as well as a higher net retention of fuel via de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue. These metabolic changes in relapse were preceded by an increase in the skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in lipid uptake, mobilization, and oxidation. Our observations reveal a favorable shift in fuel utilization with regular exercise that increases the energetic cost of storing excess nutrients during relapse and alterations in circulating nutrients that may affect appetite. The attenuation of the biological drive to regain weight, involving both central and peripheral aspects of energy homeostasis, may explain, in part, the utility of regular exercise in preventing weight regain after weight loss. PMID:21715696

  12. Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

  13. Exercise training reduces resting heart rate via downregulation of the funny channel HCN4

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Alicia; Bucchi, Annalisa; Johnsen, Anne Berit; Logantha, Sunil Jit R.J.; Monfredi, Oliver; Yanni, Joseph; Prehar, Sukhpal; Hart, George; Cartwright, Elizabeth; Wisloff, Ulrik; Dobryznski, Halina; DiFrancesco, Dario; Morris, Gwilym M.; Boyett, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes exhibit sinus bradycardia, that is a slow resting heart rate, associated with a higher incidence of sinus node (pacemaker) disease and electronic pacemaker implantation. Here we show that training-induced bradycardia is not a consequence of changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system but is caused by intrinsic electrophysiological changes in the sinus node. We demonstrate that training-induced bradycardia persists after blockade of the autonomous nervous system in vivo in mice and in vitro in the denervated sinus node. We also show that a widespread remodelling of pacemaker ion channels, notably a downregulation of HCN4 and the corresponding ionic current, If. Block of If abolishes the difference in heart rate between trained and sedentary animals in vivo and in vitro. We further observe training-induced downregulation of Tbx3 and upregulation of NRSF and miR-1 (transcriptional regulators) that explains the downregulation of HCN4. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for the potentially pathological heart rate adaptation to exercise training. PMID:24825544

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  15. Physical Activity and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk: A Multinational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke D. Ratnasinghe; Ramakrishna V. Modali; Michael B. Seddon; Teresa A. Lehman

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk among 1,463 breast cancer cases and 4,862 controls in a multinational study. All subjects were asked how many times and for how long they exercised or engaged in strenuous physical labor per week. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk.

  16. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control Usual care. Measurements Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies. PMID:24591821

  17. Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej S. Buchowski; Natalie N. Meade; Evonne Charboneau; Sohee Park; Mary S. Dietrich; Ronald L. Cowan; Peter R. Martin; Antonio Verdejo García

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundCannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.AimsTo examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.DesignParticipants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using

  18. Chylous ascites: Why exercise is bad for you

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, N.; Bhalla, A.; Iftikhar, S.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The development of chylous ascites is usually associated with trauma, iatrogenic or otherwise. Blunt abdominal trauma producing hyperextension or hyperflexion may cause disruption to lymphatic vessels causing chylous ascites. PRESENTATION OF CASE This report describes the case of a 38-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department with severe abdominal pain after completing a triathlon. As the patient was in severe pain, an abdominal CT was performed which demonstrated a possible mid gut volvulus. Subsequent laparotomy noted a significant volume of intra-abdominal chyle with no other abnormalities. DISCUSSION This is the first report of chylous ascites occurring without associated abdominal pathology after a period of strenuous exercise. CONCLUSION Chylous ascites can occur as a result of hyperreflexion and hyperextension injuries sustained during strenuous exercise. PMID:23174523

  19. Vitamin E and vitamin C do not reduce insulin sensitivity but inhibit mitochondrial protein expression in exercising obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial (MT) function and induces insulin resistance ...

  20. A Randomized Phase II Trial of Preoperative Exercise to Reduce Operative Risk in Gastric Cancer Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: Adjuvant Exercise for General Elective Surgery (AEGES) Study Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Cho; Akira Tsuburaya; Junichi Sakamoto; Satoshi Morita; Koji Ob; Takaki Yoshikawa; Naomi Miyajima

    This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative exercise in patients with T1N0\\/T1N1\\/T2N0 gastric cancer and metabolic syndrome, which has emerged as a global health care issue. The primary endpoint is an incidence of perioperative compli- cations and the secondary endpoints are weight change, change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, number

  1. Moderate swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation reduce the levels of inflammatory cytokines without causing oxidative stress in tissues of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Dobrachinski, Fernando; da Rocha, Juliana T; Carvalho, Nelson R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-05-01

    The levels of circulatory inflammatory markers, including interleukin (IL) IL-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interferon (INF-?), are known to increase associated to aging. Caffeine has been reported to produce many beneficial effects for health. Exercise is considered to be a safe medicine to attenuate inflammation and cellular senescence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate-intensity swimming exercise (3 % of body weight, 20 min per day, 4 weeks) and sub-chronic supplementation with caffeine (30 mg/kg, 4 weeks) on the serum cytokine levels in middle-aged (18 months) Wistar rats. The effects of swimming exercise and caffeine on oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats were also investigated. The two-way ANOVA of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels demonstrated a significant exercise x caffeine interaction for IL-1? (F (1, 16) = 9.5772; p = 0.0069), IL-6 (F (1, 16) = 8.0463; p = 0.0119) and INF-? (F (1, 16) = 15.078; p = 0.0013). The two-way ANOVA of TNF-? levels revealed a significant exercise × caffeine interaction (F (1, 16) = 9.6881; p = 0.00670). Swimming exercise and caffeine supplementation increased the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the rat liver and gastrocnemius muscle. Hepatic and renal markers of damage were not modified. In conclusion, a moderate-intensity swimming exercise protocol and caffeine supplementation induced positive adaptations in modulating cytokine levels without causing oxidative stress in muscle and liver of middle-aged rats. PMID:24481487

  2. Performance requirements of physically strenuous occupations: validating minimum standards for muscular strength and endurance.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, M S; Gebhardt, D L; Baker, T A; Kastello, G M; Sheppard, V A

    2004-06-22

    Employment rights legislative mandates passed in the USA over the last three decades emphasize the importance of validating performance standards for physically strenuous occupations. This study validated minimally acceptable standards for the muscular strength and endurance necessary to perform fire suppression activities. Incumbent firefighters (n=153) selected for key demographic characteristics completed a simulated set of firefighting tasks (Fire Suppression Evolution) and then a Predictor Test Battery of physical abilities tests. Regression analysis revealed that three predictor test items (hose drag/high rise pack carry; arm lift; arm endurance) combined to significantly predict performance time of the Fire Suppression Evolution (p < or =0.01). Firefighters (n=41) rating videotaped performance times of the Fire Suppression Evolution determined that more than one-half a standard deviation slower than the mean time established by the incumbents reflected unacceptable performance. Approximately 80% of incumbent firefighters passed the minimally acceptable performance standard. Use of the 3-predictor test battery would correctly identify 89% of successful performers and 72% of unsuccessful performers. This study demonstrates that validation of minimal physical performance standards will identify a cohort of individuals with a high probability of not being able to perform critical fire suppression activities. This finding has important implications for examining the relationship between physical performance standards and medical and economic outcomes. PMID:15204279

  3. Metabolic Cost of Experimental Exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Although the type and duration of activity during decompression was well documented, the metabolic cost of 1665 subject-exposures with 8 activity profiles from 17 altitude decompression sickness (DCS) protocols at Brooks City-Base, TX from 1983-2005 was not determined. Female and male human volunteers (30 planned, 4 completed) performed activity profiles matching those 8 activity profiles at ground level with continuous monitoring of metabolic cost. A Cosmed K4b2 Cardio Pulmonary Exercise Testing device was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2) during the profiles. The results show levels of metabolic cost to the females for the profiles tested varied from 4.3 to 25.5 ml/kg/min and from 3.0 to 12.0 ml/kg/min to the males. The increase in VO2 from seated rest to the most strenuous of the 8 activity profiles was 3.6-fold for the females and 2.8-fold for the males. These preliminary data on 4 subjects indicate close agreement of oxygen uptake for activity performed during many subject-exposures as published earlier. The relatively low average oxygen uptake required to perform the most strenuous activity may imply the need for adjustment of modeling efforts using metabolic cost as a risk factor. Better definition of metabolic cost during exposure to altitude, a critical factor in DCS risk, may allow refinement of DCS prediction models.

  4. The decreased oxygen uptake during progressive exercise in ischemia-induced heart failure is due to reduced cardiac output rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. L. Rolim; K. C. Mattos; P. C. Brum; M. V. C. Baldo; H. R. Middlekauff; C. E. Negrão

    2006-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the inability to increase cardiac output during exercise would explain the decreased rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) in recent onset, ischemia-induced heart failure rats. Nine nor- mal control rats and 6 rats with ischemic heart failure were studied. Myocardial infarction was induced by coronary ligation. VO2 was measured during a ramp protocol test on a

  5. Reduced energy intake and moderate exercise reduce mammary tumor incidence in virgin female BALB/c mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Teer, Patricia; Keith, Robert E.; White, Marguerite T.; Strahan, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The concurrent effects of diet (standard AIN-76A, restricted AIN-76A and high-fat diet) and moderate rotating-drum treadmill exercise on the incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in virgin female BALB/cMed mice free of murine mammary tumor virus are evaluated. Analyses show that, although energy intake was related to mammary tumor incidence, neither body weight nor dietary fat predicted tumor incidence.

  6. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Elissa; Cavalheri, Vinicius; Adams, Richard; Oakley Browne, Colleen; Bovery-Spencer, Petra; Fenton, Audra M; Campbell, Bruce W; Hill, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community. Method Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials) published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest), CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted. Results Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study) were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =?1.06 [?1.67 to ?0.46] falls). Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]). Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment). No between-group differences were observed in the results of the step test (number of steps) (MD [95% CI] =0.51 [?1.77 to 2.78]) or the physiological profile assessment (MD [95% CI] =?0.10 [?0.62 to 0.42]). Conclusion Findings from this review suggest that an exercise program may potentially assist in preventing falls of older people with dementia living in the community. However, further research is needed with studies using larger sample sizes, standardized measurement outcomes, and longer follow-up periods, to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25709416

  7. Vascular and central hemodynamic changes following exercise-induced heat stress.

    PubMed

    Lefferts, Wesley K; Heffernan, Kevin S; Hultquist, Eric M; Fehling, Patricia C; Smith, Denise L

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of moderate exercise-induced heat stress (EIHS) on vascular function, central hemodynamic load and indices of coronary perfusion. Vascular-hemodynamic measures were collected in 12 healthy men (aged 22±3 years) pre and post 100 minutes of moderate, intermittent exercise in two randomized conditions: heat stress (HS; wearing firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE)), and no heat stress (NHS; wearing a cooling shirt and equivalent PPE weight). Aortic blood pressure, reflected wave pressure (Pb), systolic (SPTI) and diastolic pressure time-integral (DPTI), and aortic stiffness were assessed before and after each condition. SPTI was significantly greater, and DPTI and Pb were significantly lower for HS-post compared to NHS-post (p<0.05). Pulse wave velocity was not different between conditions. In conclusion, EIHS does not affect aortic stiffness, but increases indices of myocardial work and reduces indices of coronary perfusion which may be related to chronotropic responses to EIHS. The mismatch between oxygen demand and oxygen supply may increase cardiac vulnerability to ischemia during strenuous work in the heat. PMID:25939655

  8. Effect of caffeine ingestion on lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo following strenuous cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolette C. Bishop; Christina Fitzgerald; Penny J. Porter; Gabriella A. Scanlon; Alice C. Smith

    2005-01-01

    Caffeine ingestion is associated with increases in the concentration of plasma epinephrine and epinephrine is associated with alterations in immune cell trafficking and function following intensive exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeine ingestion on plasma epinephrine concentration, lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo, as measured by the expression the CD69 surface

  9. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    PubMed Central

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary. PMID:25068141

  10. Action Mechanism of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Intervened by Exercise Therapy in Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liu, Jia-Hong; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chung, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), an imbalance between androgen/estrogen, overexpression of stromal, and epithelial growth factors associated with chronic inflammation, has become an atypical direct cause of mortality of aged male diseases. Ginkgo possesses anti-inflammatory, blood flow-enhancing, and free radical scavenging effects. Considering strenuous exercise can reduce BPH risks, we hypothesize Ginkgo + exercise (Ginkgo + Ex) could be beneficial to BPH. To verify this, rat BPH model was induced by s.c. 3.5?mg testosterone (T) and 0.1?mg estradiol (E2) per head per day successively for 8 weeks, using mineral oil as placebo. Cerenin® 8.33??L/100?g was applied s.c. from the 10th to the 13th week, and simultaneously, Ex was applied (30?m/min, 3 times/week). In BPH, Ginkgo alone had no effect on T, 5?-reductase, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but suppressed androgen receptor (AR), aromatase, E2 and estrogen receptor (ER), and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); Ex alone significantly reduced T, aromatase, E2, ER, AR, and PCNA, but highly raised DHT. While Ginkgo + Ex androgenically downregulated T, aromatase, E2, and ER, but upregulated DHT, AR, and PCNA, implying Ginkgo + Ex tended to worsen BPH. Conclusively, Ginkgo or Ex alone may be more beneficial than Ginkgo + Ex for treatment of BPH. PMID:23690843

  11. Human Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue during Strenuous Resistive Loads under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Segizbaeva; G. G. Isaev

    2000-01-01

    A study involving nine healthy males was conducted to determine the developmental rate of inspiratory muscle fatigue during resistive loads under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The subjects aged 19 to 38 years performed a bicycle exercise test of increasing power during an exhaustive inspiratory–expiratory resistive load of 40 cm water column\\/l s–1 inhaling air or oxygen. The volumetric and temporal

  12. Exercise and "the pill": putting a rumor to rest.

    PubMed

    Schelkun, P H

    1991-03-01

    Every once in a while, female athletes hear the rumor that oral contraceptives (OCs) keep them from performing their best. Yet, studies that have tried to evaluate the effects of OCs on physically active women have not been conclusive. This rumor probably started with the initial, higher-dose formulations instead of with the current biphasic or triphasic OCs. Side effects of the higher-dose OCs included weight gain, nausea, fatigue, headaches, and increased risks of hypertension, thromboembolism, and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Current OCs minimize these side effects and the risk of complications. In fact, the aerobic exercise female athletes undergo most likely neutralizes the negative effects of OCs on coagulation and lipid metabolism. Further, OCs may even improve athletic performance because they can decrease bleeding, the risk of iron deficiency, and frequency of cramps. Moreover, athletes can use OCs to orchestrate their menstrual cycles around competitive meets. Some studies with small sample sizes show that athletes on OCs experience a slight reduction in functional aerobic capacity and endurance capability. A Swedish study of female soccer players reported that OC users suffer fewer traumatic injuries than nonusers. It is difficult to attribute this to OCs, because there is considerable psychological control over sports performance. A sports physician in Hawaii is aware of rumors that OCs induce sluggishness or fatigue during certain days of the month, but he does not know a female athlete who believes this. The head trainer of the US Olympic Committee says that many female Olympic athletes use OCs. Strenuous exercise, considerable weight loss, and possibly other stress factors induce athletic amenorrhea, especially in adolescent females. In many cases, OCs can treat it. They are especially needed to minimize the risk of reduced bone density and musculoskeletal injury. PMID:12286895

  13. Reversal of muscle insulin resistance with exercise reduces postprandial hepatic de novo lipogenesis in insulin resistant individuals

    PubMed Central

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Dufour, Sylvie; Flannery, Clare; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with the metabolic syndrome by altering the distribution pattern of postprandial energy storage. We conducted a study to examine this hypothesis by reversing muscle insulin resistance with a single bout of exercise and measuring hepatic de novo lipogenesis and hepatic triglyceride synthesis after a carbohydrate-rich meal. We studied 12 healthy, young, lean, insulin resistant individuals in an interventional, randomized cross-over trial. The response to the ingestion of a carbohydrate-rich meal was studied at rest and after one 45-min bout of exercise on an elliptical trainer. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis was assessed by using 2H2O, and changes in glycogen and fat content in liver and muscle were measured by 13C and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Exercise resulted in a greater than threefold increase in postprandial net muscle glycogen synthesis (P < 0.001), reflecting improved muscle insulin responsiveness, and a ?40% reduction (P < 0.05) in net hepatic triglyceride synthesis. These changes in whole body energy storage were accompanied by a ?30% decrease in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (P < 0.01) and were independent of changes in fasting or postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. These data demonstrate that skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of atherogenic dyslipidemia and NAFLD in young insulin resistant individuals who are prone to develop the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21808028

  14. Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a way for almost every older adult to exercise safely and get meaningful benefits. To play it ... reduce your risk of injury: l Begin your exercise program slowly with low-intensity exercises. l Wear ...

  15. Effect of exercise and COPD crisis on isoprostane concentration in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in horses.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, N; Art, T; Smith, N; Lekeux, P

    1999-07-01

    To test whether isoprostanes could be used as markers of oxidative stress in horses, their concentration was determined in plasma and in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) in 3 models of oxidative stress: (1) strenuous exercise, (2) acute COPD crisis and (3) exercise combined with COPD crisis. Four horses were investigated twice, once in crisis and once in remission. The animals underwent a standardised treadmill exercise test. Isoprostane assessment was performed in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h before and 1 h after exercise and in plasma also immediately after exercise. Exercise in remission induced a significant increase of isoprostanes in plasma and in PELF. In horses in crisis, the isoprostane concentrations did not increase in plasma, while they did increase in PELF. Lastly, exercise in crisis increased plasma levels of isoprostanes, but did not change PELF isoprostanes. In conclusion, 1) isoprostanes are increased by systemic oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in COPD horses in remission either in PELF or in plasma; 2) only PELF and not plasma isoprostanes are increased by pulmonary oxidative stress induced by COPD crisis and 3) unexpectedly, exercise in crisis increased plasma but not PELF isoprostanes. PMID:10659229

  16. Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

  17. Exercise, Lymphokines, Calories, and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of epidemiological studies suggesting that exercise reduces the risk of cancer concludes that exercise may help defend against cancer by preventing obesity, stimulating lymphokines, and/or facilitating other healthful changes in behavior. (Author/CB)

  18. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jassil, Friedrich C.; Manning, Sean; Lewis, Neville; Steinmo, Siri; Kingett, Helen; Lough, Fiona; Pucci, Andrea B. F.; Cheung, W. H.; Finer, Nicholas; Walker, Judith; Doyle, Jaqueline; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2?kgm?2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p = 0.043), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49?min/week, p = 0.043), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.034), reduced consumption of ready meals (p = 0.034), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p = 0.039). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p = 0.027). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. PMID:26199740

  19. Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maggie L. Grabow; Scott N. Spak; Tracey Holloway; Brian Stone Jr.; Adam C. Mednick; Jonathan A. Patz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations

  20. The use of compression stockings during a marathon competition to reduce exercise-induced muscle damage: are they really useful?

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Lledó, María; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Study Design Case-control study; ecological study. Objectives To examine the efficacy of wearing compression stockings to prevent muscle damage and to maintain running performance during a marathon competition. Background Exercise-induced muscle damage has been identified as one of the main causes of the progressive decrease in running and muscular performance found during marathon races. Methods Thirty-four experienced runners were pair-matched for age, anthropometric data, and best race time in the marathon, and randomly assigned to a control group (n = 17) of runners who wore conventional socks or to a group of runners who wore foot-to-knee graduated compression stockings (n = 17). Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained, and jump height and leg muscle power were measured during a countermovement jump. Serum myoglobin and creatine kinase concentrations were determined as blood markers of muscle fiber damage. Results Total race time was not different between the control group and the compression stockings group (210 ± 23 and 214 ± 22 minutes, respectively; P = .58). Between the control group and the compression stockings group, postrace reductions in leg muscle power (-19.8% ± 17.7% versus -24.8% ± 18.4%, respectively; P = .37) and jump height (-25.3% ± 14.1% versus -32.5% . 20.4%, respectively; P = .27) were similar. At the end of the race, there were no differences between the control group and the compression stockings group in serum myoglobin (568 ± 347 ng·mL(-1) versus 573 ± 270 ng·mL(-1), respectively; P = .97) and creatine kinase concentration (390 ± 166 U·L(-1) versus 487 ± 227 U·L(-1), respectively; P = .16). Conclusion The use of compression stockings did not improve running pace and did not prevent exercise-induced muscle damage during the marathon. Wearing compression stockings during long-distance running events is an ineffective strategy to avoid the deleterious effects of muscle damage on running performance. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(6):462-470. Epub 21 Apr 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5863. PMID:25899215

  1. [Changes in neutrophil immune functions under different exercise stresses].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the known effects of exercise on neutrophil immune functions of athletes. We measured three neutrophil immune functions (i.e., phagocytic activity (PA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and serum opsonic activity (SOA)) in various types of exercise. The following is our recent findings. (1) A regular exercise increases ROS production and decreases PA. We call this change a normal pattern, and an abnormal pattern except this change. (2) A prolonged, strenuous activity (e.g., rugby match and marathon) decreases both ROS production and PA. This is one of the abnormal pattern. (3) The exercise loading performed after a camp training decreases ROS production whereas PA does not change. This is another abnormal pattern. (4) When judoists who had stopped judo training for 6 months restarted their training, the exercise loading at the beginning of their training decreases PA whereas ROS production does not change. This is another abnormal pattern. (5) A regular exercise 2 months after the beginning of their training increases ROS production and decreases PA. This change is a normal pattern. SOA showed a similar pattern of changes to ROS under all conditions. The changes in neutrophil immune functions after performing various exercises might result from the balance between external factors (intensity and style of exercise) and internal factors (e.g., fatigue and physical pain). Therefore, the changes in three neutrophil immune functions after exercise might be an index of athletes' condition. PMID:21701084

  2. Exercise training performed simultaneously to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of concurrent exercise in the degree of the insulin resistance in mice fed with a high-fat diet, and assess adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) and endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 in different tissues. Methods Twenty-four mice were randomized into four groups (n?=?6): chow standard diet and sedentary (C); chow standard diet and simultaneous exercise training (C-T); fed on a high-fat diet and sedentary (DIO); and fed on a high-fat diet and simultaneous exercise training (DIO-T). Simultaneously to starting high-fat diet feeding, the mice were submitted to a swimming exercise training protocol (2 x 30 minutes, with 5 minutes of interval/day), five days per week, for twelve weeks (90 days). Animals were then euthanized 48 hours after the last exercise training session, and adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue were extracted for an immunoblotting analysis. Results IR, IRs, and Akt phosphorylation decreased in the DIO group in the three analyzed tissues. In addition, the DIO group exhibited ADIPOR1 (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue), ADIPOR2 (liver), and APPL1 reduced when compared with the C group. However, it was reverted when exercise training was simultaneously performed. In parallel, ADIPOR1 and 2 and APPL1 protein levels significantly increase in exercised mice. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that exercise training performed concomitantly to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in the hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle tissue. PMID:23046739

  3. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swimming, and cross-country skiing. What is weight-bearing exercise? The term “weight-bearing” is used to describe exercises that work against the force of gravity. Weight-bearing exercise is important for building strong bones. Having ...

  4. Posture Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search You are here Home » Posture Exercises Posture Exercises When a person develops kyphosis, the posture becomes ... and strengthen the back. Try the following two exercises to keep your spine more limber and flexible. ...

  5. Exercise-induced stimulation of murine macrophage chemotaxis: role of corticosterone and prolactin as mediators.

    PubMed

    Ortega, E; Forner, M A; Barriga, C

    1997-02-01

    1. Exercise provokes changes in the immune system, including macrophage activity. Chemotaxis is a necessary function of macrophages if they are to reach the focus of infection and strenuous acute exercise may modulate chemotaxis. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. 2. Three experiments were performed in the present study. (1) The effect of strenuous acute exercise (swimming until exhaustion) on the chemotactic capacity of macrophages was evaluated. (2) Peritoneal macrophages from control mice were incubated with plasma from exercised mice or control (no exercise) mice. The differences in the resulting chemotactic capacity were measured. (3) Changes in the concentration of plasma corticosterone and prolactin after exercise were also measured, and the effect of incubation with the post-exercise levels of plasma corticosterone and prolactin on the chemotactic capacity of the peritoneal macrophages was then studied in vitro. 3. Exercise induced an increase in the macrophage chemotaxis index (103 +/- 8 vs. 47 +/- 11 in controls). Incubation with plasma from exercised mice led to an increased level of chemotaxis (68 +/- 18 vs. 40 +/- 6 with plasma from controls). Incubation with concentrations of corticosterone and prolactin similar to those observed in plasma immediately after exercise (corticosterone, 0.72 mumol l-1; prolactin, 88 pmol l-1) raised the chemotactic capacity with respect to that following incubation with the basal concentrations of the hormones in control animals (90 +/- 9 vs. 37 +/- 4 for corticosterone; 72 +/- 9 vs. 41 +/- 4 for prolactin). 4. It is concluded that corticosterone and prolactin may mediate the increased chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages induced by exercise. PMID:9051584

  6. Tailored exercise program reduces symptoms of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders in a group of metalworkers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rasotto, Chiara; Bergamin, Marco; Simonetti, Alberto; Maso, Stefano; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Ermolao, Andrea; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) are a leading cause of work-related disability and loss of productivity in the developed countries; these disorders may concur with the indirect costs of an illness or injury included losses of potential output. Literature on workplace physical activity program provided a mixed but positive impact on health and important worksite outcomes. Therefore, programs of physical activity organized and performed in the workplace could reveal as essential tool to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. This investigation aimed to assess the effectiveness of a tailored physical activity program, performed in a work-environment, to reduce the symptoms in upper extremities and neck with the novelty in personalizing the approach applied to the exercise protocol, basing on pain and disability levels, to reduce the onset and symptoms in upper extremity and neck WRMDs increasing upper-limb strength and flexibility. 68 metalworkers were recruited, 34 were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG), while the other 34 to a control group. Primary outcomes concerned pain symptoms measured with visual analog scales while disability was measured by DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and NPDS-I (Neck Pain and Disability Scale) questionnaires. Grip strength, upper-limb mobility, neck and shoulder range of motion were also assessed. After the 9-month intervention, IG reduced pain symptoms on neck, shoulders, elbows and on wrists. Grip strength and upper-limb mobility improved as well as scores on questionnaires. This protocol suggests that performing a tailored physical activity program is beneficial to reduce pain and disability on upper-limb WRMDs. PMID:25027479

  7. The effectiveness of hand cooling at reducing exercise-induced hyperthermia and improving distance-race performance in wheelchair and able-bodied athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria; Swainson, Michelle; Boyd, Craig; Atkinson, Greg; Tolfrey, Keith

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of reducing core temperature in postexercise hyperthermic subjects and to assess if hand cooling (HC) improves subsequent timed distance performance. Following a detailed measurement check on the use of insulated auditory canal temperature (T(ac)), eight wheelchair (WA) athletes and seven male able-bodied (AB) athletes performed two testing sessions, comprising a 60-min exercise protocol and 10-min recovery period, followed by a performance trial (1 km and 3 km for WA and AB, respectively) at 30.8 degrees C (SD 0.2) and 60.6% (SD 0.2) relative humidity. In a counterbalanced order, HC and a no-cooling condition was administered during the 10-min recovery period before the performance trial. Nonsignificant condition x time interactions for both WA (F(15,75) = 1.5, P = 0.14) and AB (F(15,90) = 1.2, P = 0.32) confirmed that the exercise-induced changes (Delta) in T(ac) were similar before each intervention. However, the exercise-induced increase was evidently greater in AB compared with WA (2.0 vs. 1.3 degrees C change, respectively). HC produced DeltaT(ac) of -0.4 degrees C (SD 0.4) and -1.2 degrees C (SD 0.2) in comparison (WA and AB, respectively), and simple-effects analyses suggested that the reductions in T(ac) were noteworthy after 4 min of HC. HC had an impact on improving AB performances by -4.0 s (SD 11.5) (P < 0.05) and WA by -20.5 s (SD 24.2) (P > 0.05). In conclusion, extraction of heat through the hands was effective in lowering T(ac) in both groups and improving 3-km performance in the AB athletes and trends toward positive gains for the 1-km performance times of the WA group. PMID:18436695

  8. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-01

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. PMID:25450369

  9. Type 2 Diabetes Elicits Lower Nitric Oxide, Bradykinin Concentration and Kallikrein Activity Together with Higher DesArg9-BK and Reduced Post-Exercise Hypotension Compared to Non-Diabetic Condition

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Arsa, Gisela; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Puga, Guilherme Morais; Lima, Laila Cândida de Jesus; Campbell, Carmen Sílvia Grubert; Franco, Octavio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the plasma kallikrein activity (PKA), bradykinin concentration (BK), DesArg9-BK production, nitric oxide release (NO) and blood pressure (BP) response after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed by individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 10 without type 2 diabetes (ND) underwent three sessions: 1) maximal incremental test on cycle ergometer to determine lactate threshold (LT); 2) 20-min of constant-load exercise on cycle ergometer, at 90% LT and; 3) control session. BP and oxygen uptake were measured at rest and at 15, 30 and 45 min post-exercise. Venous blood samples were collected at 15 and 45 minutes of the recovery period for further analysis of PKA, BK and DesArg9-BK. Nitrite plus nitrate (NOx) was analyzed at 15 minutes post exercise. The ND group presented post-exercise hypotension (PEH) of systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure on the 90% LT session but T2D group did not. Plasma NOx increased ~24.4% for ND and ~13.8% for T2D group 15min after the exercise session. Additionally, only ND individuals showed increases in PKA and BK in response to exercise and only T2D group showed increased DesArg9-BK production. It was concluded that T2D individuals presented lower PKA, BK and NOx release as well as higher DesArg9-BK production and reduced PEH in relation to ND participants after a single exercise session. PMID:24265812

  10. The Mind Body Programs reduce the impact of stress through a variety of research driven skill-building exercises to improve medical symptoms, mood, and well-being. The six core components of our mind body programs are

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    The Mind Body Programs reduce the impact of stress through a variety of research driven skill-building exercises to improve medical symptoms, mood, and well-being. The six core components of our mind body or In Part Mind Body Medicine Consultation For patients seeking to add a mind body component to their medical

  11. Exercise does not induce major changes in plasma muscle enzymes, creatinine, glucose and total proteins concentrations in untrained beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Chanoit, G P; Concordet, D; Lefebvre, H P; Orcel, K; Braun, J P

    2002-05-01

    Changes in plasma creatinine (Pl-Creat), glucose, total proteins (Pl-TP), creatine kinase (Pl-CK), lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and packed cell volume were evaluated in untrained Beagle dogs before, during and after a 60 min race at an average speed of 9 km/h. There was no major effect of exercise on those parameters except, when phases are compared, a slight increase of Pl-TP during exercise (max. + 6.4%), a moderate but after exercise (delayed increase of Pl-CK max. + 245%) and a slight decrease of Pl-Creat after exercise (max. -9.6%). It was therefore concluded that strenuous exercise in sedentary dogs did not induce major variations in any of routine plasma variables measured and would not lead to clinically relevant misinterpretation. However, for Pl-CK, the interpretation of repeated measures may be misleading if two samples are collected in the same animal before and after exercise. PMID:12069266

  12. Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, and Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-09-01

    Severely obese men and women (body mass index ? 35 ? 55 kg/m(2); Mage = 44.8 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a 6-month physical activity support treatment paired with either nutrition education (n = 83) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 82) methods for weight loss. Both groups had significant improvements in physical activity, fatigue, self-regulation for eating, and fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to those in the nutrition education group, participants in the behavioral group demonstrated greater overall increases in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. These group differences were associated with changes that occurred after Month 3. Increased physical activity predicted reduced fatigue, ? = -.19, p =.01. A reciprocal relationship between the mediators of that relationship, which were changes in self-regulation and fruit and vegetable intake, was identified. There was significantly greater weight loss over six months in the behavioral nutrition group when contrasted with the nutrition education group. Self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake were significant predictors of weight loss over both three and six months. Findings enabled a better understanding of psychosocial effects on temporal aspects of weight loss and may lead to more effective behavioral treatments for weight loss. PMID:26047256

  13. Mood Benefits of Exercise Among College Students

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Mood Benefits of Exercise Among College Students COURTNEY STEVENS ADVISER: REBECCA WARNER #12 Dark green = low healthy range #12;Issues in Exercise Promotion #12;Exercise & mood: a reciprocal relationship Short bouts of exercise yield considerable psychological benefits; improving mood by reducing

  14. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise. PMID:25794236

  15. LISP Exercises

    E-print Network

    Hart, Timothy P.

