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Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance  

PubMed Central

Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc



Exercise, but not quercetin, ameliorates inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle after strenuous exercise by high-fat diet mice  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether moderate exercise and quercetin intake with a low fat diet contribute to inflammatory cytokine production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle after strenuous exercise by high-fat diet mice. [Methods] Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) High-fat for 12 weeks and low-fat diet control (C; n = 6); (2) high-fat diet for 12 weeks and low-fat diet with quercetin (Q; n = 4); (3) high-fat diet for 12 weeks and low-fat diet with exercise (E; n = 4); or (4) high-fat diet for 12 weeks and low-fat diet with exercise and quercetin (EQ; n = 5). Quercetin (10 mg/kg) was administered once per day, 5 day/week for 8 weeks. Exercise training was performed at moderate intensity for 8 weeks, 5 days/week for 30–60 min/day. Mice were subjected to a strenuous exercise bout of 60 min at a speed of 25 m/min (VO2 max 85%) conducted as an exercise-induced fatigue just before sacrifice. [Results] As results, body weights were significantly different among the groups. Exercise training significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines after strenuous exercise in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet mice. Exercise training increased Tfam mRNA in the soleus muscle after strenuous exercise. Exercise training significantly decreased lipogenesis markers in skeletal muscle of obese mice after strenuous exercise. Moderate exercise significantly increased lipolysis markers in the tibialis anterior muscle. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that exercise training reduced inflammatory cytokine levels and improved mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. However quercetin supplementation did not affect these parameters. Thus, long-term moderate exercise training has positive effects on obesity.

Kwon, Soon Mi; Park, Hee Geun; Jun, Jong Kui; Lee, Wang Lok



Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. METHODS: Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared

Donrawee Leelarungrayub; Sainatee Pratanaphon; Prapas Pothongsunun; Thanyaluck Sriboonreung; Araya Yankai; Richard J Bloomer



Strenuous Exercise Induced Syncope Due to Coronary Artery Anomaly  

PubMed Central

Coronary artery anomalies are among the neglected topics in cardiology. Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right sinus of valsalva is a rare coronary anomaly observed in 0.15% of patients. During exercise, the distended aorta and pulmonary artery with increased blood flow may squeeze the Left Main Coronary Artery (LMCA) between them. Even though arrhythmias are common causes of syncope, one should also think about aberrant coronary artery in the patients with syncope of unexplained origin. Patients experiencing exercise induced syncope accompanied by symptoms of coronary ischemia (typically: chest pain, ischemic findings on ECG, and raised cardiac markers) should be referred to diagnostic coronary angiography. PMID:25177677

Yavuz, Veysel; Cetin, Nurulah; Tuncer, Esref; Dalgic, Onur; Taskin, Ugur; Bilge, Ali Riza; Tikiz, Hakan



Dietary nucleotide improves markers of immune response to strenuous exercise under a cold environment  

PubMed Central

Background Strenuous exercise has been classically associated to immune-suppression and consequently to an increased risk of infections, especially at the upper respiratory tract. The administration of dietary nucleotides has been demonstrated useful to maintain the immune function in situations of stress and thus could be an appropriate strategy to counteract the decline of the immune function associated to strenuous exercise. The aim of the present study was to asses the impact of a specific nucleotide formulation (Inmunactive®) on the markers of immune function of athletes after a heavy exercise bout under cold conditions. Methods Twenty elite male taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into two groups of 10 subjects that were supplemented with placebo (P) or Inmunactive (I) at 480 mg/day during 30 days. At baseline (day 0) and after 4 wk of supplementation (day 30) each subject undertook an exhaustion exercise test using a cycloergometer. Skin temperature, core temperature, heart rate, lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the test. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after each exercise test for determination of blood cell concentrations, PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-LP) and salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Results Exercise tests induced neutrophilia and reduction in lymphocyte blood counts on day 0 and on day 30 in both groups. However, the I group exhibited a faster recovery from the lymphopenic response than the P group, so that lymphocyte levels were higher after 150 min (P?exercise-evoked decrease at baseline. Conclusions These findings suggest that supplementation with a nucleotide-based product for 4 weeks could counteract the impairment of immune function after heavy exercise. PMID:23566489



Melatonin decreases muscular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise and stimulates growth factor synthesis.  


Strenuous exercise is detrimental to athletes because of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Melatonin, a classic antioxidant, has been shown to exhibit beneficial effects regarding intense exercise and tissue repair. In this study, we evaluated the onset and resolution of inflammation in melatonin-treated and nontreated rats subjected to a strenuous exercise session. We also analyzed the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Control and treated rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise after a period of 10 days of melatonin treatment (20 mg/dL). Plasma and muscle levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2-alpha/beta (CINC-2?/?), l-selectin, macrophage inflammatory protein-3-alpha (MIP-3?), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured prior to, immediately after, and 2 hr after exercise. Our data revealed decreases in the muscle concentrations of IL-1? (35%), TNF-? (13%), IL-6 (48%), and TBARS (40%) in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We also observed decreases in the plasma concentrations of IL-1? (17%) in the melatonin-treated group. VEGF-? concentrations and SOD activity increased by 179% and 22%, respectively, in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We concluded that muscle inflammation and oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise were less severe in the muscles of melatonin-treated animals than in the muscles of control animals. Thus, melatonin treatment may reverse exercise-induced skeletal muscle inflammation and stimulate growth factor synthesis. PMID:25546615

Borges, Leandro da Silva; Dermargos, Alexandre; Junior, Edenilson Pinto da Silva; Weimann, Eleine; Lambertucci, Rafael Herling; Hatanaka, Elaine



Oxygen transport capacity in the air-breathing fish, Megalops cyprinoides: compensations for strenuous exercise.  


Tarpon have high resting or routine hematocrits (Hct) (37.6+/-3.4%) and hemoglobin concentrations (120.6+/-7.3 gl(-1)) that increased significantly following bouts of angling-induced exercise (51.9+/-3.7% and 142.8+/-13.5 gl(-1), respectively). Strenuous exercise was accompanied by an approximately tenfold increase in blood lactate and a muscle metabolite profile indicative of a high energy demand teleost. Routine blood values were quickly restored only when this facultative air-breathing fish was given access to atmospheric air. In vitro studies of oxygen transport capacity, a function of carrying capacity and viscosity, revealed that the optimal Hct range corresponded to that observed in fish under routine behaviour. During strenuous exercise however, further increase in viscosity was largely offset by a pronounced reduction in the shear-dependence of blood which conformed closely to an ideal Newtonian fluid. The mechanism for this behaviour of the erythrocytes appears to involve the activation of surface adrenergic receptors because pre-treatment with propranolol abolished the response. High levels of activity in tarpon living in hypoxic habitats are therefore supported by an elevated Hct with adrenergically mediated viscosity reduction, and air-breathing behaviour that enables rapid metabolic recovery. PMID:12507606

Wells, R M G; Baldwin, J; Seymour, R S; Baudinette, R V; Christian, K; Bennett, M B



Lactate and Proton Dynamics Following Strenuous Exercise in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) and Flathead Sole (Hippoglossoidas elassodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strenuous exercise in both rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) caused substantial blood acidosis of combined respiratory (protons due to CO2 accumulation) and metabolic (protons due to metabolic acid accumulation) origin. The contribution of the respiratory component was maximal immediately following the cessation of exercise and was fully corrected within 1 h. The metabolic acid load in

Jeffrey D. Turner



Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.  


Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu. PMID:24599630

Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo



Metabolic stress-like condition can be induced by prolonged strenuous exercise in athletes  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined energy metabolism during prolonged, strenuous exercise. We wanted therefore to investigate energy metabolic consequences of a prolonged period of continuous strenuous work with very high energy expenditure. Twelve endurance-trained athletes (6 males and 6 females) were recruited. They performed a 7-h bike race on high work-load intensity. Physiological, biochemical, endocrinological, and anthropometric muscular compartment variables were monitored before, during, and after the race. The energy expenditure was high, being 5557 kcal. Work-load intensity (% of VO2 peak) was higher in females (77.7%) than in men (69.9%). Muscular glycogen utilization was pronounced, especially in type I fibres (>90%). Additionally, muscular triglyceride lipolysis was considerably accelerated. Plasma glucose levels were increased concomitantly with an unchanged serum insulin concentration which might reflect an insulin resistance state in addition to proteolytic glyconeogenesis. Increased reactive oxygen species (malondialdehyde (MDA)) were additional signs of metabolic stress. MDA levels correlated with glycogen utilization rate. A relative deficiency of energy substrate on a cellular level was indicated by increased intracellular water of the leg muscle concomitantly with increased extracellular levels of the osmoregulatory amino acid taurine. A kindred nature of a presumed insulin-resistant state with less intracellular availability of glucose for erythrocytes was also indicated by the findings of decreased MCV together with increased MCHC (haemoconcentration) after the race. This strenuous energy-demanding work created a metabolic stress-like condition including signs of insulin resistance and deteriorated intracellular glucose availability leading to compromised fuelling of ion pumps, culminating in a disturbed cellular osmoregulation indicated by taurine efflux and cellular swelling. PMID:19242868

Hambraeus, Leif; Piehl-Aulin, Karin; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta; Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn; Olsson, Roger; Stridsberg, Mats; Ronquist, Gunnar



Mitochondrial dynamic remodeling in strenuous exercise-induced muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction: regulatory effects of hydroxytyrosol.  


Physical exercise is considered to exert a positive effect on health, whereas strenuous or excessive exercise (Exe) causes fatigue and damage to muscle and immune functions. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. We designed a protocol to mimic Exe and explore the ensuing cellular damage and involvement of mitochondrial dynamics. We found that Exe was prone to decrease endurance capacity and induce damage to renal function and the immune system. Muscle atrophy markers atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA were increased by Exe, accompanied by increased autophagy and mitochondrial fission in skeletal muscle. Exe caused a decrease in PGC-1? and complex I expression; it also activated JNK and Erk1/2 pathways and consequently induced p53, p21, and MnSOD expression in skeletal muscle. The involvement of oxidant-induced autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction was confirmed in C2C12 myoblasts. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural olive polyphenol, efficiently enhanced endurance capacity and prevented Exe-induced renal and immune system damage. Also, HT treatment inhibited both the Exe-induced increase in autophagy and mitochondrial fission and the decrease in PGC-1? expression. In addition, HT enhanced mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrial complex I and II activities in muscle of Exe rats. These results demonstrate that Exe-induced fatigue and damage to muscle and immune functions may be mediated via the regulation of mitochondrial dynamic remodeling, including the downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and upregulation of autophagy. HT supplementation may regulate mitochondrial dynamic remodeling and enhance antioxidant defenses and thus improve exercise capacity under Exe conditions. PMID:21421045

Feng, Zhihui; Bai, Liyuan; Yan, Jiong; Li, Yuan; Shen, Weili; Wang, Ying; Wertz, Karin; Weber, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Yan; Liu, Jiankang



Effects of Potassium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Axial and Peripheral Bone Mass in Rats on Strenuous Treadmill Training Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We administered a potassium bicarbonate supplement to rats on strenuous treadmill training in order to determine the effect\\u000a on bone mass and the metabolic acidosis seen with this type of training. A sample of 45 93-day-old female Wistar rats with\\u000a a mean initial weight of 267 ± 17 g were studied. The control group (15 rats) was not exercised

H. Rico; L. Aznar; E. R. Hernández; C. Seco; A. Sanchez-Atrio; L. F. Villa; J. J. Gervas



Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon.Methods: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. Samples were analysed for urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, creatine

J E Smith; G Garbutt; P Lopes; D Tunstall Pedoe



Response of bone metabolism related hormones to a single session of strenuous exercise in active elderly subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on bone metabolism and related hormones in elderly subjects. Methods: Twenty one active elderly subjects (11 men and 10 women; mean age 73.3 years) showing a mean theoretical Vo2max of 151.4% participated. Concentrations of plasma ionised calcium (iCa), serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and 1.25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1.25(OH)2D3), as well as the bone biochemical markers type I collagen C-telopeptide for bone resorption and osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase for bone formation, were analysed before and after a maximal incremental exercise test. Results: At basal level, iPTH was positively correlated with age (r = 0.56, p<0.01) and negatively correlated with 25(OH)D (r = –0.50; p<0.01) and 1.25(OH)2D3 (r = –0.47; p<0.05). Moreover, 25(OH)D and 1.25(OH)2D3 levels were negatively correlated with age (r = –0.50, p<0.01 and r = –0.53, p<0.01, respectively). After exercise, iCa and 25(OH)D decreased (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) while iPTH increased (p<0.001). The levels of 1.25(OH)2D3, bone biochemical markers, haematocrit, and haemoglobin were unchanged. The variations in iCa and 25(OH)D were not related to age and/or sex. The iPTH variation was directly related to basal iPTH levels (p<0.01) and indirectly related to age. Conclusions: In active elderly subjects, strenuous exercise disturbed calcium homeostasis and bone related hormones without immediate measurable effect on bone turnover. Although an increase in iPTH could have an anabolic action on bone tissue, our findings from our short term study did not allow us to conclude that such action occurred. PMID:16046330

Maimoun, L; Simar, D; Malatesta, D; Caillaud, C; Peruchon, E; Couret, I; Rossi, M; Mariano-Goulart, D



Combined effects of sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive performances during The North Face® Ultra Trail du Mont Blanc® (UTMB®).  


Abstract This study investigated the effects of combined sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive and neurobehavioral performance among long-distance runners completing one of the most difficult ultramarathons in the world. Seventeen runners participated. Each had a wrist-worn actigraph throughout the race to record their sleep time. In addition, each individual's performance in 10-min response-time tests before and after the race was recorded and a questionnaire enabled participants to report any difficulties they experienced during the competition. During race completion times of 27 to 44 h, combined acute lack of sleep (12 ± 17 min of rest during the race) and strenuous exercise (168.0 km) had marked adverse effects on cognitive performances ranging from mere lengthening of response time to serious symptoms such as visual hallucinations. This study suggests that regardless of rest duration and time in race, cognitive performances of ultramarathoners are adversely affected. PMID:25333827

Hurdiel, Rémy; Pezé, Thierry; Daugherty, Johanna; Girard, Julien; Poussel, Mathias; Poletti, Laurence; Basset, Patrick; Theunynck, Denis



Pain Catastrophizing Mediates the Relation Between Self-Reported Strenuous Exercise Involvement and Pain Ratings: The Moderating Role of Anxiety Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Objective Exercise involvement has been shown to have hypoalgesic effects and cognitive factors may partially explain this effect. Particularly, alterations in pain catastrophizing have been found to mediate the positive pain outcomes of multidisciplinary treatments incorporating exercise. Further, recent evidence suggests that exercise involvement and anxiety sensitivity may act together, as interacting factors, to exert an effect on catastrophizing and pain outcomes; however, further research is needed to clarify the nature of this interaction. In this study we developed a model to investigate the cross-sectional associations among self-reported weekly strenuous exercise bouts, anxiety sensitivity, and their interaction with pain catastrophizing and pain responses to the cold pressor task (CPT) in healthy, ethnically diverse young adults (N = 79). Methods Prior to the CPT, participants were asked to complete the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Following the CPT participants completed a modified version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire. Results At a high level of anxiety sensitivity, controlling for depressive symptoms, CPT immersion time, and sex differences, a bias-corrected (BC), bootstrapped confidence interval revealed that pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the relation between self-reported weekly strenuous exercise bouts and pain response (95% BC Confidence Interval: (?9.558, ?0.800) with 1000 resamples). At intermediate and low levels of anxiety sensitivity, no significant mediation effects were found. Conclusions These findings support that for pain catastrophizing to mediate the strenuous exercise-pain response relation, individuals must possess a high level of anxiety sensitivity. PMID:19779141

Goodin, Burel R.; McGuire, Lynanne M.; Stapleton, Laura M.; Quinn, Noel B.; Fabian, Lacy A.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.



Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency enhances exercise capacity due to increased lipid oxidation during strenuous exercise.  


A large percentage of energy produced during high-intensity exercise depends on the aerobic glycolytic pathway. Maintenance of a cytoplasmic redox balance ([NADH]/[NAD(+)] ratio) by the glycerophosphate shuttle involves sustained aerobic glycolysis. Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) catalyzes an oxidation reaction in the glycerophosphate shuttle. In this study, we examined whether GPD1 deficiency decreases exercise capacity due to impairment of aerobic glycolysis by using the GPD1 null mouse model BALB/cHeA (HeA). Unexpectedly, we found that exercise endurance was significantly higher in HeA mice than in BALBc/By (By) mice used as controls. Furthermore, aerobic glycolysis in HeA mice was not impaired. During exercise, lipid oxidation was significantly higher in HeA mice than in By mice, concomitant with an increase in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). HeA mice also showed a delay in the onset of muscle glycogen usage and lactate production during exercise. These data suggest that contribution of lipid oxidation as a fuel source for exercise is increased in HeA mice, and GPD1 deficiency enhances exercise capacity by increasing lipid oxidation, probably due to activation of AMPK. We propose that GPD1 deficiency induces an adaptation that enhances lipid availability in the skeletal muscle during exercise. PMID:25603051

Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji



The impact of acute strenuous exercise on TLR2, TLR4 and HLA.DR expression on human blood monocytes induced by autologous serum.  


Acute exercise alters the surface expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and HLA.DR on blood monocytes, which could transiently compromise immunity. As serum factors might be responsible, we examined the effects of autologous post-exercise serum exposure on TLR2, TLR4 and HLA.DR expression on resting blood monocytes and their subtypes. Eight trained cyclists completed an ergometer 60 km time trial. PBMCs and serum were obtained before, immediately after and 1 h after exercise. TLR2, TLR4 or HLA.DR expression (gMFI) was determined on blood monocyte subtypes expressing combinations of CD14 and CD16 by flow cytometry, and on resting monocytes exposed to 50% autologous serum (pre, immediately after or 1 h after exercise) for 18 h in culture. Immediately after exercise, total monocyte expression of TLR2 and TLR4 increased by 41 and 27%, respectively, while HLA.DR expression was 39% lower than baseline. TLR2 and TLR4 was 53 and 84% greater 1 h after exercise, respectively, while HLA.DR was 48% lower. Changes in TLR2 and TLR4 expression occurred on the CD14(++bright)/CD16(+dim) monocyte subtype only, while HLA.DR expression changed on the CD14(+dim)/CD16(++bright) subtype. Serum did not affect monocyte TLR2 or TLR4 expression but 1 h post serum increased expression of HLA.DR on total monocytes and the CD14(+dim)/CD16(++bright) subtype, which was in contrast to the change observed at this time after exercise. We conclude that a bout of strenuous aerobic exercise alters the surface expression of TLR2, TLR4 and HLA.DR on blood monocytes and some of their subtypes, but these changes appear to be unrelated to blood serum factors. PMID:20799043

Booth, Stephen; Florida-James, Geraint D; McFarlin, Brian K; Spielmann, Guillaume; O'Connor, Daniel P; Simpson, Richard J



Effects of the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee beverages on oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in rats.  


Many authors attribute the antioxidant activity of brewed coffee to its caffeine content. In addition, caffeine intake has been associated with increased performance during physical exercise. This study analyzed the in vivo effects of drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee (8%, w/v) on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in the anterior tibialis muscles of rats subjected to intense exercise. It was observed that exercise induced lipid peroxidation (estimated using malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (evaluated by determining the formation of carbonyl groups) in the muscle (P?exercise (P?exercise. PMID:22173821

Viana, André Luiz Machado; Fonseca, Miriam das Dores Mendes; Meireles, Elisson Lamin Jerônimo; Duarte, Stella Maris da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Paula, Fernanda Borges de Araujo



Reduced vasodilator function following acute resistance exercise in obese women  

PubMed Central

Obesity contributes to stress induced impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV), a precursor to atherosclerosis. Since obesity is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we sought to determine if a single bout of strenuous weight lifting (SWL) reduces EDV among sedentary obese adults. Participants included 9 obese (OB) (BMI 30.0–40.0 kg/m2) and 8 lean (LN) (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) sedentary young women. All participants underwent a single bout of SWL using a progressive leg-press protocol. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (an index of EDV) was determined using ultrasonography before and after SWL. Sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) was used to determine brachial artery endothelium-independent vasodilation following SWL. Brachial artery FMD was significantly reduced in OB and LN women (LN: 6.4 ± 1.6%, p = 0.22) after SWL. There was no difference in the magnitude of change pre- and post-SWL between groups (OB: ?2.4 ± 0.6% and LN: ?2.2 ± 1.6%, p = 0.84). Dilation to NTG was lower in OB (21.6 ± 1.3%) compared to LN women (27.6 ± 2.1%, p = 0.02) and associated with body weight (r = ?0.70, p = 0.01). These data suggest that EDV is reduced in woman after acute resistance exercise. Dilations to NTG were lower in obese compared to lean woman and associated with body weight suggesting that changes in sensitivity of blood vessels to NO occurs during obesity. These findings may be important for understanding vascular risk following acute exercise in obesity. PMID:25071598

Franklin, Nina C.; Ali, Mohamed; Goslawski, Melissa; Wang, Edward; Phillips, Shane A.



Does post-exercise massage treatment reduce delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a frequent problem after unaccustomed exercise. No universally accepted treatment exists. Massage therapy is often recommended for this condition but uncertainty exists about its effectiveness. AIM: To determine whether post-exercise massage alleviates the symptoms of DOMS after a bout of strenuous exercise. METHOD: Various computerised literature searches were carried out and located seven controlled trials. RESULTS: Most of the trials were burdened with serious methodological flaws, and their results are far from uniform. However, most suggest that post-exercise massage may alleviate symptoms of DOMS. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy may be a promising treatment for DOMS. Definitive studies are warranted. ??? PMID:9773168

Ernst, E.



A single 10-min bout of cold-water immersion therapy after strenuous plyometric exercise has no beneficial effect on recovery from the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a single bout of cold-water immersion on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Eighteen physically active female volunteers (age 19.9 (±0.97 years), height 1.66 (±0.05 m), mass 63.7 (±10 kg), completed 10 sets of 10 counter-movement jumps to induce muscle damage and were randomly allocated to a control or treatment group. The

J. R. Jakeman; R. Macrae; R. Eston



Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Anger Expression Among Overweight Children  

PubMed Central

This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight, sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children. PMID:19168916

Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Colleen A.; Davis, Catherine L.



Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V?O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V?O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma



Diaphragmatic breathing reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress.  


Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1?h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals. PMID:19875429

Martarelli, Daniele; Cocchioni, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Pompei, Pierluigi



Exercise based transportation reduces oil consumption and carbon emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current abuse and misrepresentation of science hinders society's ability to address climate change. Scientific abuse results, in part, from a widespread perception that curbing emissions will require substantial economic, political, or personal sacrifice. Here I provide one example to illustrate that this perception is false. Simply walking or biking the amount recommended for a healthy lifestyle could reduce carbon emissions up to 11 percent if the distances traveled were substituted for car travel. This level of exercise is also sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without draconian diet plans. A reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of roughly 35 percent is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. This emissions reduction far exceeds that required by the Kyoto Protocol at no net cost. Finally, widespread substitution of driving with distances traveled during recommended daily exercise would considerably ease societal dependence on oil, which leads not only to climate change but also to air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Thus, exercise based transportation constitutes a potentially favorable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently under consideration and a substantial step toward dealing with the threat of climate change.

Higgins, P. A.



Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.  


The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D



Prognosis: Does Exercise Training Reduce Adverse Events in Heart Failure?  


Patients with heart failure (HF) were once discouraged from participating in exercise programs because of concerns regarding safety and the potential for harm to an already damaged myocardium. However, studies over the last 3 decades have provided extensive insights into both the health outcome benefits of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these benefits. Studies on the outcome benefits of exercise training, including mortality and hospitalization, have been convincing. This article reviews the physiologic benefits of exercise training in HF, studies on exercise training in women, results and implications of the HF-ACTION trial, and recent meta-analyses using the Cochrane data base. PMID:25432474

Myers, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Haykowsky, Mark J F; Taylor, Rod S



30(+) years of exercise in pregnancy.  


In 1980 I came to Loma Linda to study maternal exercise, with Dr. Longo as my mentor. For millennia strenuous exercise was considered harmful for the fetus. Early studies reinforced that idea, by showing that exercise reduced uterine blood flow and fetal PO2 by up to 40 and 29 %, respectively. But utero-placental reserve is ~50 %. So why was fetal PO2 so much reduced during exercise?Methods proved to be important. It took chronically instrumented animals accustomed to the laboratory environment, experiments standardized to fitness of the individual (%VO2max), measurement of total uterine blood flow, and blood gas values corrected for body temperature. The results were simple and hold till this day. Uterine blood flow decreases linearly with maternal heart rate increase, which depends on exercise intensity and duration. Maximal reduction in uterine blood flow is ~20 % and uterine O2-uptake remains unaltered because blood flow reduction is compensated by increases in hematocrit and uterine O2-extraction. Fetal body temperature increases with that of the mother by ~2 °C at maximal exercise and fetal blood gas values are little affected by exhaustive maternal exercise, if properly corrected for temperature. So I left Loma Linda knowing that pregnant sheep can exercise to exhaustion without harm to the fetus, thanks to effective compensatory mechanisms.After returning to Erasmus University Rotterdam further studies in humans showed that physical fitness is unaffected by pregnancy, weight-gain affects performance, and strenuous exercise in healthy pregnant women does not harm the fetus. Thus, the millennia-old perspective has changed. PMID:25015805

Lotgering, Frederik K



Quercetin reduces susceptibility to influenza infection following stressful exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercise stress is associated with increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection. We have shown that exercise stress can increase susceptibility to infection. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, has been reported to inhibit infectivity and replication of a broad spectrum of viruses and may offset the increase in susceptibility to infection associated with stressful exercise. This study examined the effects of quercetin feedings on susceptibility to the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) following stressful exercise. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: exercise-placebo, exercise-quercetin, control-placebo, or control-quercetin. Exercise consisted of a run to fatigue (140 min) on a treadmill for 3 consecutive days. Quercetin (12.5 mg/kg) was administered via gavage for 7 days before viral challenge. At 30 min after the last bout of exercise or rest, mice (n = 23ÃÂ30) were intranasally inoculated with a standardized dose of influenza virus (0.04 hemagglutinating units). Mice were monitored daily for morbidity (time to sickness), symptom severity, and mortality (time to death) for 21 days. Exercise stress was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5ÃÂ7 (P < 0.05)]; quercetin offset the increase in susceptibility to infection [morbidity, mortality, and symptom severity on days 5ÃÂ7 (P < 0.05)] that was associated with stressful exercise. These data suggest that short-term quercetin feedings may prove to be an effective strategy to lessen the impact of stressful exercise on susceptibility to respiratory infection.

PhD J Mark Davis (University of South Carolina Exercise Science); E A Murphy (University of South Carolina Exercise Science); J L McClellan (University of South Carolina Exercise Science); M D Carmichael (University of South Carolina Exercise Science); J D Gangemi (Clemson University Microbiology and Molecular Medicine)



Exercise Training Reduces Coronary Risk and Effectively Rehabilitates Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of 12 months of endurance exercise training (cycling, walking and jogging) on lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, anemia and psychological function in 14 hemodialysis patients. Maximal aerobic capacity (Vo2max) increased 18% in the exercisers (p < 0.01), but did not change in 11 controls. This was associated with a reduction in depression, a decrease

Andrew P. Goldberg; Edward M. Geltman; James R. Gavin; III; Robert M. Carney; James M. Hagberg; James A. Delmez; Anna Naumovich; Mary H. Oldfield; Herschel R. Harter



Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST: 37.8 plus or minus 1.9 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute). KES was significantly reduced by 30% in Con (PRE: 113 plus or minus 12; POST: 78 plus or minus 8 N-m), but was not different in EX (PRE: 126 plus or minus 25; POST: 115 plus or minus 25 N-m). The combination LBNPex and Rex during 60-d BR protects against cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning and may be efficacious countermeasure for prolonged space flight.

Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.



The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.



Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes  


... Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Help Women, With Their Doctors, Reduce Risk of Diabetes During Pregnancy A series of studies by an ...


Sudden infant death syndrome: neonatal hypodynamia (reduced exercise level).  


Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been described as a silent unexpected death during sleep. Infants with near-miss SIDS have shown a higher heart rate and diminished heart rate variability during sleep. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep rate variability was related to respiration. A decreased heart rate variability was also observed in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or prenatal hypoxia. It was hypothesized that decreased heart rate variability and decreased body measurement during sleep were related to a decreased arousal response. Cardiac output is greater in the supine position. Acetylcholine slows the heart beat. Postural changes modify the acute baroreflex control of the heart rate. The cerebellum also contributes to the reflex anti-orthostatic (supine) cardiovascular response to postural change. Delayed myelination of various areas of the brain occurred in SIDS victims and it was suggested that the defect in central respiratory control could be a motor rather than a sensory problem, and that the search for abnormalities should be extended to regions in the cerebellum and pre-frontal-temporal-limbic systems. The cerebellum exercises control over motor neuron impulses from the cerebral cortex to lower structures. An extended period of neonatal decreased body movement has its counterpart in the astronaut exposed to the deconditioning effect of zero gravity. Hypodynamia induces hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, renal inositoluria and impaired nerve conduction. Myoinositol is 20 times higher in fetal-like tissue than in adults. The insecticide lindane (gammexane) is an inositol antagonist. Lindane administration to neonatal rats induced low levels of specific components of myelin proteins in oligodendrocytes in the brain. The activity of these specific enzymes was reduced in oligodendrocytes in the brain of SIDS victims. It is hypothesized that lindane administration to laboratory neonatal animals is a laboratory model for studying delayed development of the brain in SIDS. PMID:11359347

Reid, G M



Reduced Quadriceps Activation After Lumbar Paraspinal Fatiguing Exercise  

PubMed Central

Context: Although poor paraspinal muscle endurance has been associated with less quadriceps activation (QA) in persons with a history of low back pain, no authors have addressed the acute neuromuscular response after lumbar paraspinal fatiguing exercise. Objective: To compare QA after lumbar paraspinal fatiguing exercise in healthy individuals and those with a history of low back pain. Design: A 2 × 4 repeated-measures, time-series design. Setting: Exercise and Sport Injury Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen volunteers participated (9 males, 7 females; 8 controls and 8 with a history of low back pain; age = 24.1 ± 3.1 years, height = 173.4 ± 7.1 cm, mass = 72.4 ± 12.1 kg). Intervention(s): Subjects performed 3 sets of isometric lumbar paraspinal fatiguing muscle contractions. Exercise sets continued until the desired shift in lumbar paraspinal electromyographic median power frequency was observed. Baseline QA was compared with QA after each exercise set. Main Outcome Measure(s): An electric burst was superimposed while subjects performed a maximal quadriceps contraction. We used the central activation ratio to calculate QA = (FMVIC/[FMVIC + FBurst])* 100, where F = force and MVIC = maximal voluntary isometric contractions. Quadriceps electromyographic activity was collected at the same time as QA measurements to permit calculation of median frequency during MVIC. Results: Average QA decreased from baseline (87.4% ± 8.2%) after the first (84.5% ± 10.5%), second (81.4% ± 11.0%), and third (78.2% ± 12.7%) fatiguing exercise sets. On average, the group with a history of low back pain showed significantly more QA than controls. No significant change in quadriceps median frequency was noted during the quadriceps MVICs. Conclusions: The quadriceps muscle group was inhibited after lumbar paraspinal fatiguing exercise in the absence of quadriceps fatigue. This effect may be different for people with a history of low back pain compared with healthy controls. PMID:16619099

Hart, Joseph M; Fritz, Julie M; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Saliba, Ethan N; Gansneder, Bruce M; Ingersoll, Christopher D



Reducing Risk of Falling in Older People Discharged From Hospital: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Seated Exercises, Weight-Bearing Exercises, and Social Visits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vogler CM, Sherrington C, Ogle SJ, Lord SR. Reducing risk of falling in older people discharged from hospital: a randomized controlled trial comparing seated exercises, weight-bearing exercises, and social visits.

Constance M. Vogler; Catherine Sherrington; Susan J. Ogle; Stephen R. Lord



Postural analysis of paramedics simulating frequently performed strenuous work tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paramedics who perform emergency rescue functions are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries. Through an interview and survey process firefighters, many of whom are cross-trained paramedics in a consortium of 14 suburban fire departments, identified and rated tasks that were perceived to be both strenuous and frequently performed. The objective of the current study was to describe the working postures and

Steven A Lavender; Karen M Conrad; Paul A Reichelt; Fred T. Meyer; Paul W Johnson



Clinical Utility of Exercise Training in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction  

PubMed Central

Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed.

Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L



Stretching Exercises to Reduce Symptoms of Postoperative Neck Discomfort after Thyroid Surgery: Prospective Randomized Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients who undergo thyroid surgery frequently suffer from unpleasant symptoms such as a stretching, choking, or pressing feeling or discomfort in the neck for a long time. The usefulness of rehabilitation (i.e., a stretching exercise) for reducing these symptoms after surgery has never been studied. In the present study, attempts were made to evaluate the usefulness of the stretching exercise

Yuuki Takamura; Akira Miyauchi; Chisato Tomoda; Takashi Uruno; Yasuhiro Ito; Akihiro Miya; Kaoru Kobayashi; Fumio Matsuzuka; Nobuyuki Amino; Kanji Kuma



Diastolic Function Is Reduced in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes in Response to Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine whether adolescents with type 1 diabetes have left ventricular functional changes at rest and during acute exercise and whether these changes are affected by metabolic control and diabetes duration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study evaluated 53 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 22 control adolescents. Baseline data included peak exercise capacity and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Left ventricular functional parameters were obtained at rest and during acute exercise using magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS Compared with nondiabetic control subjects, adolescents with type 1 diabetes had lower exercise capacity (44.7 ± 09 vs. 48.5 ± 1.4 mL/kg fat-free mass [FFM]/min; P < 0.05). Stroke volume was reduced in the diabetes group at rest (1.86 ± 0.04 vs. 2.05 ± 0.07 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.02) and during acute exercise (1.89 ± 0.04 vs. 2.17 ± 0.06 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01). Diabetic adolescents also had reduced end-diastolic volume at rest (2.94 ± 0.06 vs. 3.26 ± 0.09 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01) and during acute exercise (2.78 ± 0.05 vs. 3.09 ± 0.08 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01). End-systolic volume was lower in the diabetic group at rest (1.08 ± 0.03 vs. 1.21 ± 0.04 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01) but not during acute exercise. Exercise capacity and resting and exercise stroke volumes were correlated with glycemic control but not with diabetes duration. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents with type 1 diabetes have reduced exercise capacity and display alterations in cardiac function compared with nondiabetic control subjects, associated with reduced stroke volume during exercise. PMID:22773700

Gusso, Silmara; Pinto, Teresa E.; Baldi, James C.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Hofman, Paul L.