    1964-01-01

    The following exercises are carefully graded to mesh with the sections in Chapter I, "The LISP Language", in the LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual. Each exercise should be worked immediately after reading the manual section indicated.

  16. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete’s anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation. PMID:24688170

  17. Effects of C-peptide on blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and glucose utilization in the exercising forearm of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-L. Johansson; B. Linde; J. Wahren

    1992-01-01

    Summary  Microvascular dysfunction is frequently seen in patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The present study was undertaken to examine whether skeletal muscle microcirculation in Type 1 diabetic patients is influenced by C-peptide. Forearm blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and substrate exchange were studied during strenuous rhythmic forearm exercise on a hand ergometer. Measurements were made before and during i.v. infusion

  18. An index of the environmental thermal load imposed on exercising horses and riders by hot weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Schroter, R C; Marlin, D J

    1995-11-01

    There is a need to determine objectively the environmental heat load imposed on horses competing to an international standard in 3-day-events in environments where there is likely to be a high level of radiation added to high ambient temperatures and relative humidity; the presently used FEI 'Comfort Index' is severely limited in its applicability. It is proposed that the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) Index be used. This index was originally established for man exercising strenuously under harsh climatic conditions with high solar radiation levels. It may be defined as: WBGT = 0.7Twb + 0.3Tg where Twb is the wet bulb temperature of the ambient air, measured in the shade and Tg is the black globe temperature. Climatic conditions should be monitored continuously at a site representative of the detailed topography and nature of the terrain of the competition course. The upper limit for the index for competitions involving fit, fully acclimatised horses, running on ground of optimal going, is recommended to be 32.5 degrees C. This limit should be reduced, by an as yet undetermined amount, for unacclimatised and unfit horses or when the going is less good. PMID:8933080

  19. Respiratory airflow patterns in ponies at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1988-01-01

    The exercise-induced changes in the equine breathing pattern were studied by analyzing tidal breathing flow-volume loops recorded in ten ponies both at rest and during a standardized exercise. Airflow, tidal volume, esophageal pressure and mask pressure were simultaneously recorded before, during and after a treadmill exercise. From the collected data, respiratory frequency and total pulmonary resistance were calculated, tidal breathing flow-volume loops were retraced using a computerized method and loop indices were measured for each period of the experimental protocol. For each pony, results of three consecutive daily measurements were averaged. The exercise loop indices were compared with the corresponding resting values using a one-way analysis of variance. The significantly changed indices were correlated with respiratory frequency and total pulmonary resistance. Several types of respiratory patterns were observed at rest as well as during exercise, although each pony was relatively constant in its own pattern of breathing. Most resting inspiratory and expiratory airflow curves were found to be biphasic. When ponies started running, the airflow developed an increasingly rectangular pattern. During strenuous exercise, both inspiratory and expiratory airflow curves showed a substantial increase of the volume acceleration and tended to a plateau. The loop indices relating the expiratory to the inspiratory airflow were significantly increased compared with their rest values. Correlations of these indices with respiratory frequency and total pulmonary resistance were weak.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3167715

  20. Heat induced fatigue and changes of the EEG is not related to reduced perfusion of the brain during prolonged exercise in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rasmussen; H. Stie; L. Nybo; B. Nielsen

    2004-01-01

    (1) Exercise-induced hyperthermia is associated with a gradual slowing of the electroencephalogram (EEG), an increase in perceived exertion (RPE) and a lowering of the cerebral perfusion.(2) During exercise EEG changes were linearly correlated to core temperature (r2=0.67; P) and RPE (r2 =0.54, P0.05), but manipulation of cerebral perfusion by voluntary breathing efforts and by CO2 inhalation did not alter RPE

  1. Do Exercise and Physical Activity Protect the Brain?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Do Exercise and Physical Activity Protect the Brain? Exercise and physical activity have many benefits. Studies show ... what about brain health? Some studies suggest that exercise also may play a role in reducing risk ...

  2. Insulin therapy and exercise.

    PubMed

    Kourtoglou, Georgios I

    2011-08-01

    Medical nutrition therapy and physical exercise are the cornerstones of the diabetes management. Patients with type 1 DM always need exogenous insulin administration, recently available in the form of insulin analogs. In type 2 DM, characterized by increased insulin resistance and progressive decline of the beta-cell function, various antidiabetic medications are used. Most of the subjects with type 2 DM will finally need insulin. The main site of insulin action is the skeletal muscle, while the liver is the main site of glucose storage in the form of glycogen. With the modern diabetes therapies it is possible to rapidly reach and maintain normoglycemia in both types of DM but with the cost of higher incidence of hypoglycemia, especially related to exercise. Regular physical exercise causes a lot of beneficial effects in healthy as well as diabetic subjects of all age groups. In type 1 DM physical exercise is a fundamental element for both physical and mental development. In type 2 DM it has a main role in diabetes control. The increased hepatic glucose production and the increased muscular glucose uptake during exercise are closely interrelated in all exercise intensities. In diabetes mellitus there is a disturbed energy substrate use during exercise leading to either hypo- or hyperglycemia. The influence of low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise on diabetes control has been well studied. The inappropriately high insulinemia combined with the low glucose levels can lead to severe hypoglycemia if proper measures are not taken. Prolonged exercise can also predispose to decreased glucose counter regulation. It is better for the type 1 diabetic subject to postpone the exercise session in very high (>300 mg/dl) or very low (<70 mg/dl) BG levels. Every insulin treated subject is recommended to be checked for any existing diabetic complication before the start of every exercise program. Glucose measurement with glucose meters or sometimes with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) must be made before, during and most importantly after the end of the exercise session. It is recommended either to reduce or suspend the previous insulin dose depending on the insulin regime or to receive extra carbohydrates before, during or after the exercise session or both. Subjects with type 1 DM may participate at almost all the competitive sports if precautions are taken. These measures must be individualized and readjusted, even empirically. In very high intensity exercise (about 80% of VO(2 max)) or when high intensity exercise follows a low intensity one, there is a tendency of the BG to increase due to excessive circulating catecholamines necessitating postexercise short acting insulin. In anaerobic or resistance exercise lactic acid is produced. This exercise type is recommended for people in whom aerobic exercise is contraindicated. These two exercise types can be combined. The incidence of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia in specific forms of resistance exercise as well as the appropriate insulin dose adjustment are not well studied. In conclusion all exercise types are beneficial for both types of diabetes. PMID:21864755

  3. Mechanisms by which exercise training benefits patients with heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis J. Ignarro; Francesco Cacciatore; Ettore Crimi; Claudio Napoli

    2009-01-01

    Clinical consequences of heart failure are fatigue, dyspnea, and progressive impairment of exercise tolerance. Regular exercise training is associated with health-improving effects. In patients with stable heart failure, exercise training can relieve symptoms, improve exercise capacity and quality of life, as well as reduce hospitalization and, to some extent, risk of mortality. Progressive exercise training is associated with pulmonary, cardiovascular,

  4. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  5. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise. PMID:22701195

  6. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school. PMID:24923345

  7. A 12 WEEKS EXERCISE PROGRAM RESULTED IN REDUCED VISCERAL FAT AND FASTING INSULIN BUT NOT TOTAL AND INTRAMYOCELLULAR FAT IN HISPANIC OBESE ADOLESCENTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Weight loss is known to improve insulin sensitivity but is difficult to achieve. The independent effects of exercise on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in the absence of overall w...

  8. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  9. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in a nonathlete: case report and review of physiology.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Amit; Schmidt, Gregory A

    2014-04-01

    The integrity of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier is vulnerable to intense exercise in elite athletes, similar to the phenomenon of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in thoroughbred racehorses. A 50-year-old previously healthy man presented with acute onset shortness of breath, dry cough, and hypoxemia after engaging in an extremely vigorous game of handball. CT scan of the chest showed diffuse patchy air-space disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Infectious etiologies and bleeding diatheses were excluded by laboratory testing. Serological tests for ANCA-associated vasculitis, lupus, and Goodpasture's disease also were negative. A transthoracic echocardiogram was normal. The patient recovered completely on supportive therapy in less than 72 h. This case demonstrates strenuous exercise as a cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a previously healthy male with no apparent underlying cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:24532148

  10. Effects of inhaled dry powder ipratropium bromide on recovery from exercise of horses with COPD.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, D H; Bayly, W M; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Farnir, F; Lekeux, P

    1999-01-01

    The present study evaluated ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters during recovery from strenuous exercise in horses suffering from a crisis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine whether ipratropium dry powder inhalation (DPI) before exercise has an effect on these parameters. When 6 saddle horses, affected with COPD, developed airway obstruction, they inhaled placebo and ipratropium (2400 microg/horse), the order being randomly chosen. Pulmonary function tests were then recorded 15 min after inhalation. Following these tests, the horses underwent a strenuous treadmill exercise, followed by a recovery period that consisted of a 10 min walk. Measurements were made at the first and tenth min of recovery. Respiratory flow, O2 and CO2 fractions in the respired gas, pleural pressure changes and heart rate were recorded. Arterial and mixed venous blood samples were analysed for gas tensions, haemoglobin and plasma lactate concentrations. Oxygen consumption (VO2), CO2 production, tidal volume, alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2), alveolar ventilation, the alveolar-pulmonary capillary oxygen difference ((A-a)dO2) and total pulmonary resistance (RL) were measured. The PAO2 was the only parameter significantly improved during recovery following ipratropium DPI. This improvement was not accompanied by evidence of improvement of other ventilatory or cardiorespiratory parameters. The results showed that in horses suffering from a crisis of COPD, recovery is characterised by an exercise-induced bronchodilation. Secondly, ipratropium DPI at a dose of 2400 microg/horse is an effective bronchodilator in these horses at rest but it has little effect on the airway calibre during the recovery period. It is suggested that the short term recovery period is still influenced by exercise-induced adjustments that may exceed the bronchodilatory effect of inhaled ipratropium that are observed before exercise. PMID:9952325

  11. Exercise and Estrogen Make Fat Cells "Fit".

    PubMed

    Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Zidon, Terese M; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation links obesity and metabolic disease. Both exercise and estrogen improve metabolic health, enhance mitochondrial function, and have antiinflammatory effects. We hypothesize that there is an inverse relationship between mitochondrial function and inflammation in adipose tissue and that exercise acts as an estrogen "mimetic." Explicitly, exercise may improve adipose tissue "immunometabolism" by improving mitochondrial function and reducing inflammation. PMID:25906425

  12. Exercise may reduce depression but not anxiety in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Post-hoc analysis of data from the 'Body & Cancer' trial.

    PubMed

    Midtgaard, Julie; Stage, Maria; Møller, Tom; Andersen, Christina; Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael; Herrstedt, Jørn; Vistisen, Kirsten; Christiansen, Birgitte; Adamsen, Lis

    2011-06-01

    Abstract Background. The diagnosis and treatment of cancer may cause clinically significant and persistent psychological morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of a six week exercise intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (The 'Body & Cancer' trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine self-referred patients (52 males, 157 females, mean age 47 years) were randomised into an intervention group and a waiting-list control group. Anxiety and depression was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. At baseline, 23.5% and 11.5% of the population scored >8 on the HADS and were classified as suspicious or definite cases of anxiety and depression, respectively. Adjusted for baseline score, disease and demographic covariates the estimated intervention effect showed improvement at six weeks for depression of -0.7 points (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.27 to -0.14, p = 0.0153). No significant effect was seen on anxiety. Further subanalysis, including only suspicious or definite cases of depression, resulted in an estimated intervention effect of -2.53 points (95% CI, -0.64 to -0.42, p = 0.021). Conclusion. Anti-depressant effects could be caused by exercise in self-referred cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Dedicated trials and follow-up studies are needed to clarify the optimal duration and content of exercise interventions to meet the needs of clinically depressive or anxious patients. PMID:21226544

  13. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

  14. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Information > Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  15. Exercise and age

    MedlinePLUS

    Age and exercise ... It's never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you've never exercised, or if you stopped exercising for some reason. Being physically ...

  16. Effects of liquid cooling garments on recovery and performance time in individuals performing strenuous work wearing a firefighter ensemble.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages of 15 min exercise at 75% VO2max, and 10 min rest following each exercise stage. During each session, one of the following six conditions was administered in a randomized order: control (no cooling, CON); air ventilation of exhaust SCBA gases rerouted into the PFE (AV); top cooling garment (TCG); TCG combined with AV (TCG+AV); a shortened whole body cooling garment (SCG), and SCG combined with AV (SCG+AV). Results showed that total PT completed was longer under SCG and SCG+AV compared with CON, AV, TCG, and TCG+AV (p<0.01). Magnitude of core temperature (Tc) elevation was significantly decreased when SCG was utilized (p<0.01), and heart rate recovery rate (10 min) was enhanced under SCG, SCG+AV, TCG, and TCG+AV compared with CON (p<0.05). Estimated Esw rate (kg·h(-1)) was the greatest in CON, 1.62 (0.37), and the least in SCG+AV 0.98 (0.44): (descending order: CON>AV>TCG=TCG+AV>SCG>SCG+AV) without a statistical difference between the conditions (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggest that the application of LCG underneath the PFE significantly improves the recovery during a short period of rest and prolongs performance time in subsequent bouts of exercise. LCG also appears to be an effective method for body cooling that promotes heat dissipation during uncompensable heat stress. PMID:21660834

  17. Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Mary Colleen; Dick-Perez, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007). We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission. PMID:25105034

  18. Seismological Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Nelson

    This homework exercise, which was designed for an undergraduate level geology class at Tulane University, asks the student to make evaluations about the Loma Prieta Earthquake and other earthquakes using seismograms, time travel curves, maps and other information.

  19. ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John

    2013-08-28

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (P¼0·004, d ¼ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (P¼0·005, d ¼ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P¼0·08, d ¼ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

  20. Locomotor exercise in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

  1. Abnormal coronary vascular response to exercise in dogs with severe right ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, P A; Vatner, S F

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of right coronary artery blood flow, aortic and right ventricular (RV) pressures and heart rate were radiotelemetered during strenuous, spontaneous exercise in normal dogs and dogs with severe RV hypertrophy induced by chronic (5-6 mo) pulmonary artery stenosis. With fixed pulmonic stenosis, dogs with RV hypertrophy exhibited a decrease (P less than 0.01) in arterial pressure during exercise. Under these conditions, exercise increased right coronary artery blood flow and decreased right coronary vascular resistance less (P less than 0.05) in dogs with RV hypertrophy compared with normal. This attenuated response of right coronary artery blood flow of dogs with RV hypertrophy was not observed when arterial pressures remained at preexercise values during exercise. However, regardless of changes in arterial pressures during exercise, all dogs with RV hypertrophy demonstrated a striking postexercise coronary hyperemia (P less than 0.01), suggesting a perfusion deficit of the hypertrophied right ventricle during exercise. These results imply a fundamental defect in the ability of the coronary circulation of the severely hypertrophied right ventricle to provide sufficient nutrient supply in the face of elevated metabolic demands of exercise. PMID:6453133

  2. Do exercise motives predict obligatory exercise?

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Mary E; Beaver, Jessica L

    2012-04-01

    Few studies have examined whether factors predicting obligatory exercise differ by gender. 303 participants completed the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire and the Reason for Exercise Inventory. All variables correlated significantly. However, the correlation between exercising for fitness and obligatory exercise was significantly stronger in women than men. In women, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, fitness, and to enhance mood; in men, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, enjoyment, and perceived attractiveness. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:22365798

  3. What You Eat After Exercise Matters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2010-01-28

    "Study shows reducing carbs after exercise is more important for enhancing insulin sensitivity than reducing calories." This press release describes the study design and findings from the published study "Energy deficit after exercise augments lipid mobilization but does not contribute to the exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity" by Sean A. Newsom, Simon Schenk, Kristin M. Tomas, Matthew P. Harber, Nicolas D. Knuth, Naila Goldenberg, and Jeffrey F. Horowitz published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, March 2010.

  4. Heart rate and oxygen uptake response to exercise in children with low peak exercise heart rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Schulze-Neick; H. U. Wessel; M. H. Paul

    1992-01-01

    Normal children achieve the same increase of oxygen uptake (VO2) in response to exercise even though resting and submaximal exercise heart rates vary greatly as a function of age, body size and physical conditioning. To determine whether the VO2 response to exercise is altered when heart rate is significantly reduced by heart disease, we compared 78 children who achieved a

  5. Exercise counteracts the effects of short-term overfeeding and reduced physical activity independent of energy imbalance in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Richardson, Judith D; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men age 25 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned either to consume 50% more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps day?1 to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n= 14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n= 12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended by exercise, thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (?17 ± 16 nmol (120 min) l?1; P= 0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (?1 ± 6 nmol (120 min) l?1). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP-1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and visfatin was significantly down-regulated (P? 0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose tissue was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P= 0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects of short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus. PMID:24167223

  6. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  7. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  8. Exercise and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 802 Exercise and HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ... may prevent you from losing lean body mass. Exercise with Weights Weight training (resistance exercise) is one ...

  9. Can a tailored exercise and home hazard reduction program reduce the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with cognitive impairment: protocol paper for the i-FOCIS randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rate of falls in community dwelling older people with cognitive impairment (CI) is twice that of a cognitively intact population, with almost two thirds of people with CI falling annually. Studies indicate that exercise involving balance and/or a home hazard reduction program are effective in preventing falls in cognitively intact older people. However the potential benefit of these interventions in reducing falls in people with CI has not been established. This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a tailored exercise and home hazard reduction program can reduce the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with CI. We will determine whether the intervention has beneficial effects on a range of physical and psychological outcome measures as well as quality of life of participants and their carers. A health economic analysis examining the cost and potential benefits of the program will also be undertaken. Methods and design Three hundred and sixty people aged 65 years or older living in the community with CI will be recruited to participate in the trial. Each will have an identifiable carer with a minimum of 3.5 hours of face to face contact each week. Participants will undergo an assessment at baseline with retests at 6 and 12 months. Participants allocated to the intervention group will participate in an exercise and home hazard reduction program tailored to their cognitive and physical abilities. The primary outcome measure will be the rate of falls which will be measured using monthly falls calendars. Secondary outcome measures will include the risk of falling, quality of life, measures of physical and cognitive function, fear of falling and planned and unplanned use of health services. Carers will be followed up to determine carer burden, coping strategies and quality of life. Discussion The study will determine the impact of this tailored intervention in reducing the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with CI as well as the cost-effectiveness and adherence to the program. The results will have direct implications for the design and implementation of interventions for this high-risk group of older people. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12614000603617 PMID:25128411

  10. Exercise with prebreathe appears to increase protection from decompression sickness: Preliminary findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Fischer, Michele D.; Heaps, Cristine L.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1994-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle involves one hour of prebreath with 100% oxygen, decompression of the entire Shuttle to 10.2 psia for at least 12 hours, and another prebreath for 40 minutes before decompression to the 4.3 psia suit pressure. We are investigating the use of a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen beginning with a ten-minute strenuous exercise period as an alternative for the staged decompression schedule described above. The 10-minute exercise consists of dual-cycle ergometry performed at 75% of the subject's peak oxygen uptake to increase denitrogenation efficiency by increasing ventilation and perfusion. The control exposures were preceded by a one-hour prebreathe with 100% oxygen while resting in a supine position. The twenty-two male subjects were exposed to 4.3 psia for 4 hours while performing light to moderate exercise. Preliminary results from 22 of the planned 26 subjects indicate 76% DCS following supine, resting prebreathe and 38% following prebreathe with exercise. The staged decompression schedule has been shown to result in 23% DCS which is not significantly different from the exercise-enhanced prebreathe results. Prebreathe including exercise appears to be comparable to the protection afforded by the more lengthy staged decompression schedule. Completion of the study later this year will enable planned statistical analysis of the results.

  11. Flooding Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Nelson

    This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

  12. Eating & Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This PheT interactive, downloadable simulation allows students to Explore issues such as calories in food, how to burn calories, and the relationship between calories and weight by choosing diet and exercise and keeping an eye on your weight.Sample earning goals, teaching ideas, and translated versions are available.

  13. Regular physical exercise: way to healthy life.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, N I; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A

    2010-01-01

    Any bodily activity or movement that enhances and maintains overall health and physical fitness is called physical exercise. Habit of regular physical exercise has got numerous benefits. Exercise is of various types such as aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and flexibility exercise. Aerobic exercise moves the large muscle groups with alternate contraction and relaxation, forces to deep breath, heart to pump more blood with adequate tissue oxygenation. It is also called cardiovascular exercise. Examples of aerobic exercise are walking, running, jogging, swimming etc. In anaerobic exercise, there is forceful contraction of muscle with stretching, usually mechanically aided and help to build up muscle strength and muscle bulk. Examples are weight lifting, pulling, pushing, sprinting etc. Flexibility exercise is one type of stretching exercise to improve the movements of muscles, joints and ligaments. Walking is a good example of aerobic exercise, easy to perform, safe, effective, does not require any training or equipment and less chance of injury. Regular 30 minutes brisk walking in the morning with 150 minutes per week is a good exercise. Regular exercise improves the cardiovascular status, reduces the risk of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and cerebrovascular disease. It reduces body weight, improves insulin sensitivity, helps in glycemic control, prevents obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is helpful for relieving anxiety, stress, brings a sense of well being and overall physical fitness. Global trend is mechanization, labor savings and leading to epidemic of long term chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases etc. All efforts should be made to create public awareness promoting physical activity, physically demanding recreational pursuits and providing adequate facilities. PMID:20046192

  14. Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence with Weight Loss, a Vanguard Trial: The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Cheryl L.; Byers, Tim E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ganz, Patricia A.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Elias, Anthony; Krontiras, Helen; Liu, Jingxia; Naughton, Michael; Pakiz, Bilgé; Parker, Barbara A.; Sedjo, Rebecca L.; Wyatt, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer among women in developed countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and mortality in both pre-and postmenopausal women. Co-morbid medical conditions are common among breast cancer survivors. The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) study is a 4-year randomized clinical trial of 693 overweight/obese women aged ?21 years diagnosed with any early stage breast cancer (stages I[?1 cm]-III) within the previous five years, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving sustained weight loss and to examine the impact of weight loss on quality of life and co-morbidities, and to enable future exploration of biochemical mechanisms linking obesity to lower likelihood of disease-free survival. This trial is strategically designed as a vanguard for a fully-powered trial of women who will be evaluated for breast cancer recurrence and disease-free survival. Participants were recruited between 2010 and 2012 at four sites, had completed initial therapies, and had a body mass index between 25 and 45 kg/m2. The intervention featured a group-based cognitive-behavioral weight loss program with telephone counseling and tailored newsletters to support initial weight loss and subsequent maintenance, with the goal of 7% weight loss at two years. This study has high potential to have a major impact on clinical management and outcomes after a breast cancer diagnosis. This trial initiates the effort to establish weight loss support for overweight or obese breast cancer survivors as a new standard of clinical care. PMID:23266440

  15. Exercise Can Cut Risk of Pregnancy-Related Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152962.html Exercise Can Cut Risk of Pregnancy-Related Diabetes: Study ... 8, 2015 MONDAY, June 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Exercise reduces pregnant women's risk of developing gestational diabetes ...

  16. Exercise and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Neeraj; Fedorak, Richard N

    2008-01-01

    Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are both idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that affect 0.5% of Canadians. As yet, there is no known cure for either disease, and symptoms are treated with an array of medicines. The objective of the present review was to present the role of exercise and its impact on all facets of IBD. Exercise has been speculated to be protective against the onset of IBD, but the literature is inconsistent and weak. Preliminary studies reveal that exercise training may be beneficial to reduce stress and symptoms of IBD. Current research also recommends exercise to help counteract some IBD-specific complications by improving bone mineral density, immunological response, psychological health, weight loss and stress management ability. However, the literature advises that some patients with IBD may have limitations to the amount and intensity of exercise that they can perform. In summary, exercise may be beneficial to IBD patients, but further research is required to make a convincing conclusion regarding its role in the management of IBD and to help establish exercise regimens that can account for each IBD patient’s unique presentation. PMID:18478136

  17. Randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    E-print Network

    Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Herve; Horton, Kenneth; De Lucia Rolfe, Ema; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen; Ahie Sayer, Avan; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-06-19

    [23]. In animal models, diet restriction in utero or prior to wean- ing reduces longevity, while dietary restriction after wean- ing has the opposite effect [24]. Thus, the same environmental exposure can lead to different outcomes, depending... to record details of current medications, smoking and alcohol use and dietary pat- terns. It incorporates the SF-8™ (©1998, 1999 QualityMet- ric Inc., Lincoln, RI), a validated measure of self perceived health status [64]. A detailed family history...

  18. Continuity Plan Exercise Form

    E-print Network

    Derisi, Joseph

    Continuity Plan Exercise Form 1 of 2 The purpose of this form is to document a Continuity Plan Exercise Exercises An exercise is an activity that is designed to: Practice and improve the procedures available when needed. There are many approaches to exercising a continuity plan but we recommend

  19. Exercise as a treatment for osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Bennell; Rana Hinman

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This review highlights recent important research, future directions, and clinical applications for exercise and osteoarthritis. It focuses on knee osteoarthritis because of its prevalence and the dearth of research involving other joint osteoarthritis. The review covers exercise prescription for symptomatic relief, and its potential role in reducing development and slowing progression of osteoarthritis. Recent Findings: Meta-analyses support

  20. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  1. Astragalus membranaceus improves exercise performance and ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue in trained mice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2014-01-01

    Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is a popular "Qi-tonifying" herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group) for treatment: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control); and (3) exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1) or (4) 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5). Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training. PMID:24595275

  2. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill ... This test is done at a medical center or health care provider's office. The technician will place 10 flat, ...

  3. Exercise-Induced Urticaria

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Exercise-induced Urticaria Overview What is exercise-induced urticaria? Exercise-induced urticaria is a condition that causes hives and other allergic symptoms. It can occur during ...

  4. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  5. Exercising with Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... everyone. In fact, studies show that people with osteoarthritis benefit from regular exercise and physical activity. For people with osteoarthritis, regular exercise can help: l Maintain healthy and ...

  6. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  7. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-03-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  8. Exercise hemorheology: Moving from old simplistic paradigms to a more complex picture.