Reduced catecholamine response to exercise in amenorrheic athletes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have found an array of endocrine disturbances related to energy deprivation in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Purpose: We examined the catecholamine response to exercise in five eumenorrheic (EU) and five amenorrheic (AM) athletes, matched by age (mean T SEM: EU = 29.8 T 2.5 ...


Hyperbaric hyperoxia reduces exercising forearm blood flow in humans  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia during exercise augments blood flow in active muscles to maintain the delivery of O2 at normoxic levels. However, the impact of hyperoxia on skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise is not completely understood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the hyperemic response to forearm exercise during hyperbaric hyperoxia would be blunted compared with exercise during normoxia. Seven subjects (6 men/1 woman; 25 ± 1 yr) performed forearm exercise (20% of maximum) under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Forearm blood flow (FBF; in ml/min) was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1) was calculated from FBF and blood pressure (in mmHg; brachial arterial catheter). Studies were performed in a hyperbaric chamber with the subjects supine at 1 atmospheres absolute (ATA) (sea level) while breathing normoxic gas [21% O2, 1 ATA; inspired Po2 (PiO2) ? 150 mmHg] and at 2.82 ATA while breathing hyperbaric normoxic (7.4% O2, 2.82 ATA, PiO2 ? 150 mmHg) and hyperoxic (100% O2, 2.82 ATA, PiO2 ? 2,100 mmHg) gas. Resting FBF and FVC were less during hyperbaric hyperoxia compared with hyperbaric normoxia (P < 0.05). The change in FBF and FVC (? from rest) during exercise under normoxia (204 ± 29 ml/min and 229 ± 37 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1, respectively) and hyperbaric normoxia (203 ± 28 ml/min and 217 ± 35 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1, respectively) did not differ (P = 0.66–0.99). However, the ?FBF (166 ± 21 ml/min) and ?FVC (163 ± 23 ml·min?1·100 mmHg?1) during hyperbaric hyperoxia were substantially attenuated compared with other conditions (P < 0.01). Our data suggest that exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle is highly dependent on oxygen availability during hyperoxia. PMID:21421819

Joyner, Michael J.; Claus, Paul L.; Curry, Timothy B.



Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans  

PubMed Central

Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia ( 0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery ?25% and decreased 11 ± 4 mmHg (P < 0.001) together with OCI (6.2 ± 0.7 to 4.8 ± 0.5, P < 0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P < 0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8 ± 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) and OCI to 3.8 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P < 0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor. PMID:20403976

Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C



Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  


Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms. PMID:24911173

Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G



The evidence that exercise during growth or adulthood reduces the risk of fragility fractures is weak  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has never been, and will never be, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrating that exercise in youth, adulthood or old age reduces fragility or osteoporosis-related fractures in old age. The next level of evidence, a randomized, controlled but unblinded study with fractures as an end-point is feasible but has never been done. The basis for the belief that exercise

Magnus Karlsson; Shona Bass; Ego Seeman



Swainson’s thrushes in migratory disposition exhibit reduced immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence indicates that the immune system, which protects an organism from parasitic and pathogenic infections, is frequently\\u000a suppressed when animals are engaged in activities involving strenuous exercise. We tested the hypothesis that birds reduce\\u000a immune function during the migratory period in preparation for the anticipated heightened energetic demands of long flights.\\u000a Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus), captured in fall, were held

Jennifer C. Owen; Frank R. Moore



Fasting and recovery from exercise.  


Recovery after strenuous exercise involves processes that are dependent on fluid and food intake. Current sports nutrition guidelines provide recommendations for the quantity and timing of consumption of nutrients to optimise recovery issues such as refuelling, rehydration and protein synthesis for repair and adaptation. Recovery of immune and antioxidant systems is important but less well documented. In some cases, there is little effective recovery until nutrients are supplied, while in others, the stimulus for recovery is strongest in the period immediately after exercise. Lack of appropriate nutritional support will reduce adaption to exercise and impair preparation for future bouts. Ramadan represents a special case of intermittent fasting undertaken by many athletes during periods of training as well as important competitive events. The avoidance of fluid and food intake from sunrise to sundown involves prolonged periods without intake of nutrients, inflexibility with the timing of eating and drinking over the day and around an exercise session, and changes to usual dietary choices due to the special foods involved with various rituals. These outcomes will all challenge the athlete's ability to recover optimally between exercise sessions undertaken during the fast or from day to day. PMID:20460259

Burke, Louise



Late exercise reduces neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Delayed secondary biochemical and cellular changes after traumatic brain injury continue for months to years, and are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Physical activity can reduce inflammation and facilitate recovery after brain injury. Here, we investigated the time-dependent effects, and underlying mechanisms of post-traumatic exercise initiation on outcome after moderate traumatic brain injury using a well-characterized mouse controlled cortical impact model. Late exercise initiation beginning at 5 weeks after trauma, but not early initiation of exercise at 1 week, significantly reduced working and retention memory impairment at 3 months, and decreased lesion volume compared to non-exercise injury controls. Cognitive recovery was associated with attenuation of classical inflammatory pathways, activation of alternative inflammatory responses and enhancement of neurogenesis. In contrast, early initiation of exercise failed to alter behavioral recovery or lesion size, while increasing the neurotoxic pro-inflammatory responses. These data underscore the critical importance of timing of exercise initiation after trauma and its relation to neuroinflammation, and challenge the widely held view that effective neuroprotection requires early intervention. PMID:23313314

Piao, Chun-Shu; Stoica, Bogdan A.; Wu, Junfang; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Zhao, Zaorui; Cabatbat, Rainier; Loane, David J.; Faden, Alan I.



Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium) may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF). Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last minute of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible) and 13 did not (R, resistant). The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-week exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running; S n?=?9; R n?=?8) or 10-week sedentary (S n?=?14; R n?=?5) groups. At the end of the 10-week period, the exercise?+?ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P?exercise trained resistant and susceptible animals. Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise training can restore a more normal NCX1 level in dogs susceptible to VF, improving cystolic calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction. PMID:21423413

Kukielka, Monica; Holycross, Bethany J.; Billman, George E.



Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity

Daniele Martarelli; Mario Cocchioni; Stefania Scuri; Pierluigi Pompei



Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.  


To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A H; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter



Reduced Exercise Tolerance and Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment with Remote Secondhand Smoke Exposure  

PubMed Central

Rationale Flight attendants who worked on commercial aircraft before the smoking ban in flights (pre-ban FAs) were exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS). We previously showed never-smoking pre-ban FAs to have reduced diffusing capacity (Dco) at rest. Methods To determine whether pre-ban FAs increase their Dco and pulmonary blood flow () during exercise, we administered a symptom-limited supine-posture progressively increasing cycle exercise test to determine the maximum work (watts) and oxygen uptake () achieved by FAs. After 30 min rest, we then measured Dco and at 20, 40, 60, and 80 percent of maximum observed work. Results The FAs with abnormal resting Dco achieved a lower level of maximum predicted work and compared to those with normal resting Dco (mean±SEM; 88.7±2.9 vs. 102.5±3.1%predicted ; p?=?0.001). Exercise limitation was associated with the FAs' FEV1 (r?=?0.33; p?=?0.003). The Dco increased less with exercise in those with abnormal resting Dco (mean±SEM: 1.36±0.16 vs. 1.90±0.16 ml/min/mmHg per 20% increase in predicted watts; p?=?0.020), and amongst all FAs, the increase with exercise seemed to be incrementally lower in those with lower resting Dco. Exercise-induced increase in was not different in the two groups. However, the FAs with abnormal resting Dco had less augmentation of their Dco with increase in during exercise (mean±SEM: 0.93±0.06 vs. 1.47±0.09 ml/min/mmHg per L/min; p<0.0001). The Dco during exercise was inversely associated with years of exposure to SHS in those FAs with ?10 years of pre-ban experience (r?=??0.32; p?=?0.032). Conclusions This cohort of never-smoking FAs with SHS exposure showed exercise limitation based on their resting Dco. Those with lower resting Dco had reduced pulmonary capillary recruitment. Exposure to SHS in the aircraft cabin seemed to be a predictor for lower Dco during exercise. PMID:22493689

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Sadeghi, Nasrat; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M.



Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent  

E-print Network

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis of America Abstract Background: Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. Design: Participants

Palmeri, Thomas


Exercise training reduces fibrosis and matrix metalloproteinase dysregulation in the aging rat heart  

PubMed Central

Aging impairs function in the nonischemic heart and is associated with mechanical remodeling. This process includes accumulation of collagen (i.e., fibrosis) and dysregulation of active matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Exercise training (ET) improves cardiac function, but the pathways of protection remain poorly understood. Young (3 mo) and old (31 mo) FBNF1 rats were assigned into sedentary and exercise groups, with ET group rats training on a treadmill 45 min/d, 5 d/wk for 12 wk. Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM), histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Western blot analyses were performed on the left ventricle and septum. NLOM, IHC, and histological imaging revealed that ET reduced age-associated elevation of collagen type I fibers. Active MMP-1, active MMP-2, and MMP-14 in the ECM fraction of the left ventricle were reduced by aging, an effect abrogated by ET. Tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) was elevated with age but protected by ET. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), upstream regulator of TIMP-1, increased with age but was attenuated by ET. Therefore, exercise training could protect the aging heart against dysregulation of MMPs and fibrosis by suppressing elevation of TIMP-1 and TGF-?.—Kwak, H.-B., Kim, J.-H., Joshi, K., Yeh, A., Martinez, D. A., Lawler, J. M. Exercise training reduces fibrosis and matrix metalloproteinase dysregulation in the aging rat heart. PMID:21148111

Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Kim, Jong-hee; Joshi, Kumar; Yeh, Alvin; Martinez, Daniel A.; Lawler, John M.





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Fasting and recovery from exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery after strenuous exercise involves processes that are dependent on fluid and food intake. Current sports nutrition guidelines provide recommendations for the quantity and timing of consumption of nutrients to optimise recovery issues such as refuelling, rehydration and protein synthesis for repair and adaptation. Recovery of immune and antioxidant systems is important but less well documented. In some cases, there

Louise Burke



Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Exercise in hypoxia is associated with reduced muscle oxidative function and impaired exercise tolerance. We hypothesised that dietary nitrate supplementation (which increases plasma [nitrite] and thus NO bioavailability) would ameliorate the adverse effects of hypoxia on muscle metabolism and oxidative function. In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, nine healthy subjects completed knee-extension exercise to the limit of tolerance (Tlim), once in normoxia (20.9% O2; CON) and twice in hypoxia (14.5% O2). During 24 h prior to the hypoxia trials, subjects consumed 0.75 L of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (9.3 mmol nitrate; H-BR) or 0.75 L of nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (0.006 mmol nitrate; H-PL). Muscle metabolism was assessed using calibrated 31P-MRS. Plasma [nitrite] was elevated (P < 0.01) following BR (194 ± 51 nm) compared to PL (129 ± 23 nm) and CON (142 ± 37 nM). Tlim was reduced in H-PL compared to CON (393 ± 169 vs. 471 ± 200 s; P < 0.05) but was not different between CON and H-BR (477 ± 200 s). The muscle [PCr], [Pi] and pH changed at a faster rate in H-PL compared to CON and H-BR. The [PCr] recovery time constant was greater (P < 0.01) in H-PL (29 ± 5 s) compared to CON (23 ± 5 s) and H-BR (24 ± 5 s). Nitrate supplementation reduced muscle metabolic perturbation during exercise in hypoxia and restored exercise tolerance and oxidative function to values observed in normoxia. The results suggest that augmenting the nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway may have important therapeutic applications for improving muscle energetics and functional capacity in hypoxia. PMID:21911616

Vanhatalo, Anni; Fulford, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, James R; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M



The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz



The independent and combined effects of exercise training and reducing sedentary behavior on cardiometabolic risk factors  

PubMed Central

Purpose This pilot study examined if the combination of exercise training and reducing sedentary time (ST) results in greater changes to health markers than either intervention alone. Methods Fifty-seven overweight/obese participants (19M/39F) (mean ± SD; age 43.6 ± 9.9 y, BMI 35.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2) completed the 12-week study and were randomly assigned to 1) EX: exercise 5-days/week for 40-minutes/session at moderate intensity; 2) rST: reduce ST and increase non-exercise physical activity; 3) EX-rST: combination of EX and rST and 4) CON: maintain behavior. Fasting lipids, blood pressure (BP), VO2 peak, BMI and 2-hr oral glucose tolerance tests were completed pre- and post-intervention. Results EX and EX-rST increased VO2 peak by ~10% and decreased systolic BP (both p<0.001). BMI decreased by ?3.3% (95% CI: ?4.6 to ?1.9%) for EX-rST and ?2.2% (?3.5 to 0.0%) for EX. EX-rST significantly increased C-ISI by 17.8% (2.8 to 32.8%) and decreased insulin area-under-the-curve by 19.4% (?31.4 to ?7.3%). No other groups improved in insulin action variables. rST group decreased ST by 7% (~50 min/day), however BP was the only health-related outcome that improved. Conclusions EX and EX-rST improved VO2 peak and BMI providing further evidence that moderate intensity exercise is beneficial. The within-group analysis provides preliminary evidence that exercising and reducing ST may result in improvements in metabolic biomarkers that are not seen with exercise alone, though between group differences did not reach statistical significance. Future studies, with larger samples, should examine health-related outcomes resulting from greater reductions in ST over longer intervention periods. PMID:24971677

Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Lyden, Kate; Staudenmayer, John; Hickey, Amanda; Viskochil, Richard; Braun, Barry; Freedson, Patty S.



UNC analysis finds exercise, even mild physical activity, may reduce breast cancer risk

A new analysis done by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers has found that physical activity--either mild or intense and before or after menopause--may reduce breast cancer risk, but substantial weight gain may negate these benefits. Published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings indicate that women can reduce their breast cancer risk by exercising and maintaining their weight. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is home to the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.


Reduced Satellite Cell Numbers and Myogenic Capacity in Aging Can Be Alleviated by Endurance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary. Methodology Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo). The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro). We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging. PMID:20967266

Shefer, Gabi; Rauner, Gat; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Benayahu, Dafna



Aerobic and Combined Exercise Sessions Reduce Glucose Variability in Type 2 Diabetes: Crossover Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER) or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB) sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). Methods Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years) wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement), and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods) as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods). Results Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ?16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P?=?0.003) and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P?=?0.004) were observed only after the COMB session. Conclusions Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises. Trial Registration Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS) in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise). ID: NCT00887094. PMID:23536769

Figueira, Franciele R.; Umpierre, Daniel; Casali, Karina R.; Tetelbom, Pedro S.; Henn, Nicoli T.; Schaan, Beatriz D.



Reduced Metaboreflex Control of Blood Pressure during Exercise in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Possible Contributor to Exercise Intolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim was to investigate the hemodynamic responses to isometric handgrip exercise (HG) and examine the role of the muscle metaboreflex in the exercise pressor response in individuals with intellectual disability (IID) and non-disabled control subjects. Eleven males with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities and eleven non-disabled males…

Dipla, K.; Zafeiridis, A.; Papadopoulos, S.; Koskolou, M.; Geladas, N.; Vrabas, I. S.



Exercise to reduce the escalation of cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Concurrent access to an exercise wheel decreases cocaine self-administration under short access (5 h/day for 5 days) conditions and suppresses cocaine-primed reinstatement in adult rats. Objective The effect of exercise (wheel running) on the escalation of cocaine intake during long access (LgA, 6 h/day for 26 days) conditions was evaluated. Methods Adolescent and adult female rats acquired wheel running, and behavior was allowed to stabilize for 3 days. They were then implanted with an iv catheter and allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg, iv) during 6-h daily sessions for 16 days with concurrent access to either an unlocked or a locked running wheel. Subsequently, for ten additional sessions, wheel access conditions during cocaine self-administration sessions were reversed (i.e., locked wheels became unlocked and vice versa). Results In the adolescents, concurrent access to the unlocked exercise wheel decreased responding for cocaine and attenuated escalation of cocaine intake irrespective of whether the locked or unlocked condition came first. However, cocaine intake increased when the wheel was subsequently locked for the adolescents that had initial access to an unlocked wheel. Concurrent wheel access either before or after the locked wheel access did not reduce cocaine intake in adults. Conclusions Wheel running reduced cocaine intake during LgA conditions in adolescent but not adult rats, and concurrent access to the running wheel was necessary. These results suggest that exercise prevents cocaine seeking and that this effect is more pronounced in adolescents than adults. PMID:22752381

Anker, Justin J.; Carroll, Marilyn E.



Ischaemia after exercise does not reduce responses of human motoneurones to cortical or corticospinal tract stimulation  

PubMed Central

Motor unit firing rates and voluntary activation of muscle decline during sustained isometric contractions. After exercise, the responses to motor cortical and corticospinal stimulation are reduced. These changes may reflect motoneuronal inhibition mediated by group III and IV muscle afferents. To determine whether the post-contraction depression of the responses to corticospinal or motor cortical stimulation could be maintained by continued firing of ischaemically sensitive group III and IV muscle afferents, we examined responses in muscles that were held ischaemic after exercise.Following a sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the elbow flexors lasting 2 min, the response to stimulation of the corticospinal tract was reduced but the usual recovery (over ?2 min) was not delayed when the muscles were maintained ischaemic for 2 min after the contraction.Following a sustained MVC, the time course of the reduction in the response to motor cortical stimulation (a gradual decrease over ?2 min, maintained for > 10 min) was also not altered if the muscle was held ischaemic.Mean arterial blood pressure rose to 155 ± 12 mmHg during the 2 min MVC, declined to 125 ± 9 mmHg immediately after it, but remained at this level without returning to pre-exercise levels (102 ± 10 mmHg) until circulation to the arm was restored. This confirms that the sustained MVC activated a reflex dependent on group III and IV muscle afferents.This study shows that ischaemically sensitive group III and IV muscle afferents do not mediate depression of responses to motor cortical or corticospinal stimulation after fatiguing exercise. It also suggests that firing of such afferents does not directly inhibit motoneurones or motor cortical output cells. PMID:10856130

Taylor, J L; Petersen, N; Butler, J E; Gandevia, S C



Acute L-arginine supplementation reduces the O2 cost of moderate-intensity exercise and enhances high-intensity exercise tolerance.  


It has recently been reported that dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation, which increases plasma nitrite (NO(2)(-)) concentration, a biomarker of nitric oxide (NO) availability, improves exercise efficiency and exercise tolerance in healthy humans. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthase (NOS), would elicit similar responses. In a double-blind, crossover study, nine healthy men (aged 19-38 yr) consumed 500 ml of a beverage containing 6 g of l-arginine (Arg) or a placebo beverage (PL) and completed a series of "step" moderate- and severe-intensity exercise bouts 1 h after ingestion of the beverage. Plasma NO(2)(-) concentration was significantly greater in the Arg than the PL group (331 ± 198 vs. 159 ± 102 nM, P < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (123 ± 3 vs. 131 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.01). The steady-state O(2) uptake (VO(2)) during moderate-intensity exercise was reduced by 7% in the Arg group (1.48 ± 0.12 vs. 1.59 ± 0.14 l/min, P < 0.05). During severe-intensity exercise, the Vo(2) slow component amplitude was reduced (0.58 ± 0.23 and 0.76 ± 0.29 l/min in Arg and PL, respectively, P < 0.05) and the time to exhaustion was extended (707 ± 232 and 562 ± 145 s in Arg and PL, respectively, P < 0.05) following consumption of Arg. In conclusion, similar to the effects of increased dietary NO(3)(-) intake, elevating NO bioavailability through dietary L-Arg supplementation reduced the O(2) cost of moderate-intensity exercise and blunted the VO(2) slow component and extended the time to exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. PMID:20724562

Bailey, Stephen J; Winyard, Paul G; Vanhatalo, Anni; Blackwell, Jamie R; DiMenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Jones, Andrew M



Effects of exercise stress on the endocannabinoid system in humans under field conditions.  


The effects of physical exercise stress on the endocannabinoid system in humans are almost unexplored. In this prospective study, we investigated in a crossover design and under field conditions at different altitudes the effects of physical exercise on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in 12 trained healthy volunteers. For determination of alterations on the ECS three different protocols were analyzed: Protocol A (physical exercise at lower altitude) involved strenuous hiking below 2,100 m, whereas Protocol B (physical exercise by active ascent to high altitude) involved hiking up to 3,196 m, an accommodation at the cottage and a descent the next day. Protocol C (passive ascent) included a helicopter ascent to 3,196 m, an overnight stay at this altitude and a flight back to the base camp the following day. The cumulative hiked altitude in Protocol A and B was comparable (~1,650 m). The blood EC concentrations of anandamide increased significantly in Protocol A/B from baseline (T0) 0.12 ± 0.01/0.16 ± 0.02 (mean ± SEM) to 0.27 ± 0.02/0.42 ± 0.02 after exercise (T1) (p < 0.05). Anandamide levels in Protocol C remained stable at 0.20 ± 0.02. We conclude that the ECS is activated upon strenuous exercise whereas the combination with hypoxic stress further increases its activity. The reduced partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude alone did not affect this system. In summary, physical exercise activates the endocannabinoid system, whereas the combination with high altitude enhances this activation. This discloses new perspectives to adaptation mechanisms to physical exercise. PMID:22101870

Feuerecker, M; Hauer, D; Toth, R; Demetz, F; Hölzl, J; Thiel, M; Kaufmann, I; Schelling, G; Choukèr, A



Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.  


Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise. PMID:24225668

Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R



Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia?dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishment by assessment of tissue oxygenation maximal change and recovery change, respectively. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled, of whom 9 (age 33.3 ± 4.4 years, five males) completed the study. Each subject took part in three MRI visits, with dietary nitrate (7cl concentrated beetroot juice) consumed before the third visit. During each visit fMRIs were conducted concurrently with plantar flexion exercise at workloads of 15% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found between visits 1 and 2 in the fMRI measures. A decrease in maximal change was found at 15% MVC in soleus between visits 2 and 3 (5.12 ± 2.36 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.004) and between visits 1 and 3 (4.43 ± 2.12 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.043), but not at 25% MVC or within gastrocnemius. There was no difference in recovery change between visits. We found that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces tissue oxygenation alterations during physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This effect is more prominent in muscles with predominantly type 1 fibers and at lower workloads. This indicates that in healthy subjects dietary nitrate predominantly affects skeletal muscle energy efficiency with no change in oxygen delivery. PMID:25052493

Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R.; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao



Short-term exercise reduces markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  


Increased hepatocyte apoptosis is a hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and contributes to the profibrogenic state responsible for the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Strategies aimed at reducing apoptosis may result in better outcomes for individuals with NAFLD. We therefore examined the effect of a short-term exercise program on markers of apoptosis-plasma cytokeratin 18 (CK18) fragments, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), soluble Fas (sFas), and sFas ligand (sFasL)-in 13 obese individuals with NAFLD [body mass index 35.2 ± 1.2 kg/m(2), >5% intrahepatic lipid (IHL) assessed by (1)H-MR spectroscopy]. Exercise consisted of treadmill walking for 60 min/day on 7 consecutive days at ?85% of maximal heart rate. Additionally, subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) test before and after the exercise intervention. The Matsuda index was used to assess insulin sensitivity. We observed significant decreases in CK18 fragments (558.4 ± 106.8 vs. 323.4 ± 72.5 U/l, P < 0.01) and ALT (30.2 ± 5.1 vs. 24.3 ± 4.8 U/l, P < 0.05), and an increase in whole body fat oxidation (49.3 ± 6.1 vs. 69.4 ± 7.1 mg/min, P < 0.05), while decreases in circulating sFasL approached statistical significance (66.5 ± 6.0 vs. 63.0 ± 5.7 pg/ml, P = 0.06), as did the relationship between percent change in circulating CK18 fragments and ALT (r = 0.55, P = 0.05). We also observed a significant correlation between changes in fat oxidation and circulating sFasL (rho = -0.65, P < 0.05). There was no change in IHL following the intervention (18.2 ± 2.5 vs. 17.5 ± 2.1%, NS). We conclude that short-term exercise reduces a circulatory marker of hepatocyte apoptosis in obese individuals with NAFLD and propose that changes in the proapoptotic environment may be mediated through improved insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative capacity. PMID:22582214

Fealy, Ciaran E; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Pagadala, Mangesh; Flask, Chris A; McCullough, Arthur J; Kirwan, John P



Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.



Physical exercise, use of Plantago ovata and aspirin, and reduced risk of colon cancer.  


To evaluate certain risk and protective factors for colon cancer in our population, we conducted a paired case-control study where cases were all people diagnosed with colon cancer who were registered at the Cancer Data Exchange Systems of the Community of Madrid between January 1995 and December 1996, and controls were randomly taken from electoral lists. The study population consisted of 424 persons. Using SPSS for Windows, variables were adjusted by multiple logistic regression. The results indicate that lack of physical exercise is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.21) as compared with moderate activity 1-2 days a week. The risk decreases linearly with increasing physical exercise, and this association remains after stratifying the analysis for the existence of constipation. The consumption of is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer in constipated patients, with an OR of 0.094 (0.014-0.639), as is aspirin use, with an OR of 0.980 (0.898-0.999). These results were obtained after adjusting all the ORs for diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history and socio-demographic factors such as marital status and educational level. PMID:12394244

Juarranz, M; Calle-Purón, M-E; González-Navarro, A; Regidor-Poyatos, E; Soriano, T; Martínez-Hernandez, D; Rojas, V-D; Guinee, V F



Exercise-induced acute renal failure associated with ibuprofen, hydrochlorothiazide, and triamterene.  


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs predispose to acute renal failure in conditions associated with decreased RBF. Such conditions include advanced age, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, diuretic use, and any condition decreasing effective circulating volume. Strenuous exercise also causes marked reductions in RBF. The patient discussed developed severe acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and therapeutic doses of ibuprofen and hydrochlorothiazide-triamterene. Urinalysis showed a nephritic sediment with red blood cell casts. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis and arteriolar nephrosclerosis. Although exercise-associated acute renal failure is uncommon, susceptible patients with exercise-induced renal ischemia and prostaglandin inhibition may develop this complication. PMID:7579049

Sanders, L R



Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.  


The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. However, despite suggestions that caffeine may enhance resistance exercise performance, research is equivocal on the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. It has also been suggested that dampened perception of perceived exertion and pain perception might be an explanation for any possible enhancement of resistance exercise performance due to caffeine ingestion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on repetitions to failure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise to failure. Eleven resistance trained individuals (9 males, 2 females, mean age±SD=26.4±6.4 years), took part in this double-blind, randomised cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Resistance exercise sessions consisted of bench press, deadlift, prone row and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Results indicated that participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the presence of caffeine (p=0.0001). Mean±S.D of repetitions to failure was 19.6±3.7 and 18.5±4.1 in caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively. There were no differences in peak heart rate or peak blood lactate values across conditions (both p >0.05). RPE was significantly lower in the caffeine compared to the placebo condition (p=0.03) and was significantly higher during lower body exercises compared to upper body exercises irrespective of substance ingested (p=0.0001). For muscle pain perception, a significant condition by exercise interaction (p=0.027) revealed that muscle pain perception was lower in the caffeine condition, irrespective of exercise. With caffeine, pain perception was significantly higher in the deadlift and back squat compared to the bench press. However, with placebo, pain perception was significantly higher for the deadlift and back squat compared to the prone row only. Therefore, acute caffeine ingestion not only enhances resistance exercise performance to failure but also reduces perception of exertion and muscle pain. PMID:23834545

Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike



Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression  

PubMed Central

Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as “similar.” Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as “similar.” Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as “similar,” while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information. PMID:23641193

Déry, Nicolas; Pilgrim, Malcolm; Gibala, Martin; Gillen, Jenna; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; MacQueen, Glenda; Becker, Suzanna



Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise

Francis M Finucane; Jessica Horton; Lisa R Purslow; David B Savage; Soren Brage; Hervé Besson; Kenneth Horton; Ema Lucia De Rolfe; Alison Sleigh; Stephen J Sharp; Helen J Martin; Avan Aihie Sayer; Cyrus Cooper; Ulf Ekelund; Simon J Griffin; Nicholas J Wareham



Development of Countermeasures and Exercise Protocols to Reduce the Effects of Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I have helped scientists at NASA-JSC in analyzing data from many projects. Some of the major ones are: (1) cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) following bed rest, (2) the effects of dietary sodium, (3) in-flight cycle exercise mitigates reduced oxygen consumption at submaximal heart rates following space flight, (4) exercise thermoregulation after 13 days of head down bed rest, and (5) bed rest induced orthostatic intolerance. Many of the projects have now been completed and some of them are in the process of being published and others have been presented at national meetings. These projects have helped me be a true statistician and given me a real-life perspective of how interesting and complicated data can be. As a by-product of of these involvements I have been able to write and publish some methodological research that have applications in NASA and elsewhere. For instance, while I was at JSC, I happened to meet Dr. Al Feiveson and got into a discussion of the Space Shuttle Reliability. This led us to rethink about the way the data on the accelerated life testing of space shuttle pressure vessels had been analyzed. This has resulted in a major statistical paper and the paper has appeared in one of the top journals in the field of Statistics. A review of the paper by the editor of the journal was published in AmStatNews, a copy is attached with this report. I have presented these findings at the national/international statistics conference and at other places. I have also written another paper on reliability and a paper on calibration techniques that have applications in the engineering and the biomedical branches of NASA. Further, I am currently in the process of writing at least two more papers that have direct applications in NASA related studies.

Kulkarni, Pandurang M.



The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y) performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial) and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation (omega-3 trial). Before and 48 h after eccentric exercise, signs of inflammation was assessed by measuring soreness ratings, swelling (arm circumference and arm volume), and temperature (infrared skin sensor). Arm soreness increased (p < 0.0001) in response to eccentric exercise; the magnitude of increase in soreness was 15% less in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.004). Arm circumference increased after eccentric exercise in the control trial (p = 0.01) but not in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.15). However, there was no difference between trials (p = 0.45). Arm volume and skin temperature did not change in response to eccentric exercise in either trial. These findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation decreases soreness, as a marker of inflammation, after eccentric exercise. Based on these findings, omega-3 supplementation could provide benefits by minimizing post-exercise soreness and thereby facilitate exercise training in individuals ranging from athletes undergoing heavy conditioning to sedentary subjects or patients who are starting exercise programs or medical treatments such as physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation. Key points Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to reduce inflammation in numerous inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Chrohn’s disease. Although strenuous exercise is known to cause acute increases in inflammation, it is not clear if omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates this adverse response to exercise. Our research demonstrates that 3000 mg·d-1 omega-3 fatty acid supplementation minimizes the severe, delayed-onset muscle soreness that results from strenuous eccentric strength exercise. This information, along with a plethora of information showing that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has other health benefits, demonstrates that a readily available over the counter nutritional supplement (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids) reduces delayed-onset soreness caused by strenuous strength exercise. This information has obvious relevance to athletic populations but also to other groups such as physical therapy patients and newly admitted cardiac rehabilitation patients, as muscle soreness, if left unchecked, can slow the progress in adapting to a new exercise program. Furthermore, as inflammation is known to be involved in the pathogenesis if numerous diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, it is likely prudent for individuals to use inflammation-attenuating interventions, such as omega-3 supplementation, to keep inflammatory responses to physical activity at a minimum. PMID:24150614

Jouris, Kelly B.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Edward P.



Stretch ExercisesReducing the Musculoskeletal Pain and Discomfort in the Arms and Upper Body of Echocardiographers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive strain injuries and the signs and symptoms of a musculoskeletal injury are widely recognized as serious hazards for echocardiographers. The aim of this research project was to design, implement, and evaluate an appropriate exercise program and to reduce the reported levels of signs and symptoms that echocardiographers experience in their entire upper body during a working day. Ergonomic task

Wendy D. Christenssen



The role of exercise in reducing the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus in obese women.  


The global obesity epidemic continues unabated, now rapidly expanding to developing countries. Multiple comorbidities and premature mortality are associated with obesity, most frequently diabetes. The associated financial and economical burden is escalating as well. The sedentary lifestyle adopted by many pregnant women because of traditional practices and the current recommendation for gestational weight gain are contributing factors to the obesity and diabetes epidemic. Physical inactivity is recognized as an independent risk factor for obesity insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; the physiological and hormonal changes associated with pregnancy magnify this risk. Conversely, evidence and accumulated experience indicate that antenatal lifestyle interventions that include physical activity and judicious dieting could improve the pregnancy outcome and reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and is effective as an adjunctive therapy for diabetes in pregnancy. All major professional organizations, among them American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Diabetes Association (ADA), Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), recommend lifestyle interventions that include diet and exercise to prevent or manage gestational diabetes or diabetes mellitus. PMID:25240421

Artal, Raul



Acute oral administration of a tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture reduces exercise capacity in the heat.  


Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover design separated by at least 7 days. In a randomised, double-blind fashion, subjects ingested 500 mL flavoured, sugar-free water containing amino acids [(TYR-free; isoleucine 15 g, leucine 22.5 g, valine 17.5 g, lysine 17.5 g, methionine 5 g, threonine 10 g, tryptophan 2.5 g)] to lower the ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:amino acids competing for blood-brain barrier uptake (CAA), a key determinant of brain uptake, or a balanced mixture (BAL; TYR-free plus 12.5 g tyrosine and 12.5 g phenylalanine). One hour later, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 63 ± 5 % [Formula: see text]O2peak in 30 °C and 60 % relative humidity. Pre-exercise ratio of plasma tyrosine plus phenylalanine:?CAA declined 75 ± 5 % from rest in TYR-free (P < 0.001), but was unchanged in BAL (P = 0.061). Exercise time was shorter in TYR-free (59.8 ± 19.0 min vs. 66.2 ± 16.9 min in TYR-free and BAL respectively; P = 0.036). Heart rate (P = 0.298), core (P = 0.134) and skin (P = 0.384) temperature, RPE (P > 0.05) and thermal sensation (P > 0.05) were similar at exhaustion in both trials. These data indicate that acutely depleting plasma catecholamine precursors:?CAA is associated with reduced submaximal exercise capacity in the heat. PMID:23288035

Tumilty, Les; Davison, Glen; Beckmann, Manfred; Thatcher, Rhys



Load Variation Influences on Joint Work During Squat Exercise in Reduced Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resistance exercises that load the axial skeleton, such as the parallel squat, are incorporated as a critical component of a space exercise program designed to maximize the stimuli for bone remodeling and muscle loading. Astronauts on the International Space Station perform regular resistance exercise using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Squat exercises on Earth entail moving a portion of the body weight plus the added bar load, whereas in microgravity the body weight is 0, so all load must be applied via the bar. Crewmembers exercising in microgravity currently add approx.70% of their body weight to the bar load as compensation for the absence of the body weight. This level of body weight replacement (BWR) was determined by crewmember feedback and personal experience without any quantitative data. The purpose of this evaluation was to utilize computational simulation to determine the appropriate level of BWR in microgravity necessary to replicate lower extremity joint work during squat exercise in normal gravity based on joint work. We hypothesized that joint work would be positively related to BWR load.

DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Logan, Rachel L.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.



Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}  

SciTech Connect

Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

Yan Zhencheng [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Liu Daoyan [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhang Lili [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Shen Chenyi [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Ma Qunli [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Cao Tingbing [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Wang Lijuan [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Nie Hai [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zidek, Walter [Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Tepel, Martin [Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Zhu Zhiming [Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)]. E-mail:



Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study published October 8, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.


Aerobic exercise but not resistance exercise reduces intrahepatic lipid content and visceral fat and improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

It is unclear whether regular exercise alone (no caloric restriction) is a useful strategy to reduce adiposity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors in obese girls. We examined the effects of aerobic (AE) vs. resistance exercise (RE) alone on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese girls. Forty-four obese adolescent girls (BMI ?95th percentile, 12–18 yr) with abdominal obesity (waist circumference 106.5 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to 3 mo of 180 min/wk AE (n = 16) or RE (n = 16) or a nonexercising control group (n = 12). Total fat and VAT were assessed by MRI and intrahepatic lipid by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Intermuscular AT (IMAT) was measured by CT. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic (80 mU·m2·min?1) euglycemic clamp. Compared with controls (0.13 ± 1.10 kg), body weight did not change (P > 0.1) in the AE (?1.31 ± 1.43 kg) and RE (?0.31 ± 1.38 kg) groups. Despite the absence of weight loss, total body fat (%) and IMAT decreased (P < 0.05) in both exercise groups compared with control. Compared with control, significant (P < 0.05) reductions in VAT (??15.68 ± 7.64 cm2) and intrahepatic lipid (??1.70 ± 0.74%) and improvement in insulin sensitivity (?0.92 ± 0.27 mg·kg?1·min?1 per ?U/ml) were observed in the AE group but not the RE group. Improvements in insulin sensitivity in the AE group were associated with the reductions in total AT mass (r = ?0.65, P = 0.02). In obese adolescent girls, AE but not RE is effective in reducing liver fat and visceral adiposity and improving insulin sensitivity independent of weight loss or calorie restriction. PMID:24045865

Deldin, Anthony R.; White, David; Kim, YoonMyung; Libman, Ingrid; Rivera-Vega, Michelle; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Sandoval, Sandra; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva



Reduced Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation following Progressive Resistance Exercise in Growing Adolescent Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to investigate moderate intensity progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in growing adolescent rats and its effect on muscle hypertrophy (defined as an increase in fiber cross-sectional area). We hypothesized that in adolescent animals moderate intensity PRE would increase: 1) fiber cross-sectional area (CSA); 2) myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content; and 3) expression and phosphorylation of cell signaling molecules involved in translational regulation, compared to age-matched sedentary controls (SED). In the PRE group, three-week old male rats were trained to climb a vertical ladder as a mode of PRE training such that by 10 weeks, all animals in the PRE group had progressed to carry an additional 80% of body weight per climb. In agreement with our hypotheses, we observed that 10 weeks of moderate PRE in adolescent animals was sufficient to increase CSA of muscle fibers and increase MyHC content. Average muscle fiber CSA increased by greater than 10% and total MyHC content increased by 35% (p<0.05) in the PRE group compared to SED animals. Concurrently, we investigated sustained changes in the expression and phosphorylation of key signaling molecules that are previously identified regulators of hypertrophy in adult animal models. Contrary to our hypotheses, expression and phosphorylation of the translational regulators mTOR and Akt were not increased in the PRE group. In addition, we observed that the ratio of phosphorylated-to-unphosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) was reduced over six-fold in PRE animals (p<0.05) and total rpS6 protein levels were unchanged between PRE and sedentary animals (p>0.05). We conclude that moderate intensity PRE is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy in adolescent animals while the signaling mechanisms associated with muscle hypertrophy may differ between growing adolescents and adults. PMID:22614147

Hellyer, Nathan J.; Nokleby, Jessica J.; Thicke, Bethany M.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.



Reduced ribosomal protein s6 phosphorylation after progressive resistance exercise in growing adolescent rats.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate moderate intensity progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in growing adolescent rats and its effect on muscle hypertrophy (defined as an increase in fiber cross-sectional area [CSA]). We hypothesized that in adolescent animals moderate intensity PRE would increase (a) fiber CSA; (b) myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content; and (c) expression and phosphorylation of cell signaling molecules involved in translational regulation, compared with that in age-matched sedentary (SED) controls. In the PRE group, 3-week-old male rats were trained to climb a vertical ladder as a mode of PRE training such that by 10 weeks all animals in the PRE group had progressed to carry an additional 80% of their body weight per climb. In agreement with our hypotheses, we observed that 10 weeks of moderate PRE in adolescent animals was sufficient to increase the CSA of muscle fibers and increase MyHC content. The average muscle fiber CSA increased by >10%, and the total MyHC content increased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the PRE group compared with that in the SED animals. Concurrently, we investigated sustained changes in the expression and phosphorylation of key signaling molecules that are previously identified regulators of hypertrophy in adult animal models. Contrary to our hypotheses, expression and phosphorylation of the translational regulators mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt were not increased in the PRE group. In addition, we observed that the ratio of phosphorylated-to-unphosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) was reduced over sixfold in PRE animals (p < 0.05) and that total rpS6 protein levels were unchanged between PRE and SED animals (p > 0.05). We conclude that moderate intensity PRE is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy in adolescent animals, whereas the signaling mechanisms associated with muscle hypertrophy may differ between growing adolescents and adults. PMID:22614147

Hellyer, Nathan J; Nokleby, Jessica J; Thicke, Bethany M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B



Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Dysfunction and Remodeling in Ovariectomized Rats Submitted to Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exercise training (ET) prevents or minimizes cardiac dysfunction and pathological ventricular remodeling in ovariectomized rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) and to examine the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were subjected to either MI or fictitious surgery (Sham) and randomly divided into the following groups: Control, OVX+SHAMSED, OVX+SHAMET, OVX+MISED and OVX+MIET. ET was performed on a motorized treadmill (5x/wk, 60 min/day, 8 weeks). Cardiac function was assessed by ventricular catheterization and Dihydroethidium fluorescence (DHE) was evaluated to analyze cardiac oxidative stress. Histological analyses were made to assess collagen deposition, myocyte hypertrophy and infarct size. Western Blotting was performed to analyze the protein expression of catalase and SOD-2, as well as Gp91phox and AT1 receptor (AT1R). MI-trained rats had significantly increased in +dP/dt and decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared with MI-sedentary rats. Moreover, oxidative stress and collagen deposition was reduced, as was myocyte hypertrophy. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in both AT1R and Gp91phox expression and an increase in catalase expression. SOD-2 expression was not altered. These results indicate that ET improves the functional cardiac parameters associated with attenuation of cardiac remodeling in ovariectomized rats subjected to MI. The mechanism seems to be related to a reduction in the expression of both the AT1 receptor and Gp91phox as well as an increase in the antioxidant enzyme catalase, which contributes to a reduction in oxidative stress. Therefore, ET may be an important therapeutic target for the prevention of heart failure in postmenopausal women affected by MI. PMID:25551214

de Almeida, Simone Alves; Claudio, Erick Roberto Gonçalves; Mengal, Vinícius Franskoviaky; de Oliveira, Suelen Guedes; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila Lang; Gouvêa, Sônia Alves; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; de Abreu, Gláucia Rodrigues



Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryotherapy is an effective treatment for acute sports injury to soft tissue, although the effect of cryotherapy on exercise-induced muscle damage is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following strenuous eccentric exercise. After performing a bout of damage-inducing eccentric exercise (eight sets of five




Enhancement of preoxygenation for decompression sickness protection: effect of exercise duration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Since strenuous exercise for 10 min during preoxygenation was shown to provide better protection from decompression sickness (DCS) incidence than resting preoxygenation, a logical question was: would a longer period of strenuous exercise improve protection even further? HYPOTHESIS: Increased strenuous exercise duration during preoxygenation increases DCS protection. METHODS: There were 60 subjects, 30 men and 30 women, who were exposed to 9,144 m (4.3 psia) for 4 h while performing mild, upper body exercise. Before the exposures, each subject performed three preoxygenation profiles on different days in balanced order: a 90-min resting preoxygenation control; a 240-min resting preoxygenation control; and a 90-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 15 min. The subjects were monitored at altitude for venous gas emboli (VGE) with an echo-imaging system and observed for signs and symptoms of DCS. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in occurrence of DCS following any of the three preoxygenation procedures. Results were also comparable to an earlier report of 42% DCS with a 60-min preoxygenation including a 10-min exercise. There was no difference between VGE incidence in the comparison of protection offered by a 90-min preoxygenation with or without 13 min of strenuous exercise. The DCS incidence following a 240-min resting preoxygenation, 40%, was higher than observed during NASA studies and nearly identical with the earlier 42% DCS after a 60-min preoxygenation including exercise during the first 10 min. CONCLUSION: The protection offered by a 10 min exercise in a 60-min preoxygenation was not increased with extension of the preoxygenation exercise period to 15 min in a 90-min preoxygenation, indicating an upper time limit to the beneficial effects of strenuous exercise.

Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Fischer, Michele D.; Kannan, Nandini



Can Stretching Exercises Reduce Your Risks of Experiencing Low Back Pain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aim: Stretching exercises are recommended for treat and prevention of symptoms of low back pain. Its effectiveness\\u000a to improve postural alignment that contributes to low back pain has not been evaluated during prolonged sitting. The aim of\\u000a this biomechanical study was to evaluate if performing stretching exercises during prolong sitting improved postural alignment.\\u000a \\u000a Method:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 14 healthy subjects were

B. S. Rajaratnam; C. M. Lam; H. H. S. Seah; W. S. Chee; Y. S. E. Leung; Y. J. L. Ong; Y. Y. Kok


Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.  


We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. PMID:23684439

Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack



Five Exercises Can Reduce Neck, Shoulder Pain Of Women Office Workers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Study finds physiological changes in one muscle help ease pain." This press release describes the experimental design and findings from the published study "Effect of contrasting physical exercise on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles" by Lars L. Andersen, Jesper L. Andersen, Charlotte Suetta, Michael Kjaer, Karen Sogaard, and Gisela Sjogaard in Journal of Applied Physiology, September 2009.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Exercise training does not reduce hyperlipidemia in pigs fed a high-fat diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pig is often used as a model for studying lipoprotein metabolism as it relates to human atherosclerosis, but few studies have examined the complete lipoprotein profile and related enzymes in swine ingesting an atherogenic diet. We examined whether exercise training would moderate the effects of an atherogenic diet on lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in miniature swine. Male

Tom R. Thomas; Jonathan Pellechia; R. Scott Rector; Grace Y. Sun; Michael S. Sturek; M. Harold Laughlin



Coronary collaterals reduce the duration of exercise-induced ischemia by allowing a faster recovery.  


The role of collaterals in influencing postischemic recovery after exercise testing has not been investigated previously. We studied 54 patients (mean age 59 +/- 6 years) with effort-induced angina and documented coronary disease who underwent exercise testing and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. On angiography, 30 patients (group A) exhibited visible collaterals (grade 2 to 3, Cohen and Rentrop classification) perfusing the ischemic zone, whereas the other 24 (group B) did not. Patients with collaterals had more severe coronary artery disease (Gensini score 46.9 +/- 16 vs 28.6 +/- 18; p less than 0.001) and more severe impairment of coronary flow reserve (time and rate-pressure product to 1 mm ST segment depression 3.5 +/- 0.8 vs 4.8 +/- 0.6 minutes, p less than 0.01; 14,189 +/- 2451 vs 16,081 +/- 2215 beats/min x mm Hg, p less than 0.04, respectively). However, in these patients the ECG returned to baseline more rapidly after exercise (5.5 +/- 1.6 vs 11.7 +/- 3.3 minutes; p less than 0.001). Therefore, although collaterals do not apparently prevent or delay the development of exercise-induced ischemia, they can limit its duration by allowing a faster recovery. PMID:1615827

Bonetti, F; Margonato, A; Mailhac, A; Carandente, O; Cappelletti, A; Ballarotto, C; Chierchia, S L



The repeated bout effect of reduced-load eccentric exercise on elbow flexor muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this study we investigated the extent to which an initial eccentric exercise consisting of two (2ECC) or six maximal eccentric\\u000a actions (6ECC) of the elbow flexors would produce a similar effect to 24 maximal eccentric actions (24ECC), on a second bout\\u000a of 24ECC performed 2 weeks later. Male students (n=34) were assigned to one of three groups, and with

Kazunori Nosaka; K. Sakamoto; M. Newton; P. Sacco



Process Evaluation of Workplace Interventions with Physical Exercise to Reduce Musculoskeletal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2?min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12?min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12?min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2?min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67–92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. PMID:25574172

Zebis, Mette K.



For Women With PCOS, Acupuncture And Exercise May Bring Relief, Reduce Risks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study, Â?Low-frequency electro-acupuncture and physical exercise decrease high muscle sympathetic nerve activity in polycystic ovary syndromeÂ? was conducted by Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Elizabeth Jedel, Per Olof Janson and Vrsa Bergmann Sverrisdottir, all of the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. The study is in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, published by The American Physiological Society.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) treatment before knee extensor\\u000a eccentric exercise on indirect markers of muscle damage. Thirty-six healthy men were randomized in LLLT group (n = 18) and placebo group (n = 18). After LLLT or placebo treatment, subjects performed 75 maximal knee extensors eccentric contractions (five sets of\\u000a 15 repetitions;

Bruno Manfredini Baroni; Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior; Thiago De Marchi; André Luiz Lopes; Mirian Salvador; Marco Aurélio Vaz



Intensive aerobic and muscle endurance exercise in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background No previous studies have examined the effect of intensive exercise in systemic sclerosis patients with pulmonary impairment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an eight-week intensive aerobic exercise and muscle endurance training program for patients with systemic sclerosis with 50–100% of forced vital capacity. Methods A single-subject experimental design with repeated systematic measures during a six week A-phase (non-interventional baseline period) and an eight week B-phase (exercise intervention period) was used. Three women and one man with median age 66 years and median disease duration of 3.5?years completed aerobic exercise corresponding to 15 on the Borg RPE scale (strenuous) and muscular endurance training three times/week. Physical capacity (six-minute walk test), aerobic capacity (submaximal treadmill test) and muscle endurance in shoulder and hip flexion (Functional Index 2) were assessed every other week throughout the 14-week study. Activity limitation (Health Assessment Questionnaire), quality of life (Short Form 36), Raynaud, Fatigue and Global Health during the recent week (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, 14. Results Three participants improved significantly in muscular endurance, and two participants improved significantly or clinically relevant in aerobic capacity. All other variables remained unchanged, except for a trend towards reduced fatigue. Conclusions This eight week exercise program was largely successful with positive effects on aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Trial registration Identifier: NCT01813578 PMID:24507585



Both Physical Exercise and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Reduce the Facing-the-Viewer Bias in Biological Motion Perception  

PubMed Central

Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1) or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2) would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2) would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1) or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2), and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our results provide further support that the facing-the-viewer bias for biological motion stimuli is related to the sociobiological relevance of such stimuli. PMID:24987956

Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F.



Physical exercise prior and during treatment reduces sub-chronic doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress.  


Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anti-cancer agent whose clinical usage results in a cumulative and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. We have previously shown that exercise performed prior to DOX treatment reduces the resulting cardiac(mito) toxicity. We sought to determine the effects on cardiac mitochondrial toxicity of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) when used prior and during DOX treatment. Male-young Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=6 per group): SAL+SED (saline sedentary), SAL+TM (12-weeks TM), SAL+FW (12-weeks FW), DOX+SED (7-weeks of chronic DOX treatment 2mg/kg per week), DOX+TM and DOX+FW. DOX administration started 5weeks after the beginning of the exercise protocol. Heart mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations, mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption and membrane potential), semi-quantification of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins and their in-gel activity, as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidative stress (SIRT3, p66shc and UCP2), biogenesis (PGC1? and TFAM), acetylation and markers for oxidative damage (carbonyl groups, MDA,SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD activity) were evaluated. DOX treatment resulted in ultrastructural and functional alterations and decreased OXPHOS. Moreover, DOX decreased complex I activity and content, mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM), increased acetylation and oxidative stress. TM and FW prevented DOX-induced alteration in OXPHOS, the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in complex V activity and in complex I activity and content. DOX-induced decreases in TFAM and SIRT3 content were prevented by TM only. Both chronic models of physical exercise performed before and during the course of sub-chronic DOX treatment translated into an improved mitochondrial bioenergetic fitness, which may result in part from the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. PMID:25446396

Marques-Aleixo, Inês; Santos-Alves, Estela; Mariani, Diogo; Rizo-Roca, David; Padrão, Ana I; Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, J Ramon; Ferreira, Rita; Oliveira, Paulo J; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António



There are at least 40 Benefits of Exercise Reduce the risk of premature death  

E-print Network

/or dying from heart disease Reduce high blood pressure or the risk of developing high blood pressure diabetes Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure. Helps build promotes better sleep. Reduces the risk of developing diabetes. Reduces the risk of developing high blood

Paxton, Anthony T.


Melatonin Reduces Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Stanozolol in Rats Exposed to Swimming Exercise  

PubMed Central

Objective: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are nominated for clinical use to promote protein synthesis in many therapeutic conditions. However, the indiscriminate use of AAS is related to hazardous cardiac disturbances and oxidative stress. We designed a study to investigate whether prolonged treatment with high doses of stanozolol modifies the activities of some antioxidant enzymes in the heart in sedentary and trained rats and whether this treatment causes alterations of cardiovascular parameters. In addition, the effectiveness of melatonin as an antioxidant and as a modulator of the cardiovascular side effects of stanozolol (STA) treatment was analyzed. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: sedentary (S), stanozolol sedentary (SS), stanozolol-melatonin sedentary (SMS), trained (T), stanozolol trained (ST) and stanozolol-melatonin trained (SMT). The stanozolol-treatment rats received 5 by subcutaneous injection before each exercise session (5 d.wk?1, i.e., 25, while control groups received only saline solution injection. The melatonin-treatment groups received intraperitoneal injections of melatonin (10, 5 d.wk?1 for 6 wk. Electrocardiography, blood pressure and antioxidant enzyme activity measurements were performed at the end of the experimental period for cardiac function and molecular assessment. Results: This is the first time that the in vivo effects of melatonin treatment on stanozolol-induced cardiovascular side effects have been studied. Stanozolol induced bradycardia and significantly increased cardiac superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Trained stanozolol-treated rats experienced an increase in blood pressure and relative heart weight, and they developed left cardiac axis deviation. Although melatonin did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy in exercised stanozolol-treated animals, it maintained blood pressure and cardiac catalase activity, and it prevented stanozolol-induced cardiac electrical axis deviation. Conclusion: In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, chronic stanozolol administration induced mild cardiovascular side effects that were partly attenuated by melatonin treatment. However, these results showed that the combination of melatonin and exercise could minimize the stanozolol side effects in the cardiovascular system.

Barbosa dos Santos, Gustavo; Machado Rodrigues, Marcelo José; Gonçalves, Estela Maria; Cintra Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina; Areas, Miguel Arcanjo



Movement control exercise versus general exercise to reduce disability in patients with low back pain and movement control impairment. A randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) in subacute and chronic stages can be treated effectively with exercise therapy. Research guidelines recommend evaluating different treatments in defined subgroups of patients with NSLBP. A subgroup of patients with movement control impairment (MCI) improved significantly on patient specific function and disability in a previous case series after movement control exercises. Methods/Design In a randomised controlled trial (RCT) we will compare the effectiveness of movement control and general exercise in patients with MCI. 106 participants aged 18 - 75 will be recruited in 5 outpatient hospital departments and 7 private practices. Patients randomly assigned to the movement control exercise group will be instructed to perform exercises according to their MCI. The general exercise group will follow an exercise protocol aimed at improving endurance and flexibility. Patients in both groups will receive 9 - 18 treatments and will be instructed to do additional exercises at home. The primary outcome is the level of disability assessed using the patient specific functional scale (PSFS) which links the perceived pain to functional situations and is measured before treatment and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes concern low back pain related disability (Roland Morris questionnaire, RMQ), graded chronic pain scale (GCPS), range of motion and tactile acuity. Discussion To our knowledge this study will be the first to compare two exercise programs for a specific subgroup of patients with NSLBP and MCI. Results of this study will provide insight into the effectiveness of movement control exercise and contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms behind MCI and its relation to NSLBP. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN80064281 PMID:21943318



Two- and 3-Dimensional Knee Valgus Are Reduced After an Exercise Intervention in Young Adults With Demonstrable Valgus During Squatting  

PubMed Central

Context: Two-dimensional (or medial knee displacement [MKD]) and 3-dimensional (3D) knee valgus are theorized to contribute to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, whether these displacements can be improved in the double-legged squat (DLS) after an exercise intervention is unclear. Objective: To determine if MKD and 3D knee valgus are improved in a DLS after an exercise intervention. Design: ?Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 participants were enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16) or intervention (n = 16) group. During a DLS, all participants demonstrated knee valgus that was corrected with a heel lift. Intervention(s): ?The intervention group completed 10 sessions of directed exercise that focused on hip and ankle strength and flexibility over a 2- to 3-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed MKD and 3D knee valgus during the DLS using an electromagnetic tracking system. Hip strength and ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion were measured. Change scores were calculated for MKD and 3D valgus at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% phases, and group (2 levels)-by phase (6 levels) repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Independent t tests were used to compare change scores in other variables (? < .05). Results: The MKD decreased from 20% to 50% of the DLS (P = .02) and 3D knee valgus improved from 30% to 50% of the squat phase (P = .001). Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion (knee extended) increased in the intervention group (P = .009). No other significant findings were observed (P > .05). Conclusions: ?The intervention reduced MKD and 3D knee valgus during a DLS. The intervention also increased ankle range of motion. Our inclusion criteria might have limited our ability to observe changes in hip strength. PMID:23724771

Bell, David R.; Oates, D. Craig; Clark, Micheal A.; Padua, Darin A.



Reduced stretch-reflex sensitivity after exhausting stretch-shortening cycle exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is an effective and natural form of muscle function but, when repeated with sufficient intensity or duration, it may lead to muscle damage and functional defects. A reduced tolerance to impact has been reported, which may be partly attributed to a reduced stretch-reflex potentiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of

P. V. Komi; T. Horita; H. Kyröläinen; T. E. S. Takala; C. Nicol



Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept) study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. Methods Eight, healthy men (27.1?±?6.9 yrs old) who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising <150 minutes per week) were randomly assigned to ingest MSM at either 1.5 grams per day or 3.0 grams per day for 30 days (28 days before and 2 days following exercise). Before and after the 28 day intervention period, subjects performed 18 sets of knee extension exercise in an attempt to induce muscle damage (and to be used partly as a measure of exercise performance). Sets 1–15 were performed at a predetermined weight for 10 repetitions each, while sets 16–18 were performed to muscular failure. Muscle soreness (using a 5-point Likert scale), fatigue (using the fatigue-inertia subset of the Profile of Mood States), blood antioxidant status (glutathione and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity [TEAC]), and blood homocysteine were measured before and after exercise, pre and post intervention. Exercise performance (total work performed during sets 16–18 of knee extension testing) was also measured pre and post intervention. Results Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p?=?0.080), with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p?=?0.073 with 3.0 grams; p?=?0.087 for both dosages combined). TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p?=?0.035), while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p?=?0.007). No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p?>?0.05). Conclusion MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance. PMID:23013531



Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

Tipton, Charles M.



Nutrition and exercise--a consensus view.  


The ability to perform exercise is impaired if the diet is inadequate. Conversely, performance may be improved by appropriate dietary manipulation. The primary need for the diet of athletes in training is to meet additional nutrient requirements imposed by the training load. Many athletes consider that a high protein diet is essential to stimulate muscle growth and promote repair. Evidence shows that hard exercise increases the protein requirement, but athletes eating a varied diet in sufficient quantity to meet their energy demands will obtain adequate protein. Carbohydrate is the main fuel used by the muscle in hard exercise, and carbohydrate intake must be sufficient to enable the training load to be sustained. During each strenuous training session, depletion of the glycogen stores in the exercising muscles and in the liver takes place. If this carbohydrate reserve is not replenished before the next training session, training intensity must be reduced, leading to corresponding decrements in the training response. It is recommended for athletes in training that carbohydrate should account for 60-70% of total energy intake, but the type of carbohydrate consumed is not crucial. With regular training, there must be an increased total energy intake to balance the increased energy expenditure. Provided that a reasonably normal diet is consumed this will supply more than adequate amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins and other micronutrients. Possible exceptions are iron and calcium, especially when energy intake is restricted to control body weight. There is no good evidence to suggest that specific supplementation with any of these dietary components is necessary or that it will improve performance. Attention must be paid, however, to ensure an adequate water intake during training: dehydration will reduce performance. The body does not adapt to dehydration. Consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet for the few days before competition with a reduction in the training load can double the muscle glycogen content and is generally known to be effective in increasing endurance performance. There is some evidence that the muscle glycogen content may also influence performance in events lasting only a few minutes. A high muscle glycogen content may be important when repeated sprints at near maximum speed have to be made. There is scope for nutritional intervention during exercise only when the duration of events is sufficient to allow absorption of drinks or foods ingested and where the rules of the sport permit. The primary aims must be to ingest a source of energy, usually carbohydrate, and fluid for replacement of water lost as sweat. Carbohydrate-electrolyte (sodium) drinks are the most effective way of achieving this. Each athlete must establish by trial and error 1000 the most suitable dietary programme for training and competition. PMID:24398242

Ron, M



Hormonal and metabolic changes during a strenuous tennis match. Effect of ageing.  


The effect of a strenuous tennis match was studied in 9 young (21.2 +/- 1.9 yr) and 10 veteran women players (46.5 +/- 1.3 yr) of equivalent skill. Each match was carried out during the summer (ambient temperature 27 +/- 1 degree C), as an official competition, under conditions as similar as possible. Heart rate (HR) was monitored throughout the match, weight loss was evaluated and pre- and post-match values of haematocrit, plasma lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), glycemia, ionogram, norepinephrine (NOR), epinephrine, arginine vasopressin (AV) concentrations and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured. Plasma volume was calculated. While mean HR remained steady in young players, it increased progressively in veteran players as the match went on and reached a very high level towards the end of the match. When post-match values were compared to pre-match values, the mean results were: no substantial changes in plasma lactate and electrolyte concentrations, a large increase in FFA, no increase in epinephrine, a moderate rise in NOR and a large increase in PRA and AV. Despite a similar weight loss, a large drop in plasma volume occurred only in veteran players, who also showed FFA and AV values greater than in young players. During these strenuous matches the large response of hormones which control body fluid probably contributed to the limiting of changes in water and electrolyte balances. However, under similar conditions marked differences occurred as a function of ageing concerning the control of plasma volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2030052

Therminarias, A; Dansou, P; Chirpaz-Oddou, M F; Gharib, C; Quirion, A



The phosphodiesterases type 5 inhibitor tadalafil reduces the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in men during cycle ergometric exercise.  


Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may influence human physiology, health, and performance by also modulating endocrine pathways. We evaluated the effects of a 2-day tadalafil administration on adenohypophyseal and adrenal hormone adaptation to exercise in humans. Fourteen healthy males were included in a double-blind crossover trial. Each volunteer randomly received two tablets of placebo or tadalafil (20 mg/day with a 36-h interval) before a maximal exercise was performed. After a 2-wk washout, the volunteers were crossed over. Blood samples were collected at -30 and -15 min and immediately before exercise, immediately after, and during recovery (+15, +30, +60, and +90 min) for adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), ?-endorphin, growth hormone (GH), prolactin, cortisol (C), corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) assays. C-to-CBG (free cortisol index, FCI) and DHEAS-to-C ratios were calculated. Exercise intensity, perceived exertion rate, O? consumption, and CO? and blood lactate concentration were evaluated. ACTH, GH, C, corticosterone, and CBG absolute concentrations and/or areas under the curve (AUC) increased after exercise after both placebo and tadalafil. Exercise increased DHEAS only after placebo. Compared with placebo, tadalafil administration reduced the ACTH, C, corticosterone, and FCI responses to exercise and was associated with higher ?-endorphin AUC and DHEAS-to-C ratio during recovery, without influencing cardiorespiratory and performance parameters. Tadalafil reduced the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during exercise by probably influencing the brain's nitric oxide- and cGMP-mediated pathways. Further studies are necessary to confirm our results and to identify the involved mechanisms, possible health risks, and potential clinical uses. PMID:22318947

Di Luigi, Luigi; Sgrò, Paolo; Baldari, Carlo; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Crescioli, Clara; Bianchini, Serena; Romanelli, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Guidetti, Laura



Whole Body Periodic Acceleration Reduces Levels of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After Eccentric Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Several recovery strategies have been used, with limited effectiveness, to reduce the muscle discomfort or pain and the diminished muscle performance following a bout of unaccustomed physical activity, a condition known as delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Muscle damage in this condition is associated with mechanical disruption of the muscle and connective tissue and inflammation and increased oxidative

Daniel H. Serravite



Cost-effectiveness of diet and exercise interventions to reduce overweight and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To analyze whether two dietary weight loss interventions—the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) program and a low-fat diet program— would be cost-effective in Australia, and to assess their potential to reduce the disease burden related to excess body weight.Design:We constructed a multi-state life-table-based Markov model in which the distribution of body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart

M Forster; J L Veerman; J J Barendregt; T Vos



Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control Usual care. Measurements Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies. PMID:24591821

Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy



The Feasibility of Reducing and Measuring Sedentary Time among Overweight, Non-Exercising Office Workers  

PubMed Central

This study examined the feasibility of reducing free-living sedentary time (ST) and the convergent validity of various tools to measure ST. Twenty overweight/obese participants wore the activPAL (AP) (criterion measure) and ActiGraph (AG; 100 and 150 count/minute cut-points) for a 7-day baseline period. Next, they received a simple intervention targeting free-living ST reductions (7-day intervention period). ST was measured using two questionnaires following each period. ST significantly decreased from 67% of wear time (baseline period) to 62.7% of wear time (intervention period) according to AP (n = 14, P < 0.01). No other measurement tool detected a reduction in ST. The AG measures were more accurate (lower bias) and more precise (smaller confidence intervals) than the questionnaires. Participants reduced ST by ~5%, which is equivalent to a 48_min reduction over a 16-hour waking day. These data describe ST measurement properties from wearable monitors and self-report tools to inform sample-size estimates for future ST interventions. PMID:22175004

Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Libertine, Amanda; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty



Branched-Chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in College-Age Females  

PubMed Central

Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise (P = 0.018). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects. PMID:24967261

Leahy, Danielle T.; Pintauro, Stephen J.



Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.AimsTo examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.DesignParticipants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using

Maciej S. Buchowski; Natalie N. Meade; Evonne Charboneau; Sohee Park; Mary S. Dietrich; Ronald L. Cowan; Peter R. Martin; Antonio Verdejo García



Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.  


The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. PMID:24814689

McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T



Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves exercise economy and reduces perceived exertion during submaximal steady-state exercise in normal healthy untrained men.  


Based on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on reduction of blood viscosity, we theorized that PUFA could improve aerobic performance by increasing oxygen supply to tissues. Twenty male subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): a fish oil group (FG) and a control (CG). Maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise were measured using a cycle ergometer. For 8 weeks, the FG then ingested capsules containing 3.6 g/day of EPA-rich fish oil, while the CG took 3.6 g/day of a medium-chain triglyceride. After supplementation, erythrocyte EPA and DHA in the FG were significantly increased. In the FG, a negative linear correlation was detected in the change between erythrocyte EPA and whole oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise pre- and post-supplementation. The present study showed that EPA-rich fish oil supplementation improves exercise economy in humans. PMID:25144572

Kawabata, Fuminori; Neya, Mitsuo; Hamazaki, Kei; Watanabe, Yuya; Kobayashi, Satoru; Tsuji, Tomoko



Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P < 0.001) were found for changes in plasma glucose during and after exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.



Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies  

PubMed Central

This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.



The effects of moderate-, strenuous and over-training on oxidative stress markers, DNA repair, and memory, in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested the hypothesis that training with moderate- (MT), strenuous- (ST), or over- (OT) load can cause alterations in memory, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA damage, activity of 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in rat brain. Rat memory was assessed by a passive avoidance test and the ST and OT group demonstrated improved memory. The content

Helga Ogonovszky; István Berkes; Shuzo Kumagai; Takao Kaneko; Shoichi Tahara; Sataro Goto; Zsolt Radák



Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Background: Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM ? 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities. Objective: In this study we sought to quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips. Methods: We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ? 8 km in 11 metropolitan areas in the upper midwestern United States using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used the World Health Organization Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle. Results: We estimate that, by eliminating these short automobile trips, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer ozone (O3) would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health bene-fits of $4.94 billion/year [95% confidence interval (CI): $0.2 billion, $13.5 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 bene-fits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,295 deaths/year (95% CI: 912, 1,636) because of improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 billion, $5.0 billion]. We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $8 billion/year. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that significant health and economic benefits are possible if bicycling replaces short car trips. Less dependence on automobiles in urban areas would also improve health in downwind rural settings. PMID:22049372

Spak, Scott N.; Holloway, Tracey; Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C.; Patz, Jonathan A.