    PubMed

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Romain, Ahmed-Jérôme; Guiraudou, M; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Classic studies on exercise hemorheology evidenced that blood fluidity is impaired during exercise (short term exercise-induced hyperviscosity) and is improved as a result of regular exercise practice (hemorheologic fitness). Extensive description of these events led to the concepts of "the triphasic effects of exercise", "the paradox of hematocrit", and "the hemorheological paradox of lactate". However, some results obtained in training studies do not fit with this classical picture and cannot be explained by a simplistic paradigm based on the Hagen-Poiseuille law. Taking into account the non-linearity of the effects of viscosity factors on blood flow and oxygen delivery helps to elaborate another picture. For example, moderately high values of hematocrit and erythrocyte rigidity induced by high intensity exercise are likely to trigger a physiological vasodilation improving circulatory adaptation (rather than limiting performance as was previously assumed). This may apply to the acute rise in red cell rigidity observed during strenuous exercise, and also to the paradoxical rise in hematocrit or red cell rigidity observed after some training protocols and that did not fit with the previous (simplistic) paradigms. The "healthy primitive lifestyle" hypothesis assumes that evolution has selected genetic polymorphisms leading to insulin resistance as an adaptative strategy to cope with continuous low intensity physical activity and a special alimentation based on lean meat and wild herbs (i.e., moderately high in protein, rich in low glycemic index carbohydrates, and poor in saturated fat). We propose here that this model may help to explain on an evolutionary perspective these apparently inconsistent findings. The pivotal explanation is that the true physiological picture would be that of an individual whose exercise and nutritional habits are close from this lifestyle, both sedentary subjects and trained athletes representing situations on the edge of this model. PMID:23478223

  9. Exercise in muscle glycogen storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Preisler, Nicolai; Haller, Ronald G; Vissing, John

    2015-05-01

    Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inborn errors of glycogen or glucose metabolism. In the GSDs that affect muscle, the consequence of a block in skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown or glucose use, is an impairment of muscular performance and exercise intolerance, owing to 1) an increase in glycogen storage that disrupts contractile function and/or 2) a reduced substrate turnover below the block, which inhibits skeletal muscle ATP production. Immobility is associated with metabolic alterations in muscle leading to an increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation. Such changes may be detrimental for persons with GSD from a metabolic perspective. However, exercise may alter skeletal muscle substrate metabolism in ways that are beneficial for patients with GSD, such as improving exercise tolerance and increasing fatty acid oxidation. In addition, a regular exercise program has the potential to improve general health and fitness and improve quality of life, if executed properly. In this review, we describe skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise in GSDs, and how blocks in metabolic pathways affect exercise tolerance in GSDs. We review the studies that have examined the effect of regular exercise training in different types of GSD. Finally, we consider how oral substrate supplementation can improve exercise tolerance and we discuss the precautions that apply to persons with GSD that engage in exercise. PMID:25326273

  10. RNA Sequencing of the Exercise Transcriptome in Equine Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as “nucleic acid binding” and “signal transduction activity” functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including those involved in inflammation, cell signaling, and immune interactions. PMID:24391776

  11. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  12. Acute Exercise May Exacerbate Oxidative Stress Response in Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis G. Fatouros; Ploumis Pasadakis; Apostolos Sovatzidis; Athanasios Chatzinikolaou; Stylianos Panagoutsos; Dimitrios Sivridis; Ioannis Michailidis; Ioannis Douroudos; Kiriakos Taxildaris; Vasilios Vargemezis

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Hemodialyzed patients (HD) demonstrate elevated oxidative stress (OXS) levels. Exercise effects on OXS response and antioxidant status of HD was investigated in the present study. Methods: Twelve HD and 12 healthy controls (HC) performed a graded exercise protocol. Blood samples, collected prior to and following exercise, were analyzed for lactate, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced (GSH)

  13. Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

  14. Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular variables. Plasma volume (% delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P < 0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training for all regimens indicating no effect of these training regimens on the level of vascular fluid shifts.

  15. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training. PMID:23614691

  16. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any changes with your child's breathing problems. Recommended Activities for Kids With EIA Exercise is a great idea for ... With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ... activity, in addition to stretching or flexibility exercises.) Take ...

  17. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  18. Exercise in pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nahed M Ezmerli

    2000-01-01

    Exercise has become an integral part of the life styles of many women. However, many women stop exercising during pregnancy because of concerns regarding the well-being of the fetus. Although pregnancy is associated with several physiologic changes and response to exercise is different in the pregnant state than in the nonpregnant state, exercise can be beneficial to the pregnant woman

  19. Exercise training and immune crosstalk in breast cancer microenvironment: exploring the paradigms of exercise-induced immune modulation and exercise-induced myokines

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jorming; Niksirat, Negin; Campbell, Kristin L

    2014-01-01

    Observational research suggests that exercise may reduce the risk of breast cancer and improve survival. One proposed mechanism for the protective effect of aerobic exercise related to cancer risk and outcomes, but has not been examined definitively, is the immune response to aerobic exercise. Two prevailing paradigms are proposed. The first considers the host immune response as modifiable by aerobic exercise training. This exercise-modulated immune-tumor crosstalk in the mammary microenvironment may alter the balance between tumor initiation and progression versus tumor suppression. The second paradigm considers the beneficial role of exercise-induced, skeletal muscle-derived cytokines, termed “myokines”. These myokines exert endocrine-like effects on multiple organs, including the mammary glands. In this systematic review, we i) define the role of macrophages and T-cells in breast cancer initiation and progression; ii) address the two paradigms that support exercise-induced immunomodulation; iii) systematically assessed the literature for exercise intervention that assessed biomarkers relevant to both paradigms in human intervention trials of aerobic exercise training, in healthy women and women with breast cancer; iv) incorporated pre-clinical animal studies and non-RCTs for background discussion of putative mechanisms, through which aerobic exercise training modulates the immunological crosstalk, or the myokine-tumor interaction in the tumor microenvironment; and v) speculated on the potential biomarkers and mechanisms that define an exercise-induced, anti-tumor “signature”, with a view toward developing relevant biomarkers for future aerobic exercise intervention trials. PMID:25360210

  20. Effects of an 8-Month Exercise Training Program on Off-Exercise Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    RANGAN, VIKRAM V.; WILLIS, LESLIE H.; SLENTZ, CRIS A.; BATEMAN, LORI A.; SHIELDS, A. TAMLYN; HOUMARD, JOSEPH A.; KRAUS, WILLIAM E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An active lifestyle is widely recognized as having a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health. However, no clear consensus exists as to whether exercise training increases overall physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) or whether individuals participating in regular exercise compensate by reducing their off-exercise physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in PAEE in response to aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), or combined aerobic and resistance training (AT/RT). Methods Data are from 82 participants in the Studies of Targeted Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise—Aerobic Training versus Resistance Training study, a randomized trial of overweight (body mass index = 25–35 kg·m?2) adults, in which participants were randomized to receive 8 months of AT, RT, or AT/RT. All subjects completed a 4-month control period before randomization. PAEE was measured using triaxial RT3 accelerometers, which subjects wore for a 5- to 7-d period before and after the exercise intervention. Data reduction was performed with a previously published computer-based algorithm. Results There was no significant change in off-exercise PAEE in any of the exercise training groups. We observed a significant increase in total PAEE that included the exercise training, in both AT and AT/RT but not in RT. Conclusions Eight months of exercise training was not associated with a compensatory reduction in off-exercise physical activity, regardless of exercise modality. The absence of compensation is particularly notable for AT/RT subjects, who performed a larger volume of exercise than did AT or RT subjects. We believe that the extended duration of our exercise training program was the key factor in allowing subjects to reach a new steady-state level of physical activity within their daily lives. PMID:21364488

  1. Exercise by prescription.

    PubMed

    Browne, D

    1997-02-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) see over 90% of their practice population in three years. Over 50% of the adult population is below the perceived level of physical activity as recognised by the Allied Dunbar Physical Activity score (Allied Dunbar, Health Education Authority and Sports Council, 1992). Physical fitness levels in adolescents and children are declining, while the incidence of obesity is increasing. GPs, with their Primary Health Care Team, are in a unique position to be able to discuss the health benefits of regular physical activity with their patients during the consultation and offer, if appropriate, a prescription for a course of physical activity to a local leisure centre or community activity centre. Many communities have facilities for physical activity. These include leisure centres, schools, village and church halls, the home and the general practice surgery. A directory of resources for physical activity for all age groups should be available in the surgery waiting room area. A community co-ordinator can network community facilities and resources to meet individual need. The co-ordinator can be funded by the general practice surgery, Health Authority, Local Authority, Parish or District Council. An agreed protocol for exercise prescription referrals to suitable community facilities can benefit patient health care for a variety of medical, surgical, social and mental conditions. Auditing exercise prescriptions shows a health benefit, with improved quality of living and reduced prescription medicines. PMID:9050296

  2. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... have fecal incontinence Pelvic floor muscle training exercises ...

  3. Statistics for Chemists: Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wehrens, Ron

    This website contains a group of exercises that allow students to practice basic statistical calculations for descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression and experimental design. The exercises are interactive and provide feedback for students who submit wrong answers.

  4. Exercise and Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Article Body Almost every child (and adult) with ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  5. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  6. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Keeping Fit ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  7. Exercise Tips for Travelers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... business or pleasure, you can stick to your exercise routine when you’re on the road. It ... foot rather than by car. Check out local exercise facilities. Many hotels have workout rooms or pools ...

  8. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  9. Exercise and Osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Exercise and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens ... calcium and vitamin D. Include regular weight-bearing exercise in your lifestyle. Stop smoking. Limit how much ...

  10. Home-Based Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VEDA” to receive a 15% discount. Home-based Exercise What is a Home VRT program? During vestibular ... is little clinical evidence for its effectiveness. What exercises can I do when I don't have ...

  11. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  12. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  13. Exercise and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise, metabolites and heat are generated, which affect the steady state of the internal environment. Depending on the form of exercise, sooner or later sensations of fatigue and exhaustion will occur. The physiological role of these sensations is protection of the exercising subject from the deleterious effects of exercise. Because of these sensations the subject will adapt his or her exercise strategy. The relationship between physical exercise and fatigue has been the scope of interest of many researchers for more than a century and is very complex. The exercise intensity, exercise endurance time and type of exercise are all variables that cause different effects within the body systems, which in turn create different types of sensation within the subject's mind during the exercise. Physical exercise affects the biochemical equilibrium within the exercising muscle cells. Among others, inorganic phosphate, protons, lactate and free Mg2+ accumulate within these cells. They directly affect the mechanical machinery of the muscle cell. Furthermore, they negatively affect the different muscle cell organelles that are involved in the transmission of neuronal signals. The muscle metabolites produced and the generated heat of muscle contraction are released into the internal environment, putting stress on its steady state. The tremendous increase in muscle metabolism compared with rest conditions induces an immense increase in muscle blood supply, causing an increase in the blood circulatory system and gas exchange. Nutrients have to be supplied to the exercising muscle, emptying the energy stocks elsewhere in body. Furthermore, the contracting muscle fibres release cytokines, which in their turn create many effects in other organs, including the brain. All these different mechanisms sooner or later create sensations of fatigue and exhaustion in the mind of the exercising subject. The final effect is a reduction or complete cessation of the exercise. Many diseases speed up the depletion of the energy stocks within the body. So diseases amplify the effect of energy stock depletion that accompanies exercise. In addition, many diseases produce a change of mind-set before exercise. These changes of mind-set can create sensations of fatigue and exercise-avoiding behaviour at the onset of an exercise. One might consider these sensations during disease as a feed-forward mechanism to protect the subject from an excessive depletion of their energy stocks, to enhance the survival of the individual during disease. PMID:19402743

  14. Exercise Prescription: Principles and Current Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions must be both safe and effective, while maximizing patient compliance. Safety can be threatened by physical injury, cardiac emergencies and environmental hazards. Risk can be reduced by individualizing the prescription, although the stress ECG contributes little to the prevention of the exercise catastrophe. Effectiveness of a prescription must be gauged by development of aerobic power and muscular strength, reduction of obesity, improvement of flexibility and control of coronary risk factors. The variability of patient response limits the potential for accurate laboratory prescription of exercise; fine tuning must depend upon the patient's immediate reactions. PMID:21283273

  15. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  16. Exercise, Aging and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Cundiff, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether or not a lifelong program of exercise actually has a bearing on longevity is discussed. The effects of exercise on the aging process, and the longevity-exercise relationship are reviewed. The conflicting evidence on the subject is presented. (JL)

  17. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  18. A Group Leadership Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John; Stafford, Jeff

    A group leadership exercise that incorporates the elements of leadership and other aspects of interaction within small groups can be useful in a basic communication course. The exercise is designed around three basic leadership styles: laissez-faire, democratic, and authoritarian. The exercise is conducted in the following way: (1) the class…

  19. Exercise as psychotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Spencer

    1990-01-01

    The use of exercise as a psychotherapeutic agent is reviewed. The benefits of exercise are considered to impact both physiological processes and psychological factors such as self-esteem and more efficacious self-talk. The possibility of the use of exercise as an adjunct to both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is suggested.

  20. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  1. Exercise After Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Santa Mina; Paul Ritvo; Roanne Segal; N. Culos-Reed; Shabbir M. H. Alibhai

    \\u000a PCa is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Though often curable or treatable with an excellent long-term survival,\\u000a many therapeutic options reduce health-related QoL. Exercise and regular PA have been demonstrated as beneficial throughout\\u000a the continuum of the disease. Clinically important benefits have been observed particularly during the active treatment phase.\\u000a Several recent intervention trials have investigated the

  2. Exercise and Sports Science Australia position statement on exercise and falls prevention in older people.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R

    2011-11-01

    Falls affect a significant number of older Australians and present a major challenge to health care providers and health systems. The purpose of this statement is to inform and guide exercise practitioners and health professionals in the safe and effective prescription of exercise for older community-dwelling people with the goal of preventing falls. Falls in older people are not random events but can be predicted by assessing a number of risk factors. Of particular importance are lower limb muscle strength, gait and balance, all of which can be improved with appropriate exercise. There is now extensive evidence to demonstrate that many falls are preventable, with exercise playing a crucial role in prevention. Research evidence has identified that programs which include exercises that challenge balance are more effective in preventing falls than those which do not challenge balance. It is important for exercise to be progressively challenging, ongoing and of sufficient dose to maximise its benefits in reducing falls. Other (non-exercise) interventions are necessary for certain people with complex medical conditions or recent hospitalisation and risk factors relating to vision and the use of psychotropic medications. Qualified exercise professionals are well placed to implement the research evidence and to prescribe and supervise specific exercise aimed at preventing falls in both healthy older community-dwelling people and those with co-morbidities. PMID:21570910

  3. PTH Signaling During Exercise Contributes to Bone Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gardinier, Joseph D; Mohamed, Fatma; Kohn, David H

    2015-06-01

    Improving the structural integrity of bone reduces fracture risk and development of osteoporosis later in life. Exercise can increase the mechanical properties of bone, and this increase is often attributed to the dynamic loading created during exercise. However, the increase in systemic parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels during exercise gives reason to hypothesize that PTH signaling also regulates bone adaptation in response to exercise. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to establish the impact PTH signaling has on bone adaptation during exercise by inhibiting PTH signaling with PTH(7-34); the second aim was to determine whether increasing PTH levels during exercise with PTH(1-34) can augment bone adaptation. Thirty minutes after a single bout of running on a treadmill, mice exhibited a twofold increase in systemic PTH levels. Under the same exercise regimen, the influence of PTH signaling on bone adaptation during exercise was then evaluated in mice after 21 consecutive days of exercise and treatment with PTH(7-34), PTH(1-34), or vehicle. Exercise alone caused a significant increase in trabecular bone volume with adaptation to a more platelike structure, which was inhibited with PTH(7-34) during exercise. Changes in structural-level and tissue-level mechanical properties during exercise occurred in the absence of significant changes to cortical bone geometry. Inhibition of PTH signaling during exercise attenuated the changes in structural-level mechanical properties, but not tissue-level properties. Enhanced PTH signaling during exercise with PTH(1-34) increased trabecular and cortical bone volume, but had little effect on the structural-level and tissue-level mechanical properties compared to exercise alone. Our study is the first to demonstrate that bone adaptation during exercise is not only a function of dynamic loading, but also PTH release, and that PTH signaling contributes differently at the structural and tissue levels. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25529455

  4. Exercise for Better Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-01

    In this activity you will learn about components of a basic exercise program. You will also find some tips for making exercise a regular part of your life. Finally you will create a simple exercise program that includes the FIT formula. Doggonit!! You really wanted to just sit on the couch, watch another TV program, and eat a bag of chips. Your conscience, on the other hand, is telling you that you really need to get some exercise. What will you do? Hopefully, you are thinking seriously about some exercise. There are ...

  5. Wallace Creek Field Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains model class exercises which instructors may find useful as class assignments to accompany class trips to the Wallace Creek site. These exercises are designed for college-level students who have had some background in geology and a general background of fault mechanics and earthquake geology. Particular questions in these exercises requires the students to conduct certain exercises or participate in appropriate discussions regarding geomorphology and slip rates. Five figures necessary to complete certain parts of the exercises are available for downloading.

  6. Circulating inflammatory miRNA signature in response to different doses of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Dávalos, Alberto; Montero, Ana; García-González, Ángela; Tyshkovska, Iryna; González-Medina, Antonio; Soares, Sara M A; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Rabadán, Manuel; Díaz-Martínez, Ángel E; Úbeda, Natalia; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2015-07-15

    While moderate acute exercise has been associated with strong anti-inflammatory mechanisms, strenuous exercise has been linked to deleterious inflammatory perturbations. It is therefore fundamental to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade. Information on novel regulators such as circulating inflammatory microRNAs (c-inflammamiRs) is incomplete. In this study, we evaluated the response of a panel of c-inflammamiRs to different doses of acute aerobic exercise. We first studied the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade in serum samples of nine active middle-aged males immediately before and after (0 h, 24 h, 72 h) 10-km, half-marathon, and marathon races. Next, we analyzed the circulating profile of 106 specific c-inflammamiRs immediately before) and after (0 h, 24 h) 10-km (low inflammatory response) and marathon (high inflammatory response) races. Analysis of classical inflammatory parameters revealed a dose-dependent effect of aerobic exercise on systemic inflammation, with higher levels detected after marathon. We observed an increase in miR-150-5p immediately after the 10-km race. Levels of 12 c-inflammamiRs were increased immediately after the marathon (let-7d-3p, let-7f-2-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-132-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-223-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-424-3p, and miR-424-5p). c-inflammamiRs returned to basal levels after 24 h. Correlation and in silico analyses supported a close association between the observed c-inflammamiR pattern and regulation of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, we found that different doses of acute aerobic exercise induced a distinct and specific c-inflammamiR response, which may be associated with control of the exercise-induced inflammatory cascade. Our findings point to c-inflammamiRs as potential biomarkers of exercise-induced inflammation, and hence, exercise dose. PMID:25997943

  7. Effects of Estrogen Fluctuation during the Menstrual Cycle on the Response to Stretch-Shortening Exercise in Females

    PubMed Central

    Sipavi?ien?, Saul?; Daniusevi?iut?, Laura; Klizien?, Irina; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle influences susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle damage after stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Physically active women (n = 18; age = 20.2 ± 1.7?yr) participated in this research. The subjects performed one session of 100 maximal drop jumps on day 1 or 2 of the follicular phase and another identical session on day 1 or 2 of the ovulatory phase; the order of the sessions was randomized. Quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque evoked by electrical stimulation and maximal voluntary contraction, muscle pain, and CK activity were measured before and at various times up to 72?h after exercise. It was found that the high estrogen level during the ovulatory phase might be related to an earlier return to baseline muscle strength after strenuous stretch-shortening cycle exercise in that phase compared with the follicular phase. The estrogen effect appears to be highly specific to the damaged site because the differences in most EIMD markers (CK, soreness, and low-frequency fatigue) between the two menstrual cycle phases were small. PMID:24151587

  8. Combined carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Andrew J; Murgatroyd, Scott R; McNab, Alison; Whyte, Laura J; Easton, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that adding protein (PRO) to a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement can improve thermoregulatory capacity, exercise performance and recovery. However, no study has investigated these effects in a competitive sporting context. This study assessed the effects of combined CHO-PRO supplementation on physiological responses and exercise performance during 8 days of strenuous competition in a hot environment. Twenty-eight cyclists participating in the TransAlp mountain bike race were randomly assigned to fitness-matched placebo (PLA 76 g L(-1) CHO) or CHO-PRO (18 g L(-1) PRO, 72 g L(-1) CHO) groups. Participants were given enough supplements to allow ad libitum consumption. Physiological and anthropometric variables were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Body mass decreased significantly from race stage 1 to 8 in the PLA group (-0.75 ± 0.22 kg, P = 0.01) but did not change in the CHO-PRO group (0.42 ± 0.42 kg, P = 0.35). Creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were substantially elevated during the race, but were not different between groups (P = 0.82, P = 0.44, respectively). Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the CHO-PRO versus the PLA group (P = 0.04) and the rise in tympanic temperature from pre- to post-exercise was significantly less in CHO-PRO versus PLA (P = 0.01). The CHO-PRO group also completed the 8 stages significantly quicker than the PLA group (2,277 ± 127 vs. 2,592 ± 68 min, respectively, P = 0.02). CHO-PRO supplementation therefore appears to prevent body mass loss, enhance thermoregulatory capacity and improve competitive exercise performance despite no effect on muscle damage. PMID:21259024

  9. Endometriosis and physical exercises: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise seems to have protective effects against diseases that involve inflammatory processes since it induces an increase in the systemic levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts by reducing estrogen levels. Evidence has suggested that the symptoms associated with endometriosis result from a local inflammatory peritoneal reaction caused by ectopic endometrial implants. Thus, the objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between physical exercise and the prevalence and/or improvement of the symptoms associated with endometriosis. To this end, data available in PubMed (1985–2012) were surveyed using the terms “endometriosis and physical exercises”, “endometriosis and life style and physical exercises” in the English language literature. Only 6 of the 935 articles detected were included in the study. These studies tried establish a possible relationship between the practice of physical exercise and the prevalence of endometriosis. The data available are inconclusive regarding the benefits of physical exercise as a risk factor for the disease and no data exist about the potential impact of exercise on the course of the endometriosis. In addition, randomized studies are necessary. PMID:24393293

  10. Neurophysiological effects of exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Roelands, B; De Pauw, K; Meeusen, R

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue during prolonged exercise is a multifactorial phenomenon. The complex interplay between factors originating from both the periphery and the brain will determine the onset of fatigue. In recent years, electrophysiological and imaging tools have been fine-tuned, allowing for an improved understanding of what happens in the brain. In the first part of the review, we present literature that studied the changes in electrocortical activity during and after exercise in normal and high ambient temperature. In general, exercise in a thermo-neutral environment or at light to moderate intensity increases the activity in the ? frequency range, while exercising at high intensity or in the heat reduces ? activity. In the second part, we review literature that manipulated brain neurotransmission, through either pharmacological or nutritional means, during exercise in the heat. The dominant outcomes were that manipulations changing brain dopamine concentration have the potential to delay fatigue, while the manipulation of serotonin had no effect and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition was detrimental for performance in the heat. Research on the effects of neurotransmitter manipulations on brain activity during or after exercise is scarce. The combination of brain imaging techniques with electrophysiological measures presents one of the major future challenges in exercise physiology/neurophysiology. PMID:25943657

  11. Post-Plyometric Exercise Hypotension and Heart Rate in Normotensive Individuals: Influence of Exercise Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Moradkhani, Amir-Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high, moderate and low intensity plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate responses. Methods Ten healthy normotensive men (age, 21.1±0.9 years; height, 175.8±6 cm; and body mass, 69.1±13.6 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated for three non-consecutive days in depth jump exercise from 20-cm box (low intensity [LI]), 40-cm box (moderate intensity [MI]) and 60-cm box (high intensity [HI]) for 5 sets of 20 repetitions. After each exercise session, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min for a period of 90 min. Results No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP, DBP and HR when the protocols (LI, MI and HI) were compared. The LI and HI protocols showed greater reduction in SBP at 40th-70th min of post-exercise (~9%), whereas the LI and MI protocols indicated greater reduction in DBP at 10th-50th min of post exercise (~10%). In addition, the change in the DBP for HI was not significant and the increases in the HR were similar for all intensities. Conclusion It can be concluded that a plyometric exercise (PE) can reduce SBP and DBP post-exercise and therefore we can say that PE has significant effects for reducing BP and HR or post-exercise hypotension. PMID:24799997

  12. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space. PMID:20058738

  13. Exercise in the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Mesdaghinia, Azam; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension that is occurring in increasing frequency across the global population. Although there is some controversy about its diagnostic criteria, oxidative stress, which is defined as imbalance between the production and inactivation of reactive oxygen species, has a major pathophysiological role in all the components of this disease. Oxidative stress and consequent inflammation induce insulin resistance, which likely links the various components of this disease. We briefly review the role of oxidative stress as a major component of the metabolic syndrome and then discuss the impact of exercise on these pathophysiological pathways. Included in this paper is the effect of exercise in reducing fat-induced inflammation, blood pressure, and improving muscular metabolism. PMID:22829955

  14. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p < 0.005, cluster size ?10). Regional CBF was increased 18 ± 17 % and reduced 8 ± 12 % following moderate- and low-intensity cycling, respectively. In contrast, CBF changes were similar between sessions in the right lentiform nucleus and mid-frontal gyrus, as well as the left temporal and parietal gyri. Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ? 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation. PMID:26003127

  15. Exercise and Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the effects of exercise on short term memory. Groups of learners will set a baseline score with an initial memory test. Then they split into two teams, one participating in physical exercise while the other remains sedentary. After ten minutes, both teams take another memory test to tabulate and graph score changes. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Exercise and Memory.

  16. Sport & Exercise Application Membership

    E-print Network

    Howie, Jim

    facilities 9.15am­9.15pm Weekends 9.00am­9.20pm April­September Weekends 9.00am­4.15pm Distinctly Active www.hw.ac.uk/sports exercising; allowing you access to all the facilities of the Sports & Exercise Centre and a preferential rate for the Sports Academy facilities as well as physiotherapy, massage and podiatry. If you exercise twice or more

  17. Exercise for the Overweight Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

  18. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  19. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  20. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…

  1. Muscle mitochondrial changes with aging and exercise1-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian R Lanza; K Sreekumaran Nair

    2009-01-01

    Aging has been reported to be accompanied by reduced mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity. Whether these deleterious effects re- sult from chronological age or lifestyle-related factors such as adipos- ity and physical inactivity remains debatable. The beneficial effects of exercise on mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity are well documented; however, it is unclear whether exercise can effectively prevent, reverse, or

  2. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  3. Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration and reduces resting blood pressure. Intriguingly, nitrate supplementation also reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise and can, in some circumstances, enhance exercise tolerance and performance. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are reviewed and practical guidelines for safe and efficacious dietary nitrate supplementation are provided. PMID:24791915

  4. Functional Electrical Stimulation of Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles under Varying Loads in Exercising Horses

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Jon; Regner, Abby; Jarvis, Jonathan C.; Priest, David; Sanders, Ira; Soderholm, Leo V.; Mitchell, Lisa M.; Ducharme, Norm G.

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVCP) is a life threatening condition and appears to be a good candidate for therapy using functional electrical stimulation (FES). Developing a working FES system has been technically difficult due to the inaccessible location and small size of the sole arytenoid abductor, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle. A naturally-occurring disease in horses shares many functional and etiological features with BVCP. In this study, the feasibility of FES for equine vocal fold paralysis was explored by testing arytenoid abduction evoked by electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were determined for innervated PCA muscle. We then tested the hypothesis that direct muscle stimulation can maintain airway patency during strenuous exercise in horses with induced transient conduction block of the laryngeal motor nerve. Six adult horses were instrumented with a single bipolar intra-muscular electrode in the left PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were within the normal range for innervated muscle at 0.55±0.38 v and 0.38±0.19 ms respectively. Intramuscular stimulation of the PCA muscle significantly improved arytenoid abduction at all levels of exercise intensity and there was no significant difference between the level of abduction achieved with stimulation and control values under moderate loads. The equine larynx may provide a useful model for the study of bilateral fold paralysis. PMID:21904620

  5. Sport & Exercise General Information

    E-print Network

    Howie, Jim

    ­September Weekends 9.00am­4.20pm #12;The Sport & Exercise facilities and opportunities at Heriot-Watt are among facilities which provide an ideal environment for a number of sports and exercise opportunities. The facilities available include: 2 indoor sports halls Climbing wall 8 squash courts Cardiovascular zone

  6. Heat Loss Calculation Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Garrison, Kirk

    This class exercise from Kirk Garrison is intended for construction students learning about home insulation and heating. The class will learn to calculate heat loss in a home by using an online home heat loss calculator. This exercise document includes student worksheets. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  7. Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise)

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise) Model quality, validation exercise. You will need a web link to MolProbity (with Java), and the file 1JIRon1S83_Arg66_supr.kin download- ed from the kinemage.biochem.duke.edu BCH681 web site, or from Sakai. Part 1: MolProbity Go to the MolProbity web

  8. Exercise, cognitive function, and aging.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N

    2015-06-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding potential adverse effects of aging on brain blood flow and cognition may help to determine effective strategies to mitigate these effects on the population. Exercise may be one strategy to prevent or delay cognitive decline. This review describes how aging is associated with cardiovascular disease risks, vascular dysfunction, and increasing Alzheimer's disease pathology. It will also discuss the possible effects of aging on cerebral vascular physiology, cerebral perfusion, and brain atrophy rates. Clinically, these changes will present as reduced cognitive function, neurodegeneration, and the onset of dementia. Regular exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function, and we hypothesize that this occurs through beneficial adaptations in vascular physiology and improved neurovascular coupling. This review highlights the potential interactions and ideas of how the age-associated variables may affect cognition and may be moderated by regular exercise. PMID:26031719

  9. [Exercise and redox signaling regulation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Long, Jian-Gang; Liu, Jian-Kang

    2014-08-01

    ROS, identified as signaling molecules, are responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis in vivo. Appropriate exercise promotes the generation of physiological ROS, enhances the antioxidative potential, promotes exercise performance, and improves metabolism, as well as retards aging and related diseases; whereas overload exercise causes excess ROS, resulting in exercise-induced fatigue or even exercise-induced injury. Mitochondria are the main pool of ROS production and act as the key organelles in modulating intracellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial nutrients not only maintain physiological redox homeostasis, but also ameliorate oxidative stress and fatigue induced by overload exercise, eventually improving exercise performance and preventing/ameliorating exercise-induced injury. PMID:25434247

  10. [Exercise and redox signaling regulation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Long, Jian-Gang; Liu, Jian-Kang

    2014-08-01

    ROS, identified as signaling molecules, are responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis in vivo. Appropriate exercise promotes the generation of physiological ROS, enhances the antioxidative potential, promotes exercise performance, and improves metabolism, as well as retards aging and related diseases; whereas overload exercise causes excess ROS, resulting in exercise-induced fatigue or even exercise-induced injury. Mitochondria are the main pool of ROS production and act as the key organelles in modulating intracellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial nutrients not only maintain physiological redox homeostasis, but also ameliorate oxidative stress and fatigue induced by overload exercise, eventually improving exercise performance and preventing/ameliorating exercise-induced injury. PMID:25507845

  11. Muscle reflex in heart failure: the role of exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han-Jun; Zucker, Irving H.; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Exercise evokes sympathetic activation and increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Two neural mechanisms that cause the exercise-induced increase in sympathetic discharge are central command and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). The former suggests that a volitional signal emanating from central motor areas leads to increased sympathetic activation during exercise. The latter is a reflex originating in skeletal muscle which contributes significantly to the regulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during exercise. The afferent arm of this reflex is composed of metabolically sensitive (predominantly group IV, C-fibers) and mechanically sensitive (predominately group III, A-delta fibers) afferent fibers. Activation of these receptors and their associated afferent fibers reflexively adjusts sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity during exercise. In heart failure, the sympathetic activation during exercise is exaggerated, which potentially increases cardiovascular risk and contributes to exercise intolerance during physical activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. A therapeutic strategy for preventing or slowing the progression of the exaggerated EPR may be of benefit in CHF patients. Long-term exercise training (ExT), as a non-pharmacological treatment for CHF increases exercise capacity, reduces sympatho-excitation and improves cardiovascular function in CHF animals and patients. In this review, we will discuss the effects of ExT and the mechanisms that contribute to the exaggerated EPR in the CHF state. PMID:23060821

  12. Can exercise change the stereotypes associated with individuals with cancer?

    PubMed

    Clément-Guillotin, C; Falzon, C; d'Arripe-Longueville, F

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercising can positively influence the stereotypes associated with individuals with cancer and, more specifically, have an effect on the impression formation related to warmth and competence. A total of 193 French college students (Mage ?=?21.08, SD?=?1.44?years; 88 females and 105 males) were randomly assigned to one of the conditions of a 2 (participant sex)?×?2 (target health status: cancer vs no information)?×?3 (target exercise status: exerciser vs non-exerciser vs no information) experimental design. Results indicated that exercising target with cancer was perceived as the most competent compared with targets with cancer and those without information about cancer. These results suggest that exercising could be an effective way to undermine cancer stereotypes and reduce discrimination against people with cancer. PMID:24979050

  13. Exercising for a Healthy Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This health education program discusses the benefits of being physically active in reducing the risk of heart attack. It also presents exercise options and tips for maintaining a healthy heart. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  14. Exercise Completed When Young Provides Lifelong Benefit to Cortical Bone Structure and Estimated Strength

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Exercise Completed When Young Provides Lifelong Benefit to Cortical Bone Structure and Estimated Exercise induces greatest bone gains during growth, yet reduced bone strength is an age-related phenomenon. This raises the question of whether exercise-induced bone changes when young persist into adulthood

  15. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  16. Exercise When Young Provides Lifelong Benefits to Bone Structure and Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Warden,S.; Fuchs, R.; Castillo, A.; Nelson, I.; Turner, C.