Water Exercise and Its Effect on Balance and Gait to Reduce the Risk of Falling in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to compare the effect of land-based and water-based exercise on gait and balance in two groups of women 65 years and older who engaged in regular exercise. Gait and balance was assessed with the Tinetti Gait and Balance Assessment. The Health Survey SF36v2 and a demographic\\/health survey were used to collect information concerning overall

Carolyn E. Booth



Reduced stretch reflex sensitivity and muscle stiffness after long-lasting stretch-shortening cycle exercise in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that during repeated long-term stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise the decreased neuromuscular\\u000a function may result partly from alterations in stiffness regulation. Therefore, interaction between the short latency stretch-reflex\\u000a component (M1) and muscle stiffness and their influences on muscle performance were investigated before and after long lasting SSC exercise.\\u000a The test protocol included various jumps on a sledge

Janne Avela; Paavo V. Komi



Resistance exercise reduces liver fat and its mediators in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of weight loss  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyle interventions focusing on weight loss remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management. Despite this, the weight losses achieved in research trials are not easily replicated in the clinic and there is an urgent need for therapies independent of weight loss. Aerobic exercise is not well sustained and the effectiveness of the better tolerated resistance exercise upon liver lipid and mediators of liver lipid has not been assessed. Methods Sedentary adults with clinically defined NAFLD were assigned to 8?weeks of resistance exercise (n=11) or continued normal treatment (n=8). Results 8?weeks of resistance exercise elicited a 13% relative reduction in liver lipid (14.0±9.1 vs 12.2±9.0; p<0.05). Lipid oxidation (submaximal RQ ? ?0.020±0.010 vs ?0.004±0.003; p<0.05), glucose control (?12% vs +12% change AUC; p<0.01) and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (5.9±5.9 to 4.6±4.6 vs 4.7±2.1 to 5.1±2.5; p<0.05) were all improved. Resistance exercise had no effect on body weight, visceral adipose tissue volume, or whole body fat mass (p>0.05). Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate that resistance exercise specifically improves NAFLD independent of any change in body weight. These data demonstrate that resistance exercise may provide benefit for the management for non-alcoholic fatty liver, and the long-term impact of this now requires evaluation. PMID:21708823

Hallsworth, Kate; Fattakhova, Gulnar; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Thoma, Christian; Moore, Sarah; Taylor, Roy; Day, Christopher P



Metabolic Cost of Experimental Exercises  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the type and duration of activity during decompression was well documented, the metabolic cost of 1665 subject-exposures with 8 activity profiles from 17 altitude decompression sickness (DCS) protocols at Brooks City-Base, TX from 1983-2005 was not determined. Female and male human volunteers (30 planned, 4 completed) performed activity profiles matching those 8 activity profiles at ground level with continuous monitoring of metabolic cost. A Cosmed K4b2 Cardio Pulmonary Exercise Testing device was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2) during the profiles. The results show levels of metabolic cost to the females for the profiles tested varied from 4.3 to 25.5 ml/kg/min and from 3.0 to 12.0 ml/kg/min to the males. The increase in VO2 from seated rest to the most strenuous of the 8 activity profiles was 3.6-fold for the females and 2.8-fold for the males. These preliminary data on 4 subjects indicate close agreement of oxygen uptake for activity performed during many subject-exposures as published earlier. The relatively low average oxygen uptake required to perform the most strenuous activity may imply the need for adjustment of modeling efforts using metabolic cost as a risk factor. Better definition of metabolic cost during exposure to altitude, a critical factor in DCS risk, may allow refinement of DCS prediction models.

Webb, James T.; Gernhardt, Michael L.



Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans.  


Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast decline in cerebral perfusion with dehydration was accompanied by increased O2 extraction (P < 0.05), resulting in a maintained cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). In all conditions, reductions in ICA and MCA Vmean were associated with declining cerebral vascular conductance, increasing jugular venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ? 0.41, P ? 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However, the circulatory strain on the human brain during maximal exercise does not compromise CMRO2 because of compensatory increases in O2 extraction. PMID:24835170

Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José



Sport & Exercise Application Membership  

E-print Network

Sport & Exercise Application Membership Sport & Exercise Opportunities Exercise for those that love a muscle burning workout to Zumba for the party lovers and yoga for those that like at the timetable at A reduced programme is offered during summer holidays. Gym Programmes

Howie, Jim


Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth



Mitochondrial apoptotic signaling is elevated in cardiac but not skeletal muscle in the obese Zucker rat and is reduced with aerobic exercise.  


Mitochondrial apoptosis and apoptotic signaling modulations by aerobic training were studied in cardiac and skeletal muscles of obese Zucker rats (OZR), a rodent model of metabolic syndrome. Comparisons were made between left ventricle, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles from OZR (n = 16) and aged-matched lean Zucker rats (LZR; n = 16) that were untrained (n = 8) or aerobically trained on a treadmill for 9 wk (n = 8). Cardiac Bcl-2 protein expression levels were approximately 50% lower in the OZR compared with the LZR, with no difference in either of the skeletal muscles. Bax protein expression levels were similar in skeletal muscles of the OZR compared with the LZR. Furthermore, mitochondrial apoptotic signaling was not different in skeletal muscles of OZR and LZR groups. However, there was an approximate sevenfold increase in the Bax protein accumulation in the myocardial mitochondrial-rich protein fraction of the OZR compared with the LZR. Additionally, there was an increase in cytosolic cytochrome c released from the mitochondria, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity, with a corresponding elevation in DNA fragmentation in the cardiac muscles of the OZR compared with the LZR. Exercise training reduced cardiac Bax protein levels, the mitochondrial localization of Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, caspase activity, and DNA fragmentation in cardiac muscles of the OZR after exercise, with no change in the skeletal muscles. These data show that mitochondrial apoptosis is elevated in the cardiac but not skeletal muscles of the OZR, but aerobic exercise training was effective in reducing cardiac mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. PMID:18832755

Peterson, Jonathan M; Bryner, Randall W; Sindler, Amy; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Alway, Stephen E



Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.  


Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast ?-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p < .05). In E1, BG was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA (p = .048) at 2 hr after exercise compared to placebo. In summary, the present study demonstrates that BG may reduce URTI symptomatic days and improve mucosal immunity (salivary IgA) postexercise. PMID:23927572

McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A



Reduced energy intake and moderate exercise reduce mammary tumor incidence in virgin female BALB/c mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concurrent effects of diet (standard AIN-76A, restricted AIN-76A and high-fat diet) and moderate rotating-drum treadmill exercise on the incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in virgin female BALB/cMed mice free of murine mammary tumor virus are evaluated. Analyses show that, although energy intake was related to mammary tumor incidence, neither body weight nor dietary fat predicted tumor incidence.

Lane, Helen W.; Teer, Patricia; Keith, Robert E.; White, Marguerite T.; Strahan, Susan



Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity  

PubMed Central

Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the fat mass and exert an additive or even a synergistic effect to liposuction on improving insulin sensitivity and the inflammatory balance, resulting in an improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, one could suggest that liposuction and exercise appear to be safe and effective strategies for either the treatment of metabolic disorders or aesthetic purposes. PMID:21779146

Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Lira, Fábio Santos; Oyama, Lila Missae; do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller; Lancha, Antonio Herbert



Effect of caffeine ingestion on lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo following strenuous cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine ingestion is associated with increases in the concentration of plasma epinephrine and epinephrine is associated with alterations in immune cell trafficking and function following intensive exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeine ingestion on plasma epinephrine concentration, lymphocyte counts and subset activation in vivo, as measured by the expression the CD69 surface

Nicolette C. Bishop; Christina Fitzgerald; Penny J. Porter; Gabriella A. Scanlon; Alice C. Smith



Exercise for falls prevention in older people: Assessing the knowledge of exercise science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in appropriate exercise can help reduce the risk of falls and falls injury in older people. Delivery of population-level exercise interventions requires an expert workforce with skills in development and delivery of group exercise programs and prescription of individually targeted exercise. This study assessed the current knowledge of university exercise science students (as future exercise professionals) across different levels

Daina L. Sturnieks; Caroline F. Finch; Jacqueline C. T. Close; Anne Tiedemann; Stephen R. Lord; Deborah A. Pascoe



Long-term effectiveness of bone-setting, light exercise therapy, and physiotherapy for prolonged back pain: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chiropractic manipulation and strenuous exercise therapy have been shown effective in the treatment of nonspecific back pain. Bone-setting, the predecessor of modern manual therapies, still survives in some parts of Finland and was compared with a light exercise therapy and nonmanipulative, pragmatic physiotherapy in a year-long randomized controlled trial on patients with long-term back pain. Methods: One hundred fourteen

Heikki M. Hemmilä; Sirkka M. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi; Sinikka Levoska; Pekka Puska



Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia.  


Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being. PMID:21725900

Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L



[Changes in neutrophil immune functions under different exercise stresses].  


The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the known effects of exercise on neutrophil immune functions of athletes. We measured three neutrophil immune functions (i.e., phagocytic activity (PA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and serum opsonic activity (SOA)) in various types of exercise. The following is our recent findings. (1) A regular exercise increases ROS production and decreases PA. We call this change a normal pattern, and an abnormal pattern except this change. (2) A prolonged, strenuous activity (e.g., rugby match and marathon) decreases both ROS production and PA. This is one of the abnormal pattern. (3) The exercise loading performed after a camp training decreases ROS production whereas PA does not change. This is another abnormal pattern. (4) When judoists who had stopped judo training for 6 months restarted their training, the exercise loading at the beginning of their training decreases PA whereas ROS production does not change. This is another abnormal pattern. (5) A regular exercise 2 months after the beginning of their training increases ROS production and decreases PA. This change is a normal pattern. SOA showed a similar pattern of changes to ROS under all conditions. The changes in neutrophil immune functions after performing various exercises might result from the balance between external factors (intensity and style of exercise) and internal factors (e.g., fatigue and physical pain). Therefore, the changes in three neutrophil immune functions after exercise might be an index of athletes' condition. PMID:21701084

Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki



Questionable Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn



Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training  

PubMed Central

Introduction The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO) or protein ingestion. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum) followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO)) and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO) cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass?1, 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO), or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO). Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass?1) 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. Results Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05). Phosphorylation of mTORSer2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05), while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05). Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (?29–109%, P<0.05). However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05) and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05). Conclusion We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation to training and/or subsequent performance. PMID:24533082

Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Areta, José L.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Hawley, John A.; Coffey, Vernon G.



Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed

Hanna van Waart; Martijn M. Stuiver; Wim H van Harten; Gabe S. Sonke; Neil K. Aaronson



Tailored exercise program reduces symptoms of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders in a group of metalworkers: A randomized controlled trial.  


Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) are a leading cause of work-related disability and loss of productivity in the developed countries; these disorders may concur with the indirect costs of an illness or injury included losses of potential output. Literature on workplace physical activity program provided a mixed but positive impact on health and important worksite outcomes. Therefore, programs of physical activity organized and performed in the workplace could reveal as essential tool to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. This investigation aimed to assess the effectiveness of a tailored physical activity program, performed in a work-environment, to reduce the symptoms in upper extremities and neck with the novelty in personalizing the approach applied to the exercise protocol, basing on pain and disability levels, to reduce the onset and symptoms in upper extremity and neck WRMDs increasing upper-limb strength and flexibility. 68 metalworkers were recruited, 34 were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG), while the other 34 to a control group. Primary outcomes concerned pain symptoms measured with visual analog scales while disability was measured by DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and NPDS-I (Neck Pain and Disability Scale) questionnaires. Grip strength, upper-limb mobility, neck and shoulder range of motion were also assessed. After the 9-month intervention, IG reduced pain symptoms on neck, shoulders, elbows and on wrists. Grip strength and upper-limb mobility improved as well as scores on questionnaires. This protocol suggests that performing a tailored physical activity program is beneficial to reduce pain and disability on upper-limb WRMDs. PMID:25027479

Rasotto, Chiara; Bergamin, Marco; Simonetti, Alberto; Maso, Stefano; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Ermolao, Andrea; Zaccaria, Marco



The effectiveness of hand cooling at reducing exercise-induced hyperthermia and improving distance-race performance in wheelchair and able-bodied athletes.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of reducing core temperature in postexercise hyperthermic subjects and to assess if hand cooling (HC) improves subsequent timed distance performance. Following a detailed measurement check on the use of insulated auditory canal temperature (T(ac)), eight wheelchair (WA) athletes and seven male able-bodied (AB) athletes performed two testing sessions, comprising a 60-min exercise protocol and 10-min recovery period, followed by a performance trial (1 km and 3 km for WA and AB, respectively) at 30.8 degrees C (SD 0.2) and 60.6% (SD 0.2) relative humidity. In a counterbalanced order, HC and a no-cooling condition was administered during the 10-min recovery period before the performance trial. Nonsignificant condition x time interactions for both WA (F(15,75) = 1.5, P = 0.14) and AB (F(15,90) = 1.2, P = 0.32) confirmed that the exercise-induced changes (Delta) in T(ac) were similar before each intervention. However, the exercise-induced increase was evidently greater in AB compared with WA (2.0 vs. 1.3 degrees C change, respectively). HC produced DeltaT(ac) of -0.4 degrees C (SD 0.4) and -1.2 degrees C (SD 0.2) in comparison (WA and AB, respectively), and simple-effects analyses suggested that the reductions in T(ac) were noteworthy after 4 min of HC. HC had an impact on improving AB performances by -4.0 s (SD 11.5) (P < 0.05) and WA by -20.5 s (SD 24.2) (P > 0.05). In conclusion, extraction of heat through the hands was effective in lowering T(ac) in both groups and improving 3-km performance in the AB athletes and trends toward positive gains for the 1-km performance times of the WA group. PMID:18436695

Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria; Swainson, Michelle; Boyd, Craig; Atkinson, Greg; Tolfrey, Keith



Early preventive exercises versus usual care does not seem to reduce trismus in patients treated with radiotherapy for cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx: A randomised clinical trial.  


Abstract Purpose. In head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy, we investigated the benefits and harms of an early exercise regime on trismus. Material and methods. Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy were centrally randomised to exercises 5-6 times for 45 minutes during and after radiotherapy supervised by a physiotherapist in addition to usual care versus usual care alone. The primary outcome was change in maximal interincisor distance (MID) measured at 5 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes were change in cervical ranges of motion, tissue tightness, and health-related quality of life. Mixed model analysis of repeated measures adjusted for tumour size and operation was conducted to assess the effect of early preventive exercises across time periods. Results. Of the 100 patients included, two patients withdrew and one died before the onset of radiotherapy. The unadjusted mean difference in MID at 12 months after having completed radiotherapy was 0.83 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) -3.64-5.29, p = 0.71) in the exercise intervention group compared with the control group. When adjusted for operation and tumour size, the effect of the exercise intervention on mean MID from baseline to 12-month follow-up was 5.92 mm (95% CI -0.48-12.33, p = 0.07). Of the secondary outcomes, cervical rotation showed a statistically significant deterioration in the exercise group compared with the control group (p = 0.01). No significant effects were observed on the other secondary outcomes. Conclusions. In patients with cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx, early supervised exercises combined with self-care treatment focusing on mobility exercises to reduce trismus do not seem to provide additional beneficial effects compared with usual care during curative radiotherapy. PMID:25229260

Høgdal, Nina; Juhl, Carsten; Aadahl, Mette; Gluud, Christian



Serial assessment of local peripheral vascular function after eccentric exercise.  


Muscle damage is a common response to unaccustomed eccentric exercise; however, the effects of skeletal muscle damage on local vascular function and blood flow are poorly understood. This study examined serial local vascular responses to flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) dilation in the brachial artery after strenuous eccentric exercise and serially assessed resting blood flow. Ten healthy males performed 50 maximal eccentric unilateral arm contractions to induce muscle damage to the biceps brachii. Changes in maximal isometric strength and vascular responses were assessed 1, 24, 48, and 96 h after exercise. Mean blood velocities and arterial diameters, measured with Doppler ultrasound, were used to calculate blood flow and shear stress (expressed as area under the curve). Eccentric exercise resulted in impaired maximal isometric strength for up to 96 h (p < 0.001). Reductions in flow-mediated dilation (before exercise, 9.4% ± 2.6%; 1 h after exercise, 5.1% ± 2.2%) and nitroglycerin responses (before exercise, 26.3% ± 6.5%; 1 h after exercise, 20.7% ± 4.7%) were observed in the 1 h after exercise and remained lower for 96 h (p < 0.05). The shear stress response was attenuated immediately after exercise and remained impaired for 48 h (p < 0.05). Resting blood pressure and muscle blood flow remained similar throughout the study. Results suggest that muscle damage from eccentric exercise leads to impaired local endothelial and vascular smooth muscle function. Lower shear stress after exercise might contribute to the observed reduction in flow-mediated dilation responses, but the mechanism responsible for the attenuated endothelial-independent vasodilation remains unclear. PMID:24195617

Stacy, Mitchel R; Bladon, Kallie J; Lawrence, Jennifer L; McGlinchy, Sarah A; Scheuermann, Barry W



Chin tuck against resistance (CTAR): new method for enhancing suprahyoid muscle activity using a Shaker-type exercise.  


For patients with dysphagia resulting from upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction, strengthening the suprahyoid muscles through therapeutic exercise has proved effective in restoring oral feeding. The aim of this study was to compare the maximum and mean surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of the suprahyoid muscles during the Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) exercise and the Shaker exercise for both isokinetic and isometric tasks. During the CTAR exercises, the participant is seated while tucking the chin to compress an inflatable rubber ball, whereas during the Shaker exercise, the participant is lay supine while lifting the head to look at the feet. Forty healthy participants (20 males, 20 females) aged 21-39 years completed all four tasks in counterbalanced order, with measures of resting activation taken prior to each exercise. Although subjective feedback suggested that the sitting position for CTAR is less strenuous than the supine position for Shaker, the results of separate analyses showed significantly greater maximum sEMG values during the CTAR isokinetic and isometric exercises than during the equivalent Shaker exercises, and significantly greater mean sEMG values were observed for the CTAR isometric exercise than for the Shaker isometric exercise. Clinical trials are now needed, but the CTAR exercises appear effective in exercising the suprahyoid muscles, and they could achieve therapeutic effects comparable to those of Shaker exercises, with the potential for greater compliance by patients. PMID:24337867

Yoon, Wai Lam; Khoo, Jason Kai Peng; Rickard Liow, Susan J



Usefulness of tissue Doppler imaging to evaluate pulmonary capillary wedge pressure during exercise in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.  


The early diastolic transmitral velocity/tissue Doppler imaging mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') ratio is used to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressures at rest. However, there are only limited data that validate its use during exercise. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test the ability of E/e' to estimate pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) during symptom-limited exercise in patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Forty patients with severe LV dysfunction and heart failure symptoms (54 ± 12 years, 28 men) underwent simultaneous Doppler assessment of E/e' and right-sided cardiac catheterization at rest and during a symptom-limited exercise test, at steady state levels of 30%, 60%, and 90% of their maximal exercise capacity. During exercise, all 40 patients successfully completed stage 1, yielding 40 pairs of data for comparison. Eighteen patients also successfully completed stage 2, and 5 patients also made it through stage 3, yielding 23 additional data pairs. In total, there were thus 63 pairs of data available during exercise. With exercise, heart rate increased from 77 ± 14 to 112 ± 21 beats/min. Septal E/e' at rest correlated well with PCWP at rest (r = 0.75, p <0.01). PCWP at rest also correlated with resting mitral deceleration time (r = 0.32, p <0.01) and with the transmitral E/A ratio (r = 0.74, p <0.01). During exercise, the correlation between septal E/e' and PCWP was weaker (r = 0.57, p <0.01) and was shifted to the right. This rightward shift was observed in patients with both separated or merged E and A velocities. In conclusion, in patients with severe LV dysfunction, although E/e' allows accurate estimation of PCWP at rest, it appears less reliable for estimating LV filing pressure during exercise. PMID:24786358

Marchandise, Sébastien; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; D'Hondt, Anne Marie; Gurne, Olivier; Vancraeynest, David; Gerber, Berhnard; Pasquet, Agnès



The effectiveness of Kayaking exercises as compared to general mobility exercises in reducing axial rigidity and improve bed mobility in early to mid stage of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of kayaking exercises in the management of axial rigidity, improve bed mobility by improving trunk rotation in Parkinson’s patients. Methods: Experimental randomized controlled trail conducted at Physiotherapy department of IPM&R, DUHS and neurology Outpatient Department of Civil Hospital Karachi. Sample size of 48 was calculated with the use of openEpi. After baseline assessment 24 participants were assigned to each Kayaking exercise and general mobility exercise groups. Both groups received treatment for 75 minutes, 6 days a week for 4 weeks. Pre and post treatment measurements were determined by goniometer that assessed the cervical and thoracolumbar rotations whereas bed mobility was assessed by Modified Parkinson’s Activity Scale (MPAS). Results: In Kayaking group mean cervical spine left rotation increased from 32.95+ 9.66 to 47.25 + 10.58, right side cervical spine rotation increased from 34.00 + 10.32 to 47.58 + 11.96, left side thoracolumbar rotation increased from 23.67 + 4.70 to 28.16 + 3.44, right side thoracolumbar rotation increased from 20.79 + 5.34 to 26.45 + 4.62. In control group mean cervical spine left rotation increased from 34.66+ 9.26 to 43.08 + 8.70, right side cervical spine rotation increased from 35.37 + 9.77 to 43.83 + 9.59 , left side thoracolumbar rotation increased from 23.70 + 4.77 to 26.87 + 3.73, right side thoracicolumbar rotation increased from 21.16 + 5.29 to 24.95 + 4.53 (P value <0.001).. Bed mobility on MPAS scale also showed significant improvements (P value <0.001). Conclusion: Both Kayaking and general exercises resulted in significant improvements after 4 weeks of treatment. However, Kayaking exercises were slightly more beneficial than general exercises. PMID:25225533

Shujaat, Faiza; Soomro, Nabila; Khan, Muhammad



Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters.  


The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation. PMID:24688170

Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine



Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete’s anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation. PMID:24688170

Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine



Effects of C-peptide on blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and glucose utilization in the exercising forearm of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microvascular dysfunction is frequently seen in patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The present study was undertaken to examine whether skeletal muscle microcirculation in Type 1 diabetic patients is influenced by C-peptide. Forearm blood flow, capillary diffusion capacity and substrate exchange were studied during strenuous rhythmic forearm exercise on a hand ergometer. Measurements were made before and during i.v. infusion

B.-L. Johansson; B. Linde; J. Wahren



Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan



Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?  


As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function. PMID:24617099

Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Weight loss is known to improve insulin sensitivity but is difficult to achieve. The independent effects of exercise on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in the absence of overall w...


Volcanological Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, which builds on knowledge gained in previous homework exercises located at the same site, asks students in an undergraduate class at Tulane University to answer some basic questions about volcanoes, and to determine the volcanic hazards associated with Mt. Rainier, Washington; Montserrat, West Indies; and Long Valley Caldera, California by searching the World Wide Web.

Nelson, Stephen


Budget Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise

Clowes, Darrel A.


Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in a nonathlete: case report and review of physiology.  


The integrity of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier is vulnerable to intense exercise in elite athletes, similar to the phenomenon of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in thoroughbred racehorses. A 50-year-old previously healthy man presented with acute onset shortness of breath, dry cough, and hypoxemia after engaging in an extremely vigorous game of handball. CT scan of the chest showed diffuse patchy air-space disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Infectious etiologies and bleeding diatheses were excluded by laboratory testing. Serological tests for ANCA-associated vasculitis, lupus, and Goodpasture's disease also were negative. A transthoracic echocardiogram was normal. The patient recovered completely on supportive therapy in less than 72 h. This case demonstrates strenuous exercise as a cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a previously healthy male with no apparent underlying cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:24532148

Diwakar, Amit; Schmidt, Gregory A



Protocol for Work place adjusted Intelligent physical exercise reducing Musculoskeletal pain in Shoulder and neck (VIMS): a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Specific strength training is a promising type of physical exercise for relieving neck and shoulder pain in office workers. However, the optimal combination of frequency and exercise duration, as well as the importance of exercise supervision, is unknown. The VIMS study investigates in a cluster randomized controlled design the effectiveness of different time wise combinations of specific strength training with identical accumulated volume, and the relevance of training supervision for safe and effective training. Methods/design A cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks duration where employed office workers are randomized to 1 × 60 min, 3 × 20 min, 9 × 7 min per week of specific strength training with training supervision, to 3 × 20 min per week of specific strength training with a minimal amount of training supervision, or to a reference group without training. A questionnaire will be sent to 2000 employees in jobs characterized by intensive computer work. Employees with cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease will be excluded. The main outcome measure is pain in the neck and shoulders at week 20. Trial Registration The trial is registered at, number NCT01027390. PMID:20687940



Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Exercise for Reducing Trapezius Muscle Dysfunction in Survivors of Head and Neck Cancer: A Case-Series Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Damage to the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) can result in denervation of the trapezius muscle in patients undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Trapezius denervation leads to muscle weakness and dysfunction that, for some patients, persists despite the return of conduction along the SAN. This prospective case series describes an intervention involving a combination of a novel type of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with bilateral exercise. Methods: Three survivors of head and neck cancer participated in the 6-week program. NMES was applied over the region of the SAN on the affected side while subjects performed bilateral voluntary scapular retraction and elevation exercises against resistance. The NMES was delivered using relatively wide pulse widths and high frequencies to enhance the electrically evoked sensory volley and was triggered by the onset of trapezius muscle activity on the non-affected side. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) assessments and patient-rated outcomes were administered at baseline and 6 weeks. Results: All patients showed improvements in shoulder flexion and abduction ROM and reported reductions in pain and disability. Conclusions: This combination of NMES and bilateral exercise may prove to be an effective component of a comprehensive shoulder rehabilitation program for patients with persistent trapezius muscle dysfunction as a result of SAN damage. PMID:23729969

Baldwin, Evan R.L.; Baldwin, Terri D.; Lancaster, Josh S.; McNeely, Margaret L.



Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.  


The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe



Can Lifestyle Interventions Do More than Reduce Diabetes Risk? Treating Depression in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes with Exercise and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  

PubMed Central

The epidemic of metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes is global in scope and comprehensive in its impact on individuals, health care systems, and societies. One in four patients with diabetes will experience depression in their lifetime. Comorbid depression is associated with poorer outcomes, greater functional disability, and early mortality. Prior studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise as an efficacious form of treatment for depression in the general population. Few studies have evaluated this strategy in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Program ACTIVE (Appalachians Coming Together to Increase Vital Exercise) was designed to treat depression among adults with type 2 diabetes by pairing aerobic activity with individual cognitive behavioral therapy. This combination treatment approach has been shown to be feasible to implement in a rural environment and promising in terms of depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular outcomes. Data from this study suggest that exercise can be used to achieve multiple benefits for adults with type 2 diabetes. Future work to compare this approach to singular treatment strategies for adults at risk for type 2 diabetes is needed. PMID:22350739

de Groot, Mary; Doyle, Todd; Kushnick, Michael; Shubrook, Jay; Merrill, Jennifer; Rabideau, Erin; Schwartz, Frank



Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.  


The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P < 0.01) more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and FM (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively). Only P + RT (0.1 ± 0.04 kg) and PRISE (0.21 ± 0.07 kg) lost VAT mass (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P + RT (5.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl) and PRISE (15.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), with the greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P < 0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (0.6 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.4 units), and leptin decreased (4.7 ± 2.2, 4.7 ± 3.1 ng/dl), and adiponectin increased (3.8 ± 1.1, 2.4 ± 1.1 ?g/ml) only in P + RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines. PMID:24833780

Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J



Exercise Habit  


... bicycle the next. Consider activities like dancing and racquet sports, and even chores like vacuuming or mowing the ... on a regular basis. How can I prevent injuries? To avoid injuring yourself during exercise, don’t ...


Seismological Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, which was designed for an undergraduate level geology class at Tulane University, asks the student to make evaluations about the Loma Prieta Earthquake and other earthquakes using seismograms, time travel curves, maps and other information.

Nelson, Stephen


Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007). We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission. PMID:25105034

Bhalla, Mary Colleen; Dick-Perez, Ryan



?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.  


The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (P¼0·004, d ¼ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (P¼0·005, d ¼ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P¼0·08, d ¼ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John



Locomotor exercise in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.



Regular physical exercise in patients with type II diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that regular physical exercise helps diabetic patients control blood glucose, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, and prevent other related complications. In spite of the undoubted benefits of regular physical exercise, diabetic patients with chronic complications should be aware of potential hazards of practicing exercise. To avoid some harmful consequences of acute exercise, it is necessary to adopt

C. Nakhanakhup; P. Moungmee; H. J. Appell; J. A. Duarte



What You Eat After Exercise Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Study shows reducing carbs after exercise is more important for enhancing insulin sensitivity than reducing calories." This press release describes the study design and findings from the published study "Energy deficit after exercise augments lipid mobilization but does not contribute to the exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity" by Sean A. Newsom, Simon Schenk, Kristin M. Tomas, Matthew P. Harber, Nicolas D. Knuth, Naila Goldenberg, and Jeffrey F. Horowitz published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, March 2010.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)



Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise: a role in inflammation.  

PubMed Central

1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised and the control leg, together with venous blood samples, were obtained prior to exercise and at 45 min, 24, 48 and 96 h after exercise. The time courses of xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity and indicators of muscle damage and inflammation were examined. 2. The number of xanthine oxidase structures observed by immunohistological methods in the exercised muscle was up to eightfold higher than control from day 1 to day 4 after exercise (P < 0.05). The increase was attributed to an enhanced expression of xanthine oxidase in microvascular endothelial cells and an invasion of leucocytes containing xanthine oxidase. 3. The concentration of plasma interleukin-6 was significantly higher 90 min after exercise than before exercise (P < 0.05) and remained higher than pre-exercise levels throughout the 4 days. On day 4 the plasma creatine kinase activity was approximately 150-fold higher (P < 0.05) than resting levels. 4. Despite the increase in xanthine oxidase in the muscle there were no detectable changes in the levels of muscle malondialdehyde or in plasma antioxidant capacity up to 4 days post-exercise. 5. It is concluded that eccentric exercise leads to an increased level of xanthine oxidase in human muscle and that the increase is associated with secondary inflammatory processes. The increase in xanthine oxidase in the muscle occurs mainly in microvascular endothelial cells, but occurs also via infiltrating leucocytes containing xanthine oxidase. A role for leucocytes in xanthine oxidase induction in endothelium is proposed. Images Figure 2 PMID:9023782

Hellsten, Y; Frandsen, U; Orthenblad, N; Sjødin, B; Richter, E A



Exercise counteracts the effects of short-term overfeeding and reduced physical activity independent of energy imbalance in healthy young men.  


Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men age 25 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned either to consume 50% more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps day(-1) to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n = 14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n = 12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended by exercise, thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (17 ± 16 nmol (120 min) l(-1); P = 0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (1 ± 6 nmol (120 min) l(-1)). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP-1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and visfatin was significantly down-regulated (P ? 0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose tissue was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P = 0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects of short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus. PMID:24167223

Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Richardson, Judith D; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan



Exercise counteracts the effects of short-term overfeeding and reduced physical activity independent of energy imbalance in healthy young men  

PubMed Central

Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men age 25 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned either to consume 50% more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps day?1 to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n= 14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n= 12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended by exercise, thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (?17 ± 16 nmol (120 min) l?1; P= 0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (?1 ± 6 nmol (120 min) l?1). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP-1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and visfatin was significantly down-regulated (P? 0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose tissue was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P= 0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects of short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus. PMID:24167223

Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Richardson, Judith D; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan



Relation of Changes in Left Ventricular Peak Filling Rate During Exercise to Exercise Performance in Systemic Hypertension and in Healed Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with systemic hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD) often manifest abnormalities at rest in left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and reduced exercise tolerance. It is possible that abnormalities in filling persist during exercise and are partially related to abnormal exercise tolerance. We examined rest and exercise peak filling rate (PFR) to determine if changes in PFR during exercise influence

Gennady Geskin; Douglas S. Schulman



Flooding Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework exercise, developed for an undergraduate geology course at Tulane University, leads students through the steps involved in determining the probability that a flood of a given discharge will occur in any given year. Students retrieve discharge data from U.S. Geological Services Internet sites for Dry Creek, LA, Rapid Creek, SD and Red River, ND to make their calculations.

Nelson, Stephen


Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)



Achilles tendon biomechanics in response to acute intense exercise.  


Achilles tendinopathy is a common disorder and is more prevalent in men. Although differences in tendon mechanics between men and women have been reported, understanding of tendon mechanics in young active people is limited. Moreover, there is limited understanding of changes in tendon mechanics in response to acute exercise. Our purpose was to compare Achilles tendon mechanics in active young adult men and women at rest and after light and strenuous activity in the form of repeated jumping with an added load. Participants consisted of 17 men and 14 women (18-30 years) who were classified as being at least moderately physically active as defined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Tendon force/elongation measures were obtained during an isometric plantarflexion contraction on an isokinetic dynamometer with simultaneous ultrasound imaging of the Achilles tendon approximate to the soleus myotendinous junction. Data were collected at rest, after a 10-minute treadmill walk, and after a fatigue protocol of 100 toe jumps performed in a Smith machine, with a load equaling 20% of body mass. We found greater tendon elongation, decreased stiffness, and lower Young's modulus only in women after the jumping exercise. Force and stress were not different between groups but decreased subsequent to the jumping exercise bout. In general, women had greater elongation and strain, less stiffness, and a lower Young's modulus during plantarflexor contraction. These data demonstrate differences in tendon mechanics between men and women and suggest a potential protective mechanism explaining the lower incidence of Achilles tendinopathy in women. PMID:24552794

Joseph, Michael F; Lillie, Kurtis R; Bergeron, Daniel J; Cota, Kevin C; Yoon, Joseph S; Kraemer, William J; Denegar, Craig R



Can a tailored exercise and home hazard reduction program reduce the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with cognitive impairment: protocol paper for the i-FOCIS randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The rate of falls in community dwelling older people with cognitive impairment (CI) is twice that of a cognitively intact population, with almost two thirds of people with CI falling annually. Studies indicate that exercise involving balance and/or a home hazard reduction program are effective in preventing falls in cognitively intact older people. However the potential benefit of these interventions in reducing falls in people with CI has not been established. This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a tailored exercise and home hazard reduction program can reduce the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with CI. We will determine whether the intervention has beneficial effects on a range of physical and psychological outcome measures as well as quality of life of participants and their carers. A health economic analysis examining the cost and potential benefits of the program will also be undertaken. Methods and design Three hundred and sixty people aged 65 years or older living in the community with CI will be recruited to participate in the trial. Each will have an identifiable carer with a minimum of 3.5 hours of face to face contact each week. Participants will undergo an assessment at baseline with retests at 6 and 12 months. Participants allocated to the intervention group will participate in an exercise and home hazard reduction program tailored to their cognitive and physical abilities. The primary outcome measure will be the rate of falls which will be measured using monthly falls calendars. Secondary outcome measures will include the risk of falling, quality of life, measures of physical and cognitive function, fear of falling and planned and unplanned use of health services. Carers will be followed up to determine carer burden, coping strategies and quality of life. Discussion The study will determine the impact of this tailored intervention in reducing the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with CI as well as the cost-effectiveness and adherence to the program. The results will have direct implications for the design and implementation of interventions for this high-risk group of older people. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12614000603617 PMID:25128411



Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image.  


Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has explored how, or even whether, exercise is associated with positive body image. Therefore, we examined whether exercise frequency was positively related to three aspects of positive body image (body appreciation, internal body orientation, and functional body satisfaction) among 321 college women. Appearance-based exercise motivation (the extent exercise is pursued to influence weight or shape) was hypothesized to moderate these associations. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that exercise frequency was related to higher positive body image, but high levels of appearance-based exercise motivation weakened these relationships. Thus, messages promoting exercise need to de-emphasize weight loss and appearance for positive body image. PMID:24529336

Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L



Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  


The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce



Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections  


... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections, Study ... According to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. ...


Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.



Exercise therapy across the lung cancer continuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lung cancer diagnosis and associated therapeutic management are associated with unique and varying degrees of adverse physical\\/functional\\u000a impairments that dramatically reduce patients’ ability to tolerate exercise. Poor exercise capacity predisposes to increased\\u000a susceptibility to other common age-related diseases, poor quality of life, and likely premature death. This article reviews\\u000a the literature investigating the role of exercise as an adjunct

Lee W. Jones; Neil D. Eves; Emily Waner; Anil A. Joy



Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa


Reduced hepatic eNOS phosphorylation is associated with NAFLD and type 2 diabetes progression and is prevented by daily exercise in hyperphagic OLETF rats.  


We tested the hypothesis that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with reduced hepatic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation status via S1177 phosphorylation (p-eNOS) and is prevented by daily voluntary wheel running (VWR). Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, an established model of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and NAFLD, and normophagic controls [Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO)] were studied at 8, 20, and 40 wk of age. Basal hepatic eNOS phosphorylation (p-eNOS/eNOS) was similar between LETO and OLETFs with early hepatic steatosis (8 wk of age) and advanced steatosis, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia (20 wk of age). In contrast, hepatic p-eNOS/eNOS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in OLETF rats with T2D advancement and the transition to more advanced NAFLD with inflammation and fibrosis [increased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), CD68, and CD163 mRNA expression; 40 wk of age]. Reduced hepatic eNOS activation status in 40-wk OLETF rats was significantly correlated with reduced p-Akt/Akt (r = 0.73, P < 0.05), reduced serum insulin (r = 0.59, P < 0.05), and elevated serum glucose (r = -0.78, P < 0.05), suggesting a link between impaired glycemic control and altered hepatic nitric oxide metabolism. VWR by OLETF rats, in conjunction with NAFLD and T2D prevention, normalized p-eNOS/eNOS and p-Akt/Akt to LETO levels. Basal activation of hepatic eNOS and Akt are maintained until advanced NAFLD and T2D development in obese OLETF rats. The prevention of this reduction by VWR may result from maintained insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. PMID:24577062

Sheldon, Ryan D; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott



Proposed new mechanism for food and exercise induced anaphylaxis based on case studies.  


We present two cases of food and exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FEIA) in patients with a diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to the implicated foods. Patient A had FEIA attributed to fresh coriander and tomato and Patient B to fresh celery. These food allergens have been implicated in OAS and have structural antigenic similarity to that of birch and/or grass. Both patients' allergies were confirmed by fresh skin prick tests. In both cases, strenuous exercise was antecedent to the systemic anaphylaxis reaction and subsequent ingestion without exercise produced only local symptoms of perioral pruritus. We review the current proposed mechanisms for food and exercise induced anaphylaxis to oral allergens and propose a novel and more biologically plausible mechanism. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of exercise on gastric acid secretion decreases the digestion of oral allergens and preserves structural integrity, thereby allowing continued systemic absorption of the allergen whether it be profilins, lipid transfer proteins, or other antigenic determinants. PMID:23509907

Chen, Jennifer Yan Fei; Quirt, Jaclyn; Lee, Kihyuk Jason



Effects of acute exercise on bleeding time, bleeding amount and blood cell counts: a comparative study.  


Twenty-five men and 26 women were studied to investigate the effects of acute strenuous exercise on hemostasis after obtaining their informed consent. After familiarization, they performed exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 75% of their predetermined maximal workload until exhaustion. Bleeding time, measured by the Simplate method, and venous blood cell counts of platelets (Plt), erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC) were determined at rest and immediately after exercise. We found that bleeding time of Chinese in our study was longer than those of the westerners in other studies and that bleeding time was significantly shortened after exercise from 8.3 +/- .7 to 6.5 +/- .5 min in men and from 11.4 +/- .9 to 8.6 +/- .8 min in women (p less than 0.001). In men, but not in women, acute exercise also augmented the initial bleeding rate and bleeding amount from standard incisions. We also observed that RBC, WBC and Plt counts were greatly increased. The increased percentages for RBC, WBC and Plt in men were 7 +/- 1%, 59 +/- 7%, 16 +/- 3%, and those in women were 5 +/- 1%, 42 +/- 6% and 17 +/- 2% respectively. PMID:2814940

Chen, H I; Tang, Y R; Wu, H J; Jen, C J



Proposed new mechanism for food and exercise induced anaphylaxis based on case studies  

PubMed Central

We present two cases of food and exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FEIA) in patients with a diagnosis of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to the implicated foods. Patient A had FEIA attributed to fresh coriander and tomato and Patient B to fresh celery. These food allergens have been implicated in OAS and have structural antigenic similarity to that of birch and/or grass. Both patients’ allergies were confirmed by fresh skin prick tests. In both cases, strenuous exercise was antecedent to the systemic anaphylaxis reaction and subsequent ingestion without exercise produced only local symptoms of perioral pruritus. We review the current proposed mechanisms for food and exercise induced anaphylaxis to oral allergens and propose a novel and more biologically plausible mechanism. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of exercise on gastric acid secretion decreases the digestion of oral allergens and preserves structural integrity, thereby allowing continued systemic absorption of the allergen whether it be profilins, lipid transfer proteins, or other antigenic determinants. PMID:23509907



Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

Thornton, William



Exercise at menopause: a critical difference.  


Even at menopause, fitness can reduce the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, and diabetes, yet only 38% of women over age 19 exercise regularly. A sports medicine expert recommends that exercise be encouraged and prescribed, even for women with a variety of comorbidities. PMID:10089554

Burghardt, M



Exercising with Osteoarthritis  


... everyone. In fact, studies show that people with osteoarthritis benefit from regular exercise and physical activity. For people with osteoarthritis, regular exercise can help: l Maintain healthy and ...


Food-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress.  


Among athletes strenuous exercise, dehydration and gastric emptying (GE) delay are the main causes of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, whereas gut ischemia is the main cause of their nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and (blood) diarrhea. Additionally any factor that limits sweat evaporation, such as a hot and humid environment and/or body dehydration, has profound effects on muscle glycogen depletion and risk for heat illness. A serious underperfusion of the gut often leads to mucosal damage and enhanced permeability so as to hide blood loss, microbiota invasion (or endotoxemia) and food-born allergen absorption (with anaphylaxis). The goal of exercise rehydration is to intake more fluid orally than what is being lost in sweat. Sports drinks provide the addition of sodium and carbohydrates to assist with intestinal absorption of water and muscle-glycogen replenishment, respectively. However GE is proportionally slowed by carbohydrate-rich (hyperosmolar) solutions. On the other hand, in order to prevent hyponatremia, avoiding overhydration is recommended. Caregiver's responsibility would be to inform athletes about potential dangers of drinking too much water and also advise them to refrain from using hypertonic fluid replacements. PMID:21955383

de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Burini, Roberto Carlos



Perceptual responses in free vs. constant pace exercise.  


The purpose of the present investigation was to study the influence of free versus constant pace on perceived exertion (RPE) and estimated time Limit (ETL). Ten athletes performed a graded test aimed to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max), a constant run to exhaustion at 90 % vVO2max to determine the time and distance to exhaustion at this relative velocity, a free paced run over the distance to exhaustion set by the time to exhaustion at 90 % vVO2max. Oxygen uptake and velocity during constant pace and free pace runs were both averaged throughout the entire period of exercise and without the last lap. The results did not show any significant effect of free versus constant pace on RPE and ETL. Averaged oxygen uptake between free and constant pace runs was not significantly different, whereas averaged vVO2max, % vVO2max and time to exhaustion was significantly higher for free pace runs only for the entire exercise. Consequently, compared to the constant pace run, the free pace one only allowed athletes to finish the run by a sprint which was effective in increasing performance, but not to perceive the free pacing run as being less strenuous than the constant pace one. PMID:18004686

Garcin, M; Danel, M; Billat, V



Influence of repeated treadmill exercise on quality and freezability of stallion semen.  


The objective of this study was to investigate changes of quality and freezability of stallion semen in response to repeated acute treadmill exercise. Ejaculates from 11 stallions were collected, evaluated and frozen weekly during four periods of 4 weeks each defined as before (period 1), during (period 2) and after (periods 3 and 4) intense exercise. In fresh semen the gel-free volume, sperm concentration, motility, normal sperm and sperm with major defects (acrosome defects, nuclear vacuoles, abnormal heads, midpiece defects and proximal droplets) were evaluated. In frozen-thawed semen, motility as well as viability (SYBR-14/PI) were examined. In period 2, all stallions were exercised on an indoor high speed treadmill twice a week (total of eight sessions) using an incremental workload test. Heart rate was monitored telemetrically during exercise and blood samples were taken for determination of cortisol, testosterone and lactate. Results of our investigation demonstrate that heart rate and the plasma concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate significantly (P < 0.05) increased during each exercise session. Furthermore, significantly more major sperm defects were present in periods 3 (69.5+/-2.1%) and 4 (66.8+/-2.1%) than in periods 1 (62.2+/-2.4%) and 2 (62.5+/-2.2%). Acrosome defects increased towards the end of exercise but improved 3 weeks later to values observed before exercise. In frozen-thawed semen, motility was significantly lower in period 2 (45.4+/-2.3%) compared to period 4 (51.6+/-1.7%) and viability was significantly lower in period 2 (49.2+/-2.0%) than in periods 1 (53.8+/-2.1%) and 4 (53.7+/-1.6%). Our results clearly demonstrate that in the stallion repeated strenuous treadmill exercise can negatively influence semen quality and freezability. PMID:16246408

Janett, F; Burkhardt, C; Burger, D; Imboden, I; Hässig, M; Thun, R



High altitude, prolonged exercise, and the athlete biological passport.  


The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) detects blood doping in athletes through longitudinal monitoring of erythropoietic markers. Mathematical algorithms are used to define individual reference ranges for these markers for each athlete. It is unclear if altitude and exercise can affect the variables included in these calculations in a way that the changes might be mistaken for blood manipulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the simultaneous strenuous exercise and low to high altitude exposure on the calculation algorithms of the ABP. 14 sea level (SL) and 11 altitude native (ALT) highly trained athletes participated in a 14-day cycling stage race taking place at an average altitude of 2496?m above sea level (min. 1014?m, max. 4120?m), race distances ranged between 96 and 227?km per day. ABP blood measures were taken on days -1,3,6,10,14 (SL) and -1,9,15 (ALT) of the race. Four results from three samples of two different SL athletes exceeded the individual limits at the 99% specificity threshold and one value at 99.9%. In ALT, three results from three samples of three different athletes were beyond the individual limits at 99%, one at 99.9%. The variations could be explained by the expected physiological reaction to exercise and altitude. In summary, the abnormalities observed in the haematological ABP´s of well-trained athletes during extensive exercise at altitude are limited and in line with expected physiological changes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25252093

Schumacher, Yorck O; Garvican, Laura A; Christian, Ryan; Lobigs, Louisa M; Qi, Jiliang; Fan, Rongyun; He, Yingying; Wang, Hailing; Gore, Christopher J; Ma, Fuhai



RNA Sequencing of the Exercise Transcriptome in Equine Athletes  

PubMed Central

The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as “nucleic acid binding” and “signal transduction activity” functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including those involved in inflammation, cell signaling, and immune interactions. PMID:24391776

Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia



Media-Augmented Exercise Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

Krueger, T.



Exercise for Asthma Patients. Little Risk, Big Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asthma patients can benefit from 20 to 30 minutes of exercise at 60 to 85% of maximum heart rate several times a week. Improved fitness can reduce airway reactivity and medication use. The capacity to exercise requires good general control of asthma. Patients must learn to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by using inhaled medications…

Disabella, Vincent; Sherman, Carl



Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular variables. Plasma volume (% delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P < 0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training for all regimens indicating no effect of these training regimens on the level of vascular fluid shifts.

Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)



Overcoming Barriers to Exercise: No More Excuses  


... cost exercise programs in your area. Increasing your energy Regular, moderate physical activity can help reduce fatigue ... become active, you’re likely to have more energy than before. As you do more, you also ...


Exercise Is Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

Elrick, Harold



Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training. PMID:23614691

Fonda, B; Sarabon, N



Cardiopulmonary function in exercising bar-headed geese during normoxia and hypoxia.  


To investigate possible physiologic mechanisms that allow the bar-headed goose to perform strenuous physical activity when flying at high altitude (e.g., above 9,000 m), we measured cardiopulmonary variables during running exercise (treadmill; 0.6 m.sec-1; 2 degrees incline) while the bird breathed either normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (7% O2) gases via a face mask. 1. During normoxic exercise, O2 uptake rate doubled and both ventilation and cardiac output increased. Blood gases and pH in arterial, mixed venous and blood from the leg, however, remained virtually unaltered. 2. Hypoxia at rest stimulated ventilation to rise but not cardiac output. The birds reached a steady state with virtually unaltered O2 uptake. 3. Exercise during hypoxia further stimulated ventilation, resulting in elevated arterial PO2 and O2 content compared to hypoxia at rest. However, O2 uptake increased only slightly, and cardiac output did not rise over the resting hypoxic value. The hyperventilation resulted in respiratory alkalosis and increased CO2 output, with R values being as high as 2.0. 4. It is concluded that neither ventilation nor pulmonary gas transfer were the limiting step in supplying O2 to the working muscles during hypoxic exercise in our experiments. It is more likely that muscle blood flow or diffusion from muscle capillaries to mitochondria, or both, determined the aerobic capacity under these conditions. PMID:2506620

Fedde, M R; Orr, J A; Shams, H; Scheid, P



Pelvic floor muscle training exercises  


Kegel exercises ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women with urinary stress incontinence People who have fecal incontinence Pelvic floor muscle training exercises can help ...


The protective effects of a polyphenol-enriched protein powder on exercise-induced susceptibility to virus infection.  


Prolonged and intensive exercise induces transient immunosuppression and is associated with an increased risk and severity of infections. The goal of this study was to characterize the antiviral and antibacterial properties of the bioactive metabolites of a blueberry-green tea-polyphenol soy protein complex (PSPC) in the serum of supplemented subjects during a 3-day intensified training period. Long-distance runners, randomly divided into two groups, ingested 40?g/day PSPC or placebo (soy protein and colorings) for 17?days, with a 3-day running period inserted at day 14. Blood serum samples were collected pre-14?days and post-14?days supplementation, and immediately and 14?h after the third day of running. The post-exercise serum from both groups significantly promoted the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in culture by 20-70%, but returned to normal levels following recovery. Furthermore, the serum from subjects ingesting PSPC did not display antibacterial properties at any time point. In contrast, there was a significant difference in the ability of serum from PSPC-supplemented versus placebo-supplemented athletes to protect cells in culture from killing by vesicular stomatitis virus following strenuous exercise. In addition, the serum of subjects who ingested PSPC significantly delayed an exercise-induced increase in virus replication. These results indicate that polyphenol complexes containing blueberry and green tea have the potential to protect athletes from virus infections following rigorous exercise. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25088029

Ahmed, Maryam; Henson, Dru A; Sanderson, Matthew C; Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Lila, Mary Ann



Exercise training and immune crosstalk in breast cancer microenvironment: exploring the paradigms of exercise-induced immune modulation and exercise-induced myokines  

PubMed Central

Observational research suggests that exercise may reduce the risk of breast cancer and improve survival. One proposed mechanism for the protective effect of aerobic exercise related to cancer risk and outcomes, but has not been examined definitively, is the immune response to aerobic exercise. Two prevailing paradigms are proposed. The first considers the host immune response as modifiable by aerobic exercise training. This exercise-modulated immune-tumor crosstalk in the mammary microenvironment may alter the balance between tumor initiation and progression versus tumor suppression. The second paradigm considers the beneficial role of exercise-induced, skeletal muscle-derived cytokines, termed “myokines”. These myokines exert endocrine-like effects on multiple organs, including the mammary glands. In this systematic review, we i) define the role of macrophages and T-cells in breast cancer initiation and progression; ii) address the two paradigms that support exercise-induced immunomodulation; iii) systematically assessed the literature for exercise intervention that assessed biomarkers relevant to both paradigms in human intervention trials of aerobic exercise training, in healthy women and women with breast cancer; iv) incorporated pre-clinical animal studies and non-RCTs for background discussion of putative mechanisms, through which aerobic exercise training modulates the immunological crosstalk, or the myokine-tumor interaction in the tumor microenvironment; and v) speculated on the potential biomarkers and mechanisms that define an exercise-induced, anti-tumor “signature”, with a view toward developing relevant biomarkers for future aerobic exercise intervention trials. PMID:25360210

Goh, Jorming; Niksirat, Negin; Campbell, Kristin L



Exercise detraining: Applicability to microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical training exposes the various systems of the body to potent physiologic stimuli. These stimuli induce specific adaptations that enhance an individual's tolerance for the type of exercise encountered in training. The level of adaptation and the magnitude of improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the potency of the physical training stimuli. Likewise, our bodies are stimulated by gravity, which promotes adaptations of both the cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. Exposure to microgravity removes normal stimuli to these systems, and the body adapts to these reduced demands. In many respects the cessation of physical training in athletes and the transition from normal gravity to microgravity represent similar paradigms. Inherent to these situations is the concept of the reversibility of the adaptations induced by training or by exposure to normal gravity. The reversibility concept holds that when physical training is stopped (i.e., detraining) or reduced, or a person goes from normal gravity to microgravity, the bodily systems readjust in accordance with the diminished physiologic stimuli. The focus of this chapter is on the time course of loss of the adaptations to endurance training as well as on the possibility that certain adaptations persist, to some extent, when training is stopped. Because endurance exercise training generally improves cardiovascular function and promotes metabolic adaptations within the exercising skeletal musculature, the reversibility of these specific adaptations is considered. These observations have some applicability to the transition from normal to microgravity.

Coyle, Edward F.



Effects of an 8-Month Exercise Training Program on Off-Exercise Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Purpose An active lifestyle is widely recognized as having a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health. However, no clear consensus exists as to whether exercise training increases overall physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) or whether individuals participating in regular exercise compensate by reducing their off-exercise physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in PAEE in response to aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), or combined aerobic and resistance training (AT/RT). Methods Data are from 82 participants in the Studies of Targeted Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise—Aerobic Training versus Resistance Training study, a randomized trial of overweight (body mass index = 25–35 kg·m?2) adults, in which participants were randomized to receive 8 months of AT, RT, or AT/RT. All subjects completed a 4-month control period before randomization. PAEE was measured using triaxial RT3 accelerometers, which subjects wore for a 5- to 7-d period before and after the exercise intervention. Data reduction was performed with a previously published computer-based algorithm. Results There was no significant change in off-exercise PAEE in any of the exercise training groups. We observed a significant increase in total PAEE that included the exercise training, in both AT and AT/RT but not in RT. Conclusions Eight months of exercise training was not associated with a compensatory reduction in off-exercise physical activity, regardless of exercise modality. The absence of compensation is particularly notable for AT/RT subjects, who performed a larger volume of exercise than did AT or RT subjects. We believe that the extended duration of our exercise training program was the key factor in allowing subjects to reach a new steady-state level of physical activity within their daily lives. PMID:21364488




Exercise for Seniors  


Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...


Clinical Applications for Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

Goldstein, David



Boolean Raster Well Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Bowling Green State University Summary This is a paper and pencil exercise using boolean raster grids. The exercise gives students a better understanding of how the GIS software works. ...

Gomezdelcampo, Enrique


Exercise and HIV  


... Doing weight training followed by 30 minutes of cardiovascular exercise may be the best way to improve ... and keep your blood lipids and sugar down. Cardiovascular exercise means increasing oxygenation and heart rate while ...


Easy Exercises for Teens  


... third component of well-rounded exercise. Check out yoga as one way to stay flexible. You can ... Schedule? Dynamic Stretching (Video) Pilates T'ai Chi Yoga Sports and Exercise Safety Strength Training Stretching Why ...


Rotator Cuff Exercises  


... up, stretch your arms and shoulders, and do pendulum exercises. To do pendulum exercises, bend from the waist, letting your arms ... your shoulder. (Hint: This is like the backhand swing in tennis.) Lower the arm slowly. Repeat the ...


Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing  

PubMed Central

The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V?O2max) is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V?O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference). In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance. PMID:23213518

Stickland, Michael K.; Butcher, Scott J.; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Bhutani, Mohit



Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression. PMID:21394856

Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Muñoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.



Sport, Exercise & Health Strategy  

E-print Network

Sport, Exercise & Health Strategy The University's Vision is of an inclusive and collaborative advice and support to students. Sport, Exercise & Health Strategy 2010 ­ 2016 We aspire to provide standards, respect for the individual and a strong sense of collegiality. #12;Sport, Exercise & Health

Bristol, University of


Advanced resistive exercise device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)



Stretch Band Exercise Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald



Exercise, Aging and Longevity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of whether or not a lifelong program of exercise actually has a bearing on longevity is discussed. The effects of exercise on the aging process, and the longevity-exercise relationship are reviewed. The conflicting evidence on the subject is presented. (JL)

Brown, Stanley P.; Cundiff, David E.



Prenatal exercise research.  


In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

Field, Tiffany



Exercise in Preventionand Management of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Regular and vigorous physical exercise has been scientifically established as providing strong preventative medicine against\\u000a cancer with the potential to reduce incidence by 40%. The effect is strongest for breast and colorectal cancer; however, evidence\\u000a is accumulating for the protective influence on prostate cancer, although predominantly for more advanced disease and in older\\u000a men. Following cancer diagnosis, exercise prescription

Robert U. Newton; Daniel A. Galvão



Exercise, Stress Resistance, and Central Serotonergic Systems  

PubMed Central

Voluntary exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in humans and prevents serotonin-dependent behavioral consequences of stress in rodents. Evidence reviewed herein is consistent with the hypothesis that exercise increases stress resistance by producing neuroplasticity at multiple sites of the central serotonergic system, which all help to limit the behavioral impact of acute increases in serotonin during stressor exposure. PMID:21508844

Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika



Exercise for Better Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity you will learn about components of a basic exercise program. You will also find some tips for making exercise a regular part of your life. Finally you will create a simple exercise program that includes the FIT formula. Doggonit!! You really wanted to just sit on the couch, watch another TV program, and eat a bag of chips. Your conscience, on the other hand, is telling you that you really need to get some exercise. What will you do? Hopefully, you are thinking seriously about some exercise. There are ...



Daily Supine LBNP Treadmill Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity During 14 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to microgravity or bed rest reduces upright exercise capacity. Exercise modes, durations, and intensities which will effectively and efficiently counteract such deconditioning are presently unresolved. We that daily supine treadmill interval training with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would prevent reduction in upright exercise capacity during 14 days of 6 deg. head-down bed rest (BR). Eight healthy male subjects underwent two 14 day BR protocols separated by 3 months. In a crossover design, subjects either remained at strict BR or performed 40 min of daily exercise consisting of supine walking and running at intensities varying from 40-80% of pre-BR upright peak oxygen uptake (VO2). LBNP during supine exercise was used to provide 1.0 to 1.2 times body weight of footward force. An incremental upright treadmill test to measure submaximal and peak exercise responses was given pre- and post-BR. In the non-exercise condition, peak VO2 and time to exhaustion were reduced 16 +/- 4% and 10 +/- 1% (p less than 0.05), respectively, from pre-BR. With LBNP exercise these variables were not significantly different (NS) from pre-BR. During submaximal treadmill speeds after BR, heart rate was higher (11 +/- 11 bpm, p less than 0.05) and respiratory exchange ratio was elevated (p less than 0.05) in the no exercise condition. Both were maintained at pre-BR levels in the LBNP exercise condition (NS from pre-BR). Since this supine treadmill interval training with addition of LBNP maintained upright exercise responses and capacity during BR, this countermeasure may also be effective during space flight.

Ertl, Andy C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Fortney, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ballard, R. E.; William, J. M.



Exercise, Immunity, and Susceptibility to Infection: A J-Shaped Relationship?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epidemiologic data suggest that regular moderate exercise boosts immunity, but intense training may reduce it. Objective data do not clearly show a J-shaped relationship between exercise and immune function. Nutritional, hygienic, exercise, environmental, and pharmacologic strategies can minimize risks of infection. Practical measures to reduce

Shephard, Roy J.; Shek, Pang N.



Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the pre-workout supplement Assault™ (MusclePharm, Denver, CO, USA) on upper and lower body muscular endurance, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, and choice reaction time in recreationally-trained males. Subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness, and focus were measured to examine associations between psychological factors and human performance. Methods Twelve recreationally-trained males participated in a 3-week investigation (mean +/- SD, age: 28 +/- 5 y, height: 178 +/- 9 cm, weight: 79.2 +/- 15.7 kg, VO2max: 45.7 +/- 7.6 ml/kg/min). Subjects reported to the human performance laboratory on three separate occasions. All participants completed a baseline/familiarization day of testing that included a maximal graded exercise test for the determination of aerobic capacity (VO2max), one-rep maximum (1-RM) for bench and leg press to determine 75% of 1-RM, choice reaction tests, and intermittent critical velocity familiarization. Choice reaction tests included the following: single-step audio and visual, one-tower stationary protocol, two-tower lateral protocol, three-tower multi-directional protocol, and three-tower multi-directional protocol with martial arts sticks. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest either the supplement (SUP) or the placebo (PL) during Visit 2. Subjects were provided with the cross-over treatment on the last testing visit. Testing occurred 20 min following ingestion of both treatments. Results Significant (p < 0.05) main effects for the SUP were observed for leg press (SUP: 13 ± 6 reps, PL: 11 ± 3 reps), perceived energy (SUP: 3.4 ± 0.9, PL: 3.1 ± 0.8), alertness (SUP: 4.0 ± 0.7, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), focus (SUP: 4.1 ± 0.6, PL: 3.5 ± 0.8), choice reaction audio single-step (SUP: 0.92 ± 0.10 s, PL: 0.97 ± 0.11 s), choice reaction multi-direction 15 s (SUP: 1.07 ± 0.12 s, PL: 1.13 ± 0.14 s), and multi-direction for 30 s (SUP: 1.10 ± 0.11 s, PL: 1.14 ± 0.13 s). Conclusions Ingesting the SUP before exercise significantly improved agility choice reaction performance and lower body muscular endurance, while increasing perceived energy and reducing subjective fatigue. These findings suggest that the SUP may delay fatigue during strenuous exercise. PMID:22463603



The Mind Body Programs reduce the impact of stress through a variety of research driven skill-building exercises to improve medical symptoms, mood, and well-being. The six core components of our mind body programs are  

E-print Network

-Challenging Children For parents of children with behavioral challenges including autistic spectrum disorder, ADHD-building exercises to improve medical symptoms, mood, and well-being. The six core components of our mind body or In Part Mind Body Medicine Consultation For patients seeking to add a mind body component to their medical

Mootha, Vamsi K.


Exercise Training Improves Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Rats with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

E-print Network

Exercise Training Improves Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Rats with Pulmonary Arterial, Ivy Tech Community College, 2 Department of Physical Therapy, Indiana University School of Health promotes right ventricular (RV) and skeletal muscle dysfunction that contributes to reduced exercise

Zhou, Yaoqi


Resistance exercise training and the orthostatic response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.

McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.



Endometriosis and physical exercises: a systematic review.  


Regular physical exercise seems to have protective effects against diseases that involve inflammatory processes since it induces an increase in the systemic levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts by reducing estrogen levels. Evidence has suggested that the symptoms associated with endometriosis result from a local inflammatory peritoneal reaction caused by ectopic endometrial implants. Thus, the objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between physical exercise and the prevalence and/or improvement of the symptoms associated with endometriosis. To this end, data available in PubMed (1985-2012) were surveyed using the terms "endometriosis and physical exercises", "endometriosis and life style and physical exercises" in the English language literature. Only 6 of the 935 articles detected were included in the study. These studies tried establish a possible relationship between the practice of physical exercise and the prevalence of endometriosis. The data available are inconclusive regarding the benefits of physical exercise as a risk factor for the disease and no data exist about the potential impact of exercise on the course of the endometriosis. In addition, randomized studies are necessary. PMID:24393293

Bonocher, Camila M; Montenegro, Mary L; Rosa E Silva, Julio C; Ferriani, Rui A; Meola, Juliana



Endometriosis and physical exercises: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Regular physical exercise seems to have protective effects against diseases that involve inflammatory processes since it induces an increase in the systemic levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also acts by reducing estrogen levels. Evidence has suggested that the symptoms associated with endometriosis result from a local inflammatory peritoneal reaction caused by ectopic endometrial implants. Thus, the objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between physical exercise and the prevalence and/or improvement of the symptoms associated with endometriosis. To this end, data available in PubMed (1985–2012) were surveyed using the terms “endometriosis and physical exercises”, “endometriosis and life style and physical exercises” in the English language literature. Only 6 of the 935 articles detected were included in the study. These studies tried establish a possible relationship between the practice of physical exercise and the prevalence of endometriosis. The data available are inconclusive regarding the benefits of physical exercise as a risk factor for the disease and no data exist about the potential impact of exercise on the course of the endometriosis. In addition, randomized studies are necessary. PMID:24393293



Interval exercise, but not endurance exercise, prevents endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury in healthy subjects.  


Endothelial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury importantly contributes to the poor prognosis during ischemic (myocardial) events. Preconditioning, i.e., repeated exposure to short periods of ischemia, effectively reduces endothelial I/R injury. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that exercise has preconditioning effects on endothelial I/R injury. Therefore, we studied whether an acute bout of endurance or interval exercise is able to protect against endothelial I/R injury. In 17 healthy young subjects, we examined changes in brachial artery endothelial function using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after a bout of high-intensity interval exercise, moderate-intensity endurance exercise, or a control intervention. Subsequently, I/R injury was induced by inflation of a blood pressure cuff around the upper arm to 220 mmHg for 20 min and 20 min of reperfusion followed by another FMD measurement. Near-infrared spectrometry was used to examine local tissue oxygenation during exercise. No differences in brachial artery FMD were found at baseline for the three conditions. I/R induced a significant decline in FMD (7.1 ± 2.3 to 4.3 ± 2.3, P < 0.001). When preceded by the interval exercise bout, no change in FMD was present after I/R (7.7 ± 3.1 to 7.2 ± 3.1, P = 0.56), whereas the decrease in FMD after I/R could not be prevented by the endurance exercise bout (7.8 ± 3.1 to 3.8 ± 1.7, P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single bout of lower limb interval exercise, but not moderate-intensity endurance exercise, effectively prevents brachial artery endothelial I/R injury. This indicates the presence of a remote preconditioning effect of exercise, which is selectively present after short-term interval but not continuous exercise in healthy young subjects. PMID:25416193

Seeger, Joost P H; Lenting, Charlotte J; Schreuder, Tim H A; Landman, Thijs R J; Timothy Cable, N; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J



Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.  


Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W



Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain  

PubMed Central

Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.; Cotman, Carl W.



Exercise in the Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension that is occurring in increasing frequency across the global population. Although there is some controversy about its diagnostic criteria, oxidative stress, which is defined as imbalance between the production and inactivation of reactive oxygen species, has a major pathophysiological role in all the components of this disease. Oxidative stress and consequent inflammation induce insulin resistance, which likely links the various components of this disease. We briefly review the role of oxidative stress as a major component of the metabolic syndrome and then discuss the impact of exercise on these pathophysiological pathways. Included in this paper is the effect of exercise in reducing fat-induced inflammation, blood pressure, and improving muscular metabolism. PMID:22829955

Golbidi, Saeid; Mesdaghinia, Azam; Laher, Ismail



Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

Loerch, Linda H.



Advanced Resistive Exercise Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris



Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

Hansen, Joyce



Emerging concept: 'central benefit model' of exercise in falls prevention.  


Falls are a common geriatric syndrome and are the third leading cause of chonic disability worldwide. Falls are not random events and occur, at least in part, due to impaired physiological function, such as impaired balance, and cognitive impairment. The clinical syndrome of falls is important for Sports and Exercise Medicine Clinicians as there is Level 1 evidence that targeted exercise prescription is an effective intervention strategy. The widely accepted dogma is that improved physical function, balance and muscle strength, underlies the effectiveness of the exercise in reducing falls. However, findings from randomised controlled trials suggest that exercise reduce falls via mechanisms other than improved physiological function. The authors propose that improved cognitive function - specifically, executive functions - and associated functional plasticity may be an important yet underappreciated mechanism by which the exercise reduces falls in older adults. PMID:22522589

Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Hsu, Chun Liang; Bolandzadeh, Niousha



Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities  


... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...