    2007-01-01

    Short-term exercise in growing rodents provided lifelong benefits to bone structure, strength, and fatigue resistance. Consequently, exercise when young may reduce the risk for fractures later in life, and the old exercise adage of 'use it or lose it' may not be entirely applicable to the skeleton.

  17. Exercise Prescriptions for Active Seniors: A Team Approach for Maximizing Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Fred H., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise is an important "medication" that healthcare providers can prescribe for their geriatric patients. Increasing physical fitness by participating in regular exercise can reduce the effects of aging that lead to functional declines and poor health. Modest regular exercise can substantially lower the risk of death from coronary artery…

  18. Osteoporosis: What is the Role of Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnings, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Research has not yet identified the best combination of estrogen replacement, calcium, and exercise for fighting osteoporosis, but clinical experience indicates all are needed to prevent the rapid bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women. Physicians must encourage women to reduce their risk using all available options. (SM)

  19. Effects of compression garments on recovery following intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Pruscino, Cathryn L; Halson, Shona; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of wearing compression garments for 24 h post-exercise on the biochemical, physical and perceived recovery of highly trained athletes. Eight field hockey players completed a match simulation exercise protocol on two occasions separated by 4 weeks after which lower-limb compression garments (CG) or loose pants (CON) were worn for 24 h. Blood was collected pre-exercise and 1, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, CRP and CK. Blood lactate was monitored throughout exercise and for 30 min after. A 5 counter-movement jump (5CMJ) and squat jump were performed and perceived soreness rated at pre-exercise and 1, 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Perceived recovery was assessed post-exercise using a questionnaire related to exercise readiness. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess changes in blood, perceptual and physical responses to recovery. CK and CRP were significantly elevated 24 h post-exercise in both conditions (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for TNF-?, IL1-?, IL-6 between treatments (p > 0.05). Power and force production in the 5CMJ was reduced and perceived soreness was highest at 1 h post-exercise (p < 0.05). Perceived recovery was lowest at 1 h post-exercise in both conditions (p < 0.01), whilst overall, perceived recovery was greater when CG were worn (p < 0.005). None of the blood or physical markers of recovery indicates any benefit of wearing compression garments post-exercise. However, muscle soreness and perceived recovery indicators suggest a psychological benefit may exist. PMID:23314683

  20. Exercise as a partial therapy for the extremely obese.

    PubMed

    Lampman, R M; Schteingart, D E; Foss, M L

    1986-02-01

    The management of the extremely obese patient is best accomplished by a multidisciplinary approach which includes exercise training as an integral component. While diet alone is a potent factor in improving the metabolic complications associated with obesity, the combination of diet and exercise training can further improve these complications and greatly enhance cardiorespiratory function. Although the fitness of extremely obese people is low, individualized exercise programs can be used to safely and progressively train these patients, reduce fatigue, and greatly increase maximum work tolerance. Additional benefits derived from exercise training include improved insulin-mediated glucose utilization, lower serum lipid concentrations, and improved psychological distress scores and anxiety levels. Thus, exercise training can contribute to the success of a weight reducing program by improving metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and psychological factors. Additional important interventions in a multidisciplinary treatment of severe obesity include psychiatric, psychosocial, and vocational counseling. PMID:3959858

  1. Psychology of Sport & Exercise Psychology of Sport & Exercise

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Psychology of Sport & Exercise Psychology of Sport & Exercise hal-00947437,version1-16Feb2014 Author manuscript, published in "Psychology of Sport and Exercise 14, 2 (2013) 136-144" DOI : 10.1016/j and gender roles in sport and exercise Past studies are mostly based on the models of Bem (1981) and Eccles

  2. Geologic Mapping Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew Smith

    This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

  3. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102

  4. Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2014-10-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20?minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity. PMID:24879888

  5. Part 1: potential dangers of extreme endurance exercise: how much is too much? Part 2: screening of school-age athletes.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The question is not whether exercise is or isn't one of the very best strategies for improving quality of life, cardiovascular (CV) health and longevity-it is. And there is no debate as to whether or not strenuous high-intensity endurance training produces an amazingly efficient, compliant, and powerful pump-it does. The essence of the controversy centers on what exactly is the ideal pattern of long-term physical activity (PA) for conferring robust and enduring CV health, while also optimizing life expectancy. With that goal in mind, this review will focus on the question: "Is more always better when it comes to exercise?" And if a dose-response curve exists for the therapeutic effects of PA, where is the upper threshold at which point further training begins to detract from the health and longevity benefits noted with moderate exercise? The emerging picture from the cumulative data on this hotly debated topic is that moderate exercise appears to be the sweet spot for bestowing lasting CV health and longevity. However, the specific definition of moderate in this context is not clear yet. PMID:25460846

  6. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ?65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. PMID:25123196

  7. A guide to exercise prescription.

    PubMed

    Crookham, Jason

    2013-12-01

    Exercise is a fundamental component of good health. The American College of Sports Medicine and "Exercise is Medicine" recommend treating exercise as a vital sign, and assessing and prescribing physical activity at every medical visit. Meeting the recommended goals of physical activity results in a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. Physicians can improve health by prescribing exercise. PMID:24209719

  8. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  9. Exercise thermoregulation - Possible effects of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in thermoregulation during spaceflight could result in an inability to tolerate ambient conditions or exercise tasks that were readily tolerated preflight. Weightlessness may alter heat production by changing metabolic rate, circadian rhythms of heat production, or work efficiency. It may impair heat loss by reducing convective and evaporative heat exchange. In addition, crewmembers may become less fit, less heat acclimated, hypohydrated, or have altered thermal sensitivity. Three scenarios are described: exercise conditioning in the mid deck, EVA, and emergency egress. Each scenario is discussed in terms of potential thermal challenges and possible consequences on crew performance.

  10. Exercise and Dementia

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alzheimer's Disease Dementia Exercise for Seniors About ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  11. Exercises in Physical Oceanography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthias Tomczak

    This site from Flinders University in Australia features two sets of exercises that accompany a course on physical oceanography. The basic exercises were originally intended to replace the need for the teacher's presence, but have since also proved useful in distance learning. Topics for these exercises include map projections ocean floor topography, properties of sea water, and water masses and tides. The advanced exercises were designed to give deeper insight into the material and to encourage investigation. Advanced topics include coastal upwelling, graphic display methods for ocean currents, averaging methods for vector time series, geostrophic currents, Rossby wave propagation, the depth of the permanent thermocline (the Sverdrup balance), Ekman layer dynamics, and the outflow of Mediterranean Water into the Atlantic Ocean. The site also features links to other oceanography websites.

  12. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... activities, including your shoulder joint and your shoulder blade Observe your spine and posture as you stand ... band Isometric shoulder exercises Wall push-ups Shoulder blade (scapular) retraction - no tubing Shoulder blade (scapular) retraction - ...

  13. Exercises in Applied Geochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackleton, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews exercises in the analysis of samples and interpretations of results from the geochemical survey portion of a three year teacher education program in geology presented at Salisbury College of Advanced Education. (SL)

  14. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you stay fit in college? What Does My Body Need? The importance of exercise is nothing new. Thomas Jefferson once wrote that to be successful in academic studies, a person should "give about two of ...

  15. Exercise and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    DeMaio, Marlene; Magann, Everett F

    2009-08-01

    Exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle and, as such, is recommended during pregnancy. However, the response to exercise of both the expectant mother and fetus varies depending on the fitness level of the woman. The response to exercise is also affected by the known musculoskeletal and physiologic changes associated with pregnancy, such as increased ligament laxity, weight gain, change in the center of gravity, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Although the physiologic responses of the pregnant woman and fetus have been well studied, the literature contains comparatively few studies investigating response to exercise. When performed properly, activities such as aerobics, impact and nonimpact activities, resistance training, and swimming may be beneficial during pregnancy. PMID:19652032

  16. Adventures in Exercise Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen A. FitzPatrick

    2004-09-01

    The author altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. The SALGains evaluation was used to compare the two approaches and significant improvements

  17. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Institution: NIH Library User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Heart-Healthy Exercise Lauren Healey Mellett , ... Section Footnotes The information contained in this Circulation Cardiology Patient Page is not a substitute for medical ...

  18. Exercise and Arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the house seems impossible. Recent American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines suggest that exercise should be one ... area, click here . Learn more about rheumatologists and rheumatology health professionals . For more information The American College ...

  19. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana C. Castells; Richard F. Horan; Albert L. Sheffer

    2003-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis has been recognized with increasing frequency since its original description in 1980. Recent\\u000a studies suggest food-induced reactions may occur frequently in this syndrome, which is a mast cell-dependent phenomenon. In\\u000a this article, the clinical manifestations of exercise-induced anaphylaxis are reviewed, and food related factors contributing\\u000a to the disorder are considered.

  20. Inverted Troughs Case Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2004-01-29

    This exercise follows the progression of a winter weather event across the Central Plains states beginning 1200 UTC on 7 March 1999. Each forecast question is accompanied by Eta model data and includes a forecast discussion by Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This exercise compliments the Webcast, Inverted Troughs and their Associated Precipitation Regimes, based on a presentation by Phil Schumacher at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder Colorado.

  1. Plume Delineation Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven Lev

    This exercise is designed to develop students ability to synthesize subsurface data and develop a model to explain a local groundwater contamination issue. Based on their groundwater model, they will make predictions as to location of the source area and the location of any potential human health risk. The exercise requires basic contour mapping skill, simple mathematical problem solving skills and a knowledge of Darcy's Law. Has minimal/no quantitative component

  2. Exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in healthy humans.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B D; Babcock, M A; Suman, O E; Dempsey, J A

    1993-01-01

    1. Twelve healthy subjects (33 +/- 3 years) with a variety of fitness levels (maximal oxygen uptake (VO2, max) = 61 +/- 4 ml kg-1 min-1, range 40-80), exercised at 95 and 85% VO2, max to exhaustion (mean time = 14 +/- 3 and 31 +/- 8 min, expired ventilation (VE) over final minute of exercise = 149 +/- 9 and 126 +/- 10 l min-1). 2. Bilateral transcutaneous supramaximal phrenic nerve stimulation (BPNS) was performed before and immediately after exercise at four lung volumes, and 400 ms tetanic stimulations were performed at 10 and 20 Hz. The coefficients of variation of repeated measurements for the twitch transdiaphragm pressures (Pdi) were +/- 7-10% and for compound muscle action potentials (M wave) +/- 10-15%. 3. Following exercise at 95% of VO2, max, group mean Pdi twitch values were reduced at all lung volumes (range -8 +/- 3 to -32 +/- 5%) and tetanically stimulated Pdi values were reduced at both 10 and 20 Hz (-21 +/- 3 and -13 +/- 2%, respectively) (P = 0.001-0.047). Following exercise at 85% VO2, max, stimulated Pdi values were reduced at all lung volumes and stimulating frequencies, but only significantly so with the twitch at functional residual capacity (-15 +/- 5%). Stimulated Pdi values recovered partially by 30 min post-exercise and almost completely by an average time of 70 min. 4. The fall in stimulated Pdi values post-exercise was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in diaphragmatic work (integral of Pdi min-1) from rest to end-exercise and the relative intensity of the exercise. 5. The integral of Pdi min-1 and the integral of Po min-1 (Po, esophageal pressure) rose together from rest through the fifth to tenth minute of exercise, after which integral of Pdi min-1 plateaued even though integral of Po min-1, VE and inspiratory flow rate all continued to rise substantially until exercise terminated. Thus, the relative contribution of the diaphragm to total respiratory motor output was progressively reduced with exercise duration. 6. We conclude that significant diaphragmatic fatigue is caused by the ventilatory requirements imposed by heavy endurance exercise in healthy persons with a variety of fitness levels. The magnitude of the fatigue and the likelihood of its occurrence increases as the relative intensity of the exercise exceeds 85% of VO2, max. PMID:8487201

  3. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  4. The Influence of “wuqinxi” exercises on the Lumbosacral Multifidus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of the five animals (wuqinxi) exercises on the lumbosacral multifidus. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled two groups of volunteers, 15 volunteers who did the five animals exercises, the experimental group, and 15 volunteers who did aerobic exercise (walking), the control group. Both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention, the average surface electromyography (ASEMG) of the two groups in the process of ?exion and extension was recorded and analyzed using DASYLab10.0 software, and the flexion extension ratio (FER) was calculated. [Results] The ASEMG in the process of flexion was lower than the ASEMG in the process of extension both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention on both sides of all volunteers. There was no significant difference in FER between the experimental group and control group before the 1?year exercise intervention; however, the FER of experimental group was lower than that of the control group after the 1?year exercise intervention. There was no significant difference between the two sides in any individual both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention in both groups. [Conclusion] The “wuqinxi” exercises improved the function of the lumbosacral multifidus, and might be an alternative method of reducing low back pain. PMID:25013288

  5. Kinetic chain exercise in knee rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Palmitier, R A; An, K N; Scott, S G; Chao, E Y

    1991-06-01

    Rehabilitation is recognised as a critical component in the treatment of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured athlete, and has been the subject of intense research over the past decade. As a result, sound scientific principles have been applied to this realm of sports medicine, and have improved the outcome of both surgical and nonsurgical treatment. Possibly the most intriguing of these principles is the use of the kinetic chain concept in exercise prescription following ACL reconstruction. The hip, knee, and ankle joints when taken together, comprise the lower extremity kinetic chain. Kinetic chain exercises like the squat recruit all 3 links in unison while exercises such as seated quadriceps extensions isolate one link of the chain. Biomechanical assessment with force diagrams reveals that ACL strain is reduced during kinetic chain exercise by virtue of the axial orientation of the applied load and muscular co-contraction. Additionally, kinetic chain exercise through recruitment of all hip, knee, and ankle extensors in synchrony takes advantage of specificity of training principles. More importantly, however, it is the only way to reproduce the concurrent shift of 'antagonistic' biarticular muscle groups that occurs during simultaneous hip, knee, and ankle extension. Incoordination of the concurrent shift fostered by exercising each muscle group in isolation may ultimately hamper complete recovery. Modifying present day leg press and isokinetic equipment will allow clinicians to make better use of kinetic chain exercise and allow safe isokinetic testing of the ACL reconstructed knee. Reconstruction of the ACL with a strong well placed graft to restore joint kinematics, followed by scientifically sound rehabilitation to improve dynamic control of tibial translation, will improve the outcome after ACL injury. PMID:1925185

  6. Exercise during pregnancy and its association with gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Harris, Shericka T; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Moran, Robert; Gallagher, Alexa

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association between exercise during pregnancy and meeting gestational weight gain recommendations. Data came from the 2009 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 856). Women reported their participation in exercise/sports activities before and during pregnancy, including the number of months and types of exercise. We developed an exercise index (EI), the product of the number of months spent in exercise and average metabolic equivalents for specific exercise. The 2009 Institute of Medicine's guideline was used to categorize gestational weight gain into three classes: inadequate, adequate, and excessive. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Over 46 % of women exceeded the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. Nearly one third (31.9 %) of women reported exercising ?3 times a week at any time during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not report this level of exercise during pregnancy, exercising women were more likely to meet gestational weight gain recommendations (32.7 vs. 18.7 %) and had a lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.43, 95 % confidence interval 0.24-0.78]. Women with an EI above the median value of those women who exercised or women who exercised ?3 times a week for 6-9 months during pregnancy had lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain (AOR for EI 0.20, 0.08-0.49; AOR for months 0.26, 0.12-0.56, respectively). Our findings support the need to promote or increase exercise during pregnancy to reduce the high proportion of women who are gaining excessive weight. PMID:24912945

  7. Exercise Training Amount and Intensity Effects on Metabolic Syndrome (From Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Johanna L.; Slentz, Cris A.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Samsa, Gregory P.; Duscha, Brian D.; Aiken, Lori B.; McCartney, Jennifer S.; Tanner, Charles J.; Kraus, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Although exercise improves individual risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MS), there is little research on the effect of exercise on MS as a whole. The objective of this study was to determine how much exercise is recommended to reduce the prevalence of MS. Of 334 subjects randomized, 227 finished and 171 (80 women, 91 men) had complete data for all 5 Adult Treatment Panel III-defined MS risk factors and were included in this analysis. Subjects were randomly assigned to a six-month control or 1 of 3 eight-month exercise training groups: 1) low-amount/moderate-intensity (equivalent to walking ~19 km/week); 2) low-amount/vigorous-intensity (equivalent to jogging ~19 km/week); 3) high-amount/vigorous-intensity (equivalent to jogging ~32 km/week). The low-amount/moderate-intensity exercise prescription improved MS relative to inactive controls (p<0.05). However, the same amount of exercise at a vigorous intensity was not significantly better than inactive controls, suggesting that lower intensity exercise may be more effective in improving MS. The high-amount/vigorous-intensity group improved MS relative to controls (p<0.0001), the low-amount/vigorous-intensity group (p=0.001), and the moderate intensity group (p=0.07), suggesting an exercise dose effect. In conclusion, a modest amount of moderate intensity exercise, in the absence of dietary changes, significantly improved MS and thus supports the recommendation that adults get 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise every day. A higher amount of vigorous exercise was shown to have greater and more widespread benefits. Finally, there is an indication that moderate intensity may be better than vigorous intensity exercise for improving MS. PMID:18082522

  8. BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    BEATCALC: Mental Math Exercises. BEATCALC will wake up your brain on Monday morning with a mental math exercise that will stimulate those gray cells. Each Monday you will receive instructions for an exercise that will enable you to do math computations mentally faster than a friend can do them on a calculator. For example, how about learning to square 65 or 95 mentally in quick time? You can beat that calculator! These exercises are designed for : (1) Foggy heads at work on Monday morning who need a mental jump-start for the week. (2) People who say "I never could do math" and need some math confidence. (3) Calculator cripples. Kids (and big kids) who need a calculator to do 8 times 9. (4) Individuals who have refused to think about numbers since fifth grade. Was it long division that did it? (5) Braggarts who would like to show up a colleague by doing math mentally faster than he/she can do it using a calculator. (6) Seniors who want to keep mentally alert by routinely exercising the noggin. (7) And other hardy and adventurous souls who can use a little mental stimulation. send email to beatcalc@aol.com in the body of the message type: SUBSCRIBE BEATCALC yourfirstname yourlastname

  9. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721

  10. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging.

    PubMed

    Ahlskog, J Eric; Geda, Yonas E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C

    2011-09-01

    A rapidly growing literature strongly suggests that exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, may attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce dementia risk. We used PubMed (keywords exercise and cognition) and manuscript bibliographies to examine the published evidence of a cognitive neuroprotective effect of exercise. Meta-analyses of prospective studies documented a significantly reduced risk of dementia associated with midlife exercise; similarly, midlife exercise significantly reduced later risks of mild cognitive impairment in several studies. Among patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) documented better cognitive scores after 6 to 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls. Meta-analyses of RCTs of aerobic exercise in healthy adults were also associated with significantly improved cognitive scores. One year of aerobic exercise in a large RCT of seniors was associated with significantly larger hippocampal volumes and better spatial memory; other RCTs in seniors documented attenuation of age-related gray matter volume loss with aerobic exercise. Cross-sectional studies similarly reported significantly larger hippocampal or gray matter volumes among physically fit seniors compared with unfit seniors. Brain cognitive networks studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging display improved connectivity after 6 to 12 months of exercise. Animal studies indicate that exercise facilitates neuroplasticity via a variety of biomechanisms, with improved learning outcomes. Induction of brain neurotrophic factors by exercise has been confirmed in multiple animal studies, with indirect evidence for this process in humans. Besides a brain neuroprotective effect, physical exercise may also attenuate cognitive decline via mitigation of cerebrovascular risk, including the contribution of small vessel disease to dementia. Exercise should not be overlooked as an important therapeutic strategy. PMID:21878600

  11. Cross refractoriness between sodium metabisulphite and exercise induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Pavord, I.; Lazarowicz, H.; Inchley, D.; Baldwin, D.; Knox, A.; Tattersfield, A.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Exercise and inhaled sodium metabisulphite are thought to cause bronchoconstriction in asthma through different mechanisms. The response to both stimuli becomes refractory with repeat challenge. The mechanism of refractoriness is unclear, although depletion of mast cell derived mediators or neurotransmitters has been suggested. Recent studies suggest a common mechanism involving release of inhibitory prostaglandins. If this is true, exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction should show cross refractoriness. METHODS--Thirteen subjects with mild asthma and previously established exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction performed two sodium metabisulphite challenges (giving a single dose previously shown to cause a 20% fall in FEV1) on one study day, and two exercise tests on another. The second challenge proceeded after recovery (FEV1 > 95% baseline) from the first. Subjects then attended on two further occasions when an exercise test was performed after sodium metabisulphite and a sodium metabisulphite challenge after exercise. RESULTS--When expressed as the percentage reduction in the area under the change in percentage FEV1 curve over 20 minutes (AUC) the response to exercise was reduced by a mean 62.3% (95% CI 46.5% to 78.1%) following a first exercise challenge, and by 50.7% (95% CI 27.8% to 73.6%) following a sodium metabisulphite challenge. The response to a sodium metabisulphite challenge was reduced by a mean of 80.2% (95% CI 68.9% to 91.5%) when it followed a sodium metabisulphite challenge, and by 37.3% (95% CI 15.1% to 59.5%) following an exercise challenge. CONCLUSION--This study shows some cross refractoriness between exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction, in keeping with a partially shared mechanism of refractoriness. PMID:8202881

  12. Hydration during intense exercise training.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L

    2013-01-01

    Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus. PMID:23899752

  13. American Council on Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1985, the American Council on Fitness is largely known for operating as a fitness certification and education provider. Fortunately for the average person looking for helpful information about exercise materials, the Council website is a treasure trove of free resources on the subject. Not surprisingly, most of these materials are contained within the "Get Fit!" section of the site. Here visitors will find free exercises, a number of healthy recipes, and discussion boards where they may ask questions of fitness professionals. Another useful area is the Operation FitKids section of the site. This section provides tips of keeping fit especially geared towards young people, along with informational fact sheets. Finally, there are a number of reports (sponsored by the ACE) that investigate various health and fitness practices, such as the best (and worst) abdominal exercises.

  14. Exercise and manual physiotherapy arthritis research trial (EMPART): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen P French; Tara Cusack; Aisling Brennan; Breon White; Clare Gilsenan; Martina Fitzpatrick; Paul O'Connell; David Kane; Oliver FitzGerald; Geraldine M McCarthy

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a major cause of functional disability and reduced quality of life. Management options aim to reduce pain and improve or maintain physical functioning. Current evidence indicates that therapeutic exercise has a beneficial but short-term effect on pain and disability, with poor long-term benefit. The optimal content, duration and type of exercise are yet

  15. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

  16. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, M C

    2012-09-01

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

  17. Laboratory Exercises An Hypothesis-driven, Molecular Phylogenetics Exercise for

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    after hypothesis generation. * This laboratory was designed and tested with the assistance of grantsLaboratory Exercises An Hypothesis-driven, Molecular Phylogenetics Exercise for College Biology State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 This hypothesis-driven laboratory exercise teaches how DNA

  18. The history of "Exercise Is Medicine" in ancient civilizations.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Charles M

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

  19. The history of “Exercise Is Medicine” in ancient civilizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

  20. Exercises in Math Readiness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rempel, Stephan

    Arriving at college, many individuals may find themselves in the need of some instructional tools to refresh their memories on various mathematical concepts. Fortunately for those individuals (and their teachers), the Exercises in Math Readiness website contains materials that will ease this process. Created by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Saskatchewan, the site contains exercises of varying difficulty that will take users through such topics as geometry, trigonometry, algebra, and exponential functions. Teachers will also want to look at the section that offers them some specific instructions on how the site might best be used with students. Additionally, the materials here are available in French, Georgian, and Russian.

  1. Supine Lower Body Negative Pressure Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity in Male Twins during 30 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise capacity is reduced following both short and long duration exposures to microgravity. We have shown previously that supine lower body negative pressure with exercise (LBNP(sub ex) maintains upright exercise capacity in men after 5d and 15d bed rest, as a simulation of microgravity. We hypothesized that LBNP(sub ex) would protect upright exercise capacity (VO2pk) and sprint performance in eight sets of identical male twins during a 30-d bed rest. Twins within each set were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) who performed no exercise or to an exercise group (EX) who performed a 40-min interval (40-80% pre-BR VO2pk) LBNP(sub ex) (55+/-4 mmHg) exercise protocol, plus 5 min of resting LBNP, 6 d/wk. LBNP produced footward force equivalent to 1.0- 1.2 times body weight. Pre- and post-bed rest, subjects completed an upright graded exercise test to volitional fatigue and sprint test of 30.5 m. After bed rest, VO2pk was maintained in the EX subjects (-3+/-3%), but was significantly decreased in the CON subjects (-24+/-4%). Sprint time also was increased in the CON subjects (24+/-8%), but maintained in the EX group (8+/-2%). The performance of a supine, interval exercise protocol with LBNP maintains upright exercise capacity and sprint performance during 30 d of bed rest. This exercise countermeasure protocol may help prevent microgravity-induced deconditioning during long duration space flight.

  2. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... ??) Related Resources Alcoholism Bed Rest and Immobilization Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Oral ...

  3. Exercise to Improve Your Balance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Go4Life website. As you progress in your exercise routine, try adding the following challenges to help ... steady on your feet, try doing the balance exercises with your eyes closed. Quick Tip In the ...

  4. Exercise and Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CF Care Center for advice and support. Why Exercise? Because it helps you feel better! Children, teens ... give confidence to face each day. Who Should Exercise? Almost everyone can be helped by being more ...

  5. Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential of exercise to positively influence so many physical and psychosocial domains, the Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program was developed to address the multiple impairments arising from the chronic health condition of stroke. We present the details of this exercise program and the evidence which has shown that the FAME Program can improve motor function (muscle strength, balance, walking), cardiovascular fitness, bone density, executive functions and memory. The FAME Program can help to improve the physical and cognitive abilities of people living with a stroke and reduce the risk of secondary complications such as falls, fractures and heart disease. PMID:22287825

  6. Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A. (editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (editor)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

  7. Exercise-training protocols for astronauts in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bulbulian, R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Haskell, W. L.; Moore, T.

    1989-01-01

    Based on physical working requirements for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activity and on the findings from bed-rest studies that utilized exercise training as a countermeasure for the reduction of aerobic power, deterioration of muscular strength and endurance, decrements in mood and cognitive performance, and possibly for bone loss, two exercise protocols are proposed. One assumes that, during microgravity, astronaut exercise physiological functions should be maintained at 100 percent of ground-based levels. The other assumes that maximal aerobic power in flight can be reduced by 10 percent of the ground-based level.