Breast Cancer, Exercise and Acupuncture  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Breast Cancer, Exercise and Acupuncture HealthDay November 12, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Acupuncture Breast Cancer Exercise and Physical Fitness Transcript Exercise therapy and ...


Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension.  


Evidence for the benefits of regular exercise is irrefutable and increasing physical activity levels should be a major goal at all levels of health care. People with hypertension are less physically active than those without hypertension and there is strong evidence supporting the blood pressure-lowering ability of regular exercise, especially in hypertensive individuals. This narrative review discusses evidence relating to exercise and cardiovascular (CV) risk in people with hypertension. Comparisons between aerobic, dynamic resistance, and static resistance exercise have been made along with the merit of different exercise volumes. High-intensity interval training and isometric resistance training appear to have strong CV protective effects, but with limited data in hypertensive people, more work is needed in this area. Screening recommendations, exercise prescriptions, and special considerations are provided as a guide to decrease CV risk among hypertensive people who exercise or wish to begin. It is recommended that hypertensive individuals should aim to perform moderate intensity aerobic exercise activity for at least 30 minutes on most (preferably all) days of the week in addition to resistance exercises on 2-3 days/week. Professionals with expertise in exercise prescription may provide additional benefit to patients with high CV risk or in whom more intense exercise training is planned. Despite lay and media perceptions, CV events associated with exercise are rare and the benefits of regular exercise far outweigh the risks. In summary, current evidence supports the assertion of exercise being a cornerstone therapy in reducing CV risk and in the prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:25305061

Sharman, James E; La Gerche, Andre; Coombes, Jeff S



Literature: Released Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 1970-71 Literature assessment exercises (all in the public domain) which have been selected for release at this time by the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Information furnished for each exercise includes: the literature objective it was designed to measure, the theme (section) in which it appears, relevant…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.


Exercise through Menopause.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

Stuhr, Robyn M.



Heat Loss Calculation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class exercise from Kirk Garrison is intended for construction students learning about home insulation and heating. The class will learn to calculate heat loss in a home by using an online home heat loss calculator. This exercise document includes student worksheets. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Garrison, Kirk



Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise)  

E-print Network

Name:_____________________________ (Web Exercise) Model quality, validation exercise. You will need a web link to MolProbity (with Java), and the file 1JIRon1S83_Arg66_supr.kin download- ed from the BCH681 web site, or from Sakai. Part 1: MolProbity Go to the MolProbity web

Richardson, David


Exercise and functional foods  

PubMed Central

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944

Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu



Skeletal muscle gene expression in response to resistance exercise: sex specific regulation  

PubMed Central

Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the sex differences in human muscle morphology and function remain to be elucidated. The sex differences in the skeletal muscle transcriptome in both the resting state and following anabolic stimuli, such as resistance exercise (RE), might provide insight to the contributors of sexual dimorphism of muscle phenotypes. We used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the biceps brachii of young men and women who underwent an acute unilateral RE session following 12 weeks of progressive training. Bilateral muscle biopsies were obtained either at an early (4 h post-exercise) or late recovery (24 h post-exercise) time point. Muscle transcription profiles were compared in the resting state between men (n = 6) and women (n = 8), and in response to acute RE in trained exercised vs. untrained non-exercised control muscle for each sex and time point separately (4 h post-exercise, n = 3 males, n = 4 females; 24 h post-exercise, n = 3 males, n = 4 females). A logistic regression-based method (LRpath), following Bayesian moderated t-statistic (IMBT), was used to test gene functional groups and biological pathways enriched with differentially expressed genes. Results This investigation identified extensive sex differences present in the muscle transcriptome at baseline and following acute RE. In the resting state, female muscle had a greater transcript abundance of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and gene transcription/translation processes. After strenuous RE at the same relative intensity, the time course of the transcriptional modulation was sex-dependent. Males experienced prolonged changes while females exhibited a rapid restoration. Most of the biological processes involved in the RE-induced transcriptional regulation were observed in both males and females, but sex specificity was suggested for several signaling pathways including activation of notch signaling and TGF-beta signaling in females. Sex differences in skeletal muscle transcriptional regulation might implicate a mechanism behind disproportional muscle growth in males as compared with female counterparts after RE training at the same relative intensity. Conclusions Sex differences exist in skeletal muscle gene transcription both at rest and following acute RE, suggesting that sex is a significant modifier of the transcriptional regulation in skeletal muscle. The findings from the present study provide insight into the molecular mechanisms for sex differences in muscle phenotypes and for muscle transcriptional regulation associated with training adaptations to resistance exercise. PMID:21106073



Hypertension risk: exercise is medicine* for most but not all.  


Hypertension is a risk factor for heart disease, and chronic exercise is recognized as a method for reducing resting blood pressure. Recent studies report that while exercise may benefit the majority of the population, the blood pressure adaptation is not always uniform; some individuals have an adverse blood pressure response to chronic aerobic exercise programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual changes in resting blood pressure in response to exercise training regimens aimed at increasing muscle mass and strength. We have also included exercise (resistance and aerobic) in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR). Of 74 individuals, 11% had an increased risk, 16% had a decreased risk and 73% had no change in risk classification following exercise. The statistical analysis found that the group that decreased risk with exercise tended to have higher baseline levels of blood pressure. However, there were little baseline differences between the group that increased risk or the group that had no change in risk, suggesting that starting values may not necessarily determine who will see a beneficial response. In conclusion, the blood pressure adaptation to resistance training and exercise with BFR is not homogeneous with some participants increasing, decreasing or staying in the same risk category following an exercise intervention. These are important findings as they would not have been noted or discussed when looking only at the group means. Future research may identify molecular predictors so that individuals at risk for adverse events can be identified prior to exercise. PMID:23742035

Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Abe, Takashi; Rossow, Lindy M; Ozaki, Hayao; Pujol, Thomas J; Bemben, Michael G



Absolute hypoxic exercise training enhances in vitro thrombin generation by increasing procoagulant platelet-derived microparticles under high shear stress in sedentary men.  


HS (high shear) stress associated with artery stenosis facilitates TG (thrombin generation) by increasing the release of procoagulant PDMPs (platelet-derived microparticles). Physical exercise and hypoxia may paradoxically modulate vascular thrombotic risks. The aim of the present study was to investigate how exercise training with/without hypoxia affected TG mediated by PDMPs under physio-pathological shear flows. A total of 75 sedentary males were randomly divided into five groups (n=15 in each group): 21% O2 [NC (normoxic control)] or 15% O2 [HC (hypoxic control)] at rest or were trained at 50% of peak work rate under 21% O2 [NT (normoxic training)] or 15% O2 [HAT (hypoxic-absolute training)], or 50% of HR (heart rate) reserve under 15% O2 [HRT (hypoxic-relative training)] for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The PDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. Before the intervention, strenuous exercise markedly increased the PDMP count (14.8%) and TG rate (19.5%) in PDMP-rich plasma at 100 dynes/cm2 of shear stress (P<0.05). After the interventions, both NT and HRT significantly attenuated the enhancement of HS-induced PDMPs (4.7 and 4.9%) and TG rate (3.8 and 3.0%) (P<0.05) by severe exercise. Conversely, HAT notably promoted the PDMP count (37.3%) and TG rate (38.9%) induced by HS (P<0.05), concurrent with increasing plasma TF (tissue factor) and coagulation factor V levels at rest or following exercise. We conclude that both HRT and NT depress similarly HS-mediated TG during exercise, but HAT accelerates the prothrombotic response to vigorous exercise. These findings provide new insights into how exercise training under a hypoxic condition influences the risk of thrombosis associated with stenotic arteries. PMID:23252666

Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ching; Wang, Jong-Shyan



Do isolated leg exercises improve dyspnea during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?  


Dyspnea, the subjective feeling of shortness of breath, is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs aim to improve dyspnea, thereby increasing exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. Exercise training is proven to be an essential component of PR; however, there is no consensus regarding which training modality confers the greatest therapeutic benefit. Secondary to pulmonary impairment, many COPD patients develop limb muscle dysfunction (LMD), particularly in the leg muscles. Mounting evidence suggests that peripheral limitation to exercise as a result of LMD is frequent in patients with COPD. LMD of the legs, or lower limb muscle dysfunction, has been shown to markedly influence ventilatory and dyspnea responses to exercise. Accordingly, isolated training of leg muscles may contribute to reducing dyspnea and increase exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. Indeed, relative to the largely irreversible impairment of the pulmonary system, the leg muscles are an important site by which to improve patients' level of function and quality of life. Isolated leg exercises have been shown to improve LMD and may constitute an effective training modality to improve dyspnea and exercise tolerance in COPD within the context of PR. PMID:23905666

Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Road, Jeremy D; Sheel, A William



Exercise Effects on Erythrocyte Deformability in Exercise-induced Arterial Hypoxemia.  


Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is often found in endurance-trained subjects at high exercise intensity. The role of erythrocyte deformability (ED) in EIAH has been scarcely explored. We aimed to explore the role of erythrocyte properties and lactate accumulation in the response of ED in EIAH. ED was determined in 10 sedentary and in 16 trained subjects, both before and after a maximal incremental test, and after recovery, along with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell lactate concentrations. EIAH was found in 6 trained subjects (?SaO2=-8.25±4.03%). Sedentary and non-EIAH trained subjects showed reduced ED after exercise, while no effect on ED was found in EIAH trained subjects. After exercise, lactate concentrations rose and MCV increased equally in all groups. ED is strongly driven by cell volume, but the different ED response to exercise in EIAH shows that other cellular mechanisms may be implicated. Interactions between membrane and cytoskeleton, which have been found to be O2-regulated, play a role in ED. The drop in SaO2 in EIAH subjects can improve ED response to exercise. This can be an adaptive mechanism that enhances muscular and pulmonary perfusion, and allows the achievement of high exercise intensity in EIAH despite lower O2 arterial transport. PMID:25429547

Alis, R; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Ferioli, D; Torre, A La; Blesa, J R; Romagnoli, M



Effect of the Intrinsic Foot Muscle Exercise Combined with Interphalangeal Flexion Exercise on Metatarsalgia with Morton’s Toe  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined the effects of the intrinsic foot muscle exercise combined with interphalangeal flexion exercise on metatarsalgia with Morton’s toe. [Subject] A 38-year-old male with Morton’s toe, who complained of pain in his left metatarsophalangeal joints was the subject. [Methods] The pressure pain threshold, peak contact pressure of the metatarsophalangeal region during gait, and the navicular drop were measured before and after the intrinsic foot muscles exercises combined with interphalangeal flexion exercise. [Results] After exercising for 2 weeks, the pressure pain threshold increased from 1 to 1.5?kg, while the peak contact pressure decreased from 0.63 to 0.50?kg/cm2, and the navicular drop improved from 5 to 8?mm. [Conclusion] The results show that the combined exercises alleviated the pain while walking by reducing the excessive pressure on the metatarsophalangeal region, and the improvement of gait with Morton’s toe.

Yoo, Won-gyu



The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin



Exercise Thermoregulation in Men after One and 24-hours of 6 Degree Head-Down Tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exercise thermoregulation exercise is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise.

Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weldhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.



Exercise Prescriptions for Active Seniors: A Team Approach for Maximizing Adherence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercise is an important "medication" that healthcare providers can prescribe for their geriatric patients. Increasing physical fitness by participating in regular exercise can reduce the effects of aging that lead to functional declines and poor health. Modest regular exercise can substantially lower the risk of death from coronary artery…

Brennan, Fred H., Jr.



Geologic Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

Andrew Smith


[Exercise-induced asthma].  


Exercise-induced asthma is characterized by a transient rise of the airways resistances, associated with asthmatic symptoms, 5 to 10 minutes after the end of a submaximal effort. The treatment is based on a pre-effort warming, cover the mouth with a mask (when the weather is cold), the use of beta-mimetic bronchodilators before exercise and, chronic treatment with antiinflammatory drugs. When the patient is not controlled, an evaluation of the lung function is required with a postbronchodilator control or an exercise challenge test. If the patient remains uncontrolled despite the treatment, others diagnostics should be excluded, such as vocal cords dysfunction or left heart failure. PMID:21089401

Michel, O



Our World: Exercise in Space - Duration: 3:50.  

NASA Video Gallery

Find out why exercise is so important to the astronauts who travel into space. Learn how gravity affects our bodies and what astronauts must do in reduced gravity environments to keep their bodies ...


A guide to exercise prescription.  


Exercise is a fundamental component of good health. The American College of Sports Medicine and "Exercise is Medicine" recommend treating exercise as a vital sign, and assessing and prescribing physical activity at every medical visit. Meeting the recommended goals of physical activity results in a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. Physicians can improve health by prescribing exercise. PMID:24209719

Crookham, Jason



Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.



Exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation.  


Exercise training remains a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic respiratory disease. The choice of type of exercise training depends on the physiologic requirements and goals of the individual patient as well as the available equipment at the PR center. Current evidence suggests that, at ground walking exercise training, Nordic walking exercise training, resistance training, water-based exercise training, tai chi, and nonlinear periodized exercise are all feasible and effective in (subgroups) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In turn, these exercise training modalities can be considered as part of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary PR program. PMID:24874127

Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Klijn, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A



Part 1: Potential Dangers of Extreme Endurance Exercise: How Much is Too Much? Part 2: Screening of School-age Athletes.  


The question is not whether exercise is or isn't one of the very best strategies for improving quality of life, cardiovascular (CV) health and longevity-it is. And there is no debate as to whether or not strenuous high-intensity endurance training produces an amazingly efficient, compliant, and powerful pump-it does. The essence of the controversy centers on what exactly is the ideal pattern of long-term physical activity (PA) for conferring robust and enduring CV health, while also optimizing life expectancy. With that goal in mind, this review will focus on the question: "Is more always better when it comes to exercise?" And if a dose-response curve exists for the therapeutic effects of PA, where is the upper threshold at which point further training begins to detract from the health and longevity benefits noted with moderate exercise? The emerging picture from the cumulative data on this hotly debated topic is that moderate exercise appears to be the sweet spot for bestowing lasting CV health and longevity. However, the specific definition of moderate in this context is not clear yet. PMID:25460846

O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Guazzi, Marco



Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction  


... experience symptoms only when they exercise. Symptoms include: • Shortness of breath • Coughing • Wheezing • Tight chest These symptoms are often worse in cold, dry air. Warm and humid air may lessen ...


Kids and Exercise  


... just 1-2 hours a day of quality programming How Much Exercise Is Enough? Parents should make ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...


Exercise Tips for Travelers  


... Tips for Travelers Whether you’re traveling for business or pleasure, you can stick to your exercise ... you’re on vacation, but even on a business trip, it’s possible to squeeze in 30 minutes ...


Exercises in Physical Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Flinders University in Australia features two sets of exercises that accompany a course on physical oceanography. The basic exercises were originally intended to replace the need for the teacher's presence, but have since also proved useful in distance learning. Topics for these exercises include map projections ocean floor topography, properties of sea water, and water masses and tides. The advanced exercises were designed to give deeper insight into the material and to encourage investigation. Advanced topics include coastal upwelling, graphic display methods for ocean currents, averaging methods for vector time series, geostrophic currents, Rossby wave propagation, the depth of the permanent thermocline (the Sverdrup balance), Ekman layer dynamics, and the outflow of Mediterranean Water into the Atlantic Ocean. The site also features links to other oceanography websites.

Tomczak, Matthias; Flinders University, Australia


Exercise and children  


... Playing organized sports (such as soccer, basketball, and football) Younger children have a shorter attention span than ... or biking. Others prefer group sports, like soccer, football, or basketball. Choose an exercise that works well ...


Why Exercise Is Cool  


... else counts as exercise? Playing sports, dancing, doing push-ups, and even reaching down to touch your toes. ... your muscles stronger. Did you ever do a push-up or swing across the monkey bars at the ...


Exercise in Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students expressed strong positive feelings about inquiry-based teaching methods the authors developed and implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Inquiry-based learning resulted in a higher order of learning not typically o

Cheryl L. Mason



Hand and Finger Exercises  


... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...


The "Friendly Student" Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a class exercise that tests the folk wisdom concerning small-town friendliness. Students are assigned to express random friendliness to strangers so they can determine whether friendlier responses are elicited in small towns or large cities. (KO)

Wright, Richard A.



Adventures in Exercise Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. The SALGains evaluation was used to compare the two approaches and significant improvements

Kathleen A. FitzPatrick



Exercise 6: Cartography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barbara and David Tewksbury, Hamilton College Summary In the first part of the exercise, students examine a variety of ArcMaps to work out what data sets and techniques were used and to develop a list of the ...

Tewksbury, Barb


Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm  


... air that is cooler and drier than the air in your lungs during exercise may cause EIB. If you have EIB and chronic asthma, your symptoms may get worse during spring and fall, when people tend to have trouble ...


Electromyographic Activity of the Biceps Brachii After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage  

PubMed Central

It is well known that strenuous eccentric exercise may result in muscle damage. We proposed that vigorous eccentric exercise (EE) would impair myoelectric activity of the biceps brachii. This study utilised a 7-day prospective time-series design. Ten healthy males performed a session of 70 maximal EE elbow flexion contractions. Analysis of surface electromyography activity (sEMG) was performed on the signals recorded during isometric contractions at 50% (IC50) and 80% (IC80) of maximum voluntary isometric torque (MVT), deriving RMS and MDF as sEMG parameters. Linear regression of the RMS and MDF time-series (20-s sustained IC50 and IC80) was used to extract intercepts and slopes of these signals on each day. Plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), MVT, arm circumference, subjective perception of soreness and elbow joint range of motion were also measured to assess effectiveness of EE to evoke muscle damage. CK increased over resting values until day 5 after EE, and remained significantly (p < 0.05) elevated even on day 7. MVT had decreased to 45% of its initial value by day 2 after EE, and remained significantly depressed for the following 6 days. In addition, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased, and range of motion decreased after EE. A significant shift of MDF intercept towards lower frequencies at both IC50 and IC80 was observed after EE in the exercised arm, and these values gradually recovered within the next 3 days during IC50. Although there were some changes in RMS values, these alterations were persistent in both control and exercised arms, and did not follow a consistent pattern. In conclusion, a prolonged reduction in MDF intercept was observed after EE, but this was not closely time-associated with the biochemical, anthropometric or functional markers of muscle damage. Compared to RMS, MDF was a more consistent measure to reflect changes in sEMG. Key pointsEMG can be a useful tool to detect exercise-induced muscle damage,MDF decreased after eccentric exercise,This decrease could be related to a reduction in the recruitment of fast twitch fibres, andCompared to RMS, MDF was a more consistent parameter to reflect the changes in EMG after eccentric exercise. PMID:24149479

Ahmadi, Sirous; Sinclair, Peter J.; Foroughi, Nasim; Davis, Glen M.



Inverted Troughs Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise follows the progression of a winter weather event across the Central Plains states beginning 1200 UTC on 7 March 1999. Each forecast question is accompanied by Eta model data and includes a forecast discussion by Phil Schumacher, NWS Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This exercise compliments the Webcast, Inverted Troughs and their Associated Precipitation Regimes, based on a presentation by Phil Schumacher at the MSC Winter Weather Course, December 2002, in Boulder Colorado.




Exercise performance and fatiguability in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed Central

To examine the role of delay in recovery of peripheral muscle function following exercise in the fatigue experienced by patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to examine the influence of effort perception in limiting exercise performance in these patients, a study was carried out on a group of twelve patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and 12 sex and age-matched sedentary control subjects. Symptom limited incremental cycle exercise tests including measurements of perceived exertion were performed followed by examination of the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle group for up to 48 hours. Muscle function was assessed by percutaneous electrical stimulation and maximum voluntary contractions. Muscle function at rest and during recovery was normal in CFS patients as assessed by maximum isometric voluntary contraction, 20:50 Hz tetanic force ratio and maximum relaxation rate. Exercise duration and the relationship between heart rate and work rate during exercise were similar in both groups. CFS patients had higher perceived exertion scores in relation to heart rate during exercise representing a reduced effort sensation threshold of 3.2 units on an unmodified Borg scale in CFS patients. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome show normal muscle physiology before and after exercise. Raised perceived exertion scores during exercise suggest that central factors are limiting exercise capacity in these patients. PMID:8410041

Gibson, H; Carroll, N; Clague, J E; Edwards, R H



Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core temperature after deconditioning appears to be caused by decreased peripheral vasodilation in humans. Factors related to glucose metabolism may influence this mechanism.

Greenleaf, J. E.



Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1. The reduction in vascular resistance which accompanies acute dynamic exercise does not subside immediately during recovery, resulting in a post-exercise hypotension. This sustained vasodilatation suggests that sympathetic vascular regulation is altered after exercise. 2. Therefore, we assessed the baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow in response to arterial pressure changes, and transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance during a sympatho-excitatory stimulus (isometric handgrip exercise) after either exercise (60 min cycling at 60% peak aerobic power (VO2,peak)) or sham treatment (60 min seated rest) in nine healthy subjects. 3. Both muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf vascular resistance were reduced after exercise (-29.7 +/- 8.8 and -25.3 +/- 9.1%, both P < 0.05). The baroreflex relation between diastolic pressure and sympathetic outflow was shifted downward after exercise (post-exercise intercept, 218 +/- 38 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1; post-sham intercept, 318 +/- 51 total integrated activity (heartbeat)-1, P < 0.05), indicating less sympathetic outflow across all diastolic pressures. Further, the relation between sympathetic activity and vascular resistance was attenuated after exercise (post-exercise slope, 0.0031 +/- 0.0007 units (total integrated activity)-1 min; post-sham slope, 0.0100 +/- 0.0033 units (total integrated activity)-1 min, P < 0.05), indicating less vasoconstriction with any increase in sympathetic activity. 4. Thus, both baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow and the transduction of sympathetic activity into vascular resistance are altered after dynamic exercise. We conclude that the vasodilation which underlies post-exercise hypotension results from both neural and vascular phenomena.

Halliwill, J. R.; Taylor, J. A.; Eckberg, D. L.



Multiplanar breast kinematics during different exercise modalities.  


Abstract Multiplanar breast movement reduction is crucial to increasing physical activity participation amongst women. To date, research has focused on breast movement during running, but until breast movement is understood during different exercise modalities, the breast support requirements for specific activities are unknown. To understand breast support requirements during different exercise modalities, this study aimed to determine multiplanar breast kinematics during running, jumping and agility tasks. Sixteen 32D participants had markers attached to their right nipple and torso. Relative multiplanar breast displacement was calculated during bare-breasted treadmill running (10 kph), maximum countermovement jumping and an agility t-test. Exercise modality influenced the magnitude and direction of breast displacement, velocity and acceleration (p < .05). Jumping produced greater vertical breast displacement (.09 m) but less mediolateral breast displacement (.05 m) than running or the agility task, but agility tasks produced the highest multiplanar breast velocities and acceleration. Breast movement during jumping was predominantly in the vertical direction, whereas the agility task produced a greater percentage of mediolateral breast acceleration than running or jumping. Exercise modality impacted upon the magnitude and distribution of bare-breasted multiplanar breast kinematics in this homogenous 32D cohort. Therefore, to reduce breast movement in women of a 32D bra size, manufacturers may wish to design sport-specific products, with greater vertical support for exercise modalities incorporating jumping and greater mediolateral support for agility tasks. PMID:24942053

Risius, Deborah; Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna



Exercise, Vascular Stiffness, and Tissue Transglutaminase  

PubMed Central

Background Vascular aging is closely associated with increased vascular stiffness. It has recently been demonstrated that decreased nitric oxide (NO)?induced S?nitrosylation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) contributes to age?related vascular stiffness. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise restores NO signaling and attenuates vascular stiffness by decreasing TG2 activity and cross?linking in an aging rat model. Methods and Results Rats were subjected to 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise. Aging was associated with diminished phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase and phosphorylated vasodilator?stimulated phosphoprotein abundance, suggesting reduced NO signaling. TG2 cross?linking activity was significantly increased in old animals, whereas TG2 abundance remained unchanged. These alterations were attenuated in the exercise cohort. Simultaneous measurement of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) demonstrated increased aortic stiffness in old rats, compared to young, at all values of mean arterial pressure (MAP). The PWV?MAP correlation in the old sedentary and old exercise cohorts was similar. Tensile testing of the vessels showed increased stiffness of the aorta in the old phenotype with a modest restoration of mechanical properties toward the young phenotype with exercise. Conclusions Increased vascular stiffness during aging is associated with decreased TG2 S?nitrosylation, increased TG2 cross?linking activity, and increased vascular stiffness likely the result of decreased NO bioavailability. In this study, a brief period of moderate aerobic exercise enhanced NO signaling, attenuated TG cross?linking activity, and reduced ex vivo tensile properties, but failed to reverse functional vascular stiffness in vivo, as measured by PWV. PMID:24721796

Steppan, Jochen; Sikka, Gautam; Jandu, Simran; Barodka, Viachaslau; Halushka, Marc K.; Flavahan, Nicholas A.; Belkin, Alexey M.; Nyhan, Daniel; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Santhanam, Lakshmi



Phagocytic responses of peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils are different in rats following prolonged exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of exhausting long?duration physical exercise (swimming) sessions of different durations and intensities on the number and phagocytic capacity of macrophages and neutrophils in sedentary rats. INTRODUCTION: Exercise intensity, duration and frequency are important factors in determining immune response to physical effort. Thus, the effects of exhausting long?duration exercise are unclear. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into two groups: an untreated group (macrophage study) and oyster glycogen?treated rats (neutrophil study). In each group, the animals were subdivided into five groups (10 rats per group): unexercised controls, an unadapted low?intensity exercise group, an unadapted moderate?intensity exercise group, a preadapted low?intensity exercise group and a preadapted moderate?intensity exercise group. All exercises were performed to exhaustion, and preadaptation consisted of 5, 15, 30 and 45 min sessions. RESULTS: Macrophage study: the number of peritoneal macrophages significantly decreased (9.22 ± 1.78 × 106) after unadapted exercise but increased (21.50 ± 0.63 × 106) after preadapted low?intensity exercise, with no changes in the moderate?intensity exercise group. Phagocytic capacity, however, increased by more than 80% in all exercise groups (low/moderate, unadapted/preadapted). Neutrophil study: the number of peritoneal neutrophils significantly decreased after unadapted (29.20 ± 3.34 × 106) and preadapted (50.00 ± 3.53 × 106) low?intensity exercise but increased after unadapted (127.60 ± 5.14 × 106) and preadapted (221.80 ± 14.85 × 106) moderate exercise. Neutrophil phagocytic capacity decreased by 63% after unadapted moderate exercise but increased by 90% after corresponding preadapted sessions, with no changes in the low?intensity exercise groups. CONCLUSION: Neutrophils and macrophages of sedentary rats respond differently to exercise?induced stress. Adaptation sessions reduce exercise?induced stress on the immune system. PMID:21243292

Ferreira, Clílton K O; Prestes, Jonato; Donatto, Felipe F; Verlengia, Rozangela; Navalta, James W; Cavaglieri, Cláudia R



Effect of Isometric Handgrip Exercise Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Normal Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise training on resting blood pressure in normal healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Hand grip spring dynamometer was used for IHG exercise training. A total of 30 normal healthy volunteers in the age group of 20-40 y were enrolled for the study. Exercise training protocol consisted of five 3-min bouts of IHG exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction separated by 5 min rest periods. Exercise was performed 3 times/wk for 10 wk. Subject’s blood pressure was measured before and after exercise. Result: There was a significant reduction in resting blood pressure following 10 wk of exercise training. Both Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure reduced significantly (p<0.001). Conclusion: IHG exercise training might be a simple, effective, inexpensive and non-pharmacological method in lowering blood pressure. PMID:25386422

Malhotra, Varun; Kumar, Avnish; Dhar, Usha; Tripathi, Yogesh



Heat-related illness in sports and exercise.  


Exertional heat-related illness (EHRI) is comprised of several states that afflict physically active persons when exercising during conditions of high environmental heat stress. Certain forms of EHRI may become life threatening if not treated. Exertional heat stroke (EHS), characterized by a core body temperature of >40 ° C and mental status changes, is the most severe form of EHRI. EHS must be treated immediately with rapid body cooling to reduce morbidity and mortality. Many EHRI cases are preventable by following heat acclimatization guidelines, modifying sports and exercise sessions during conditions of high environmental heat stress, maintaining adequate hydration, avoiding exertion in the heat when ill, and by educating sports medicine personnel, coaches, parents, and athletes on the early recognition and prevention of EHRI. Heat exhaustion, exercise-associated collapse, exercise-associated muscle cramps, exercise-associated hyponatremia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis are also described. PMID:25240413

Nichols, Andrew W



Delayed leukocytosis after hard strength and endurance exercise: Aspects of regulatory mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background During infections, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMN) are mobilized from their bone marrow stores, travel with blood to the affected tissue, and kill invading microbes there. The signal(s) from the inflammatory site to the marrow are unknown, even though a number of humoral factors that can mobilize PMN, are well known. We have employed a standardized, non-infectious human model to elucidate relevant PMN mobilizers. Well-trained athletes performed a 60-min strenuous strength workout of leg muscles. Blood samples were drawn before, during and just after exercise, and then repeatedly during the following day. Cortisol, GH, ACTH, complement factors, high-sensitive CRP (muCRP), IL-6, G-CSF, IL-8 (CXCL8) and MIP-1? (CCL4) were measured in blood samples. PMN chemotaxins in test plasma was assessed with a micropore membrane technique. Results About 5 hr after the workout, blood granulocytosis peaked to about 150% of baseline. Plasma levels of GH increased significantly 30 min into and 5 min after the exercise, but no increase was recorded for the other hormones. No significant correlation was found between concentrations of stress hormones and the subjects' later occurring PMN increases above their individual baselines. Plasma G-CSF increased significantly – but within the normal range – 65 min after the workout. IL-6 increased very slightly within the normal range, and the chemokines IL-8 and MIP-1? did not increase consistently. However, we found a significant increase of hitherto non-identified PMN-chemotactic activity in plasma 35, 50, and 60 min after the exercise. No systemic complement activation was detected, and (mu)CRP was within the reference range at rest, 5 h and 23 h after the exercise. After endurance exercise, similar findings were made, except for a cortisol response, especially from non-elite runners. Conclusion Apparently, a multitude of humoral factors can – directly or indirectly – mobilize PMN from marrow to blood; some of the factors are, others are not known to be, chemotactic. Under different conditions, different selections of these mobilizers may be used. In the late granulocytosis after heavy, long-lasting exercise a number of factors thought capable of mimicking the granulocytosis of infectious diseases were apparently irrelevant. PMID:14667246

Risøy, Bjørn Audun; Raastad, Truls; Hallén, Jostein; Lappegård, Knut T; Bæverfjord, Kjersti; Kravdal, Astrid; Siebke, Else Marie; Benestad, Haakon B



Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on exercise-induced transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes  

PubMed Central

Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise to lower muscle glycogen content in one leg and then, the following day, completed 2.5 h low intensity two-legged cycling exercise. Nuclei and mRNA were isolated from biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the control and reduced glycogen (pre-exercise glycogen = 609 ± 47 and 337 ± 33 mmol kg?1 dry weight, respectively) legs before and after 0, 2 and 5 h of recovery. Exercise induced a significant (P < 0.05) increase (2- to 3-fold) in transcription of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) genes in the reduced glycogen leg only. Although PDK4, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA were elevated in the reduced glycogen leg before exercise, no consistent difference was found between the two legs in response to exercise. In a second study, six subjects completed two trials (separated by 2 weeks) consisting of 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise with either control (398 ± 52 mmol kg?1 dry weight) or low (240 ± 38 mmol kg?1 dry weight) pre-exercise muscle glycogen. Exercise induced a significantly greater increase in PDK4 transcription in the low glycogen (> 6-fold) than in the control (< 3-fold) trial. Induction of PDK4 and UCP3 mRNA in response to exercise was also signficantly higher in the low glycogen (11.4- and 3.5-fold, respectively) than in the control (5.0- and 1.7-fold, respectively) trial. These data indicate that low muscle glycogen content enhances the transcriptional activation of some metabolic genes in response to exercise, raising the possibility that signalling mechanisms sensitive to glycogen content and/or FFA availability may be linked to the transcriptional control of exercise-responsive genes. PMID:12015434

Pilegaard, Henriette; Keller, Charlotte; Steensberg, Adam; Wulff Helge, Jørn; Klarlund Pedersen, Bente; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P Darrell



American Council on Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1985, the American Council on Fitness is largely known for operating as a fitness certification and education provider. Fortunately for the average person looking for helpful information about exercise materials, the Council website is a treasure trove of free resources on the subject. Not surprisingly, most of these materials are contained within the "Get Fit!" section of the site. Here visitors will find free exercises, a number of healthy recipes, and discussion boards where they may ask questions of fitness professionals. Another useful area is the Operation FitKids section of the site. This section provides tips of keeping fit especially geared towards young people, along with informational fact sheets. Finally, there are a number of reports (sponsored by the ACE) that investigate various health and fitness practices, such as the best (and worst) abdominal exercises.


[Metabolic intolerance to exercise].  


Exercise intolerance (EI) is a frequent cause of medical attention, although it is sometimes difficult to come to a final diagnosis. However, there is a group of patients in whom EI is due to a metabolic dysfunction. McArdle's disease (type V glucogenosis) is due to myophosphorylase (MPL) deficiency. The ischemic exercise test shows a flat lactate curve. The most frequent mutations in the PYGM gene (MPL gene) in Spanish patients with MPL deficiency are R49X and W797R. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency is invariably associated to repetitive episodes of myoglobinuria triggered by exercise, cold, fever or fasting. The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of CPT II deficiency in muscle. The most frequent mutation in the CPT2 gene is the S113L. Patients with muscle adenylate deaminase deficiency usually show either a mild myopathy or no symptom. The diagnosis is based on the absence of enzyme activity in muscle and the lack of rise of ammonia in the forearm ischemic exercise test. The mutation Q12X in the AMPD1 gene is strongly associated with the disease. Exercise intolerance is a common complaint in patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) deficiencies, although it is often overshadowed by other symptoms and signs. Only recently we have come to appreciate that exercise intolerance can be the sole presentation of defects in the mtDNA, particularly in complex I, complex III, complex IV, or in some tRNAs. In addition, myoglobinuria can be observed in patients under statin treatment, particularly if associated with fibrates, due to an alteration in the assembly of the complex IV of the MRC. PMID:12838448

Arenas, J; Martín, M A



Exercises in Math Readiness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arriving at college, many individuals may find themselves in the need of some instructional tools to refresh their memories on various mathematical concepts. Fortunately for those individuals (and their teachers), the Exercises in Math Readiness website contains materials that will ease this process. Created by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Saskatchewan, the site contains exercises of varying difficulty that will take users through such topics as geometry, trigonometry, algebra, and exponential functions. Teachers will also want to look at the section that offers them some specific instructions on how the site might best be used with students. Additionally, the materials here are available in French, Georgian, and Russian.

Rempel, Stephan


Mineral Classification Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to help students think about the properties of minerals that are most useful for mineral classification and identification. Students are given a set of minerals and asked to come up with a hierarchical classification scheme (a "key") that can be used to identify different mineral species. They compare their results with the products of other groups. They test the various schemes by applying them to unknown samples. While doing this exercise, the students develop observational and interpretational skill. They also begin to think about the nature of classification systems.

Perkins, Dexter


Mercenaria Laboratory Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Invertebrate Anatomy Online exercise, featuring the hard-shell clam Mercenaria mercenaria (quahog), is part of an Internet laboratory manual for courses in Invertebrate Zoology. This exercise features an introduction to Mollusca and a step-by-step dissection guide, including hand-drawn figures, defined terms, and detailed explanations of form and function. Students will learn about the external anatomy (shell), muscles, mantle skirts, mantle cavity, mantle folds, siphons, gills, labial palps, hemal system, exhalant chamber, excretory system, digestive system, nervous system, and reproductive system.

Richard Fox


Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise  

PubMed Central

The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC



Exercise for Your Bone Health  


... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... ??) Related Resources Alcoholism Bed Rest and Immobilization Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Oral ...


The history of "Exercise Is Medicine" in ancient civilizations.  


In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

Tipton, Charles M



Evaluation of exercise and potassium chloride supplementation on blood pressure and nociceptive threshold in hypertensive rats.  


Hypertensive subjects present an increased nociceptive threshold, and the lack or delay of pain perception may impede detection of angina and myocardial infarction. Nutritional interventions, like potassium chloride (KCl) diet supplementation, and exercises are common nonpharmacological indications for treating hypertension. Spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive male Wistar rats were submitted to a combination of exercise and KCl diet supplementation. Exercise reduced the nociceptive threshold in SHR; however, this effect was inhibited by KCl supplementation. Exercise and KCl supplementation did not alter systolic blood pressure. Reduction of the nociceptive threshold by exercise may be important for the detection of angina and myocardial infarction in hypertensive individuals. PMID:20383229

Galdino, Giovane S; Lopes, Airton M C; Franca, Valéria M; Duarte, Igor D G; Perez, Andrea C



Exercise Training and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12–15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50–1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking ~5 times/wk, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Pre-clinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including: improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a life style pattern, that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations, is the most desirable and beneficial. PMID:23720270

Haas, Tara L.; Lloyd, Pamela G.; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L.



Supine Lower Body Negative Pressure Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity in Male Twins during 30 Days of Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exercise capacity is reduced following both short and long duration exposures to microgravity. We have shown previously that supine lower body negative pressure with exercise (LBNP(sub ex) maintains upright exercise capacity in men after 5d and 15d bed rest, as a simulation of microgravity. We hypothesized that LBNP(sub ex) would protect upright exercise capacity (VO2pk) and sprint performance in eight sets of identical male twins during a 30-d bed rest. Twins within each set were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) who performed no exercise or to an exercise group (EX) who performed a 40-min interval (40-80% pre-BR VO2pk) LBNP(sub ex) (55+/-4 mmHg) exercise protocol, plus 5 min of resting LBNP, 6 d/wk. LBNP produced footward force equivalent to 1.0- 1.2 times body weight. Pre- and post-bed rest, subjects completed an upright graded exercise test to volitional fatigue and sprint test of 30.5 m. After bed rest, VO2pk was maintained in the EX subjects (-3+/-3%), but was significantly decreased in the CON subjects (-24+/-4%). Sprint time also was increased in the CON subjects (24+/-8%), but maintained in the EX group (8+/-2%). The performance of a supine, interval exercise protocol with LBNP maintains upright exercise capacity and sprint performance during 30 d of bed rest. This exercise countermeasure protocol may help prevent microgravity-induced deconditioning during long duration space flight.

Lee, Stuart M. C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center


George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.


Sport Studies (Exercise and Health)  

E-print Network

BSc (Hons) Sport Studies (Exercise and Health) DEGREE PROGRAMME GUIDE 2013-2014 #12;BSc (Hons) Sports Studies (Exercise and Health) Introduction Degree Aims and Outcomes General Enquiries General, sport and exercise acquire increasing importance as foundations for health. The consequence of prolonged

Levi, Ran


Exercise and Fluid Balance Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…

Schlicht, Jeff



Socially Assistive Robot Exercise Coach: Motivating Older Adults to Engage in Physical  

E-print Network

wellbeing [6], in addition to reducing the likelihood of depression [7], [8]. Thus, the availability of physical exercise therapy, social interaction, and companionship Juan Fasola and Maja J Matari Interaction, such as reducing depression [11] and increasing social interaction [12]. Matsusaka et al. developed an exercise

Mataric, Maja J.


Exercise and manual physiotherapy arthritis research trial (EMPART): a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a major cause of functional disability and reduced quality of life. Management options aim to reduce pain and improve or maintain physical functioning. Current evidence indicates that therapeutic exercise has a beneficial but short-term effect on pain and disability, with poor long-term benefit. The optimal content, duration and type of exercise are yet

Helen P French; Tara Cusack; Aisling Brennan; Breon White; Clare Gilsenan; Martina Fitzpatrick; Paul O'Connell; David Kane; Oliver FitzGerald; Geraldine M McCarthy



Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns - Does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in STRRIDE I  

PubMed Central

Background The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Methods Subjects were participants in the Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE I), a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or one of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fiber as compared to the 2006 AHA diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Results Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol particle number, LDL-cholesterol size, HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol size, and triglycerides (P<0.05 for all). However, having a diet pattern that closely adhered to AHA recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. Conclusions We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. PMID:22795291

Huffman, Kim M.; Hawk, Victoria H.; Henes, Sarah T.; Ocampo, Christine I.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; Slentz, Cris A.; Johnson, Johanna L.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Samsa, Gregory P.; Kraus, William E.; Bales, Connie W.



Hydration during exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Five young unacclimatised subjects were exposed for 4 h at 34 C (10 C dew-point temperature and 0.6 m · s–1 air velocity), while exercising on a bicycle ergometer: 25 min work — 5 min rest cycles for 2 hours followed by 20 min work — 10 min rest cycles for two further hours. 5 experimental sessions were carried out:

V. Candas; J. P. Libert; G. Brandenberger; J. C. Sagot; C. Amoros; J. M. Kahn



Cardiovascular benefits of exercise.  


Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460-377 BC) wrote "in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise." Plato (427-347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129-217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

Agarwal, Shashi K



Graphic Correlation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graphic correlation lab exercise. It uses real data from a peer-reviewed journal publication by Lucy Edwards (1989). (I have manipulated the data set a little bit.) Students can finish the activity in two hours or less.

Dan Stephen


LONGPRO Stream Modeling Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this exercise is to integrate modeling with field data. The activity includes links to a "virtual field trip" of maps and photographs. Data from a creek is included in the field trip and students use an Excel spreadsheet model to analyze the data.

Bill Locke


Slantwise Convection Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise examines an event that took place in the 24 hour time period beginning at 18Z, Dec 31, 2000 in southern British Columbia, Canada and northern Washington/Idaho, United States. This is a companion piece to the COMET Webcast, Slantwise Convection: An Operational Approach.




Computer Exercises in Meteorology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith


Diet and Exercise  


... aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in healing. Prior to your discharge from the ... you can ask for help in developing a plan that fits your needs, likes and dislikes. Diet After a Transplant After your transplant, you will ...


Exercise and Asthma  


... Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox ... Health Issues > Conditions > Allergies & Asthma > Exercise and Asthma Health Issues ... every child (and adult) with asthma can benefit from sports and physical activity . Also, asthma should not prevent ...


Exercising on a budget  


... Buchner DM. The importance of walking to public health. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2008 Jul;40(7):S512-S518. Mellett, LH and Bousquet, G. Heart-Healthy Exercise. Circulation. 2013; 127: e571-e572. National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... Accessed April ...


Exercises in Persuasion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 35 exercises presented in this paper have been designed to simulate real-life experiences involving the process of persuasion and to enhance understanding of the persuasive process. Among the aspects of the persuasive process dealt with are the identification of persuasive events, emotive language, language intensity, source credibility,…

Schenck-Hamlin, William J.; And Others


Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This hypothetical Miocene exercise is designed to bring together knowledge of marine sedimentology, magnetostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, and biostratigraphy to illustrate how climate changes related to Milankovitch orbital forcing can be used to refine the time scale, determine the timing of events, and estimate rates ("astrochronology").

Elrick, Maya


Exercise and functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,

Wataru Aoi; Yuji Naito; Toshikazu Yoshikawa



Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

Harris, Bernard A. (editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (editor)



Defining the System: Contributors to Exercise Limitations in Heart Failure.  


One of the primary hallmarks of patients diagnosed with heart failure (HF) is a reduced tolerance to exercise and compromised functional capacity. This limitation stems from poor pumping capacity but also major changes in functioning of the vasculature, skeletal muscle, and respiratory systems. Advances in the understanding of the central and peripheral mechanisms of exercise intolerance during HF are critical for the future design of therapeutic modalities devised to improve outcomes. The interrelatedness between systems cannot be discounted. This review summarizes the current literature related to the pathophysiology of HF contributing to poor exercise tolerance, and potential mechanisms involved. PMID:25432470

Phillips, Shane A; Vuckovic, Karen; Cahalin, Lawrence P; Baynard, Tracy



Carnitine status, plasma lipid profiles, and exercise capacity of dialysis patients: effects of a submaximal exercise program.  


Carnitine status, blood lipid profiles, and exercise capacity were evaluated in a combined group of hemodialysis (N = 4) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (N = 6) patients before and after an 8-week submaximal exercise program. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was only 18.5 +/- 5.9 (mean +/- SD) mL O2/kg/min, well below the expected 30 to 35 mL O2/kg/min for age-matched sedentary controls. Plasma short-chain acylated carnitine levels, which were two to three times normal values, were reduced after the exercise program, but the long-chain acylcarnitines were significantly reduced during acute exercise. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were performed at rest in five patients prior to and after the 8-week exercise program. Total carnitine in skeletal muscle was 3.09 (.076 SD) mumol/g ww, with only 11.3% acylated prior to the exercise program, which was much lower than the 4.25 +/- 1.27 mumol/g ww, with 28.5% acylated in a group of healthy athletic subjects (N = 28). Muscle free carnitine concentrations decreased significantly following the 8-week training period, with only a slight reduction in total carnitine. The percent of acylated carnitine was therefore significantly increased (P less than 0.05) from 11.3% to 25.2% after the experimental period. Pretraining carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity at rest was 0.57 +/- 0.28 nmol palmitoyl carnitine formed/5 min/mg mitochondrial protein, which was not changed by exercise training v 1.80 +/- 0.51 nmol/5 min/mg protein in 28 healthy normals (P less than 0.001). Free fatty acid concentrations were reduced significantly during acute exercise as a result of the exercise training program whereas other plasma lipids were not altered. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3736413

Lennon, D L; Shrago, E; Madden, M; Nagle, F; Hanson, P; Zimmerman, S



The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise reduces the risk of chronic metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, in part because exercise exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, these effects are also likely to be responsible for the suppressed immunity that makes elite athletes more susceptible to infections. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise may be mediated via both a reduction in visceral fat mass (with a subsequent decreased

Nicolette C. Bishop; David J. Stensel; Martin R. Lindley; Sarabjit S. Mastana; Myra A. Nimmo; Michael Gleeson



Exercise Treatment for Bipolar Disorder: Potential Mechanisms of Action Mediated through Increased Neurogenesis and Decreased Allostatic Load  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcomes are frequently suboptimal for patients with bipolar disorder who are treated with pharmacotherapy alone. Adjunct exercise has the potential to substantially improve acute and long-term outcomes, although how exercise would improve the course of bipolar disorder needs to be elucidated. We propose that exercise may improve mood and functioning by increasing neurogenesis and reducing allostatic load. We review data

Louisa G. Sylvia; Rebecca M. Ametrano; Andrew A. Nierenberg



Effect of Carvedilol, Ivabradine or their combination on exercise capacity in patients with Heart Failure (the CARVIVA HF trial)  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimPatients with heart failure (HF) have reduced exercise capacity. The beneficial effect of beta-blocker on prognosis is not matched by an impact on exercise capacity and quality of life. We performed a randomised open blinded endpoint study to assess the effect of heart rate reduction with carvedilol, ivabradine, and their combination on exercise capacity in HF patients receiving maximal dose

Maurizio Volterrani; Gennaro Cice; Giuseppe Caminiti; Cristiana Vitale; Salvatore D'Isa; Pasquale Perrone Filardi; Flavio Acquistapace; Giuseppe Marazzi; Massimo Fini; Giuseppe M. C. Rosano



Exercise in the Treatment of PCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of insulin resistance, overweight and obesity are increasing at alarming rates world wide but are problems\\u000a which are extremely prevalent in women with PCOS. A decline in energy expenditure through reduced daily activity and physical\\u000a exercise (accompanied by an increase in energy intake) is a major contributor to increases in obesity and insulin resistance.\\u000a Lifestyle interventions that alter

Emma Stevenson


Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers. Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two interventions was compared. Ergonomic modification consisted of correcting the arrangement of workstation and changing some equipment; workplace exercises included stretching exercises focusing on neck, shoulders, low back, and hand and wrist. Musculoskeletal complaints were assessed and compared before and after 1 month interventions. Results: The frequency of musculoskeletal complaints was high before the study. Both interventions significantly reduced complaints in a similar manner except for low back pain which was reduced in exercise group more than the other group. Conclusion: In this study we found a beneficial short-term effect for both ergonomic modifications and stretching work-place exercises on reducing musculoskeletal pain in office workers. PMID:25405134

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Taheri, Mahmoud



Age Attenuates Leucine Oxidation after Eccentric Exercise  

PubMed Central

Aging may alter protein metabolism during periods of metabolic and physiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age on whole-body amino acid turnover in response to eccentric exercise and hyperglycemia-induced hyperinsulinemia. 16 healthy men were divided into young (N = 8) and older (N = 8) groups. Protein metabolism was assessed using a [1-13C]-leucine isotopic tracer approach. Measures were obtained under fasted basal conditions and during 3-h hyperglycemic clamps that were performed without (control) and 48 h after eccentric exercise. Exercise reduced leucine oxidation in the younger men (P < 0.05), but not in older men. Insulin sensitivity was inversely correlated with leucine oxidation (P < 0.05), and was lower in older men (P < 0.05). Healthy aging is associated with an impaired capacity to adjust protein oxidation in response to eccentric exercise. The decreased efficiency of protein utilization in older men may contribute to impaired maintenance, growth, and repair of body tissues with advancing age. PMID:23325713

Kullman, E. L.; Campbell, W. W.; Krishnan, R. K.; Yarasheski, K. E.; Evans, W. J.; Kirwan, J. P.



Intense exercise training and immune function.  


Regular moderate exercise reduces the risk of infection compared with a sedentary lifestyle, but very prolonged bouts of exercise and periods of intensified training are associated with increased infection risk. In athletes, a common observation is that symptoms of respiratory infection cluster around competitions, and even minor illnesses such as colds can impair exercise performance. There are several behavioral, nutritional and training strategies that can be adopted to limit exercise-induced immunodepression and minimize the risk of infection. Athletes and support staff can avoid transmitting infections by avoiding close contact with those showing symptoms of infection, by practicing good hand, oral and food hygiene and by avoiding sharing drinks bottles and cutlery. Medical staff should consider appropriate immunization for their athletes particularly when travelling to international competitions. The impact of intensive training stress on immune function can be minimized by getting adequate sleep, minimizing psychological stress, avoiding periods of dietary energy restriction, consuming a well-balanced diet that meets energy and protein needs, avoiding deficiencies of micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12), ingesting carbohydrate during prolonged training sessions, and consuming - on a daily basis - plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs and Lactobacillus probiotics. PMID:23899753

Gleeson, Michael; Williams, Clyde



Acute hypoxia and exercise-induced blood oxidative stress.  


Hypoxic exercise is characterized by workloads decrements. Because exercise and high altitude independently elicit redox perturbations, the study purpose was to examine hypoxic and normoxic steady-state exercise on blood oxidative stress. Active males (n = 11) completed graded cycle ergometry in normoxic (975 m) and hypoxic (3,000 m) simulated environments before programing subsequent matched intensity or workload steady-state trials. In a randomized counterbalanced crossover design, participants completed three 60-min exercise bouts to investigate the effects of hypoxia and exercise intensity on blood oxidative stress. Exercise conditions were paired as such; 60% normoxic VO2peak performed in a normoxic environment (normoxic intensity-normoxic environment, NI-NE), 60% hypoxic VO2peak performed in a normoxic environment (HI-NE), and 60% hypoxic VO2peak performed in a hypoxic environment (HI-HE). Blood plasma samples drawn pre (Pre), 0 (Post), 2 (2HR) and 4 (4HR) hr post exercise were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers including ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and protein carbonyls (PCs). Repeated-measures ANOVA were performed, a priori significance of p ? .05. Oxygen saturation during the HI-HE trial was lower than NI-NE and HI-NE (p < .05). A Time × Trial interaction was present for LOOH (p = .013). In the HI-HE trial, LOOH were elevated for all time points post while PC (time; p = .001) decreased post exercise. As evidenced by the decrease in absolute workload during hypoxic VO2peak and LOOH increased during HI-HE versus normoxic exercise of equal absolute (HI-NE) and relative (NI-NE) intensities. Results suggest acute hypoxia elicits work decrements associated with post exercise oxidative stress. PMID:24667140

McGinnis, Graham; Kliszczewiscz, Brian; Barberio, Matthew; Ballmann, Christopher; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Dumke, Charles; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John



Exercise and Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective In addition to the increasingly recognized role of physical exercise in maintaining cognition, exercise may influence Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as transgenic mouse studies show lowered levels of AD pathology in exercise groups. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between exercise and AD pathology in humans using Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB), amyloid-? (A?)42, tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau)181 biomarkers. Methods Sixty-nine older adults (17 males, 52 females) aged 55–88 were recruited and confirmed to be cognitively normal. A questionnaire on physical exercise levels over the last decade was administered to all. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 56 participants, and amyloid imaging with PIB was performed on 54 participants. Results Participants were classified based on biomarker levels. Those with elevated PIB (p=.030), tau (p=.040) and ptau181 ((p=.044) had significantly lower exercise with a non-significant trend for lower A?42 (p=.135) to be associated with less exercise. Results were similar for PIB after controlling for covariates; tau (p=.115) and ptau181 (p=.123) differences were reduced to non-significant trends. Additional analyses also demonstrated that active individuals who met the exercise guidelines set by the American Heart Association (AHA) had significantly lower PIB binding and higher A?42 levels with and without controlling for covariates (PIB: p=.006 and p=.001; A?42: p=.042 and p=.046). Lastly, the associations between exercise engagement and PIB levels were more prominent in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers. Interpretation Collectively, these results are supportive of an association between exercise engagement and AD biomarkers in cognitively normal older adults. PMID:20818789

Liang, Kelvin Y.; Mintun, Mark A.; Fagan, Anne M.; Goate, Alison M.; Bugg, Julie M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Head, Denise



Neurohumoral and metabolic response to exercise in water.  


Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) stimulates lipid mobilization and lipid oxidation in humans. The mechanism appears to promote lipid mobilization during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that water immersion augments exercise-induced ANP release and that the change in ANP availability is associated with increased lipid mobilization and lipid oxidation. In an open randomized and cross-over fashion we studied 17 men (age 31+/-3.6 years; body mass index 24+/-1.7 kg/m(2); body fat 17+/-6.7%) on no medication. Subjects underwent two incremental exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer. One test was conducted on land and the other test during immersion in water up to the xiphoid process. In a subset (n=7), we obtained electromyography recordings in the left leg. We monitored gas exchange, blood pressure, and heart rate. In addition, we obtained blood samples towards the end of each exercise step to determine ANP, norepinephrine, epinephrine, lactate, free fatty acids, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and oxygen consumption at the anaerobic threshold and during peak exercise were similar on land and with exercise in water. The respiratory quotient was mildly reduced when subjects exercised in water. Glucose and lactate measurements were decreased whereas free fatty acid concentrations were increased with exercise in water. Water immersion attenuated epinephrine and norepinephrine and augmented ANP release during exercise. Even though water immersion blunts exercise-induced sympathoadrenal activation, lipid mobilization and lipid oxidation rate are maintained or even improved. The response may be explained by augmented ANP release. PMID:20178064

Wiesner, S; Birkenfeld, A L; Engeli, S; Haufe, S; Brechtel, L; Wein, J; Hermsdorf, M; Karnahl, B; Berlan, M; Lafontan, M; Sweep, F C G J; Luft, F C; Jordan, J



Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management procedures.

Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.



Embodied intervention reduce depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying



The effects of exercise on bone. Basic concepts and implications for the prevention of fractures  

PubMed Central

Osteogenic dynamic loads delivered to the skeleton during exercise prevent aging-associated bone fragility. Moreover, because of its pleiotropic favourable effects on health, exercise improves quality of life, and specific types of exercise increase muscle strength, a known predictor of bone strength, and coordination and balance, and so reduce the risk of fallrelated fractures. Exercise should definitely be the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis; often however, physicians don’t have enough know-how for evidencebased prescription of exercise. Moreover, the lack of facilities for safe implementation of the exercise programs compound the problem. Scientific societies and health authorities should invest in patient and physicians education about exercise and in promoting facilities (Gyms) devoted to training of persons with, or at risk of, metabolic diseases (osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes), like Metagym in Florence, Italy. PMID:22461250

Russo, Cosimo Roberto



Bedrock Geology Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field mapping and map-making exercise is a capstone project for a course on Geological Maps. Over a weekend (~12 hours of field work), students collect lithologic and structural data from outcrops scattered over a one square mile area. Back in the classroom, students digitally compile their field data (outcrop, structure measurements, traverse locations) into ArcMAP. They infer geologic linework (faults and contacts) and units from this data in ArcMAP and then export these data layers into Illustrator. In Illustrator, they add ancillary map components (a cross section, description of map units, correlation diagram, map symbol legend,...) to create a final map at a 1:10,000 scale. Their maps are printed out on 11"x17" paper and saved as a pdf file. This exercise helps the students to appreciate how field data is collected and how these geologic facts are interpretively organized into a four-dimensional picture that is a geologic map.

Miller, Jim


[Evidence for exercise prescription].  


This brief review includes recent evidences regarding the etiology of obesity and metabolic syndrome with a special reference to autonomic nervous system activity. The role of exercise in prevention and treatment of obesity in adults and children is described in conjunction with MONA LISA Hypothesis put forth by Bray (1991). Finally, recent topics of myokines, i.e., muscle activity-derived cytokines are briefly discussed. PMID:19202914

Moritani, Toshio



Humanoid Assessing Rehabilitative Exercises.  


Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "New Methodologies for Patients Rehabilitation". Background: The article presents the approach in which the rehabilitative exercise prepared by healthcare professional is encoded as formal knowledge and used by humanoid robot to assist patients without involving other care actors. Objectives: The main objective is the use of humanoids in rehabilitative care. An example is pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients. Another goal is the automated judgment functionality to determine how the rehabilitation exercise matches the pre-programmed correct sequence. Methods: We use the Aldebaran Robotics' NAO humanoid to set up artificial cognitive application. Pre-programmed NAO induces elderly patient to undertake humanoid-driven rehabilitation exercise, but needs to evaluate the human actions against the correct template. Patient is observed using NAO's eyes. We use the Microsoft Kinect SDK to extract motion path from the humanoid's recorded video. We compare human- and humanoid-operated process sequences by using the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and test the prototype. Results: This artificial cognitive software showcases the use of DTW algorithm to enable humanoids to judge in near real-time about the correctness of rehabilitative exercises performed by patients following the robot's indications. Conclusion: One could enable better sustainable rehabilitative care services in remote residential settings by combining intelligent applications piloting humanoids with the DTW pattern matching algorithm applied at run time to compare humanoid- and human-operated process sequences. In turn, it will lower the need of human care. PMID:24986076

Simonov, M; Delconte, G



Exercise and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

By the year 2025, more than 25% of Canadians will be older than 65; and nearly half the population older than 65 has some degree of disability. With physiologic aging comes a gradual loss of functional capacity and independence that becomes a major health burden. Researchers have shown that lifelong, moderate levels of exercise are associated with increased longevity, enhanced physical function, and longer-lasting independent living. PMID:21221294

Taunton, J.; Rhodes, E.; Donnelly, M.; Warren, J.; O'Brien, S.



Greenhouse Emissions Reduction Role-Play Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When the science is so clear, why is it so difficult to make agreements that will reduce our impact on climate change? This exercise is designed to help students explore that important question in an active and engaging way. Students are cast into the roles of various important players in the climate change issue, including politicians, scientists, environmentalists, and industry representatives. Working in these roles, students must take a position, debate with others, and then vote on legislation designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

Theissen, Kevin


Brain glycogen decreases during prolonged exercise  

PubMed Central

Abstract Brain glycogen could be a critical energy source for brain activity when the glucose supply from the blood is inadequate (hypoglycaemia). Although untested, it is hypothesized that during prolonged exhaustive exercise that induces hypoglycaemia and muscular glycogen depletion, the resultant hypoglycaemia may cause a decrease in brain glycogen. Here, we tested this hypothesis and also investigated the possible involvement of brain monoamines with the reduced levels of brain glycogen. For this purpose, we exercised male Wistar rats on a treadmill for different durations (30–120 min) at moderate intensity (20 m min?1) and measured their brain glycogen levels using high-power microwave irradiation (10 kW). At the end of 30 and 60 min of running, the brain glycogen levels remained unchanged from resting levels, but liver and muscle glycogen decreased. After 120 min of running, the glycogen levels decreased significantly by ?37–60% in five discrete brain loci (the cerebellum 60%, cortex 48%, hippocampus 43%, brainstem 37% and hypothalamus 34%) compared to those of the sedentary control. The brain glycogen levels in all five regions after running were positively correlated with the respective blood and brain glucose levels. Further, in the cortex, the levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), potential involved in degradation of the brain glycogen, increased during prolonged exercise and negatively correlated with the glycogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that brain glycogen could decrease with prolonged exhaustive exercise. Increased monoamines together with hypoglycaemia should be associated with the development of decreased brain glycogen, suggesting a new clue towards the understanding of central fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:21521757

Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki



Pulmonary Vascular Response Patterns During Exercise in Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Predict Exercise Capacity and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated resting pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) purports a poor prognosis. However, PAP response patterns to exercise in LVSD and their relationship to functional capacity and outcomes have not been characterized. Methods and Results Sixty consecutive patients with LVSD (age 60±12 years, LV ejection fraction 0.31±0.07, mean±SD) and 19 controls underwent maximum incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous hemodynamic monitoring. During low-level exercise (30 Watts), LVSD subjects compared to controls, had greater augmentation in mean PAPs (15±1 vs. 5±1 mmHg), transpulmonary gradients (5±1 vs. 1±1 mmHg), and effective PA elastance (0.05±0.02 vs. ?0.03±0.01 mmHg/ml, p<0.0001 for all). A linear increment in PAP relative to work (0.28±0.12 mmHg/watt) was observed in 65% of LVSD patients, which exceeded that observed in controls (0.07±0.02 mmHg/watt, P<0.0001). Exercise capacity and survival was worse in patients with a PAP/watt slope above the median than in patients with a lower slope. In the remaining 35% of LVSD patients, exercise induced a steep initial increment in PAP (0.41±0.16 mmHg/watt) followed by a plateau. The plateau pattern, compared to a linear pattern, was associated with reduced peak VO2 (10.6±2.6 vs. 13.1±4.0 ml/kg/min, P=0.005), lower right ventricular stroke work index augmentation with exercise (5.7±3.8 vs. 9.7±5.0 g/m2, P=0.002), and increased mortality (HR 8.1, 95% CI 2.7-23.8, P<0.001). Conclusions A steep increment in PAP during exercise and failure to augment PAP throughout exercise are associated with decreased exercise capacity and survival in patients with LVSD, and may therefore represent therapeutic targets. Clinical Trial Information URL: Unique Identifier: NCT00309790) PMID:21292991

Lewis, Gregory D.; Murphy, Ryan M.; Shah, Ravi V.; Pappagianopoulos, Paul P.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Systrom, David M.; Semigran, Marc J.



Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.



Inspiratory Muscles do not Limit Maximal Incremental Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether the inspiratory muscles affect maximal incremental exercise performance using a placebo-controlled, crossover design. Six cyclists each performed 6 incremental exercise tests. For 3 trials, subjects exercised with proportional assist ventilation (PAV). For the remaining 3 trials, subjects underwent sham respiratory muscle unloading (placebo). Inspiratory muscle pressure (Pmus) was reduced with PAV (?35.9 ± 2.3% vs. placebo; P < 0.05). Furthermore, V?O2 and perceptions of dyspnea and limb discomfort at submaximal exercise intensities were significantly reduced with PAV. Peak workload, however, was not different between placebo and PAV (324 ± 4 vs. 326 ± 4 W; P > 0.05). Diaphragm fatigue (bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation) did not occur in placebo. In conclusion, substantially unloading the inspiratory muscles did not affect maximal incremental exercise performance. Therefore, our data do not support a role for either inspiratory muscle work or fatigue per se in the limitation of maximal incremental exercise performance. PMID:17134946

Romer, Lee M.; Miller, Jordan D.; Haverkamp, Hans C.; Pegelow, David F.; Dempsey, Jerome A.



Antagonistic interaction between cordyceps sinensis and exercise on protection in fulminant hepatic failure.  


Herb supplements are widely used by Asian athletes; however, there are no studies evaluated the co-effects of exercise and herb supplements on hepatic failure. In this study, D-GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatic failure was used to examine whether there are synergistic or antagonistic effects of exercise and Cordyceps sinensis (CS). Mice were randomly divided into eight groups: control, swimming exercise for four weeks, D-GalN/LPS challenge, swimming exercise plus D-GalN/LPS, 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreated for four weeks plus D-GalN/LPS, and swimming exercise combined with 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment plus D-GalN/LPS. Either exercise or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment alone significantly decreased D-GalN/LPS-induced TNF-?, AST, NO, apoptotic-related proteins, and hepatocyte apoptosis. Exercise or 40 mg/kg CS alone increased the IL-10 and D-GalN/LPS-suppressed Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) level. However, no protective or worse effect was observed in the mice treated with exercise preconditioning combined 40 mg/kg CS compared to those receive exercise alone or CS alone. TNF-?, AST, NO level, caspase-3 activity, and hepatocytes apoptosis were not significantly different in the exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS compared to mice challenged with D-GalN/LPS. The IL-10 level was significantly decreased after D-GalN/LPS stimulation in the mice received exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS, indicating the combination strongly reduced the anti-inflammatory effect. In summary, preconditioning exercise or CS pretreatment alone can protect mice from septic liver damage, but in contrast, the combination of exercise and CS does not produce any benefit. The antagonistic interactions between exercise and CS imply taking CS is not recommended for people who undertake regular exercise. PMID:25242080

Cheng, Yu-Jung; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Shin-Da



Sprint training enhances ionic regulation during intense exercise in men.  