  8. Self-Presentation and Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HEATHER A. HAUSENBLAS; BRITTON W. BREWER; JUDY L. VAN RAALTE

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary research indicates that self-presentation may be an important antecedent and consequence of physical activity because it may affect people's exercise cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The specific purposes of this article were to review the literature on self-presentational processes with regard to (a) exercise behavior, (b) motivation to engage in physical activity, (c) the characteristics of the exercise environment, (d)

  9. Practice Exercises for Algebra Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exercises posted on this web site offer an opportunity for students to evaluate how much they have retained in various subjects of Algebra. Topics covered include geometry, functions, vectors, and statistics. There are corresponding lessons and solutions to each practice exercise. Also, the site contains useful tools such as graphs and spreadsheet modeling exercises to help students better visualize and understanding algebra concepts.

  10. NISTIR 7340 NIST Intercomparison Exercise

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7340 NIST Intercomparison Exercise Program for Organic Contaminants in the Marine Environment: Description and Results of 2005 Organic Intercomparison Exercises Michele M. Schantz John R Exercises Michele M. Schantz, John R. Kucklick,1 Reenie M. Parris, Dianne L. Poster, and Stephen A. Wise

  11. Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 3 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Solomon Zegeye s ­ Exercise Session 3­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, S.K. Zegeye Lyapunov Stability Check Consider the continuous anything about the stability of the system. ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 3­ sc4026 1 #12

  12. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 8, 2009 ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Linear Quadratic Regulator, in Theory Consider

  13. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Jacopo Antonello j ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, J. Antonello Review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2012/13, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, J. Antonello

  14. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a ­ Exercise Session 2­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Basic review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation 5 Do similarly with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2009/10, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2­ sc4026 1

  15. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano Review of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Computation Find with the aid of MATLAB. ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, P. Stano

  16. Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 2 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Properties of the matrix exponential Show, by using/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 2 ­ sc4026 1 #12;A. Abate, A. Haber Review of Eigenvalues

  17. Prescribing Exercise for Frail Elders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Heath; Marian R. Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Background: Frail elders often have chronic illnesses, such as osteoarthritis, hypertension, diabetes, and peripheral vascular disease, for which exercise is a proven means of achieving nonpharmacologic benefits, even at advanced age. Exercise has been shown to enhance the quality of life for these elders. Methods: A literature search of exercise literature applied to older adults and lifestyle modifications was conducted,

  18. Exercise and Fluid Balance Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…

  19. Cardiorespiratory, hormonal and haematological responses to submaximal cycling performed 2 days after eccentric or concentric exercise bouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Gleeson; Andrew K. Blannin; Bin Zhu; Stephen Brooks; Robert Cave

    1995-01-01

    Eccentric muscle actions are known to induce delayed?onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle weakness (reduced static strength and dynamic peak power output) that may persist for several days. The aim of the present study was to determine whether DOMS?inducing exercise affects physiological responses to subsequent submaximal dynamic exercise. Physiological and metabolic responses to a standardized exercise task were measured 2

  20. PPARs: Potential Mechanisms Regulating Blood Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations at Rest and Following Exercise in the Obese

    E-print Network

    Greene, Nicholas Perry

    2011-10-21

    responses to acute aerobic exercise and exercise training in obese men and women. The primary measured effects include: increased HDL-C in men following 12 wks exercise training, and a shift from HDL3-C to HDL2-C, with concomitantly reduced HDL-C mean...

  1. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolette C. Bishop; David J. Stensel; Martin R. Lindley; Sarabjit S. Mastana; Myra A. Nimmo; Michael Gleeson

    2011-01-01

    Regular exercise reduces the risk of chronic metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, in part because exercise exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, these effects are also likely to be responsible for the suppressed immunity that makes elite athletes more susceptible to infections. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise may be mediated via both a reduction in visceral fat mass (with a subsequent decreased

  2. Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    maya elrick

    This hypothetical Miocene exercise is designed to bring together knowledge of marine sedimentology, magnetostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, and biostratigraphy to illustrate how climate changes related to Milankovitch orbital forcing can be used to refine the time scale, determine the timing of events, and estimate rates ("astrochronology").

  3. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shashi K

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC) wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one’s strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

  4. Fuel Cell Laboratory Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This in-class lab exercise gives students the chance to build a zinc- copper fuel cell out of its component parts. The procedure for the lab is provided along with a graphical representation of what the fuel cell should look like. Several student questions are also included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  5. LONGPRO Stream Modeling Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Locke

    The purpose of this exercise is to integrate modeling with field data. The activity includes links to a "virtual field trip" of maps and photographs. Data from a creek is included in the field trip and students use an Excel spreadsheet model to analyze the data.

  6. Slantwise Convection Case Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2002-06-17

    This exercise examines an event that took place in the 24 hour time period beginning at 18Z, Dec 31, 2000 in southern British Columbia, Canada and northern Washington/Idaho, United States. This is a companion piece to the COMET Webcast, Slantwise Convection: An Operational Approach.

  7. Hydration during exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Candas; J. P. Libert; G. Brandenberger; J. C. Sagot; C. Amoros; J. M. Kahn

    1986-01-01

    Summary  Five young unacclimatised subjects were exposed for 4 h at 34 C (10 C dew-point temperature and 0.6 m · s–1 air velocity), while exercising on a bicycle ergometer: 25 min work — 5 min rest cycles for 2 hours followed by 20 min work — 10 min rest cycles for two further hours. 5 experimental sessions were carried out:

  8. Inspiring Exercises for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Tzee-Char

    1999-01-01

    Inspiring exercises are used to guide students at all levels to rediscover the essential meaning of various individual pieces of mathematics. Presents five sets of examples including Abel's identity, Hensel's lemma, finitely generated Abelian groups, Baire's category theorem, and the Weierstrass preparation theorem. (Author/ASK)

  9. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  10. Exercise, Sarcopenia and Immunosenescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN KRAUSE

    Abstract Sarcopenia is characterizedby the reduction in muscle mass and may contribute to immunosenescence, as it is thought that muscleprovides an important reservoir of heat shock proteins (HSP) and glutamine as well asact as a site for the action of insulin. HSPs are the cellular link, which activate T lymphocyte proliferation. Exercise can activate HSPs and may provide the ‘danger

  11. Exercise preconditioning of myocardial infarct size in dogs is triggered by calcium.

    PubMed

    Parra, Víctor M; Macho, Pilar; Sánchez, Gina; Donoso, Paulina; Domenech, Raúl J

    2015-03-01

    We showed that exercise induces early and late myocardial preconditioning in dogs and that these effects are mediated through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form (NADPH) oxidase activation. As the intracoronary administration of calcium induces preconditioning and exercise enhances the calcium inflow to the cell, we studied if this effect of exercise triggers exercise preconditioning independently of its hemodynamic effects. We analyzed in 81 dogs the effect of blocking sarcolemmal L-type Ca channels with a low dose of verapamil on early and late preconditioning by exercise, and in other 50 dogs, we studied the effect of verapamil on NADPH oxidase activation in early exercise preconditioning. Exercise reduced myocardial infarct size by 76% and 52% (early and late windows respectively; P < 0.001 both), and these effects were abolished by a single low dose of verapamil given before exercise. This dose of verapamil did not modify the effect of exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters. In addition, verapamil blocked the activation of NADPH oxidase during early preconditioning. The protective effect of exercise preconditioning on myocardial infarct size is triggered, at least in part, by calcium inflow increase to the cell during exercise and, during the early window, is mediated by NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:25658459

  12. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  13. Exercise-induced hyperthermia and hormonal responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Radomski, M W; Cross, M; Buguet, A

    1998-05-01

    Changes in plasma hormonal concentrations during exercise have been ascribed to the type, duration, and intensity of exercise, physical fitness of subjects, oxygen availability and debt, and acid-base balance. However, relatively few studies have examined the possible role of exercise-induced hyperthermia. This paper reviews previous studies on this subject and describes a series of experiments carried out in our laboratories to define the role of changes in body temperature in the release of hormones during exercise. In a first series of experiments, we studied the relationship between thermoregulatory and growth hormone responses to severe exercise at 23 degrees C for 2 h in fit euhydrated subjects, controlling the core temperature increase to a maximum of 40 degrees C by varying wind speed. Exponential relationships were found between increases in core temperature and plasma growth hormone, prolactin, and catecholamines during exercise, suggesting the existence of a thermal threshold for stimulation of hormonal release during exercise. The effect of endurance exercise with and without a thermal clamp (immersion in cold and warm water) on hormonal and leukocyte responses was examined. Again, a significant exponential relationship was found between increases in core temperature and hormonal responses. Thermal clamping significantly diminished the hormonal and the leukocytic responses to exercise, suggesting that an exercise-induced thermal threshold of approximately 38 degrees C exists where hormonal responses are observed. Therefore, core temperature increases may be integrated in the controlling system of hormonal and leukocytic responses to exercise. PMID:9839081

  14. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  15. Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Taheri, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers. Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two interventions was compared. Ergonomic modification consisted of correcting the arrangement of workstation and changing some equipment; workplace exercises included stretching exercises focusing on neck, shoulders, low back, and hand and wrist. Musculoskeletal complaints were assessed and compared before and after 1 month interventions. Results: The frequency of musculoskeletal complaints was high before the study. Both interventions significantly reduced complaints in a similar manner except for low back pain which was reduced in exercise group more than the other group. Conclusion: In this study we found a beneficial short-term effect for both ergonomic modifications and stretching work-place exercises on reducing musculoskeletal pain in office workers. PMID:25405134

  16. Postexercise hypotension after maximal short-term incremental exercise depends on exercise modality.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Felipe A; Midgley, Adrian W; Soares, Pedro P; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated postexercise hypotension (PEH) after maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performed using different exercise modalities. Twenty healthy men (aged 23 ± 3 years) performed 3 maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running), separated by 72 h in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), autonomic function (spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV)), and energy expenditure (EE) were assessed during a 60-min nonexercise control session and for 60 min immediately after each CPET. Total exercise volume (EE during CPET plus 60 min recovery) was significantly higher in running versus cycling and walking CPETs (P ? 0.001). Compared with control, only SBP after running CPET was significantly reduced (? = -6 ± 8 mm Hg; P < 0.001). Heart rate and cardiac output were significantly increased (P < 0.001) and SVR significantly decreased (P < 0.001) postexercise. BRS and HRV decreased after all CPETs (P < 0.001), whereas sympatho-vagal balance (low- and high-frequency (LF:HF) ratio) increased significantly after all exercise conditions, especially after running CPET (P < 0.001). Changes in SVR, BRS, sympathetic activity (low-frequency component of HRV), and LF:HF ratio were negatively correlated to variations in SBP (range -0.69 to -0.91; P < 0.001) and DBP (range -0.58 to -0.93; P ? 0.002). These findings suggest that exercise mode or the total exercise volume are major determinants of PEH magnitude in healthy men. Because of the running CPET, the PEH was primarily related to a decrease in SVR and to an increase in sympatho-vagal balance, which might be a reflex response to peripheral vasodilatation after exercise. PMID:25947649

  17. Impact of aerobic exercise intensity on craving and reactivity to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Elibero, Andrea; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Drobes, David J

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise can acutely reduce cigarette cravings during periods of nicotine deprivation. The primary aim of this study was to assess the differential effects of light and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on cigarette cravings, subjective and physiological reactivity to smoking cues, and affect after overnight nicotine deprivation. A secondary aim was to examine cortisol change as a mediator of the effects of exercise on smoking motivation. 162 (55 female, 107 male) overnight nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to one of three exercise conditions: light intensity, vigorous intensity, or a passive control condition. After each condition, participants engaged in a standardized cue reactivity assessment. Self-reported urges to smoke, affect, and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline (i.e., before each condition), immediately after each condition, and after the cue reactivity assessment. Light and vigorous exercise significantly decreased urges to smoke and increased positive affect, relative to the control condition. In addition, those in the vigorous exercise condition demonstrated suppressed appetitive reactivity to smoking cues, as indexed by the startle eyeblink reflex. Although exercise intensity was associated with expected changes in cortisol concentration, these effects were not related to changes in craving or cue reactivity. Both light and vigorous exercise can reduce general cravings to smoke, whereas vigorous exercise appears especially well-suited for reducing appetitive reactions to cues that may precede smoking. Results did not support exercise-induced cortisol release as a mechanism for these effects. PMID:23750690

  18. The microbiota: an exercise immunology perspective.

    PubMed

    Bermon, Stéphane; Petriz, Bernardo; Kaj?nien?, Alma; Prestes, Jonato; Castell, Lindy; Franco, Octavio L

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota consists of a cluster of microorganisms that produces several signaling molecules of a hormonal nature which are released into the blood stream and act at distal sites. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that microbiota may be modulated by several environmental conditions, including different exercise stimulus, as well some pathologies. Enriched bacterial diversity has also been associated with improved health status and alterations in immune system, making multiple connections between host and microbiota. Experimental evidence has shown that reduced levels and variations in the bacterial community are associated with health impairments, while increased microbiota diversity improves metabolic profile and immunological responses. So far, very few controlled studies have focused on the interactions between acute or chronic exercise and the gut microbiota. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from animal studies or probiotics studies show some interesting results at the immune level, indicating that the microbiota also acts like an endocrine organ and is sensitive to the homeostatic and physiological changes associated with exercise. Thus, our review intends to shed some light on the interaction between gut microbiota, exercise and immunomodulation. PMID:25825908

  19. Acute hypoxia and exercise-induced blood oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Graham; Kliszczewiscz, Brian; Barberio, Matthew; Ballmann, Christopher; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Dumke, Charles; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxic exercise is characterized by workloads decrements. Because exercise and high altitude independently elicit redox perturbations, the study purpose was to examine hypoxic and normoxic steady-state exercise on blood oxidative stress. Active males (n = 11) completed graded cycle ergometry in normoxic (975 m) and hypoxic (3,000 m) simulated environments before programing subsequent matched intensity or workload steady-state trials. In a randomized counterbalanced crossover design, participants completed three 60-min exercise bouts to investigate the effects of hypoxia and exercise intensity on blood oxidative stress. Exercise conditions were paired as such; 60% normoxic VO(2)peak performed in a normoxic environment (normoxic intensity-normoxic environment, NI-NE), 60% hypoxic VO(2)peak performed in a normoxic environment (HI-NE), and 60% hypoxic VO(2)peak performed in a hypoxic environment (HI-HE). Blood plasma samples drawn pre (Pre), 0 (Post), 2 (2HR) and 4 (4HR) hr post exercise were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers including ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and protein carbonyls (PCs). Repeated-measures ANOVA were performed, a priori significance of p ? .05. Oxygen saturation during the HI-HE trial was lower than NI-NE and HI-NE (p < .05). A Time × Trial interaction was present for LOOH (p = .013). In the HI-HE trial, LOOH were elevated for all time points post while PC (time; p = .001) decreased post exercise. As evidenced by the decrease in absolute workload during hypoxic VO(2)peak and LOOH increased during HI-HE versus normoxic exercise of equal absolute (HI-NE) and relative (NI-NE) intensities. Results suggest acute hypoxia elicits work decrements associated with post exercise oxidative stress. PMID:24667140

  20. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65?years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women.

  1. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior. PMID:25602145

  2. Bedrock Geology Mapping Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Miller

    This field mapping and map-making exercise is a capstone project for a course on Geological Maps. Over a weekend (~12 hours of field work), students collect lithologic and structural data from outcrops scattered over a one square mile area. Back in the classroom, students digitally compile their field data (outcrop, structure measurements, traverse locations) into ArcMAP. They infer geologic linework (faults and contacts) and units from this data in ArcMAP and then export these data layers into Illustrator. In Illustrator, they add ancillary map components (a cross section, description of map units, correlation diagram, map symbol legend,...) to create a final map at a 1:10,000 scale. Their maps are printed out on 11"x17" paper and saved as a pdf file. This exercise helps the students to appreciate how field data is collected and how these geologic facts are interpretively organized into a four-dimensional picture that is a geologic map.

  3. Exercise for tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2015-06-26

    Tendinopathies are one of the most common sports/musculoskeletal injury in modern western societies. Many physiotherapy approaches have been recommended in the literature for the management of tendinopathy. The most effective treatment in the management of tendinopathy is the eccentric training. Load, speed and frequency of contractions are the three principles of eccentric exercises, discussed in this report. However, eccentric training is not effective for all patients with tendinopathy and the effectiveness of this approach when applied as monotherapy is lower than it is applied as part of the rehabilitation process. For this reason, clinicians combine eccentric training with other physiotherapy techniques such as stretching, isometric and lumbar stability exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy, soft tissue manipulation techniques, taping and acupuncture in the management of tendinopathies. Further research is needed to find out which treatment strategy combined with eccentric training will provide the best results in the rehabilitation of tendinopathy. PMID:26140271

  4. Exercise for tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathies are one of the most common sports/musculoskeletal injury in modern western societies. Many physiotherapy approaches have been recommended in the literature for the management of tendinopathy. The most effective treatment in the management of tendinopathy is the eccentric training. Load, speed and frequency of contractions are the three principles of eccentric exercises, discussed in this report. However, eccentric training is not effective for all patients with tendinopathy and the effectiveness of this approach when applied as monotherapy is lower than it is applied as part of the rehabilitation process. For this reason, clinicians combine eccentric training with other physiotherapy techniques such as stretching, isometric and lumbar stability exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy, soft tissue manipulation techniques, taping and acupuncture in the management of tendinopathies. Further research is needed to find out which treatment strategy combined with eccentric training will provide the best results in the rehabilitation of tendinopathy. PMID:26140271

  5. Blood rheology effect of submaximal exercise on young subjects.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, Rafael; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Aranda, Rafael; Gómez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays cardiac and metabolic diseases are a matter of concern. Exercise is a valid treatment and method of prevention for not only adults, but also young subjects. Physical activity causes transient blood rheology impairment in adults. However little is known about the effects of exercise on blood flow characteristics in young subjects. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of a light aerobic exercise session on blood rheology in young subjects. Ten young subjects (aged 12-16 years) performed 1 hour of submaximal aerobic exercise (70% HRmax). Blood samples were drawn just before and after exercise. We determined blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte deformability and aggregability. No changes in blood viscosity (p > 0.05), erythrocyte aggregation (p > 0.05) and fibrinogen (p > 0.05) were observed. Hematocrit (p = 0.025) and plasma viscosity (p = 0.018) rose with exercise, while erythrocyte elongation index lowered (p < 0.001). Plasma volume slightly reduced which may explain the lack of changes in blood viscosity. The results of the present study indicate a similar hemorheological response to submaximal exercise in both young people and adults. PMID:23302596

  6. Pulmonary arterial compliance and exercise capacity after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Stefano; Morsolini, Marco; Corsico, Angelo; Klersy, Catherine; Mattiucci, Gabriella; Raineri, Claudia; Scelsi, Laura; Vistarini, Nicola; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; D'Armini, Andrea Maria

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), despite successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), can continue to suffer from a limitation in exercise capacity. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary arterial compliance is a predictor of exercise capacity after PEA. Right heart haemodynamics, treadmill incremental exercise test, spirometry, carbon monoxide transfer factor, arterial blood gas and echocardiographic examinations were retrospectively analysed in a population of CTEPH patients who underwent PEA at a single centre. Baseline and 3-month haemodynamic data were available in 296 patients; 5-year follow-up data were available in 68 patients. In a multivariable model the following parameters were found to be independent predictors of exercise capacity after surgery: age, sex, pulmonary arterial compliance, tricuspid annular plane excursion, arterial oxygen tension and carbon monoxide transfer factor (p<0.0001); the model showed good discrimination (Harrell's c=0.84) and calibration (shrinkage coefficient=0.91). Poor exercise capacity at 3 months was loosely associated with higher death rate during subsequent survival (Harrell's c=0.61). In conclusion, after successful PEA, reduced pulmonary arterial compliance is an important determinant of exercise capacity in association with the age and sex of the patients, and the extent of recovery of both cardiac and respiratory function. However, exercise capacity does not explain a large proportion of the effect of surgery on subsequent survival. PMID:24435007

  7. Computational Modeling of Pathophysiologic Responses to Exercise in Fontan Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Ethan; Perry, James C.; Davis, Christopher; Migliavacca, Francesco; Pennati, Giancarlo; Giardini, Alessandro; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Marsden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Reduced exercise capacity is nearly universal among Fontan patients. Although many factors have emerged as possible contributors, the degree to which each impacts the overall hemodynamics is largely unknown. Computational modeling provides a means to test hypotheses of causes of exercise intolerance via precisely controlled virtual experiments and measurements. We quantified the physiological impacts of commonly encountered, clinically relevant dysfunctions introduced to the exercising Fontan system via a previously developed lumped-parameter model of Fontan exercise. Elevated pulmonary arterial pressure was observed in all cases of dysfunction, correlated with lowered cardiac output, and often mediated by elevated atrial pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance was not the most significant factor affecting exercise performance as measured by cardiac output. In the absence of other dysfunctions, atrioventricular valve insufficiency alone had significant physiological impact, especially under exercise demands. The impact of isolated dysfunctions can be linearly summed to approximate the combined impact of several dysfunctions occurring in the same system. A single dominant cause of exercise intolerance was not identified, though several hypothesized dysfunctions each led to variable decreases in performance. Computational predictions of performance improvement associated with various interventions should be weighed against procedural risks and potential complications, contributing to improvements in routine patient management protocol. PMID:25260878

  8. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26030434

  9. A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity – exercise – as an intervention for hazardous drinking. Exercise has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and data suggest that students who engage in exercise regularly are less likely to drink heavily. However, the adherence to exercise necessary to achieve these benefits and possibly reduce drinking is poor, and improved exercise adherence interventions are needed. A novel combination of motivational enhancement therapy and contingency management is discussed as a means to address the critical issue of exercise adherence. PMID:20452930

  10. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  11. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, A L; Austen, K F

    1980-08-01

    Sixteen patients were seen because of possibly life-threatening exercise-associated symptoms similar to anaphylactic reactions. Asthma attacks, cholinergic urticaria and angioedema, and cardiac arrythmias are recognized as exertion-related phenomena in predisposed patients but are distinct from the syndrome described here. A syndrome characterized by the exertion-related onset of cutaneous pruritus and warmth, the development of generalized urticaria, and the appearance of such additional manifestations as collapse in 12 patients, gastrointestinal tract symptoms in five patients, and upper respiratory distress in 10 patients has been designated exercise-induced anaphylaxis, because of the striking similarity of this symptom complex to the anaphylactic syndrome elicited by ingestion or injection of a foreign antigenic substance. There is a family history of atopic desease for 11 patients and cold urticaria for two others and a personal history of atopy in six. The size of the wheals, the failure to develop an attack with a warm bath or shower or a fever, and the prominence of syncope rule against the diagnosis of conventional cholinergic urticaria. There is no history or evidence of an encounter with an environmental source of antigen during the exercise period. PMID:7400473

  12. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    PubMed

    Wylon, K; Hompes, S; Worm, M

    2013-02-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a mast cell dependent reaction, which is induced by allergen exposure in combination with physical activity. Typically, the reaction occurs within 2 hours after allergen exposure followed by physical activity. Not only food allergens but all kinds of allergens including drugs can induce this form of anaphylaxis. The clinical symptoms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis are the same as in any other type of anaphylaxis. Thus not only the skin and mucosa but also other organ systems like the lungs, cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract can be affected. The diagnostic work up should cover a detailed clinical history including the assessment of symptoms and possible trigger factors including suspected allergens. Besides classical allergy diagnostics like skin prick tests and specific IgE determination, tryptase should be measured for the differential diagnosis to exclude mast cell dependent diseases. The diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis is made by the means of a double-blind placebo-controlled provocation test. Both, a sufficient amount of allergen and of physical activity must be achieved for a valid test. After the diagnosis is made, patients should be extensively counseled and provided with an emergency kit including an epinephrine auto injector. PMID:23385620

  13. Cardiovascular Control during Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Green, Simon; Egaña, Mikel; Baldi, J. Chris; Lamberts, Regis; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled studies of male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) of short duration (~3–5 years) show that DM reduces peak V?O2 (L·min?1 and mL·kg?1·min?1) by an average of 12–15% and induces a greater slowing of the dynamic response of pulmonary V?O2 during submaximal exercise. These effects occur in individuals less than 60 years of age but are reduced or absent in older males and are consistently associated with significant increases in the exercise pressor response despite normal resting blood pressure. This exaggerated pressor response, evidence of exertional hypertension in DM, is manifest during moderate submaximal exercise and coincides with a more constrained vasodilation in contracting muscles. Maximum vasodilation during contractions involving single muscle groups is reduced by DM, and the dynamic response of vasodilation during submaximal contractions is slowed. Such vascular constraint most likely contributes to exertional hypertension, impairs dynamic and peak V?O2 responses, and reduces exercise tolerance. There is a need to establish the effect of DM on dynamic aspects of vascular control in skeletal muscle during whole-body exercise and to clarify contributions of altered cardiovascular control and increased arterial stiffness to exertional hypertension. PMID:25918732

  14. Asthma Bronchiale and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Harshani; Kopsaftis, Zoe; Carson, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Exercising regularly has a wide range of beneficial health effects; in particular, it has been well documented to help in the management of chronic illnesses including asthma. However, in some individuals, exertion can also trigger an exacerbation of asthmatic episodes and subsequent acute attacks of breathlessness, coughing, tightness of the chest and wheezing. This physiological process is called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) whereby post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s is reduced by 10-15% from baseline. While EIB is highly prevalent in asthmatics and presents with similar respiratory symptoms, asthma and EIB are not mutually exclusive. The aim of this review is to present a broad overview of both conditions in order to enhance the understanding of the similarities and differences distinguishing them as two separate entities. The pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying asthma are well described with research now focussing on defining phenotypes for targeted management strategies. Conversely, the mechanistic understanding of EIB remains largely under-described. Diagnostic pathways for both are established and similar, as are pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments and management approaches, which have enhanced success with early detection. Given the potential for exacerbation of asthma, exercise avoidance is common but counterproductive as current evidence indicates that it is well tolerated and improves quality of life. Literature supporting the benefit of exercise for EIB sufferers is at present favourable, yet extremely limited; therefore, future research should be directed in this area as well as towards further developing the understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms underpinning both EIB and asthma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26068579

  15. Antagonistic interaction between cordyceps sinensis and exercise on protection in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Herb supplements are widely used by Asian athletes; however, there are no studies evaluated the co-effects of exercise and herb supplements on hepatic failure. In this study, D-GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatic failure was used to examine whether there are synergistic or antagonistic effects of exercise and Cordyceps sinensis (CS). Mice were randomly divided into eight groups: control, swimming exercise for four weeks, D-GalN/LPS challenge, swimming exercise plus D-GalN/LPS, 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreated for four weeks plus D-GalN/LPS, and swimming exercise combined with 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment plus D-GalN/LPS. Either exercise or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment alone significantly decreased D-GalN/LPS-induced TNF-?, AST, NO, apoptotic-related proteins, and hepatocyte apoptosis. Exercise or 40 mg/kg CS alone increased the IL-10 and D-GalN/LPS-suppressed Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) level. However, no protective or worse effect was observed in the mice treated with exercise preconditioning combined 40 mg/kg CS compared to those receive exercise alone or CS alone. TNF-?, AST, NO level, caspase-3 activity, and hepatocytes apoptosis were not significantly different in the exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS compared to mice challenged with D-GalN/LPS. The IL-10 level was significantly decreased after D-GalN/LPS stimulation in the mice received exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS, indicating the combination strongly reduced the anti-inflammatory effect. In summary, preconditioning exercise or CS pretreatment alone can protect mice from septic liver damage, but in contrast, the combination of exercise and CS does not produce any benefit. The antagonistic interactions between exercise and CS imply taking CS is not recommended for people who undertake regular exercise. PMID:25242080

  16. Benefit and risk of exercise on myocardial function in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyan; Culver, Bruce; Ren, Jun

    2003-08-01

    Regular physical activity promotes cardiorespiratory fitness and has been considered a cornerstone for non-pharmacological treatment of more than 17 million Americans with diabetes mellitus. Physical exercise has been shown to positively affect certain cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance, glucose metabolism, blood pressure and body fat composition, which are closely associated with diabetes and heart disease. With the increasingly sedentary life style in our society, routine daily exercise of moderate intensity is highly recommended to reduce cardiovascular risk, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Exercise produces many beneficial effects to the heart function such as reduced incidence of coronary heart disease, attenuated severity of diabetic cardiomyopathy, improved cardiac performance, cardiac reserve and autonomic regulation. Nevertheless, many diabetic patients do not appear to gain much benefit from exercise or may even be at risk of performing physical exercise. This review summarizes the benefit and risk of exercise on diabetic heart function, with a special emphasis on myocardial and autonomic function. PMID:12798664

  17. Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on exercise adaptations in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Tonini; Anne-Sophie Michallet; Patrice Flore; Hugo Nespoulet; Jean-Louis Pepin; Bernard Wuyam; Patrick Levy; Renaud Tamisier

    2011-01-01

    Reduced exercise tolerance has been reported in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients, although the associated hypertension, obesity and\\/or metabolic disorder may underlie this reduction. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in 12 healthy subjects on exercise capacity, cardio-respiratory responses, and substrate oxidation during maximal and sub-maximal exercise. Subjects were exposed to 30 cycles of hypoxia–reoxygenation

  18. Sexual Dimorphism in the Effects of Exercise on Metabolism of Lipids to Support Resting Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training is generally a healthful activity and an effective intervention for reducing the risk of numerous chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This is likely both a result of prevention of weight gain over time and direct effects of exercise on metabolism of lipids and the other macronutrient classes. Importantly, a single bout of exercise can alter lipid metabolism and metabolic rate for hours and even into the day following exercise, so individuals who regularly exercise, even if not performed every single day, overall could experience a substantial change in their resting metabolism that would reduce risk for metabolic diseases. However, resting metabolism does not respond similarly in all individuals to exercise participation, and indeed gender or sex is a major determinant of the response of resting lipid metabolism to prior exercise. In order to fully appreciate the metabolic effects and health benefits of exercise, the differences between men and women must be considered. In this article, the differences in the effects of exercise on resting metabolic rate, fuel selection after exercise, as well as the shuttling of triglyceride and fatty acids between tissues are discussed. Furthermore, concepts related to sex differences in the precision of homeostatic control and sex differences in the integration of metabolism between various organs are considered. PMID:25339941

  19. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The following results were obtained from this study; 1. In the change of fatigue substances : Serotonin in the EXP tended to decreased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise, and recovery 30 min. Serotonin in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the10 min before exercise and recovery 30. Ammonia in the EXP was increased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise, but significantly decreased at the recovery 30min (p < 0.05). Ammonia in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise (p < 0.05). Lactate in the EXP was significantly increased at the 30 min into exercise and significantly decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. Lactate in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the post exercise (p < 0.05). 2. In the change of muscle damage substances : CK in the EXP was decreased at the 10 min before exercise and increased at the 30 min into exercise and then decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. CK in the CON was greater than the EXP. LDH in the EXP was decreased at the 10 min before exercise and increased at the 30 min into exercise and then decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. LDH in the CON was higher than the EXP. 3. In the change of energy metabolism substances :Glucose in the EXP tended to decrease at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise and recovery 30 min. Glucose in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the recovery 30 min (p < .05). FFA in both EXP and CON was increased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. % increase for FFA in the EXP was greater than the CON at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. 4. The relationship of the fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances after endurance exercise indicated strongly a positive relationship between LDH and ammonia and a negative relationship between LDH and FFA in the EXP. Also, there were a strong negative relationship between glucose and FFA and a positive relationship between glucose and serotonin in the EXP. There was a strong positive relationship between CK and LDH and a strong negative relationship between FFA and glucose in the CON. These results indicate that supplementary BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise. PMID:25566428

  20. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-01-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The following results were obtained from this study; 1. In the change of fatigue substances : Serotonin in the EXP tended to decreased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise, and recovery 30 min. Serotonin in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the10 min before exercise and recovery 30. Ammonia in the EXP was increased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise, but significantly decreased at the recovery 30min (p < 0.05). Ammonia in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise (p < 0.05). Lactate in the EXP was significantly increased at the 30 min into exercise and significantly decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. Lactate in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the post exercise (p < 0.05). 2. In the change of muscle damage substances : CK in the EXP was decreased at the 10 min before exercise and increased at the 30 min into exercise and then decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. CK in the CON was greater than the EXP. LDH in the EXP was decreased at the 10 min before exercise and increased at the 30 min into exercise and then decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. LDH in the CON was higher than the EXP. 3. In the change of energy metabolism substances :Glucose in the EXP tended to decrease at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise and recovery 30 min. Glucose in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the recovery 30 min (p < .05). FFA in both EXP and CON was increased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. % increase for FFA in the EXP was greater than the CON at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. 4. The relationship of the fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances after endurance exercise indicated strongly a positive relationship between LDH and ammonia and a negative relationship between LDH and FFA in the EXP. Also, there were a strong negative relationship between glucose and FFA and a positive relationship between glucose and serotonin in the EXP. There was a strong positive relationship between CK and LDH and a strong negative relationship between FFA and glucose in the CON. These results indicate that supplementary BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise. PMID:25566428

  1. Time course of muscle soreness following different types of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J

    2001-01-01

    Background Post-exercise muscle soreness is a dull, aching sensation that follows unaccustomed muscular exertion. Primarily on the basis of previous laboratory-based research on eccentric exercise, soreness is usually said to follow an inverted U-shaped curve over time, peaking 24 – 48 hours after exercise. As such, it is often described as "delayed-onset" muscle soreness. In a study of long-distance runners, soreness seemed to peak immediately and then reduce gradually over time. The study is a secondary analysis of clinical trial data that aims to determine whether the time course of soreness following a natural exercise, long-distance running, is different from that following a laboratory-based exercise, bench-stepping. Methods This is a reanalysis of data from three previous clinical trials. The trials included 400 runners taking part in long-distance races and 82 untrained volunteers performing a bench-stepping test. Subjects completed a Likert scale of muscle soreness every morning and evening for the five days following their exercise. Results Interaction between trial and time is highly significant, suggesting a different time course of soreness following running and bench-stepping. 45% of subjects in the bench-stepping trial experienced peak soreness at the third or fourth follow-up (approximately 36 – 48 hours after exercise) compared to only 14% of those in the running trial. The difference between groups is robust to multivariate analysis incorporating possible confounding variables. Conclusion Soreness in runners following long-distance running follows a different time course to that in untrained individuals undertaking bench-stepping. Research on exercise taking place in the laboratory context does not necessarily generalize to exercise undertaken by trained athletes when engaged in their chosen sport. PMID:11701094

  2. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  3. Family Physicians and Exercise Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Douglas M.C.; Ciliska, Donna; Singer, Joel; Williams, Kimberly; Alleyne, Julia; Lindsay, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    This trial took 22 volunteer family physicians and randomly exposed some to training intervention and some to no training to study the effect on frequency and quality of exercise prescription to ambulatory adults. During the 6 weeks after training, the trained physicians addressed the issue of exercise with 35.3% of patients. The untrained physicians discussed exercise with only 8.6% of their patients. PMID:21221270

  4. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Pawel Stano p.stano@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 7, 2010 ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session, s2 = -1, s3 = -1 + j, s4 = -1 - j. ­ Ac.Yr. 2010/11, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12

  5. Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    sc4026 Exercise Session 5 Alessandro Abate a.abate@tudelft.nl Aleksandar Haber a.haber@tudelft.nl Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft October 13, 2011 ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise, s2 = -1, s3 = -1 + j, s4 = -1 - j. ­ Ac.Yr. 2011/12, 1e Sem. Q1 ­ Exercise Session 5 ­ sc4026 1 #12

  6. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  7. Exercise Decreases Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Expression in the Spinal Cord and Positively Modulates Neuronal Growth

    PubMed Central

    GHIANI, CRISTINA A.; YING, ZHE; DE VELLIS, JEAN; GOMEZ-PINILLA, FERNANDO

    2009-01-01

    To successfully grow, neurons need to overcome the effects of hostile environments, such as the inhibitory action of myelin. We have evaluated the potential of exercise to overcome the intrinsic limitation of the central nervous system for axonal growth. In line with the demonstrated ability of exercise to increase the regenerative potential of neurons, here we show that exercise reduces the inhibitory capacity of myelin. Cortical neurons grown on myelin from exercised rats showed a more pronounced neurite extension compared with neurons grown on poly-D-lysine, or on myelin extracted from sedentary animals. The activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 5, a kinase involved in neurite outgrowth, was found to be increased in cortical neurons grown on exercise-myelin and in the lumbar spinal cord enlargement of exercised animals. Exercise significantly decreased the levels of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a potent axonal growth inhibitor, suggesting that downregulation of MAG is part of the mechanism through which exercise reduces growth inhibition. It is known that exercise elevates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) spinal cord levels and that BDNF acts to overcome the inhibitory effects of myelin. Accordingly, we blocked the action of BDNF during exercise, which suppressed the exercise-related MAG decrease. Protein kinase A (PKA) has been related to the ability of BDNF to overcome growth inhibition; in agreement, we found that exercise increased PKA levels and this effect was reverted by blocking BDNF. Overall, these results show that exercise promotes a permissive cellular environment for axonal growth in the adult spinal cord requiring BDNF action. PMID:17497667

  8. Real-time exercise load control using heart rate response during exercise on a stationary bicycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyungryul Chung; Sayup Kim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm for exercise load control and estimation of energy expenditure during bicycle exercise. In this study, forty-eight healthy volunteers participated and were tested graded exercise test using ramp protocol and four interval training programs. To define the exercise intensity and workload, %HRmax was used for participants exercise prescription. Exercise load of

  9. Carbon Dioxide Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Randy Richardson

    In this activity, students work in groups, plotting carbon dioxide concentrations over time on overheads and estimating the rate of change over five years. Stacked together, the overheads for the whole class show an increase on carbon dioxide over five years and annual variation driven by photosynthesis. This exercise enables students to practice basic quantitative skills and understand how important sampling intervals can be when studying changes over time. A goal is to see how small sample size may give incomplete picture of data.

  10. Effect of exercise on burn-induced changes in tissue-specific glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Carter, Edward A; Paul, Kasie; Bonab, Ali A; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fischman, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a component of the clinical management for burn patients, to help reduce muscle wasting associated with prolonged hospitalization. In the present study the authors examined 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) uptake in mice subjected to burn injury with and without exercise. Mice had their the dorsums shaven, were placed in molds, and the exposed area was immersed in 90°C water for 9 seconds followed by resuscitation with saline (2 ml) to produce a 30% full-thickness burn injury. Twenty-four hours later, the mice were subjected to treadmill exercise for 1 hour. Before exercise, mice were injected with ~50 ?Ci 18FDG. Mice were killed after running and a complete biodistribution was performed. Exercise produced a stimulation of 18FDG update by skeletal muscle and heart, while reducing 18FDG accumulation in brain. Burn injury had no significant effect on 18FDG update by skeletal muscle, but did increase 18FDG accumulation in heart, while reducing 18FDG accumulation in brain. However, exercise combined with a burn injury produced a significant increase in 18FDG uptake in the skeletal muscle compared with the burned mice, as great as that produced in the sham animals subjected to exercise. The combination of burn plus exercise appeared to prevent the stimulation of 18FDG uptake by the heart produced by burn injury alone. Exercise treatment did not correct the changes in 18FDG uptake in the brain produced by burn injury. Separately, exercise and burn injury significantly increased serum interleukin-6 levels, increases that were higher when exercise was combined with the burn injury. These findings suggest that exercise may exert some therapeutic effects in burn patients by tissue-specific modulation of glucose metabolism, and these changes may be related to interleukin-6. PMID:24476988

  11. Acute exercise ameliorates differences in insulin resistance between physically active and sedentary overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Rachael K.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Although regular exercise is associated with reduced cardiometabolic disease risk among overweight adults, it remains unclear whether much of the health benefits of exercise are derived from the most recent session(s) of exercise or if they are the result of adaptations stemming from weeks, months, or even years of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of habitual and acute exercise on key markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in overweight adults. We compared insulin sensitivity index (ISI) using an oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and systemic inflammatory cytokines in 12 overweight to mildly obese adults (BMI: 27–34 kg/m2) who exercise regularly (EX; >2.5 h exercise per week) with a well-matched cohort of 12 nonexercisers (Non-EX). Baseline measurements in EX were performed exactly 3 days after exercise, whereas Non-EX remained sedentary. We repeated these measurements the day after a session of exercise in both groups. At baseline, ISI was significantly greater in EX versus Non-EX (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.3 ± 0.2; p = 0.02), but BP, blood lipids, and plasma concentration of the systemic inflammatory cytokines we measured were not different between groups. Acute exercise increased ISI the next morning in Non-EX (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.3; p = 0.03) but not EX. As a result, ISI was similar between groups the morning after exercise. In summary, exercising regularly was accompanied by a persistent improvement in insulin sensitivity that lasted at least 3 days after exercise in overweight adults, but just one session of exercise increased insulin sensitivity among sedentary overweight adults to levels equivalent to the regular exercisers. PMID:24773370

  12. Regular exercise modulates obesity factors and body composition in sturdy men

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Choi, Pil-Byung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the change and correlation between obesity factors and body composition according to regular exercise. Thirty-six sturdy men at twenty years old in ‘K’ university students were participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n= 18 in each group): control group and regular exercise group. Exercise program composed of three programs: warm-up (10 min), work-out (30–60 min), cool-down (10 min), and categorized by five days per week for eight weeks. Aerobic exercise using a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve was performed, and weight training was composed of nine different exercises for the large muscles. Before the performing regular exercise, there was no significant difference between control and regular exercise groups. In the present results, 8 weeks regular exercise significantly decreased leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) more than compared to before performing regular exercise, whereas significantly enhanced lean mass more than compared to before performing regular exercise. Furthermore, regular exercise group reduced leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, WHR, and BMI compared to control group in the post test. In the correlation of obesity-related factors and body composition, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) showed correlation with weight, lean mass, and fat mass after performing regular exercise. Here in this study, we suggest that regular exercise is a valuable tool for the improvement of health in the sturdy men, because regular exercise suppresses body fat and obesity-related factors. PMID:24278869

  13. Comparison of Cardioprotective Benefits of Vigorous Versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Swain; Barry A. Franklin

    Aerobic fitness, not merely physical activity, is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Vigorous intensity exercise has been shown to increase aerobic fitness more effectively than moderate intensity exercise, suggesting that the former may confer greater cardioprotective benefits. An electronic search of published studies using PubMed was conducted for 2 types of investigations, epidemiologic studies that evaluated the

  14. Impact of early ventricular unloading on exercise performance in preadolescents with single ventricle fontan physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T Mahle; Gil Wernovsky; Nancy D Bridges; Andrea B Linton; Stephen M Paridon

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVESWe sought to determine if early ventricular volume unloading improves aerobic capacity in patients with single ventricle Fontan physiology.BACKGROUNDSurgical strategies for patients with single ventricle include intermediate staging or early Fontan completion to reduce the adverse affects of prolonged ventricular volume load. The impact of this strategy on exercise performance has not been evaluated.METHODSRetrospectively, we reviewed the exercise stress test

  15. Strength exercise improves muscle mass and hepatic insulin sensitivity in obese youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on the metabolic effects of resistance exercise (strength training) in adolescents are limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether a controlled resistance exercise program without dietary intervention or weight loss reduces body fat accumulation, increases lean body mass, and ...

  16. Diagonal Trunk Muscle Exercises in Peripartum Pelvic Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan MA Mens; Chris J Snijders; Henk J Stam

    Background and Purpose. Exercises for low back and pelvic pain are supposed to increase muscle force to reduce symptoms, but they could exacerbate symptoms by loading of the spinal and pelvic structures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of graded exercises of the diagonal trunk muscle systems. Subjects. The subjects were 44 women with persistent pelvic

  17. Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia

    MedlinePLUS

    Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia Posted on November 6, 2009 by admin by Jim Cavanaugh, PT, ... related duties? 3. Do you have questions about exercise? Do you exercise regularly? Are you involved in ...

  18. Association of Socioeconomic Status and Exercise Capacity in Adults With Coronary Heart Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Cohen; Eric Vittinghoff; Mary Whooley

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with reduced treadmill exercise capacity and predicted adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Why patients with low SES had reduced exercise capacity and whether this relation existed in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) was not known. Using data from the Heart and Soul Study, the association of 4 indicators of SES (household income, education, housing status,

  19. The Impact of Exercise on Suicide Risk: Examining Pathways through Depression, PTSD, and Sleep in an Inpatient Sample of Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Collin L.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Souter, Tasha; Vannoy, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Suicide has a large public health impact. Although effective interventions exist, the many people at risk for suicide cannot access these interventions. Exercise interventions hold promise in terms of reducing suicide because of their ease of implementation. While exercise reduces depression, and reductions in depressive symptoms are linked to…

  20. Exercise, oxidative stress and hormesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsolt Radak; Hae Y. Chung; Erika Koltai; Albert W. Taylor; Sataro Goto

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity leads to increased incidence of a variety of diseases and it can be regarded as one of the end points of the exercise-associated hormesis curve. On the other hand, regular exercise, with moderate intensity and duration, has a wide range of beneficial effects on the body including the fact that it improves cardio-vascular function, partly by a nitric

  1. Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Mind Map is an outline in which the major categories radiate from a central image and lesser categories are portrayed as branches of larger branches. The author describes an in-class exercise in which small groups of students each create a Mind Map for a specific topic. This exercise is another example of an active and collaborative learning…

  2. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  3. Effects of Exercise on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rarick, G. Lawrence

    Exercise is generally held to be a significant factor in the growth, development, and health of children and adolescents. The effects of physical activity regimens on general growth, as well as quantitative and qualitative changes, in animal muscle and bone tissue have been clearly demonstrated. Less is known about the role of exercise and related…

  4. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients. PMID:16101469

  5. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  6. Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonski, Verna O.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of wellness counseling is to guide individuals to live a healthy life in which body, mind, and spirit are integrated in order to experience fulfillment and happiness. The purpose of this article is to provide counselors steps to follow when using exercise as a counseling intervention and to provide techniques that will encourage exercise

  7. Exercise therapy - the public health message.

    PubMed

    Blair, S N; Sallis, R E; Hutber, A; Archer, E

    2012-08-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, are currently responsible for 65% of all deaths worldwide and are projected to cause over 75% of all deaths by 2030. A substantial accumulation of epidemiological and experimental evidence has established a causal relationship between NCDs and well-known yet preventable risk factors (e.g., physical inactivity and obesity). Given that physical activity has both direct and indirect effects on the mortality and morbidity of NCDs via other risk factors (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension), it is now undeniable that sedentary lifestyles are one of the most significant public health problems of the 21st century. In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and American Medical Association (AMA) launched the Exercise is Medicine® (EIM) initiative in recognition of the fundamental importance of physical activity to health and well-being. EIM is on the forefront of a global movement to reduce sedentary lifestyles, foster implementation of exercise counseling into clinical practice, and disseminate exercise therapy on a global scale. If the devastating human losses and financial burden of inactivity-induced chronic disease are to be ameliorated, the wide-ranging cost-effective health benefits and financial feasibility of physical activity interventions must be appreciated and promoted. PMID:22429265

  8. L-arginine Supplementation Protects Exercise Performance and Structural Integrity of Muscle Fibers after a Single Bout of Eccentric Exercise in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lomonosova, Yulia N.; Shenkman, Boris S.; Kalamkarov, Grigorii R.; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y.; Nemirovskaya, Tatyana L.

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise is known to disrupt sarcolemmal integrity and induce damage of skeletal muscle fibers. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate) supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise would diminish exercise-induced damage. In addition, we used N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; NOS inhibitor) to clarify the role of native NOS activity in the development of exercise-induced muscle damage. Rats were divided into four groups: non-treated control (C), downhill running with (RA) or without (R) L-Arg supplementation and downhill running with L-NAME supplementation (RN). Twenty four hours following eccentric exercise seven rats in each group were sacrificed and soleus muscles were dissected and frozen for further analysis. The remaining seven rats in each group were subjected to the exercise performance test. Our experiments showed that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise improved subsequent exercise performance capacity tests in RA rats when compared with R, RN and C rats by 37%, 27% and 13%, respectively. This outcome is mediated by L-Arg protection against post-exercise damage of sarcolemma (2.26- and 0.87-fold less than R and RN groups, respectively), reduced numbers of damaged muscle fibers indicated by the reduced loss of desmin content in the muscle (15% and 25% less than R and RN groups, respectively), and diminished µ-calpain mRNA up-regulation (42% and 30% less than R and RN groups, respectively). In conclusion, our study indicates that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise alleviates muscle fiber damage and preserves exercise performance capacity. PMID:24736629

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Obesity is a global health problem and is associated with a multitude of complications. This study was designed to determine changes in cardiopulmonary functions after aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty obese subjects, whose ages ranged between 18 and 25?years, were divided into 2 equal groups: group A received aerobic exercise training in addition to dietary measures, and group B received anaerobic exercise training for 3 months in addition to dietary measures. Measurements of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index were obtained for both groups before and after the exercise program. [Results] The mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly, whereas the mean maximum voluntary ventilation increased significantly after treatment in group A. The mean maximum voluntary ventilation also increased significantly after treatment in group B. There were significant differences between the mean levels of the investigated parameters in groups A and B after treatment. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise reduces weight and improves cardiopulmonary fitness in obese subjects better than anaerobic exercise. PMID:26180300

  10. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  11. Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Deborah; Diorio, Caroline; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue. PMID:24743466

  12. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  13. Effects of muscle glycogen depletion on some metabolic and physiological responses to submaximal treadmill exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Davie, A J; Evans, D L; Hodgson, D R; Rose, R J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced muscle glycogen concentration on some physiological and metabolic responses during moderate intensity treadmill exercise in horses. Six Thoroughbred geldings were randomly allocated to 2 treatments (protocols A and B) or control in a 3 x 3 replicated Latin square design. In protocol A, horses performed low intensity exercise while horses in protocol B performed short bursts of high intensity exercise. Protocol A was designed to induce glycogen depletion mainly of slow twitch muscle fibers while protocol B aimed to deplete mainly fast twitch muscle fibers. Horses in the control group did not undergo exercise prior to the exercise test. Five hours after glycogen depletion, horses performed treadmill exercise at 60% VO2max at a treadmill slope of 10% until fatigue (20-30 min). The induced glycogen depletion prior to exercise had no significant effect on plasma glucose, insulin, or lactate concentrations during the exercise test, and there was no effect on glycogen utilization rate, although respiratory exchange ratios were lower in the glycogen-depleted groups. The VO2, heart rate and central blood temperature did not vary significantly between the protocols A and B and control throughout the exercise test. It was concluded that 20-30% depletion of glycogen concentration in the middle gluteal muscle resulted in a shift towards fat metabolism, but does not significantly affect heart rate, oxygen uptake, or concentrations of plasma glucose and lactate during moderate intensity exercise. PMID:10534002

  14. [Physical exercise therapy before and after major surgery: effective or not?].

    PubMed

    Elings, Jordi; Hoogeboom, Thomas J; Dronkers, Jaap J; Hulzebos, Eric H J; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2015-01-01

    Loss of functional status before, during and after major surgery is a common problem in elderly patients. One of the most important causes is patient inactivity. Pre- and postoperative physical exercise therapy is thought to reduce or even prevent the negative effects of hospital admission for major surgery. There are indications that preoperative physical exercise therapy in patients, particularly frail patients, prior to cardiac, abdominal, thoracic or joint replacement surgery is safe, effective and efficient. Scientific evidence of the effectiveness of preoperative exercise therapy is available only for cardiac surgery. Preventive exercise therapy prior to abdominal, thoracic and joint replacement surgery also appears to be effective if offered to high-risk patients. Postoperative clinical rehabilitation should be commenced at an early stage, ideally within four hours of surgery. Future studies into the effectiveness of perioperative exercise should focus on the appropriate selection of high-risk patients and the evaluation of high-intensity exercise interventions. PMID:25604568

  15. Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

  16. Effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

  17. Clinical aspects of physical exercise for diabetes/metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuzo; Nagasaki, Masaru; Kubota, Masakazu; Uno, Tomoko; Nakai, Naoya

    2007-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to be regarded as essential in all fields of medical sciences and practical medicine. In the field of diabetes and exercise, among the epidemiological studies of physical exercise, recent mega-trials such as the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the U.S. have shown that lifestyle intervention programs involving diet and/or exercise reduce the progression of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes. In studies examining the endocrinological and metabolic effects of exercise, it has been demonstrated that physical exercise promotes the utilization of blood glucose and free fatty acids in muscles and lowers blood glucose levels in well-controlled diabetic patients. Long-term, mild, regular jogging increases the action of insulin in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism without influencing body mass index or maximal oxygen uptake. A significant correlation has been observed between delta MCR (Deltainsulin sensitivity) and the average number of steps performed in a day. Our recent data suggested that the improved effectiveness of insulin that occurs as a result of physical exercise is attributable, at least in part, to increases in GLUT4 protein, IRS1 and PI3-kinase protein in skeletal muscle. As a prescription for exercise, aerobic exercise of mild to moderate intensity, including walking and jogging, 10-30 min a day, 3-5 days a week, is recommended. Resistance training of mild intensity with the use of light dumbbells and stretch cords should be combined in elderly individuals who have decreased muscle strength. An active lifestyle is essential in the management of diabetes, which is one of typical lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:17498834

  18. Does Acute Exercise Improve Driving Performance In Patients With Untreated Sleep Parag Patel and Kevin Pritchard, School of Engineering and Technology, TASI Driving Lab,

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Does Acute Exercise Improve Driving Performance In Patients With Untreated Sleep Apnea? Parag Patel is to determine if acute aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) prior to driving for patients with OSA can reduce minute moderate-intensity exercise session and then use a high fidelity driving simulator for the next

  19. This exercise demonstrates the principle of parsimony in constructing cladograms. Although it is designed using mammalian cranial characters, the activity could be

    E-print Network

    McCabe, Declan

    AbstrAct This exercise demonstrates the principle of parsimony in constructing cladograms. Although taxa around to reduce tree length. The exercise can become competi- tive when students report out be compared with a published mamma- lian phylogeny. The exercise illustrates phylogenetics, the principle

  20. Identification of Novel Missense Mutations of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Gene in Exercise-Induced Sudden Death at Autopsy

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Wendy; Virmani, Renu; Kutys, Robert; Burke, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine type 2 receptor (RyR2) gene are associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. We hypothesized that these mutations could be detected at autopsy in cases of exercise-triggered sudden death. Fourteen sudden death patients, eight males and six females, were studied at autopsy based on apparent sudden cardiac death, without significant anatomical abnormalities. The coding regions of arrhythmia genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced. Three novel RyR2 mutations, R414C, F2331S, and R2401L, were identified in three unrelated patients (two males and one female; mean age at death, 12 ± 2 years), all performing strenuous activity at the time of death or collapse. These mutations were located in highly conserved regions where arrhythmia-linked RyR2 mutations clustered. Although G269S in the KVLQT1 gene was detected in a female with known family history of syncope and sudden cardiac death, no other mutations were found in any of the 14 cases, and no other mutations was found in 200 controls. The absence of structural cardiac disease in physical activity-induced sudden death and the finding of three novel RyR2 mutations suggest that mutation screening in such cases should include RyR2. PMID:16436635

  1. Chronic exercise confers neuroprotection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, William M; Freeman, Kimberly G; Larson, Rebecca D; Edwards, Gaylen L; White, Lesley J

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the CNS, resulting in accumulated loss of cognitive, sensory, and motor function. This study evaluates the neuropathological effects of voluntary exercise in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were injected with an emulsion containing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and then randomized to housing with a running wheel or a locked wheel. Exercising EAE mice exhibited a less severe neurological disease score and later onset of disease compared with sedentary EAE animals. Immune cell infiltration and demyelination in the ventral white matter tracts of the lumbar spinal cord were significantly reduced in the EAE exercise group compared with sedentary EAE animals. Neurofilament immunolabeling in the ventral pyramidal and extrapyramidal motor tracts displayed a more random distribution of axons and an apparent loss of smaller diameter axons, with a greater loss of fluorescence immunolabeling in the sedentary EAE animals. In lamina IX gray matter regions of the lumbar spinal cord, sedentary animals with EAE displayed a greater loss of ?-motor neurons compared with EAE animals exposed to exercise. These findings provide evidence that voluntary exercise results in reduced and attenuated disability, reductions in autoimmune cell infiltration, and preservation of axons and motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord of mice with EAE. PMID:25510644

  2. [Is exercise therapy and manipulation effective in low back pain?].

    PubMed

    Brox, J I; Hagen, K B; Juel, N G; Storheim, K

    1999-05-30

    We evaluated the effectiveness of exercises and manipulation on pain, disability and sick leave in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials including patients with low back pain. Low back pain is commonly a self-limiting illness and most patients are free of symptoms within 14 days. On the basis of 11 studies, no additional benefits from exercises and manipulation were found in patients with acute complaints (0-4 weeks); thus, our results do not support guidelines that prescribe manipulation in the acute stage. One study found reduced disability and sick leave in the subacute stage (4-12 weeks) when patients were told that it was safe to move and this strategy was reinforced by a graded exercise program and visits to the workplace. Seven studies evaluated manipulation; the effectiveness was no better than other treatments or placebo. Based on seven studies in patients with chronic low back pain (> 12 weeks), there is strong evidence that exercises reduce disability and pain, but their effectiveness on sick leave is not documented. Four studies compared different exercise regimens, but found no evidence in favour of one particular method. The effectiveness of manipulation in patients with chronic pain is poorly documented. PMID:10394281

  3. Restoration of plasma volume after 16 days of head-down tilt induced by a single bout of maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Engelke, K A; Ludwig, D A; Doerr, D F

    1996-01-01

    Seven healthy men performed maximal exercise 24 h before the end of 16 days exposure to 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that such an exercise technique could restore plasma volume (PV) at the end of a simulated space mission. Exercise consisted of supine cycling with graded work rates increasing by 16 W/min to volitional fatigue and required an average of 16 min. The experimental protocol was a standard cross-over design in which the order of treatment (exercise or control) was counterbalanced across all seven subjects. PV, fluid intake (ad libitum), urine output, renal function, and hormones associated with fluid homeostasis were measured before HDT, 24 h before the end of HDT just prior to exercise, and at the end of HDT 24 h after exercise. HDT reduced PV by 16% in both control and exercise conditions. Maximal exercise completely restored plasma volume within 24 h to 3.9 +/- 3.2% of pre-HDT levels despite continued HDT. Compared with control, exercise induced a 660-ml larger positive fluid balance because of greater fluid intake and reduced urine volume during the 24 h after exercise. These results suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise before return from 16 days of spaceflight may be completely effective in stimulating thirst and restoring plasma volume to preflight levels. PMID:8769779

  4. Exercise Training Improves Baroreflex Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Loimaala; Heikki V. Huikuri; Tiit Koobi; Marjo Rinne; Arja Nenonen; Ilkka Vuori

    2003-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. It is associated with reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV), which are indicators of increased risk for mortality and morbidity in various patient populations. This study was designed to assess the effects of exercise training on BRS, HRV, and hemody- namics

  5. Stress Reactivity and Exercise Training in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Blumenthal; Mats Fredrikson; Karen A. Matthews; Cynthia M. Kuhn; Susan Schniebolk; Deborah German; Nader Rifai; John Steege; Judith Rodin

    1991-01-01

    Examined the influence of ovarian function on psychophysiological stress responses and determined if aerobic exercise reduced stress reactivity. Fifty premenopausal and postmenopausal women initially were subjected to a public speaking task and an ice-on-the-forehead procedure, during which time their blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and continuous blood samples were obtained. Subjects also underwent aerobic fitness evaluations with a

  6. Comparison of treadmill exercise testing protocols for wheelchair users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Harley Hartung; David A. Lally; Roberta J. Blancq

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The reduced early mortality and the increased life span of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and other chronically disabling conditions which result in loss of use of the legs places them at increased risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Exercise testing in this population is becoming more common, but there is a need for assessment of protocols

  7. Physical Exercise in Patients with Severe Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Kosmadakis; A. Bevington; A. C. Smith; E. L. Clapp; J. L. Viana; N. C. Bishop; J. Feehally

    2010-01-01

    Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially those on long-term dialysis, often suffer from muscle wasting and excessive fatigue. It is known that inactivity, muscle wasting and reduced physical functioning are associated with increased mortality in CKD. Known causes include uraemic myopathy and neuropathy, inactivity, and anaemia. Exercise in patients receiving regular dialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease was

  8. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  9. [Nutrition and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Palacios Gil-Antuñano, N

    2000-01-01

    The principles of a good diet and proper nutrition are the same for people practising sports and for non-athletes. The main difference lies in the amount of energy that sportsmen and women need to carry out a more intense physical activity and to keep an appropriate weight to allow greater performance. The relationship between nutrition and physical exercise has often been shrouded in confusion and conjecture, so certain products or supplements turn into real myths through attempts to achieve better athletic results, despite the fact the information available on the true effect of a particular substance or food on athletic performance is, quite limited and disputed. This paper attempts to clarify the scientific information available on this subject. PMID:11220000

  10. Exercise self-efficacy, exercise benefits and barriers, and commitment to a plan for exercise among Korean women with osteoporosis and osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Hee Shin; Hea Kung Hur; Nola J. Pender; Hee Jung Jang; Moon-Sil Kim

    2006-01-01

    This study compared perceived exercise self-efficacy, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and commitment to a plan for exercise between Korean women with a diagnosis of either osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. The influence of exercise self-efficacy, exercise benefits and barriers on commitment to a plan for exercise was also assessed in each group. Participants in the study were 154 Korean women over 40

  11. Strength and physiological response to exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, K.; White, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To measure strength, aerobic exercise capacity and efficiency, and functional incapacity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) who do not have a current psychiatric disorder.?METHODS—Sixty six patients with CFS without a current psychiatric disorder, 30 healthy but sedentary controls, and 15 patients with a current major depressive disorder were recruited into the study. Exercise capacity and efficiency were assessed by monitoring peak and submaximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, blood lactate, duration of exercise, and perceived exertion during a treadmill walking test. Strength was measured using twitch interpolated voluntary isometric quadriceps contractions. Symptomatic measures included physical and mental fatigue, mood, sleep, somatic amplification, and functional incapacity.?RESULTS—Compared with sedentary controls, patients with CFS were physically weaker, had a significantly reduced exercise capacity, and perceived greater effort during exercise, but were equally unfit. Compared with depressed controls, patients with CFS had significantly higher submaximal oxygen uptakes during exercise, were weaker, and perceived greater physical fatigue and incapacity. Multiple regression models suggested that exercise incapacity in CFS was related to quadriceps muscle weakness, increased cardiovascular response to exercise, and body mass index. The best model of the increased exercise capacity found after graded exercise therapy consisted of a reduction in submaximal heart rate response to exercise.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients with CFS were weaker than sedentary and depressed controls and as unfit as sedentary controls. Low exercise capacity in patients with CFS was related to quadriceps muscle weakness, low physical fitness, and a high body mass ratio. Improved physical fitness after treatment was associated with increased exercise capacity. These data imply that physical deconditioning helps to maintain physical disability in CFS and that a treatment designed to reverse deconditioning helps to improve physical function.?? PMID:10945803

  12. [Exercise testing in cardiac patients].

    PubMed

    Koike, A; Hiroe, M; Marumo, F

    1995-08-01

    Symptom-limited incremental exercise tests have been used, to estimate the severity of cardiovascular disease and the patients' daily activity. However, there is a considerable amount of interest in obtaining submaximal measurements of aerobic function rather than parameters requiring maximal exercise effort. We compared the parameters obtained during the incremental exercise with those during the 6 minutes of moderate constant work rate exercise. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and the anaerobic threshold were significantly decreased in patients with cardiovascular disease as compared to normal subjects. The slope of the increase in carbon dioxide output (VCO2) to the increase in VO2 (delta VCO2/delta VO2) above the anaerobic threshold was significantly increased and the slope of the increase in VO2 to the increase in work rate (delta VO2/delta WR) was significantly decreased in patients with cardiovascular disease. The anaerobic threshold was found to occur at the work rate above which left ventricular function decreased during exercise in these patients. The time constant of VO2 during and following recovery from 6 minutes of 50 watts of constant work rate exercise was significantly longer (the kinetics of VO2 were slower) in patients with cardiovascular disease than in normal subjects. The time constant of VO2 was significantly negatively correlated with peak VO2 and maximum work rate obtained during the incremental exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7474442

  13. Toward exercise as personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Roberts, Michael D; Church, Timothy S

    2013-03-01

    The early 21st century has witnessed a steady push by scientists, industry leaders, and government officials to make medicine more personalized. To date, the concept of personalized medicine has referred largely to the field of pharmacogenomics. In contrast, relatively few data exist regarding the application of preventive strategies such as physical exercise in the context of personalized medicine. Within this review, we highlight the extant literature and propose five strategies for scientists that may propel the exercise and sports science fields toward this global goal. Notably, these approaches are in addition to methods to maintain adherence to training - a well-known factor in determining exercise responsiveness. Briefly, these strategies include (1) evaluating participant responses to training at the individual as well as group level; (2) identifying sources of variability in responsiveness to training; (3) optimizing exercise dosing strategies to maximize benefits while minimizing barriers to participation; (4) evaluating the efficacy of multimodal interventions for relevant population subgroups; and (5) increasing the clinical relevance of study populations and outcomes in exercise trials. We look forward to seeing these strategies considered in trials of preventive health interventions such as exercise. Extensive future research in this area is needed for the vision of exercise as a personalized form of medicine to become a reality. PMID:23382011

  14. Who Will Drop Out & Who Will Drop In, Exercise Adherence in a RCT among Patients Receiving Active Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jingjing; Wenzel, Jennifer; Krumm, Sharon; Griffith, Kathleen; Stewart, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Background Adherence has significantly affected the efficacy of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to test exercise interventions. Objective To analyze exercise-related adherence patterns among patients receiving active cancer treatment and to identify factors related to exercise adherence and contamination in both the intervention and control groups. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from a RCT of a home-based walking intervention for patients receiving active cancer treatment. Hierarchical Poisson regression analysis was used to identify factors related to exercise adherence and exercise contamination in the exercise intervention and control groups. Results A total of 126 patients finished the study. Exercise adherence rate in the intervention group was 32.35%, while exercise contamination rate in the control group was 12.07%. Independent predictors of adherence for the exercise group were baseline physical fitness, pre-treatment fatigue level, treatment-related mood disturbance, and marital status (p < 0.01); past exercise history significantly predicted exercise contamination (p < 0.00) in the control group. Conclusions Adherence remains an issue in an exercise RCT among patients on active cancer treatment. Adherence is related to symptom, physical function, and exercise history. Implications for Practice Exercise researchers should consider stratifying samples based on pre-treatment variables found to be significantly associated with outcome variables in this study to reduce confounding effects. Oncology clinicians can use the study findings to appropriately tailor strategies to encourage exercise adherence among patients receiving active cancer treatment so that these patients can receive the known benefits of exercise. PMID:22228393

  15. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  16. Exercise Log Date Distance Date Distance

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    Exercise Log Date Distance Date Distance College of Sports Medicine recommends that if you are undertaking an exercise program that you see your, or have not exercised regularly in the past year. If, at any time while exercising, you feel faint, dizzy

  17. A Generic Framework for Developing Exercise Assistants

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    A Generic Framework for Developing Exercise Assistants Johan Jeuring Harrie Passier Sylvia Stuurman.cs.uu.nl ISSN: 0924-3275 #12;A Generic Framework for Developing Exercise Assistants Johan Jeuring, Utrecht several exercise assistants which give very good feedback. To develop an exercise assistant, we need three

  18. Exercise Manual for Methods in Systematics

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    Exercise Manual for BIOL 471 Methods in Systematics Spring 2007 by Christopher R. Hardy, James C in Systematics, page 2 of 62 BIOL 471 ­ Methods in Systematics Exercise Manual Table of Contents Exercise page Biotic Inventory & Related Activities Exercise 01: Traditional Dichotomous Keys and Biotic Inventory

  19. REF impact pilot exercise Guidance on submissions

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    1 REF impact pilot exercise Guidance on submissions 19 November 2009 Introduction 1. This document provides guidance for HEIs making submissions to the REF impact pilot exercise (2009-10). Guidance for the full REF exercise will be developed and published after the conclusion of the pilot exercise

  20. Use of Impedance Pneumograph in Exercise Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Connie Brewer (Purdue University; )

    1998-01-01

    This resource provides instructions for conducting a laboratory exercise in human biology and exercise physiology. Students examine various ways in which body metabolism changes with exercise over short time periods. It is suitable for courses in nursing, exercise physiology, human biology, and non-science disciplines.

  1. Effects of exercise on oxidative stress in rats induced by ozone.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Campos, Catalina; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Bobadilla-Lugo, Rosa Amalia; Kross, Robert David; Villanueva, Cleva

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) induced by acute exercise is reduced by chronic exercise. Ozone (O(3)) exposure produces OS. The aim of this study was to determine if aerobic exercise (AE) reduced OS produced by O(3). A pilot experiment was performed with male Wistar rats submitted to AE (trained to swim 90?min/day). Adaptation to exercise was demonstrated three weeks after training by means of changes in reduced nitrates (NO(x)) in plasma. Therefore, two-week training was chosen for the following experiments. Six of twelve trained rats were exposed to O(3) (0.5?ppm, 4?h/day, one hour before exercise). Two groups of sedentary animals (n = 6 each) were used as controls, one of which was exposed to O(3). At the end of the experiments NO(x), 8-isoprostane (8-IP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and carbonyls (CBs) were measured in plasma. CBs did not change in any group. O(3)-induced OS was manifested by reduced NO(x) and SOD activity, as well as increased 8-IP and MDA. Exercise significantly blocked O(3) effects although SOD was also decreased by exercise (a greater drop occurring in the O(3) group). It is concluded that AE protects against OS produced by O(3) and the effect is independent of SOD. PMID:22619585

  2. Disseminating Self-Help: Positive Psychology Exercises in an Online Trial

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Acacia C

    2012-01-01

    Background The recent growth of positive psychology has led to a proliferation in exercises to increase positive thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Preliminary evidence suggests that these exercises hold promise as an approach for reducing depressive symptoms. These exercises are typically researched in isolation as single exercises. The current study examined the acceptability of several multi-exercise packages using online dissemination. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate methods of dissemination that could increase the acceptability and effectiveness of positive psychology exercises. To achieve this goal, we compared the use of positive psychology exercises when delivered in packages of 2, 4, or 6 exercises. Methods Self-help–seeking participants enrolled in this study by visiting an online research portal. Consenting participants were randomly assigned to receive 2, 4, or 6 positive psychology exercises (or assessments only) over a 6-week period. These exercises drew from the content of group positive psychotherapy. Participants visited an automated website that distributed exercise instructions, provided email reminders, and contained the baseline and follow-up assessments. Following each exercise, participants rated their enjoyment of the exercise, answered how often they had used each technique, and completed outcome measures. Results In total, 1364 individuals consented to participate. Attrition rates across the 2-, 4-, and 6-exercise conditions were similar at 55.5% (181/326), 55.8% (203/364), and 52.7% (168/319) respectively but were significantly greater than the attrition rate of 42.5% (151/355) for the control condition (?2 3 = 16.40, P < .001). Participants in the 6-exercise condition were significant more likely than participants in the 4-exercise condition to use both the third (F 1,312 = 5.61, P = .02) and fourth (F 1,313 = 6.03, P = .02) exercises. For 5 of the 6 exercises, enjoyment was related to continued use of the exercise at 6-week follow-up (r’s = .12 to .39). All conditions produced significant reductions in depressive symptoms (F 1,656 = 94.71, P < .001); however, a significant condition by time interaction (F 3,656 = 4.77, P = .003) indicated that this reduction was larger in the groups that received 2 or 4 exercises compared with the 6-exercise or control condition. Conclusion Increasing the number of exercises presented to participants increased the use of the techniques and did not increase dropout. Participants may be more likely to use these skills when presented with a variety of options. Increasing the number of exercises delivered to participants produced a curvilinear relationship with those in the 2- and 4-exercise conditions reporting larger decreases in depressive symptoms than participants in the 6-exercise or control conditions. Although research generally offers a single exercise to test isolate effects, this study supports that studying variability in dissemination can produce important findings. PMID:22732765

  3. Exercise Improves Host Response to Influenza Viral Infection in Obese and Non-Obese Mice through Different Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kristi J.; Olson, Molly M.; Thompson, Nicholas J.; Cahill, Mackenzie L.; Wyatt, Todd A.; Yoon, Kyoungjin J.; Loiacono, Christina M.; Kohut, Marian L.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with greater severity of influenza virus infection and impaired host defense. Exercise may confer health benefits even when weight loss is not achieved, but it has not been determined if regular exercise improves immune defense against influenza A virus (IAV) in the obese condition. In this study, diet-induced obese mice and lean control mice exercised for eight weeks followed by influenza viral infection. Exercise reduced disease severity in both obese and non-obese mice, but the mechanisms differed. Exercise reversed the obesity-associated delay in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) cell infiltration, restored BAL cytokine and chemokine production, and increased ciliary beat frequency and IFN?-related gene expression. In non-obese mice, exercise treatment reduced lung viral load, increased Type-I-IFN-related gene expression early during infection, but reduced BAL inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In both obese and non-obese mice, exercise increased serum anti-influenza virus specific IgG2c antibody, increased CD8+ T cell percentage in BAL, and reduced TNF? by influenza viral NP-peptide-responding CD8+ T cells. Overall, the results suggest that exercise “restores” the immune response of obese mice to a phenotype similar to non-obese mice by improving the delay in immune activation. In contrast, in non-obese mice exercise treatment results in an early reduction in lung viral load and limited inflammatory response. PMID:26110868

  4. Restorative qualities of indoor and outdoor exercise settings as predictors of exercise frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stella-Maria Hug; Terry Hartig; Ralf Hansmann; Klaus Seeland; Rainer Hornung

    2009-01-01

    Positive environmental determinants of exercise frequency remain poorly understood. Knowing that people often value exercise for psychological restoration, we investigated the restorative quality of indoor and outdoor exercise settings as predictors of exercise frequency. We surveyed 319 members of fitness centers in Zurich that offer indoor and outdoor exercise alternatives. Outdoor settings were rated as more restorative. For each type

  5. Reducing Adolescent Obesity through a School Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvin, G. J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A 10-session weight reduction program that included behavior modification, nutrition education, and exercise management was found to be effective in reducing weight. (Author/DLS) Journal Availability: C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63141

  6. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pull on your bones. These are called weight-bearing exercises. Some of them are: Brisk walks, jogging, playing tennis, dancing, or other weight-bearing activities such as aerobics and other sports Careful ...

  7. Exercising and asthma at school

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not exercise. Taking part in recess, physical education (PE), and after-school sports is important for all ... action plan. Encourage the student to participate in PE. To help prevent an asthma attack, modify PE ...

  8. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... falls. Being stronger can also give you more energy, and help you lose weight and sleep better. If you will be having surgery, exercising can help you stay strong, which will speed up your recovery.

  9. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ?2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ? three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea. PMID:22349258

  10. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Krueger

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour

  11. The Biomechanics of Exercise Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge

    1999-01-01

    The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.

  12. Prescribing Exercise for Patients with Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalynn T. Badenhop

    Exercise prescription for patients with diabetes follows guidelines regarding frequency, intensity, duration, and mode of\\u000a exercise established for patients participating in a medically supervised exercise program. Physicians and health care professionals\\u000a should devise an exercise care plan that maximizes the benefits and minimizes the risks for each patient. The distinction\\u000a between prescribing exercise for patients with T1DM and patients with

  13. Post-exercise hypotension and cardiovascular responses to moderate orthostatic stress in endurance-trained males.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica M; Esch, Ben T A; Lusina, Sarah-Jane C; McKenzie, Donald C; Koehle, Michael S; Sheel, A William; Warburton, Darren E R

    2008-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that following an acute bout of exercise cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) would be altered due to post-exercise hypotension (PEH). Ten healthy, male, endurance-trained athletes (mean age +/- SD = 29.6 +/- 5) were assessed for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to LBNP following acute bouts of interval and continuous exercise. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability, and total cerebral oxygen index were determined during a baseline LBNP session. These indices were also determined during two other LBNP sessions: following an acute bout of interval exercise, and following an acute bout of continuous exercise. Compared with baseline, MAP was reduced after both exercise conditions, similar to values previously reported (10 mmHg; p < 0.05 vs. pre-exercise). Total peripheral resistance was significantly reduced following both exercise bouts, and heart rate was significantly increased post-exercise (rest: 59.6 +/- 11.2; interval: 77.8 +/- 12.8; continuous: 80.3 +/- 15.2 beats.min(-1)). Both cardiac output and stroke volume responses to LBNP following exercise were not altered when compared with baseline measurements. Tissue oxygenation during -40 mmHg (interval: 74.31% +/- 7.82% vs. continuous: 69.13% +/- 5.23%) was significantly lower than during normobaric pressure (interval: 77.14% +/- 1.30% vs. continuous: 74.41% +/- 0.94%). It appears from these observations that although young, endurance-trained males experience PEH following acute bouts of interval or continuous exercise, this hypotension does not alter the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to a moderate orthostatic stress. PMID:18347679

  14. Temperature Control of Hypertensive Rats during Moderate Exercise in Warm Environment

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Helton O.; Leite, Laura H.R.; Drummond, Lucas R.; Cunha, Daise N.Q.; Coimbra, Cândido C.; Natali, Antônio J.; Prímola-Gomes, Thales N.

    2014-01-01

    The control of body temperature in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) subjected to exercise in warm environment was investigated. Male SHR and Wistar rats were submitted to moderate exercise in temperate (25°C) and warm (32°C) environments while body and tail skin temperatures, as well as oxygen consumption, were registered. Total time of exercise, workload performed, mechanical efficiency and heat storage were determined. SHR had increased heat production and body temperature at the end of exercise, reduced mechanical efficiency and increased heat storage (p < 0.05). Furthermore, these rats also showed a more intense and faster increase in body temperature during moderate exercise in the warm environment (p < 0.05). The lower mechanical efficiency seen in SHR was closely correlated with their higher body temperature at the point of fatigue in warm environment (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that SHR exhibit significant differences in body temperature control during moderate exercise in warm environment characterized by increased heat production and heat storage during moderate exercise in warm environment. The combination of these responses result in aggravated hyperthermia linked with lower mechanical efficiency. Key Points The practice of physical exercise in warm environment has gained importance in recent decades mainly because of the progressive increases in environmental temperature; To the best of our knowledge, these is the first study to analyze body temperature control of SHR during moderate exercise in warm environment; SHR showed increased heat production and heat storage that resulted in higher body temperature at the end of exercise; SHR showed reduced mechanical efficiency; These results demonstrate that when exercising in a warm environment the hypertensive rat exhibit differences in temperature control. PMID:25177201

  15. Recreational exercise in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Holla, J; Fluit, M; van Schaardenburg, D; Dekker, J; Verhagen, E; Steultjens, M

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in health-related quality of life after eight to twelve months of recreational exercise in patients with rheumatic diseases (inflammatory joint disease, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and other generalized pain syndromes), and to determine whether patient (age, sex, diagnosis) and exercise characteristics (follow-up time, type of activity, frequency of participation) are related to health-related quality of life change. Health-related quality of life was assessed twice in 138 patients with rheumatic diseases. 1) At enrolment in a centre for outpatient recreational exercise and 2) following eight to twelve months of recreational exercise. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short-Form Health Survey 36 and three numeric rating scales for pain, fatigue and general condition. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influence of patient and exercise characteristics on follow-up HRQoL-score. Patients showed significant improvements in pain and general condition, and reported a positive change in health. A diagnosis of inflammatory joint disease (e. g. rheumatoid arthritis, polyarthritis, spondylitis) or osteoarthritis, participating in sports activities two to three times per week, and following land-based fitness classes were associated with the most improvement in health-related quality of life. Regular participation in recreational exercise contributes to improved health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases. PMID:19685415

  16. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  17. Clinical exercises in empathy.

    PubMed

    Muslin, H L

    1974-08-01

    These exercises have demonstrated the psychological work necessary in becoming familiar with the use of empathy as an observation mode. As can be seen the residents easily learn to make the important cognitive observations and soon become familiar with and articulate their subjective responses. To get the stage of empathic observation requires the awareness of the distinction between one's subjective reaction and empathy. Metapsychologically speaking, the learning required is centered on expanding the self-observing functions of the ego, so as to be aware of previous reactions and self-experiences. Thus the observer can apprehend in himself these several and separate reactions and distinguish the idiosyncratic, subjective reactions to the patient data from the seeking out of self-states closely identified with the patient's experience. The analogous experience is that of the patient in intensive psychotherapy whose task is to attempt to make a split in the ego into the experiencing part and the observing part of the psychic apparatus. As observers of another's psyche, we are to become aware of the patient's impact on us and to value this data as important to understand how the patient influences people's reactions to him or her; but then this set of observations must be split away from the attempt to introspect to a self-state closer to where the patient is, psychologically speaking. PMID:17894077

  18. Peer consultation reflection exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Hogg, W.; Delva, D.; Nanchoff-Glatt, M.; Moore, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore participants' overall perception of the value of the Peer Consultation Reflection Exercise (PCRE); of barriers and facilitators to participation and learning during a PCRE; and of the transferability of the experience to participants' own settings. DESIGN: This study used the qualitative techniques of key informant interviews and a focus group. SETTING: Focus group and key informant interviews at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Section of Teachers. PARTICIPANTS: Family medicine teachers attending a PCRE. METHOD: Five key informant interviews and one focus group composed of five participants were conducted to explore participants' experience of participating and learning during a PCRE. MAIN FINDINGS: Participants viewed the PCRE as a valuable opportunity to interact and learn from colleagues a were especially impressed with the opportunity to listen. Confidentiality and the important role of the facilitator were identified as key components. The greatest perceived barrier was the formal structure of the PCRE. CONCLUSIONS: The PCRE is an innovative strategy for personal and professional development. It could be used in other settings. PMID:10386215

  19. Exercise modulates chloride homeostasis after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marie-Pascale; Gandhi, Sapan; Zambrotta, Marina; Houlé, John D

    2014-07-01

    Activity-based therapies are routinely integrated in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation programs because they result in a reduction of hyperreflexia and spasticity. However, the mechanisms by which exercise regulates activity in spinal pathways to reduce spasticity and improve functional recovery are poorly understood. Persisting alterations in the action of GABA on postsynaptic targets is a signature of CNS injuries, including SCI. The action of GABA depends on the intracellular chloride concentration, which is determined largely by the expression of two cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), KCC2 and NKCC1, which serve as chloride exporters and importers, respectively. We hypothesized that the reduction in hyperreflexia with exercise after SCI relies on a return to chloride homeostasis. Sprague Dawley rats received a spinal cord transection at T12 and were assigned to SCI-7d, SCI-14d, SCI-14d+exercise, SCI-28d, SCI-28d+exercise, or SCI-56d groups. During a terminal experiment, H-reflexes were recorded from interosseus muscles after stimulation of the tibial nerve and the low-frequency-dependent depression (FDD) was assessed. We provide evidence that exercise returns spinal excitability and levels of KCC2 and NKCC1 toward normal levels in the lumbar spinal cord. Acutely altering chloride extrusion using the KCC2 blocker DIOA masked the effect of exercise on FDD, whereas blocking NKCC1 with bumetanide returned FDD toward intact levels after SCI. Our results indicate that exercise contributes to reflex recovery and restoration of endogenous inhibition through a return to chloride homeostasis after SCI. This lends support for CCCs as part of a pathway that could be manipulated to improve functional recovery when combined with rehabilitation programs. PMID:24990918

  20. Effect of Exercise Training on Enos Expression, NO Production and Oxygen Metabolism in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Bustamante, Juanita; Czerniczyniec, Analia; Aguilar de Plata, Ana C.; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS), nitric oxide (NO) production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. Methods The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16–20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n?=?10) took part in an exercise session three times a week for 12 weeks which consisted of: aerobic exercise at an intensity of 55–75% of their maximum heart rate for 60 min and 25 mins. Resistance exercise included 5 exercise groups circuit training (50 repetitions of each) using barbells (1–3 kg/exercise) and low-to-medium resistance bands. The control group (n?=?10) undertook their usual physical activity. Mitochondrial and cytosol fractions were isolated from human placental tissue by differential centrifugation. A spectrophotometric assay was used to measure NO production in cytosolic samples from placental tissue and Western Blot technique to determine eNOS expression. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide were measured to determine oxygen metabolism. Results Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during pregnancy leads to a 2-fold increase in eNOS expression and 4-fold increase in NO production in placental cytosol (p?=?0.05). Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide production rate were decreased by 8% and 37% respectively in the placental mitochondria of exercising women (p?=?0.05). Conclusion Regular exercise training during the second half of pregnancy increases eNOS expression and NO production and decreases reactive oxygen species generation in human placenta. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chronic exercise increases eNOS/NO production, presumably by increasing endothelial shear stress. This adaptation may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular and antioxidant system and in turn reduce the risk of preeclampsia, diabetes or hypertension during pregnancy. PMID:24244656

  1. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Elmiro, Nathália S.; Velloso, Marcelo; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using the optoelectronic plethysmography system in a supine position with a trunk inclination of 45° during quiet breathing and the breathing exercises. The order of the breathing exercises was randomized. Statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test and an ANOVA for repeated measures with one factor (breathing exercises), followed by preplanned contrasts and Bonferroni correction. A p<0.005 value was considered significant. RESULTS: All breathing exercises significantly increased the tidal volume of the chest wall (Vcw) and reduced the respiratory rate (RR) in comparison to quiet breathing. The diaphragmatic breathing exercise was responsible for the lowest Vcw, the lowest contribution of the rib cage, and the highest contribution of the abdomen. The sustained maximal inspiration exercise promoted greater reduction in RR compared to the diaphragmatic and intercostal exercises. Inspiratory sighs and intercostal exercises were responsible for the highest values of minute ventilation. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony variables increased significantly during diaphragmatic breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the breathing exercises investigated in this study produced modifications in the breathing pattern (e.g., increase in tidal volume and decrease in RR) as well as in thoracoabdominal motion (e.g., increase in abdominal contribution during diaphragmatic breathing), among others. PMID:25590447

  2. Pronounced Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Gene Expression in Resting and Exercising Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44–56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% Wmax. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle. PMID:23226462

  3. Chronic pain management in the obese patient: a focused review of key challenges and potential exercise solutions.

    PubMed

    Zdziarski, Laura Ann; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Heather K

    2015-01-01

    In obese persons, general and specific musculoskeletal pain is common. Emerging evidence suggests that obesity modulates pain via several mechanisms such as mechanical loading, inflammation, and psychological status. Pain in obesity contributes to deterioration of physical ability, health-related quality of life, and functional dependence. We present the accumulating evidence showing the interrelationships of mechanical stress, inflammation, and psychological characteristics on pain. While acute exercise may transiently exacerbate pain symptoms, regular participation in exercise can lower pain severity or prevalence. Aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or multimodal exercise programs (combination of the two types) can reduce joint pain in young and older obese adults in the range of 14%-71.4% depending on the study design and intervention used. While published attrition rates with regular exercise are high (?50%), adherence to exercise may be enhanced with modification to exercise including the accumulation of several exercise bouts rather than one long session, reducing joint range of motion, and replacing impact with nonimpact activity. This field would benefit from rigorous comparative efficacy studies of exercise intensity, frequency, and mode on specific and general musculoskeletal pain in young and older obese persons. PMID:25709495

  4. Chronic pain management in the obese patient: a focused review of key challenges and potential exercise solutions

    PubMed Central

    Zdziarski, Laura Ann; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Heather K

    2015-01-01

    In obese persons, general and specific musculoskeletal pain is common. Emerging evidence suggests that obesity modulates pain via several mechanisms such as mechanical loading, inflammation, and psychological status. Pain in obesity contributes to deterioration of physical ability, health-related quality of life, and functional dependence. We present the accumulating evidence showing the interrelationships of mechanical stress, inflammation, and psychological characteristics on pain. While acute exercise may transiently exacerbate pain symptoms, regular participation in exercise can lower pain severity or prevalence. Aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or multimodal exercise programs (combination of the two types) can reduce joint pain in young and older obese adults in the range of 14%–71.4% depending on the study design and intervention used. While published attrition rates with regular exercise are high (?50%), adherence to exercise may be enhanced with modification to exercise including the accumulation of several exercise bouts rather than one long session, reducing joint range of motion, and replacing impact with nonimpact activity. This field would benefit from rigorous comparative efficacy studies of exercise intensity, frequency, and mode on specific and general musculoskeletal pain in young and older obese persons. PMID:25709495

  5. In silico analysis of exercise intolerance in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lengert, Nicor; Drossel, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Post-exertional malaise is commonly observed in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanism is not yet well understood. A reduced capacity for mitochondrial ATP synthesis is associated with the pathogenesis of CFS and is suspected to be a major contribution to exercise intolerance in CFS patients. To demonstrate the connection between a reduced mitochondrial capacity and exercise intolerance, we present a model which simulates metabolite dynamics in skeletal muscles during exercise and recovery. CFS simulations exhibit critically low levels of ATP, where an increased rate of cell death would be expected. To stabilize the energy supply at low ATP concentrations the total adenine nucleotide pool is reduced substantially causing a prolonged recovery time even without consideration of other factors, such as immunological dysregulations and oxidative stress. Repeated exercises worsen this situation considerably. Furthermore, CFS simulations exhibited an increased acidosis and lactate accumulation consistent with experimental observations. PMID:25899994

  6. Exercise Training Improves Plantarflexor Muscle Function in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Cochrane, Gregory D.; Laker, Rhianna C.; Yan, Zhen; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity exercise in mdx mice improves plantarflexor muscle contractile function, resistance to fatigue, and mitochondrial adaptations without exacerbating muscular dystrophy. Methods We subjected mdx mice to 12 wk of voluntary, low-resistance wheel running (Run, n=17) or normal cage activities (sedentary; Sed, n=16) followed by in vivo analyses for plantarflexor torque generation and fatigue resistance, or running capacity on a treadmill. Gastrocnemius muscles were further evaluated for exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations and fiber type distribution and central nuclei. T-tests were used to determine differences between the Sed and Run groups. Results Plantarflexor submaximal isometric torques and maximal isometric torque at multiple ankle joint angles, and resistance to fatigue were greater in Run compared to Sed mdx mice (P<0.05). Citrate synthase and ?-HAD enzyme activities and COX IV protein expression in gastrocnemius muscles were greater in Run than Sed mdx mice (P?0.04), along with a trend of fiber type transformation from type IIb to type 2x fibers. Exercise training in mdx mice did not elevate serum creatine kinase levels, but led to a significant reduction of centrally-nucleated myofibers. Conclusion Voluntary, low-resistance wheel running in mdx mice can result in skeletal muscle adaptation, leading to improved contractile function and reduced fatigability, with no indication that exercise was detrimental. This study supports the need for further investigation of low intensity exercise as an early therapeutic intervention in ambulatory boys with DMD. PMID:22460476

  7. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments. PMID:21850535

  8. Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: Review of Indications, Mechanisms, and Key Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Seok; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an exercise-based treatment program designed to promote vestibular adaptation and substitution. The goals of VRT are 1) to enhance gaze stability, 2) to enhance postural stability, 3) to improve vertigo, and 4) to improve activities of daily living. VRT facilitates vestibular recovery mechanisms: vestibular adaptation, substitution by the other eye-movement systems, substitution by vision, somatosensory cues, other postural strategies, and habituation. The key exercises for VRT are head-eye movements with various body postures and activities, and maintaining balance with a reduced support base with various orientations of the head and trunk, while performing various upper-extremity tasks, repeating the movements provoking vertigo, and exposing patients gradually to various sensory and motor environments. VRT is indicated for any stable but poorly compensated vestibular lesion, regardless of the patient's age, the cause, and symptom duration and intensity. Vestibular suppressants, visual and somatosensory deprivation, immobilization, old age, concurrent central lesions, and long recovery from symptoms, but there is no difference in the final outcome. As long as exercises are performed several times every day, even brief periods of exercise are sufficient to facilitate vestibular recovery. Here the authors review the mechanisms and the key exercises for each of the VRT goals. PMID:22259614

  9. Understanding the meaning of lactate threshold in resistance exercises.

    PubMed

    Garnacho-Castaño, M V; Dominguez, R; Maté-Muñoz, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study compares acute cardiorespiratory, metabolic, mechanical and rating of perceived effort (RPE) responses to 2 different prolonged constant-load exercises, half-squat (HS) and cycle ergometry, performed at a workload corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT). A total of 18 healthy subjects completed 5 exercise tests separated by 48?h rest periods: an incremental cycle ergometer test, a constant-load cycle ergometer test at LT intensity, a one-repetition maximum (1RM) HS test, an incremental HS test and a constant-load HS test at LT intensity. In both constant-load tests, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and RPE data were recorded. Mechanical responses before and after each test were assessed in terms of jump height and mean power measured in a counter movement jump (CMJ) test. In both exercises, cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses stabilized, though cardiorespiratory responses were significantly greater for cycle ergometry (P<0.001), with the exception of respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which was higher for HS (P=0.028). Mechanical fatigue was observed in only HS (P<0.001). In conclusion, different exercise modalities induced different yet stable acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses. Although such responses were significantly reduced in HS, greater mechanical fatigue was produced, most likely because of the particular muscle actions involved in this form of exercise. PMID:25680073

  10. Exercise as Prescription Therapy: Benefits in Cancer and Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Laura; Maffulli, Nicola; Mascherini, Gabriele; Francini, Lorenzo; Petri, Cristian; Galanti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Exercise therapy in patients with metabolic chronic disease produces several positive response. This study aims to verify the effects of fast walking associated to a resistance exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk factor. METHODS: Two groups of subjects (10 cancer survivors and 19 hypertensive patients) were evaluated by 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), bioimpedance, the Sit & Reach Test (S&R) evaluate the flexibility, Handgrip and 30” Chair Test for muscular strength. Patients were tested before and after 3 months of regular physical exercise. RESULTS: A significant change in anthropometric parameters was observed (BMI: T0 = 29.2±6.8, T3= 27.4±4.4 kg/m2 p<.001; waist circumference: T0=92.5±14.1, T3=92.1±12.8 cm, p<.05) in the hypertensive population. A predominant improvement of the cardiovascular parameters was observed in the cancer survivors (rest DBP T0=76.4±6.5, T3=72.2±7.1 mmhg p<.05; 6MWT: T0=487.8±116.0, T3= 525.6±117.3 m p<.05; S&R: T0= 0.4±7.4, T3=4.1±6.1 cm p<.05). CONCLUSION: A combined aerobic and resistance exercise programme can improve cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive subjects. The same programme induces improvement in exercise tolerance and flexibility variables in cancer survivors. PMID:25674548

  11. Central and Peripheral Hemodynamic Adaptations During Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in Heart Failure Patients With Exercise Periodic Breathing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Chou, Szu-Ling; Chen, Tai-Tzung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Chang, Hen-Hong; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-07-13

    Some heart failure (HF) patients develop ventilatory oscillation which is composed of exercise periodic breathing (EPB) and sleep apnea. The ventilatory oscillation is associated with exercise intolerance. This study employed an integrated monitoring system to elucidate the way of central and peripheral hemodynamic adaption responding to exercise. This study recruited 157 HF patients to perform exercise testing using a bicycle ergometer. A noninvasive bio-reactance device was adopted to measure cardiac hemodynamics, whereas a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to assess perfusion and O2 extraction in the frontal cerebral lobe (FC) and vastus lateralis muscle (VL) during exercise respectively. Furthermore, quality of life (QoL) was measured with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaires (MLHFQ). The patients were divided into an EPB group (n = 65) and a non-EPB group (n = 92) according to their ventilation patterns during testing. Compared to their non-EPB counterparts, the patients with EPB exhibited 1) impaired aerobic capacity with a smaller peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and oxygen uptake efficiency slopes; 2) impaired circulatory and ventilatory efficiency with relatively high cardiac output and ventilation per unit workload; 3) impaired ventilatory/hemodynamic adaptation in response to exercise with elevated deoxyhemoglobin levels in the FC region; and 4) impaired QoL with lower physical component scores on the SF-36 and higher scores on the MLHFQ. In conclusion, EPB may reduce circulatory-ventilatory-hemodynamic efficiency during exercise, thereby impairing functional capacity in patients with HF. PMID:26084463

  12. A Probability Model of Decompression Sickness at 4.3 Psia after Exercise Prebreathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Powell, Michael R.; Pollock, Neal

    2004-01-01

    Exercise PB can reduce the risk of decompression sickness on ascent to 4.3 psia when performed at the proper intensity and duration. Data are from seven tests. PB times ranged from 90 to 150 min. High intensity, short duration dual-cycle ergometry was done during the PB. This was done alone, or combined with intermittent low intensity exercise or periods of rest for the remaining PB. Nonambulating men and women performed light exercise from a semi-recumbent position at 4.3 psia for four hrs. The Research Model with age tested the probability that DCS increases with advancing age. The NASA Model with gender hypothesized that the probability of DCS increases if gender is female. Accounting for exercise and rest during PB with a variable half-time compartment for computed tissue N2 pressure advances our probability modeling of hypobaric DCS. Both models show that a small increase in exercise intensity during PB reduces the risk of DCS, and a larger increase in exercise intensity dramatically reduces risk. These models support the hypothesis that aerobic fitness is an important consideration for the risk of hypobaric DCS when exercise is performed during the PB.

  13. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco; Uendeles-Pinto, João Paulo; Serafim, Ana Cláudia Alves; Wanner, Samuel Penna; de Matos Coelho, Márcio; Soares, Danusa Dias

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC) and lower (LAC) aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg) and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05). The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group. Key points The physical performance of the higher aerobic capacity group after administration of 20 mg of paroxetine decreased relative to that after administration of the placebo, whereas the same dose of paroxetine had no effect in the lower aerobic capacity group. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. Contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the present findings suggest that the activity of the serotonergic system during exercise is not attenuated in individuals with a higher aerobic capacity relative to those that have a lower aerobic capacity. A dose-dependent effect of paroxetine on physical performance was not observed in either group; for example, in the subjects with higher aerobic capacity, 40 mg of paroxetine did not enhance or even reproduce the ergolytic effect caused by 20 mg of paroxetine. None of the peripheral variables measured explain the reduced total exercise time after administration of 20 mg of paroxetine in the subjects with higher aerobic capacity. PMID:24790474

  14. Exercise-induced oxidative stress influences the motor control during maximal incremental cycling exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Gravier, Gilles; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Lejeune, Pierre Jean; Delliaux, Stephane; Guieu, Regis; Jammes, Yves

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that the changes in blood oxidant/antioxidant status during incremental maximal cycling exercise could affect the motor drive to leg muscles. Indeed, the oxygen free radicals activate the metabosensitive muscle afferents which are suspected to elicit an adaptive motor response delaying fatigue. Fifteen healthy subjects performed an incremental cycling exercise reaching the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) during which venous blood was repeatedly sampled to measure a marker of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), an antioxidant (reduced ascorbic acid, RAA), and the ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA). The surface EMG of rectus femoris was recorded and the median frequency (MF) of power spectrum was computed. Our main results are: 1) TBARS increased in 7/15 subjects, RAA decreased in 7/15 and IMA increased in 13/15 at VO2max; 4) the MF decrease was correlated to maximal end-exercise IMA increase and RAA decrease. During maximal cycling exercise, the adaptive motor response to cycling closely depends on the magnitude of exercise-induced oxidative stress. PMID:23473925

  15. Isometric handgrip exercise improves acute neurocardiac regulation.

    PubMed

    Millar, Philip J; MacDonald, Maureen J; Bray, Steven R; McCartney, Neil

    2009-11-01

    Isometric handgrip (IHG) training (>6 weeks) has been shown to reduce resting arterial blood pressure (ABP) and improve cardiac autonomic modulation. However, the effects of a single bout of IHG on acute neurocardiac regulation remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of IHG exercise on nonlinear heart rate dynamics and cardiac vagal activity. Nonlinear dynamics were assessed by sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis (alpha(1)), and correlation dimension techniques. The 4-second exercise test was used to calculate the cardiac vagal index (CVI), an indirect measure of cardiac vagal activity. In a randomized crossover design, 18 older (70 +/- 5 years of age) subjects completed IHG exercise (four 2-min isometric contractions at 30% MVC) and a time-matched control condition. Following a single bout of bilateral IHG, there was a small reduction in systolic blood pressure (125 +/- 2 to 122 +/- 1 mmHg, P < 0.01), in addition to, a significant decrease in alpha(1) (1.42 +/- 0.12 to 1.22 +/- 0.10, P < 0.05), an increase in sample entropy (1.28 +/- 0.03 to 1.40 +/- 0.05, P < 0.001), and an increase in the CVI (1.24 +/- 0.03 to 1.29 +/- 0.03, P < 0.01). These results suggest improvements in acute cardiac autonomic modulation following a single bout of IHG. This may be mechanistically linked to the observed reductions in ABP seen in previous IHG training studies. Alternatively, these acute effects may have clinical applications and require further investigation. PMID:19680681

  16. Television Viewing Does Not Have to Be Sedentary: Motivation to Participate in a TV Exercise Program

    PubMed Central

    Meis, Jessie J. M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Bouman, Martine P. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored which underlying motivations induced people to participate in a television exercise program called “The Netherlands on the Move!-television” (NOM-tv). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,349 viewers of NOM-tv. The respondents completed the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI), assessing their levels of intrinsic motivation towards participating in the NOM-tv exercises. The results showed that higher levels of intrinsic motivation (i.e. enjoying the NOM-tv exercises, feeling competent to perform this activity, and willingness to put effort into the exercises) were the most important predictive factors of more frequent participation in the NOM-tv exercises. Future screen-based interventions to reduce sedentary behavior should aim especially at encouraging people's intrinsic orientations towards physical activity in an autonomy-supportive way. PMID:22187637

  17. Effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Menopause may increase risk of hypertension and abnormal lipid profile. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of morning and afternoon aerobic exercises on hypertension and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. Forty five women aged from 49 to 60 years were randomly assigned into three groups. Group (A) 15 patients received medicine, (B) 15 patients performed morning aerobic exercises and received medicine, and group (C) 15 patients performed afternoon aerobic exercises and received medicine. Blood pressure measurement and lipid profile tests were performed before and after the study. The results showed that there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, favoring group C. Also there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in lipid levels, favoring group C. Therefore, it can be concluded that morning aerobic exercises were more effective in reducing the blood pressure and lipids than afternoon exercises in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:26171380

  18. Association of a behaviorally based high school health education curriculum with increased exercise.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M age = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods to increase exercise over 6 weeks. Significant within-group improvements in exercise, mood, and body satisfaction were found, with slightly larger effect sizes identified for the boys. Increase in exercise was significantly associated with reduced mood distress (? = -.17, p < .001). For the girls only, change in body satisfaction significantly mediated that relationship, and a reciprocal relationship between changes in mood and body satisfaction was also identified. Incorporation of lessons emphasizing goal setting and self-regulation within high school health education classes may foster increased exercise and associated improvements in mood and body satisfaction. For girls, the positive effects may reinforce one another. PMID:24902998

  19. Effects of controlled condylar rotation exercise on symmetrical mouth opening in patients with temporomandibular disorder

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae-Seop; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Kyue-Nam

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 4-week program of active condylar rotation exercise on the extent of the lateral mandibular shift during mouth opening in patients with temporomandibular disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Patients with temporomandibular disorder (n = 12; 7 men and 5 women) were recruited. The active range of temporomandibular motion was recorded using 3-dimensional ultrasound-based motion analysis. The paired t-test was used to assess changes in lateral mandibular shift before and after active condylar rotation exercise. [Results] The degree of the lateral mandibular shift during mouth opening and the mouth opening-lateral mandibular shift ratio were significantly lower after active condylar rotation exercise than before the exercise. [Conclusion] Active condylar rotation exercise may effectively reduce the degree of the lateral mandibular shift during mouth opening to produce symmetrical mouth opening in patients with mild temporomandibular disorder.

  20. Effects of thermal stress and exercise on blood volume in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The available experimental data base on the effects of exercise, posture and the environment (heat) on the blood volume, composition and concentration in humans is surveyed in depth to synthesize supportable conclusions. A large disparity is noted in the effective controls which were initiated in previous experimental conditions, resulting in contradictory findings regarding, e.g., hemoconcentrations and hemodilution in response to exercise. Comparisons between the results of exercise and of supine, seated and upright subjects has underscored the importance of gravity in hemoconcentration, particularly in the legs, and the generation of aldotestosterone. Hemoconcentration has been confirmed to increase with exercise in a seated or supine position. Exercise in a heated environment transfers cardiac output from core areas and reduces filtration efficiencies. Also, plasma volume increases, an action which cannot yet be associated with crystalloidal or colloidal influences on the osmotic behavior of cell walls.

  1. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  2. Exercise induced adipokine changes and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-?, and IL-6) in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise. PMID:24563869

  3. Comparison of the effects of acute exercise after overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Tae Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise following overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese male college students. [Subjects and Methods] This crossover study recruited 10 obese male college students with a body mass index >25?kg/m2 or >20% body fat. One week post-recruitment, the subjects exercised in the morning after an overnight fast. At 2 weeks, they exercised post-breakfast. Energy substrate (glucose, free fatty acid) and metabolic hormone (insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol) levels were measured immediately before and after exercise and at 60?min post-exercise. [Results] We observed interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for glucose; significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for free fatty acids; interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for insulin and significant differences in the measurement time; significance differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for growth hormone; and significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for cortisol. [Conclusion] Morning exercise following an overnight fast can be more effective in reducing body fat than post-prandial exercise. However, increased cortisol levels following exercise after overnight fasting may negatively affect long-term weight loss in obese men. PMID:26180350

  4. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce

  5. Differences Among Exercisers And Non-Exercisers During Pregnancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2006-04-17

    The study was conducted by Linda E. May, Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences (KCUMB), Kansas City, MO; Alan Glaros, KCUMB, and Kathleen M. Gustafson, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS and is entitled Differences Among Exercisers and Non-Exercisers During Pregnancy. The team will discuss its study at the 122nd Annual Meeting of the American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-aps.org/press), which is part of the Experimental Biology 2009 scientific conference. The meeting will be held April 18-22, 2009 in New Orleans.

  6. Exercise, Affect, and Adherence: An Integrated Model and a Case for Self-Paced Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research relevant to a proposed conceptual model of exercise adherence that integrates the dual mode model and hedonic theory. Exercise intensity is posited to influence affective response to exercise via interoceptive (e.g., ventilatory drive) and cognitive (e.g., perceived autonomy) pathways; affective response to exercise is posited to influence exercise adherence via anticipated affective response to future exercise. The potential for self-paced exercise to enhance exercise adherence is examined in the context of the proposed model and suggestions are given for future research. Further evidence in support of self-paced exercise could have implications for exercise prescription, especially among overweight, sedentary adults, who are most in need of interventions that enhance adherence to exercise programs. PMID:18971508

  7. Effects of carvedilol on oxidative stress and chronotropic response to exercise in patients with chronic heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Castro; Jose Luis Vukasovic; Mario Chiong; Guillermo Dõaz-araya; Hernan Alcaino; Miguel Copaja; Rodrigo Valenzuela; Douglas Greig; Osvaldo Perez; Ramon Corbalan; Sergio Lavandero

    Abstract Background: Our previous studies suggest that the increase in heart rate from rest to peak exercise is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and this is associated with increased oxidative stress, as determined by malondialdehyde (MDA) plasma levels. Aim: To investigate the effects of carvedilol on the heart rate response to exercise and oxidative stress in patients

  8. Longitudinal Excursion and Strain in the Median Nerve during Novel Nerve Gliding Exercises for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel W. Coppieters; Ali M. Alshami

    2006-01-01

    Nerve and tendon gliding exercises are advocated in the conservative and post- operative management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, traditionally advocated exercises elongate the nerve bedding substantially, which may induce a potentially deleterious strain in the median nerve with the risk of symptom exacerbation in some patients and reduced benefits from nerve gliding. This study aimed to evaluate various

  9. Exercise Training Benefits Growth Hormone (GH)Deficient Adults in the Absence or Presence of GH Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT G. THOMAS; JOHN G. ESPOSITO; SHEREEN EZZAT

    Reduced aerobic capacity is a prominent manifestation among patients with GH deficiency (GHD). Exercise training may improve the physiological capacity to undertake aerobic activity. The ability of patients with GHD to participate in and benefit from a structured program of aerobic exercise with or without replacement recombinant human GH (rhGH) was in- vestigated. We examined the effect of aerobic training

  10. Exercise attenuates inflammation and limits scar thinning after myocardial infarction in mice.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Sarah-Lena; Müller, Andreas; Wagner, Michael; Devaux, Yvan; Böhm, Michael; Wagner, Daniel R; Maack, Christoph

    2015-07-15

    Although exercise mediates beneficial effects in patients after myocardial infarction (MI), the underlying mechanisms as well as the question of whether an early start of exercise after MI is safe or even beneficial are incompletely resolved. The present study analyzed the effects of exercise before and reinitiated early after MI on cardiac remodeling and function. Male C57BL/6N mice were housed sedentary or with the opportunity to voluntarily exercise for 6 wk before MI induction (ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery) or sham operation. After a 5-day exercise-free phase after MI, mice were allowed to reexercise for another 4 wk. Exercise before MI induced adaptive hypertrophy with moderate increases in heart weight, cardiomyocyte diameter, and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, but without fibrosis. In sedentary mice, MI induced eccentric LV hypertrophy with massive fibrosis but maintained systolic LV function. While in exercised mice gross LV end-diastolic volumes and systolic function did not differ from sedentary mice after MI, LV collagen content and thinning of the infarcted area were reduced. This was associated with ameliorated activation of inflammation, mediated by TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6, as well as reduced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9. In contrast, no differences in the activation patterns of various MAPKs or adenosine receptor expressions were observed 5 wk after MI in sedentary or exercised mice. In conclusion, continuous exercise training before and with an early reonset after MI ameliorates adverse LV remodeling by attenuating inflammation, fibrosis, and scar thinning. Therefore, an early reonset of exercise after MI can be encouraged. PMID:26001415

  11. The maintenance of fluid balance during exercise.

    PubMed

    Rehrer, N J

    1994-04-01

    Fluid supplementation is necessary for exercise in which fluid losses must be offset by intake to avoid the negative effects of hypohydration on health and performance. Several aspects of gastrointestinal function have been studied to gain information concerning the assimilation of ingested fluids to maintain fluid balance during exercise. Research results with regards to gastric emptying and secretion, intestinal absorption and secretion, and aspects of fluid retention, including urine production and plasma volume changes, can be utilised to formulate an appropriate fluid supplementation regimen. Increasing the volume of ingestate and decreasing the carbohydrate concentration promote gastric emptying of fluids. By maintaining a low osmolality secretion is reduced, thus leading to a greater rate of net fluid absorption. Adding sodium and carbohydrate (up to approximately 7%) increases the net intestinal absorption rate. Increasing carbohydrate concentration above this level begins to have a deleterious effect on intestinal absorption of fluid. Sodium also promotes retention of ingested fluids and leads to an increased plasma volume response during rehydration. The primary goal of supplementation should be considered, fluid vs carbohydrate provision, and the beverage composition altered accordingly. Beverage composition to maximise fluid provision will not maximise carbohydrate availability. PMID:8005723

  12. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    PubMed

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3?days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5?days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5?day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5?day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise. PMID:24996592

  13. Exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: more than a heart problem.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Bharathi; Haykowsky, Mark J; Eggebeen, Joel; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2015-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in older adults, and is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. Furthermore, HFpEF is increasing out of proportion to HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), and its prognosis is worsening while that of HFrEF is improving. Despite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. A cardinal feature of HFpEF is reduced exercise tolerance, which correlates with symptoms as well as reduced quality of life. The traditional concepts of exercise limitations have focused on central dysfunction related to poor cardiac pump function. However, the mechanisms are not exclusive to the heart and lungs, and the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease has evolved. Substantial attention has focused on defining the central versus peripheral mechanisms underlying the reduced functional capacity and exercise tolerance among patients with HF. In fact, physical training can improve exercise tolerance via peripheral adaptive mechanisms even in the absence of favorable central hemodynamic function. In addition, the drug trials performed to date in HFpEF that have focused on influencing cardiovascular function have not improved exercise capacity. This suggests that peripheral limitations may play a significant role in HF limiting exercise tolerance, a hallmark feature of HFpEF. PMID:26089855

  14. Exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: more than a heart problem

    PubMed Central

    Upadhya, Bharathi; Haykowsky, Mark J; Eggebeen, Joel; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in older adults, and is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. Furthermore, HFpEF is increasing out of proportion to HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), and its prognosis is worsening while that of HFrEF is improving. Despite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. A cardinal feature of HFpEF is reduced exercise tolerance, which correlates with symptoms as well as reduced quality of life. The traditional concepts of exercise limitations have focused on central dysfunction related to poor cardiac pump function. However, the mechanisms are not exclusive to the heart and lungs, and the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease has evolved. Substantial attention has focused on defining the central versus peripheral mechanisms underlying the reduced functional capacity and exercise tolerance among patients with HF. In fact, physical training can improve exercise tolerance via peripheral adaptive mechanisms even in the absence of favorable central hemodynamic function. In addition, the drug trials performed to date in HFpEF that have focused on influencing cardiovascular function have not improved exercise capacity. This suggests that peripheral limitations may play a significant role in HF limiting exercise tolerance, a hallmark feature of HFpEF. PMID:26089855

  15. Exercise facilitates the action of dietary DHA on functional recovery after brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The abilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and exercise to counteract cognitive decay after TBI is getting increasing recognition; however, the possibility that these actions can be complementary remains just as an intriguing possibility. Here we have examined the likelihood that the combination of diet and exercise has the added potential to facilitate functional recovery following TBI. Rats received mild fluid percussion injury (mFPI) or sham injury and then were maintained on a diet high in DHA (1.2% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that FPI reduced DHA content in the brain, which was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation assessed using 4-HHE. FPI reduced the enzymes Acox1 and 17 -HSD4, and the calcium-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2), which are involved in metabolism of membrane phospholipids. FPI reduced levels of syntaxin-3 (STX-3), involved in the action of membrane DHA on synaptic membrane expansion, and also reduced BDNF signaling through its TrkB receptor. These effects of FPI were optimally counteracted by the combination of DHA and exercise. Our results support the possibility that the complementary action of exercise is exerted on restoring membrane homeostasis after TBI, which is necessary for supporting synaptic plasticity and cognition. It is our contention that strategies that take advantage of the combined applications of diet and exercise may have additional effects to the injured brain. PMID:23811071

  16. Eccentric exercise testing and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    1994-01-01

    Some researchers and practitioners have touted the benefits of including eccentric exercise in strength training programs. However, others have challenged its use because they believe that eccentric actions are dangerous and lead to injuries. Much of the controversy may be based on a lack of understanding of the physiology of eccentric actions. This review will present data concerning eccentric exercise in strength training, the physiological characteristics of eccentric exercise, and the possible stimulus for strength development. Also a discussion of strength needs for extended exposure to microgravity will be presented. Not only is the use of eccentric exercise controversial, but the name itself is fraught with problems. The correct pronunciation is with a hard 'c' so that the word sounds like ekscentric. The confusion in pronunciation may have been prevented if the spelling that Asmussen used in 1953, excentric, had been adopted. Another problem concerns the expressions used to describe eccentric exercise. Commonly used expressions are negatives, eccentric contractions, lengthening contractions, resisted muscle lengthenings, muscle lengthening actions, and eccentric actions. Some of these terms are cumbersome (i.e., resisted muscle lengthenings), one is slang (negatives), and another is an oxymoron (lengthening contractions). Only eccentric action is appropriate and adoption of this term has been recommended by Cavanagh. Despite the controversy that surrounds eccentric exercise, it is important to note that these types of actions play an integral role in normal daily activities. Eccentric actions are used during most forms of movement, for example, in walking when the foot touches the ground and the center of mass is decelerated and in lowering objects, such as placing a bag of groceries in the car.

  17. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise after ingestion of carnosine and anserine.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kazushige; Maemura, Hirohiko; Takamatsu, Kaoru; Ishii, Naokata

    2011-02-01

    Intramuscular carnosine buffers protons (H+) in skeletal muscle. We examined the effects of supplementation with chicken breast meat extract (CBEX) containing carnosine and anserine on hormonal responses to resistance exercise. Twenty-two men were assigned to a CBEX drink group (CBEX containing total 2 g of carnosine and anserine) (n = 14) or a placebo drink group (n = 8). The subjects ingested the prescribed drink (100 mL) twice daily for 30 days without physical training. Before and after the supplementation period, the subjects completed 5 sets of bilateral knee extension exercises (with a 90-s rest between sets). The magnitude of the increase in exercise-induced free testosterone did not change significantly after supplementation in either group. The blood lactate response to exercise was attenuated after supplementation in both groups (p < 0.05). In the CBEX group, the plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations after exercise were significantly lower after supplementation (p < 0.05). The serum growth hormone response to exercise was also reduced in the CBEX group after supplementation (delta value: 5.4 ± 1.9 ng/mL [pre] vs. 1.6 ± 0.5 ng/mL [post], p = 0.05). No significant differences in exercise-induced strength reduction (fatigue index) were observed in the 2 groups after supplementation. These results suggest that short-term supplementation with CBEX attenuates the exercise-induced epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone responses. PMID:20224451

  18. Early Exercise Protects against Cerebral Ischemic Injury through Inhibiting Neuron Apoptosis in Cortex in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengyue; Zhang, Yuling; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Yi; Jia, Jie; Wu, Junfa; Hu, Yongshan

    2013-01-01

    Early exercise is an effective strategy for stroke treatment, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Apoptosis plays a critical role after stroke. However, it is unclear whether early exercise inhibits apoptosis after stroke. The present study investigated the effect of early exercise on apoptosis induced by ischemia. Adult SD rats were subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) and were randomly divided into early exercise group, non-exercise group and sham group. Early exercise group received forced treadmill training initiated at 24 h after operation. Fourteen days later, the cell apoptosis were detected by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and Fluoro-Jade-B staining (F-J-B). Caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting. Cerebral infarct volume and motor function were evaluated by cresyl violet staining and foot fault test respectively. The results showed that early exercise decreased the number of apoptotic cells (118.74 ± 6.15 vs. 169.65 ± 8.47, p < 0.05, n = 5), inhibited the expression of caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 (p < 0.05, n = 5), and increased the expression of Bcl-2 (p < 0.05, n = 5). These data were consistent with reduced infarct volume and improved motor function. These results suggested that early exercise could provide neuroprotection through inhibiting neuron apoptosis. PMID:23502470

  19. Running Exercise Alleviates Pain and Promotes Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Shuo; Wan, Qing; Luo, Haijie; Li, Xiao; Ke, Songjian; Lin, Caina; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shaoling; Ma, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls). The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use. PMID:25607736

  20. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cassandra W. H.; Chan, S. C.; Wong, J. S.; Cheung, W. T.; Chung, Dicky W. S.; Lau, Titanic F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI) and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS) as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P = 0.026) after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P = 0.02). Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period. PMID:24800081