PubMed Central

1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on changes in electrolyte concentrations and acid-base status in arterial and femoral venous blood, during and following maximal exercise for 30 s on an isokinetic cycle ergometer. 2. Six healthy males performed maximal exercise, before and after training. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously from brachial arterial and femoral venous catheters, at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery, and analysed for whole blood and plasma ions and acid-base variables. 3. Maximal exercise performance was enhanced after training, with a 13% increase in total work output and a 14% less decline in power output during maximal cycling. 4. The acute changes in plasma volume, ions and acid-base variables during maximal exercise were similar to previous observations. Sprint training did not influence the decline in plasma volume during or following maximal exercise. After training, maximal exercise was accompanied by lower arterial and femoral venous plasma [K+] and [Na+] across all measurement times (P < 0.05). Arterial plasma lactate concentration ([Lac-]) was greater (P < 0.05), but femoral venous plasma [Lac-] was unchanged by training. 5. Net release into, or uptake of ions from plasma passing through the exercising muscle was assessed by arteriovenous concentration differences, corrected for fluid movements. K+ release into plasma during exercise, and a small net K+ uptake from plasma 1 min post-exercise (P < 0.05), were unchanged by training. A net Na+ loss from plasma during exercise (P < 0.05) tended to be reduced after training (P < 0.06). Release of Lac- into plasma during and after exercise (P < 0.05) was unchanged by training. 6. Arterial and venous plasma strong ion difference ([SID]; [SID] = [Na+] + [K+] - [Lac-] - [Cl-]) were lower after training (mean differences) by 2.7 and 1.8 mmol l-1, respectively (P < 0.05). Arterial and femoral venous CO2 tensions and arterial plasma [HCO3-] were lower after training (mean differences) by 1.7 mmHg, 4.5 mmHg and 1.2 mmol l-1, respectively (P < 0.05), with arterial plasma [H+] being greater after training by 2.2 nmol l-1 (P < 0.05). 7. The acute changes in whole blood volume and ion concentrations during maximal exercise were similar to previous observations: Arterial and femoral whole blood [K+] and [Cl-] were increased, whilst [Na+] was lower, across all observation times after training (P < 0.05). 8. Net uptake or release of ions by exercising muscle was assessed by arteriovenous whole blood concentration differences, corrected for fluid movements. A net K+ uptake by muscle occurred at all times, including exercise, but this was not significantly different after training. An increased net Na+ uptake by muscle occurred during exercise (P < 0.05) with greater Na+ uptake after training (P < 0.05). Net muscle Lac- release and Cl- uptake occurred at all times (P < 0.05) and were unchanged by training. 9. Sprint training improved muscle ion regulation, associated with increased intense exercise performance, at the expense of a greater systemic acidosis. Increased muscle Na+ and K+ uptake by muscle during the final seconds of exercise after training are consistent with a greater activation of the muscle Na(+) - K+ pump, reduced cellular K+ loss and the observed lesser rate of fatigue. The greater plasma acidosis found after sprint training was caused by a lower arterial plasma [SID] due to lower plasma [K+] and [Na+], and higher plasma [Lac-]. PMID:9218228

McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L



Exercise and Crohn’s disease: Speculations on potential benefits  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects nearly one million people in the United States and Canada. While current pharmaceutical treatments are effective in controlling symptoms, patients continue to experience a reduced quality of life (QOL). Based on preliminary studies, QOL in CD patients may be improved by engaging in physical activity. Exercise may decrease CD activity and reduce psychological stress. Current research also suggests that low-intensity exercise does not exacerbate gastrointestinal symptoms and does not lead to flare-ups. Furthermore, exercise appears to reduce CD symptoms and improve QOL. In summary, physical activity may be beneficial to certain patient groups, but more studies are needed before broad recommendations can be made. PMID:17066157

Ng, Victor; Millard, Wanda; Lebrun, Constance; Howard, John



Merits of exercise therapy before and after major surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Advances in medical care have led to an increasing elderly population. Elderly individuals should be able to participate in society as long as possible. However, with an increasing age their adaptive capacity gradually decreases, specially before and after major life events (like hospitalization and surgery) making them vulnerable to reduced functioning and societal participation. Therapeutic exercise before and after surgery might augment the postoperative outcomes by improving functional status and reducing the complication and mortality rate. Recent findings There is high quality evidence that preoperative exercise in patients scheduled for cardiovascular surgery is well tolerated and effective. Moreover, there is circumstantial evidence suggesting preoperative exercise for thoracic, abdominal and major joint replacement surgery is effective, provided that this is offered to the high-risk patients. Postoperative exercise should be initiated as soon as possible after surgery according to fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery principles. Summary The perioperative exercise training protocol known under the name ‘Better in, Better out’ could be implemented in clinical care for the vulnerable group of patients scheduled for major elective surgery who are at risk for prolonged hospitalization, complications and/or death. Future research should aim to include this at-risk group, evaluate perioperative high-intensity exercise interventions and conduct adequately powered trials. PMID:24500337

Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Dronkers, Jaap J.; Hulzebos, Erik H.J.; van Meeteren, Nico L.U.



Sexual Dimorphism in the Effects of Exercise on Metabolism of Lipids to Support Resting Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Exercise training is generally a healthful activity and an effective intervention for reducing the risk of numerous chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This is likely both a result of prevention of weight gain over time and direct effects of exercise on metabolism of lipids and the other macronutrient classes. Importantly, a single bout of exercise can alter lipid metabolism and metabolic rate for hours and even into the day following exercise, so individuals who regularly exercise, even if not performed every single day, overall could experience a substantial change in their resting metabolism that would reduce risk for metabolic diseases. However, resting metabolism does not respond similarly in all individuals to exercise participation, and indeed gender or sex is a major determinant of the response of resting lipid metabolism to prior exercise. In order to fully appreciate the metabolic effects and health benefits of exercise, the differences between men and women must be considered. In this article, the differences in the effects of exercise on resting metabolic rate, fuel selection after exercise, as well as the shuttling of triglyceride and fatty acids between tissues are discussed. Furthermore, concepts related to sex differences in the precision of homeostatic control and sex differences in the integration of metabolism between various organs are considered. PMID:25339941

Henderson, Gregory C.



The BASES Expert Statement on use of music in exercise.  


The use of music during exercise has become ubiquitous over the past two decades and is now supported by a burgeoning body of research detailing its effects and the contingencies surrounding its use. The purpose of this statement is to present a synopsis of the body of knowledge, with selected references, and to provide practical recommendations for exercise practitioners regarding music selection. Following the identification of methodological shortcomings in early studies, researchers have been guided by new conceptual frameworks, and have produced more consistent findings as a consequence. The use of music has been found to yield ergogenic effects in the exercise domain while also promoting psychological (e.g. enhanced affect) and psychophysical (reduced ratings of perceived exertion) benefits. There is a paucity of research examining the longitudinal effects of music on key outcome variables such as exercise adherence. PMID:22512537

Karageorghis, Costas I; Terry, Peter C; Lane, Andrew M; Bishop, Daniel T; Priest, David-lee



Sympathetic neural adaptations to exercise training in humans.  


Physiological adaptations to exercise training are well recognized and contribute importantly to health and fitness. Cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and heart failure, are often associated with elevated activity of the sympathetic nervous system. This review aims to provide comprehensive overview on the role of exercise training on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) regulation in humans, with a focus on recent advances in at-risk populations. Collectively, these studies converge to demonstrate that aerobic exercise training reduces resting MSNA in populations at heightened cardiovascular risk, but do not appear to alter resting MSNA in healthy adults. We provide directions for future research which might address gaps in our knowledge regarding sympathoneural adaptations to exercise training. PMID:25458425

Carter, Jason R; Ray, Chester A



Exercise awareness and barriers after spinal cord injury.  


Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program as well as the factors that may mask the outcomes of regular exercise regimen need to be continuously addressed as a part of patients' rehabilitation care. The focus of this editorial is to encourage the medical community to consider routine physical activity as one of the necessary vital signs that needs to be routinely checked in patients with SCI. Providing education tips, nutritional counseling and engaging in recreational programs may provide motivational route to the community of SCI. This may result in reinforcing active lifestyle in survivors with SCI as well as to reduce the impact of chronic life threatening medical disorders. PMID:25035817

Gorgey, Ashraf S



Effect of restricted blood flow on exercise-induced hormone changes in healthy men  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the influence of the accumulation of metabolites on exercise-induced hormone responses, plasma concentrations of\\u000a cortisol, growth hormone (GH), insulin, testosterone, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were compared during exercise performed under normal conditions (control) and under conditions of restricted blood flow\\u000a of exercising leg muscles (ischaemia) in nine healthy young men. Blood supply was reduced

Mehis Viru; Eva Jansson; Atko Viru; Carl Johan Sundberg



Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances  

PubMed Central

The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The following results were obtained from this study; 1. In the change of fatigue substances : Serotonin in the EXP tended to decreased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise, and recovery 30 min. Serotonin in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the10 min before exercise and recovery 30. Ammonia in the EXP was increased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise, but significantly decreased at the recovery 30min (p < 0.05). Ammonia in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise (p < 0.05). Lactate in the EXP was significantly increased at the 30 min into exercise and significantly decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. Lactate in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the post exercise (p < 0.05). 2. In the change of muscle damage substances : CK in the EXP was decreased at the 10 min before exercise and increased at the 30 min into exercise and then decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. CK in the CON was greater than the EXP. LDH in the EXP was decreased at the 10 min before exercise and increased at the 30 min into exercise and then decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. LDH in the CON was higher than the EXP. 3. In the change of energy metabolism substances :Glucose in the EXP tended to decrease at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise and recovery 30 min. Glucose in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the recovery 30 min (p < .05). FFA in both EXP and CON was increased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. % increase for FFA in the EXP was greater than the CON at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. 4. The relationship of the fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances after endurance exercise indicated strongly a positive relationship between LDH and ammonia and a negative relationship between LDH and FFA in the EXP. Also, there were a strong negative relationship between glucose and FFA and a positive relationship between glucose and serotonin in the EXP. There was a strong positive relationship between CK and LDH and a strong negative relationship between FFA and glucose in the CON. These results indicate that supplementary BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise.

Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan



Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.  


The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The following results were obtained from this study; 1. In the change of fatigue substances : Serotonin in the EXP tended to decreased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise, and recovery 30 min. Serotonin in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the10 min before exercise and recovery 30. Ammonia in the EXP was increased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise, but significantly decreased at the recovery 30min (p < 0.05). Ammonia in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise (p < 0.05). Lactate in the EXP was significantly increased at the 30 min into exercise and significantly decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. Lactate in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the post exercise (p < 0.05). 2. In the change of muscle damage substances : CK in the EXP was decreased at the 10 min before exercise and increased at the 30 min into exercise and then decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. CK in the CON was greater than the EXP. LDH in the EXP was decreased at the 10 min before exercise and increased at the 30 min into exercise and then decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. LDH in the CON was higher than the EXP. 3. In the change of energy metabolism substances :Glucose in the EXP tended to decrease at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise and recovery 30 min. Glucose in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the recovery 30 min (p < .05). FFA in both EXP and CON was increased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. % increase for FFA in the EXP was greater than the CON at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. 4. The relationship of the fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances after endurance exercise indicated strongly a positive relationship between LDH and ammonia and a negative relationship between LDH and FFA in the EXP. Also, there were a strong negative relationship between glucose and FFA and a positive relationship between glucose and serotonin in the EXP. There was a strong positive relationship between CK and LDH and a strong negative relationship between FFA and glucose in the CON. These results indicate that supplementary BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise. PMID:25566428

Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan



Exercise, Energy Balance and the Shift Worker  

PubMed Central

Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst ‘white collar’ occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep-deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality have not been confirmed in shift workers. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. ‘Normal’ eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomised controlled studies on the efficacy of physical activity or dietary interventions during shift work. Some favourable effects of such interventions on fatigue levels at work have been reported, but biological and behavioural outcomes relevant to long-term health and energy balance have not been studied adequately. In addition, recruitment and retention of research participants for randomised controlled trials of physical activity or dietary interventions has been very difficult. We present a model of the various behavioural and biological factors relevant to exercise and energy balance during shift work as a framework for future research. PMID:18620467

Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don; Waterhouse, Jim



The role of exercise testing in evaluation of arrhythmias.  


Exercise testing has been widely applied for the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease. The principles underlying its use for this indication make it a useful adjunctive technique, when combined with ambulatory monitoring, to diagnose arrhythmias and monitor antiarrhythmic drug therapy. During exercise, there is a withdrawal of vagal tone and a marked increase in circulating catecholamines and sympathetic inputs to the heart. These changes may directly cause arrhythmias (e.g., catecholamines can enhance automaticity and delayed afterpotentials and can shorten myocardial conduction time and refractory periods). However, they also augment myocardial oxygen demands by increasing myocardial inotropy, heart rate and blood pressure. Such changes may cause ischemia in patients with heart disease, which is a powerful stimulus for arrhythmia, or lead to dysfunction in left ventricular contraction and increased myocardial wall stress, factors that also may precipitate arrhythmia. In approximately 10% of patients with a history of serious arrhythmia, exercise represents the only means for exposing arrhythmia. Importantly, this technique is useful for evaluating the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs. These agents work by reducing membrane automaticity, slowing impulse conduction through the myocardium and prolonging membrane refractoriness. In contrast, catecholamines, which are secreted in response to exercise, have the opposite effect. Thus, exercise may negate the important effects of the antiarrhythmic drugs. Additionally, exercise testing may expose potentially serious toxic drug reactions that may not be obvious at rest. These include conduction abnormalities, negative inotropic effects, congestive heart failure and aggravation of arrhythmia. Although the presence and frequency of arrhythmia with exercise is highly variable in patients with benign arrhythmia, results are more consistent in patients with a history of serious arrhythmia. If arrhythmia is reproducibly provoked with exercise, this technique can be used to judge drug effect. Thus, exercise testing is an important, reliable and helpful technique for exposing arrhythmia, evaluating drug efficacy and identifying potentially serious toxic drug effects. PMID:3052006

Podrid, P J; Venditti, F J; Levine, P A; Klein, M D



Muscle glycogen content and glucose uptake during exercise in humans: influence of prior exercise and dietary manipulation  

PubMed Central

There are many factors that can influence glucose uptake by contracting skeletal muscle during exercise and although one may be intramuscular glycogen content, this relationship is at present not fully elucidated. To test the hypothesis that muscle glycogen concentration influences glucose uptake during exercise, 13 healthy men were studied during two series of experiments. Seven men completed 4 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise 16 h after reducing of muscle glycogen by completing 60 min of single-legged cycling (Series 1). A further six men completed 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise on two occasions: one after 60 min of two-legged cycling (16 h prior to the experimental trial) followed by a high carbohydrate diet (HCHO) and the other after the same exercise followed by a low carbohydrate diet (LCHO) (Series 2). Muscle glycogen was decreased by 40 % when comparing the pre-exercised leg (EL) with the control leg (CL) prior to exercise in Series 1. In addition, muscle glycogen was decreased by the same magnitude when comparing LCHO with HCHO in Series 2. In Series 1, glucose uptake was 3-fold higher in the first 60 min of exercise, in the presence of unchanged pre-exercise GLUT4 protein in EL compared with CL, suggesting that the lower glycogen, and not the exercise the day before, might have provided the stimulus for increased glucose uptake. Despite the same magnitude of difference in pre-exercise glycogen concentration when comparing Series 1 with Series 2, neither direct-nor isotopic tracer-determined glucose uptake was higher in LCHO compared with HCHO in Series 2. However, arterial concentrations of insulin and glucose were lower, while free fatty acids and adrenaline were higher in LCHO compared with HCHO. These data suggest that pre-exercise glycogen content may influence glucose uptake during subsequent exercise. However, this is only the case when delivery of substrates and hormones remains constant. When delivery of substrates and hormones is altered, the potential effect of glycogen on glucose uptake is negated. PMID:12015435

Steensberg, Adam; van Hall, Gerrit; Keller, Charlotte; Osada, Takuya; Schjerling, Peter; Klarlund Pedersen, Bente; Saltin, Bengt; Febbraio, Mark A



Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

Brown, Jim



[Muscle enzyme activity and exercise].  


Exercise is classically associated with muscular soreness, presenting one to two days later, delayed onset muscular soreness. Blood muscle enzymes and protein elevations are characteristic, and may cause renal failure. Creatin phosphokinase peak appears on the fourth day and depends on exercise type and individual parameters. This effect is attenuated with repeated bouts, by habituation. Metabolic complications are rare. The knowledge of this reaction, even with common exercises, allows to postpone investigations for a complex metabolic disorder, or to avoid stopping a medication for fear of a side effect, as with statins. Indeed, it is necessary to wait for seven days without any exercise before interpreting an elevated CK result. PMID:19180440

Gojanovic, B; Feihl, F; Gremion, G; Waeber, B



Resistive Exercise Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exercise device 10 is particularly well suited for use in low gravity environments, and includes a frame 12 with plurality of resistance elements 30,82 supported in parallel on the frame. A load transfer member 20 is moveable relative to the frame for transferring the applied force to the free end of each captured resistance element. Load selection template 14 is removably secured both to the load transfer member, and a plurality of capture mechanisms engage the free end of corresponding resistance elements. The force applying mechanism 53 may be a handle, harness or other user interface for applying a force to move the load transfer member.

Smith, Damon C. (Inventor)



Social Inequality: Computer Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Introduction to Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at inequality in the United States. This activity uses nine customized datasets on the DataCounts! website to aid students in writing about inequality using data. It guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Raymond D'Angelo


Alberta Clipper Case Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The COMET Program is pleased to announce the publication of the Alberta Clipper Case Exercise module. This one and half- to 2-hour case study focuses on a snow and blowing snow event in the Canadian prairies and US northern high plains on 11-13 November 2003. The key aim of this module is to step through the forecast process during an Alberta Clipper event from the perspective of a forecaster with the Meteorological Service of Canada. This involves consideration of various observations and model guidance, identification of potential areas of snowfall and blowing snow, nowcasting snowfall development and termination, and considering and providing nowcast updates throughout.



Carbon Dioxide Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work in groups, plotting carbon dioxide concentrations over time on overheads and estimating the rate of change over five years. Stacked together, the overheads for the whole class show an increase on carbon dioxide over five years and annual variation driven by photosynthesis. This exercise enables students to practice basic quantitative skills and understand how important sampling intervals can be when studying changes over time. A goal is to see how small sample size may give incomplete picture of data.

Richardson, Randy; Collection, Serc -.


Spill exercise 1980: an LLNL emergency training exercise  

SciTech Connect

An emergency training exercise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated that off-hours emergency personnel can respond promptly and effecively to an emergency situation involving radiation, hazardous chemicals, and injured persons. The exercise simulated an explosion in a chemistry laboratory and a subsequent toxic-gas release.

Morse, J.L.; Gibson, T.A.; Vance, W.F.



An examination of the strength and electromyographic responses after concentric vs. eccentric exercise of the forearm flexors.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and electromyographic (EMG) responses in exercised and nonexercised limbs after concentric (CON) vs. eccentric (ECC) exercise of the forearm flexors. Twenty-five men (mean ± SD age, 23.6 ± 3.8 years; height, 179.7 ± 6.6 cm; body weight, 87.4 ± 14.6 kg) performed 6 sets of 10 maximal CON isokinetic (CON exercise) or ECC isokinetic (ECC exercise) muscle actions of the dominant (DOM) forearm flexors on 2 separate randomly ordered visits. Each subject performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of both the DOM and nondominant (NONDOM) forearm flexors before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the exercise interventions. The DOM limb was the only limb exercised for both interventions. A bipolar EMG signal was detected from the biceps brachii during each MVC. The results showed that there were significant 17 and 21% decreases in maximal strength after the CON exercise and ECC exercise, respectively. When collapsed across exercise conditions, strength for the DOM and NONDOM limbs significantly decreased 36 and 4% after exercise, respectively. Accompanied with the strength losses, normalized EMG amplitude for the DOM and NONDOM limbs also reduced 21 and 7%, respectively. These findings suggested that the CON exercise and ECC exercise interventions caused similar strength losses for the exercised arm. There was also a strength loss in the contralateral nonexercised arm that was likely because of neural factors. PMID:24077382

Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P



Exercise Log Date Distance Date Distance  

E-print Network

routine. Are You Starting a New Exercise Program? Stretching Brought to you by Staff Council httpExercise Log Date Distance Date Distance College of Sports Medicine recommends that if you are undertaking an exercise program that you see your

Gering, Jon C.


Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia  


Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia Posted on November 6, 2009 by admin by Jim Cavanaugh, PT, ... related duties? 3. Do you have questions about exercise? Do you exercise regularly? Are you involved in ...


Energy Cost during Prolonged Walking vs Jogging Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of nine young men compared the energy expended, substrates used, and perception of effort from brisk walking and jogging at the same target heart rates. Jogging utilized more total energy and fat energy than walking and was perceived as less strenuous. Oxygen pulse was higher during jogging. (Author/SM)

Thomas, Tom R.; Londeree, Ben R.



Tae Kwon Do: An Effective Exercise for Improving Balance and Walking Ability in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Age-related declines in balance and walking ability are major risk factors for falls. Older adults reduce the dynamic components of walking in an effort to achieve a more stable walking pattern. Tae Kwon Do is an exercise that trains dynamic components of balance and walking that diminish with age. Methods. Twenty participants from a Tae Kwon Do exercise class

Ronita L. Cromwell; Paul M. Meyers; Paul E. Meyers; Roberta A. Newton



An Algorithm for Automatic Checking of Exercises in a Dynamic Geometry System: iGeom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the key issues in e-learning environments is the possibility of creating and evaluating exercises. However, the lack of tools supporting the authoring and automatic checking of exercises for specifics topics (e.g., geometry) drastically reduces advantages in the use of e-learning environments on a larger scale, as usually happens in Brazil.…

Isotani, Seiji; de Oliveira Brandao, Leonidas



Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis

Ingrid J Rowlands; Nuala M Byrne; H David McIntyre; Leonie K Callaway



Exercise Completed When Young Provides Lifelong Benefit to Cortical Bone Structure and Estimated Strength  

E-print Network

Exercise Completed When Young Provides Lifelong Benefit to Cortical Bone Structure and Estimated Department of Physical Therapy, Indiana University School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Abstract Exercise induces greatest bone gains during growth, yet reduced bone strength is an age-related phenomenon

Zhou, Yaoqi


Physical exercise as adjuvant therapy for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even when the procedures are successful, patients experience considerable physical, psychological and psychosocial stress before, during and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Physical exercise therapy constitutes a potentially promising intervention to reduce such stress within the framework of HSCT because of its multidimensional effectiveness. Up to May 2007, fifteen published studies have examined physical exercise interventions in the context

J Wiskemann; G Huber



TREAD: TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression: study rationale and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Despite recent advancements in the pharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), over half of patients who receive treatment with antidepressant medication do not achieve full remission of symptoms. There is evidence that exercise can reduce depressive symptomatology when used as a treatment for MDD. However, no randomized controlled trials have evaluated exercise as an augmentation strategy for patients

Madhukar H Trivedi; Tracy L Greer; Bruce D Grannemann; Timothy S Church; Daniel I Galper; Prabha Sunderajan; Stephen R Wisniewski; Heather O Chambliss; Alexander N Jordan; Carrie Finley; Thomas J Carmody



Exercise Therapy for Patients With Psychiatric Disorders: Research and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now considerable evidence that regular exercise is (a) a viable, cost-effective, but underused treatment for mild to moderate depression that compares favorably to individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and cognitive therapy, and (b) a necessary ingredient in effective behavioral treatments that reduce self-reported pain in individuals with chronic pain. Preliminary evidence also suggests that regular exercise deserves further attention

Gregg A. Tkachuk; Garry L. Martin



Keeping Fit with Asta O'Donnell. An Exercise Program for Problem Backs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated 75 million people in the United States suffer from some type of back problem. Most are caused by muscle strain and improper posture. This book describes an exercise program designed to relieve muscle strain, improve and correct posture, and reduce stress and tension. The book is divided into four sections: "Warm Ups,""Basic Exercise

O'Donnell, Asta


Exercise-induced leukocyte apoptosis.  


Physical exercise is well known to affect leukocyte numbers and function. While regular exercise training has been shown to enhance specific immune functions, acute bouts of intensive exercise often lead to a pro-inflammatory response accompanied by a transient lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia. It can be assumed, that lymphocytopenia can be attributed at least partially to an enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis. In contrast, regulation of neutrophil apoptosis after exercise remains controversial since studies demonstrated both an up-regulation as well as a down-regulation of cell death. However, these discrepancies may be due to differences in exercise protocols, subjects' fitness levels, and to different methodological approaches. Two major signalling pathways of exercise induced apoptosis have been identified. First the external receptor mediated pathway using death receptors, and second the internal, oxidative-mediated pathway which encompasses the mitochondria. Potential apoptosis modulating mediators are reactive oxygen species (ROS), glucocorticoids and cytokines which are part of the systemic inflammatory response evoked after acute intensive exercise. Finally, the physiological impact and clinical relevance of leukocyte apoptosis will be discussed. On the one hand, exercise-induced apoptosis might be a mechanism to remove activated and potentially autoreactive immune cells. On the other hand, apoptosis might be a regulatory mechanism which is necessary for tissue reorganization and adaptational training processes. PMID:24974724

Krüger, Karsten; Mooren, Frank C



Space exercise and Earth benefits.  


The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients. PMID:16101469

Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R




E-print Network

EEE EERRGGOO TTIIPPSS EXERCISE USING STRETCHES AND POSTURE PROMOTING ACTIVITIES! HOW? Chin Tuck Loose GolferShoulder Roll Side Stretch Back Bend Hand SpreadShoulder Stretch Tennis Elbow Stretch SeeERGO-cisehandoutfordetailsandmoreexercises! #12;ERGO-CISE For Your Body Exercising while working at your computer can help prevent or ease pain

Virginia Tech


Exercises Focusing on Nonverbal Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercises in nonverbal communication are presented which were designed to be used for experiential learning in cross-cultural training programs. Each exercise is described by goal, number of people, time required, procedure, and discussion. Topics include "first impressions,""eye contact patterns," and "silence." (SW)

Melamed, Lanie; Barndt, Deborah



Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Mind Map is an outline in which the major categories radiate from a central image and lesser categories are portrayed as branches of larger branches. The author describes an in-class exercise in which small groups of students each create a Mind Map for a specific topic. This exercise is another example of an active and collaborative learning…

Budd, John W.



Non-exercise activity thermogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Non-exercise activity thermogenesis,(NEAT) is the energy expenditure of all physical activities other than volitional sporting-like exercise. NEAT includes all the activities that render us vibrant, unique, and independent beings such as working, playing, and dancing. Because people of the same weight have markedly variable activity levels, it is

James A. Levine; Mark W. Vander Weg; James O. Hill; Robert C. Klesges



The Caltech Political Military Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

Munger, E. S.; And Others


Respiratory weight losses during exercise.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.



Early subclinical increase in pulmonary water content in athletes performing sustained heavy exercise at sea level: ultrasound lung comet-tail evidence.  


Whether prolonged strenuous exercise performed by athletes at sea level can produce interstitial pulmonary edema is under debate. Chest sonography allows to estimate extravascular lung water, creating ultrasound lung comet-tail (ULC) artifacts. The aim of the study was to determine whether pulmonary water content increases in Ironmen (n = 31) during race at sea level and its correlation with cardiopulmonary function and systemic proinflammatory and cardiac biohumoral markers. A multiple factor analysis approach was used to determine the relations between systemic modifications and ULCs by assessing correlations among variables and groups of variables showing significant pre-post changes. All athletes were asymptomatic for cough and dyspnea at rest and after the race. Immediately after the race, a score of more than five comet tail artifacts, the threshold for a significant detection, was present in 23 athletes (74%; 16.3 ± 11.2; P < 0.01 ULC after the race vs. rest) but decreased 12 h after the end of the race (13 athletes; 42%; 6.3 ± 8.0; P < 0.01 vs. soon after the race). Multiple factor analysis showed significant correlations between ULCs and cardiac-related variables and NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Healthy athletes developed subclinical increase in pulmonary water content immediately after an Ironman race at sea level, as shown by the increased number of ULCs related to cardiac changes occurring during exercise. Hemodynamic changes are one of several potential factors contributing to the mechanisms of ULCs. PMID:21873499

Pingitore, Alessandro; Garbella, Erika; Piaggi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Frassi, Francesca; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Piarulli, Andrea; Catapano, Giosuè; Lubrano, Valter; Passera, Mirko; Di Bella, Gianluca; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Metelli, Maria Rosa; Bedini, Remo; Gemignani, Angelo; L'Abbate, Antonio



Limitations to fluid replacement during exercise.  


Fluid replacement during exercise is essential for endurance exercise performance and reducing the risk of heat illness. Fluids supply water, which ameliorates dehydration, and also substrate for the working muscles. Absorption of water and nutrients occurs in the upper part of the small intestine, and replacement may be limited by the rate at which fluid is emptied from the stomach or absorbed in the intestine. Gastric emptying of liquids is influenced primarily by the volume of fluid in the stomach and by its energy density. Increasing the volume will speed emptying, but increasing the nutrient content will slow emptying. Osmolality, temperature, and pH of drinks, as well as exercise intensity, are of minor importance. Intestinal water absorption is a passive process: water follows osmotic gradients but will also follow the active absorption of nutrients, especially glucose, which is actively co-transported with sodium. Water transport is maximised by the presence in the intestine of hypotonic solutions of glucose and sodium. Hypertonic solutions promote net water secretion into the intestinal lumen, resulting in a temporary net loss of water from the body. The amount of fluid ingested by athletes is normally much less than can be tolerated, therefore issues such as palatability and practising drinking during training are important. PMID:10198143

Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B



Exercise training blunts microvascular rarefaction in the metabolic syndrome.  


Reduced skeletal muscle microvessel density (MVD) in the obese Zucker rat (OZR) model of the metabolic syndrome is a function of a chronic reduction in vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Previous studies suggest that exercise can improve NO bioavailability and reduce chronic inflammation and that low vascular NO bioavailability may be associated with impaired angiogenic responses via increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity. As such, we hypothesized that chronic exercise (EX) would increase NO bioavailability in OZR and blunt microvascular rarefaction through reduced MMP activity, and potentially via altered plasma cytokine levels. Ten weeks of treadmill exercise (1 h/day, 5 days/wk, 22 m/min) reduced body mass and fasting insulin and triglyceride levels in EX-OZR vs. sedentary (SED) OZR. In EX-OZR, gastrocnemius muscle MVD was improved by 19 +/- 4%, whereas skeletal muscle arteriolar dilation and conduit arterial methacholine-induced NO release were increased. In EX-OZR, functional hyperemia was improved vs. SED-OZR, and minimum vascular resistance within perfused gastrocnemius muscle was reduced, although no change in arteriolar stiffness was identified. Western blotting and gelatin zymography demonstrated that neither expression nor activity of MMP-2 or MMP-9 was altered in skeletal muscle of EX vs. SED animals. Plasma markers of inflammation associated with angiogenesis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and IL-1beta, were increased in SED-OZR and were reduced with training, whereas IL-13 was reduced in SED-OZR and increased with exercise. These data suggest that exercise-induced improvements in skeletal muscle MVD in OZR are associated with increased NO bioavailability and may stem from altered inflammatory profiles rather than MMP function. PMID:16798823

Frisbee, Jefferson C; Samora, Julie Balch; Peterson, Jonathan; Bryner, Randall



Cardioprotection acquired through exercise: the role of ischemic preconditioning.  


A great bulk of evidence supports the concept that regular exercise training can reduce the incidence of coronary events and increase survival chances after myocardial infarction. These exercise-induced beneficial effects on the myocardium are reached by means of the reduction of several risk factors relating to cardiovascular disease, such as high cholesterol, hypertension, obesity etc. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that exercise can reproduce the "ischemic preconditioning" (IP), which refers to the capacity of short periods of ischemia to render the myocardium more resistant to subsequent ischemic insult and to limit infarct size during prolonged ischemia. However, IP is a complex phenomenon which, along with infarct size reduction, can also provide protection against arrhythmia and myocardial stunning due to ischemia-reperfusion. Several clues demonstrate that preconditioning may be directly induced by exercise, thus inducing a protective phenotype at the heart level without the necessity of causing ischemia. Exercise appears to act as a physiological stress that induces beneficial myocardial adaptive responses at cellular level. The purpose of the present paper is to review the latest data on the role played by exercise in triggering myocardial preconditioning. PMID:24720421

Marongiu, Elisabetta; Crisafulli, Antonio



A paleobiogeography exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After being introduced to some widely used similarity indices through a brief introductory lecture and reading assignment, students receive a handout that includes the genus-level presence/absence data for Jurassic ammonite faunas from the Boreal Craton and four accreted terranes that make up much of what is now western North America. The handout also includes several tables that present values calculated from those data for four different indices, and a map showing the current distribution of the terranes (all extracted from Hammer and Harper, 2006). The students then work collaboratively, in pairs or small groups, to answer a few rudimentary questions that require first-order interpretation of the data to get them comfortable with how the data are presented, and to demonstrate how different indices produce different rankings of relative similarity for the five faunas. For many of the students, it is their first encounter with quantitatively derived, but clearly ambiguous results â and the struggle begins ("but which one is right?") The exercise then tests them with more complex questions that require (without specific announcement) that they devise multiple explanations for low indices (dissimilar faunas) between Sonomia and the Boreal Craton, and critically evaluate those possible explanations. When they are led to the correct conclusion, that a simplistic interpretation of the dissimilarity as a product of geographic separation conflicts with the well established timing of Sonomia's arrival in the Triassic (based on other geologic evidence), it impresses upon them the importance of considering all the data available. In this case, the data falsify the hypothesis that Sonomia was still far away from North America, and require a different explanation for the faunal contrast, such as a latitudinal separation and/or physical separation by some barrier (perhaps highlands created by the Sonoman Orogeny). The second phase of the exercise involves analysis of a pronounced contrast reported by Loch (2007) in the taxonomic composition of Lower Ordovician trilobite faunas in what is now eastern and western North America, quantified by the Jaccard Index. With the geologic context leaving no doubt that both faunas inhabited the same paleocontinent, the stage is set for discussion of a strong (again, perhaps paleolatitudinal) contrast in environment/lithofacies that produced the contrast. The questions posed in this part of the exercise challenge the students to recognize the strong influence of relative sample sizes (a pitfall of that index), a different taxonomic level (trilobite species, as compared to ammonite genera), and perhaps other factors such as stratigraphic imprecision and inaccuracy in taxonomic assignment in producing values very different from those in the first case study.

Taylor, John


Aerobic Exercise Protects Retinal Function and Structure from Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Aerobic exercise is a common intervention for rehabilitation of motor, and more recently, cognitive function (Intlekofer and Cotman, 2013; Wood et al., 2012). While the underlying mechanisms are complex, BDNF may mediate much of the beneficial effects of exercise to these neurons (Ploughman et al., 2007; Griffin et al., 2011; Real et al., 2013). We studied the effects of aerobic exercise on retinal neurons undergoing degeneration. We exercised wild-type BALB/c mice on a treadmill (10 m/min for 1 h) for 5 d/week or placed control mice on static treadmills. After 2 weeks of exercise, mice were exposed to either toxic bright light (10,000 lux) for 4 h to induce photoreceptor degeneration or maintenance dim light (25 lux). Bright light caused 75% loss of both retinal function and photoreceptor numbers. However, exercised mice exposed to bright light had 2 times greater retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei than inactive mice exposed to bright light. In addition, exercise increased retinal BDNF protein levels by 20% compared with inactive mice. Systemic injections of a BDNF tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (TrkB) receptor antagonist reduced retinal function and photoreceptor nuclei counts in exercised mice to inactive levels, effectively blocking the protective effects seen with aerobic exercise. The data suggest that aerobic exercise is neuroprotective for retinal degeneration and that this effect is mediated by BDNF signaling. PMID:24523530

Lawson, Eric C.; Han, Moon K.; Sellers, Jana T.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Hanif, Adam; Gogniat, Marissa A.



Exercise and endothelial function: Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and oxidative stress in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that aerobic exercise, one of lifestyle modifications, reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of exercise remain unclear. Hypertension is associated with alteration in endothelial function mediated through reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases

Yukihito Higashi; Masao Yoshizumi



Effects of antecedent exercise on academic engagement and stereotypy during instruction.  


Antecedent physical exercise has emerged as a potentially promising treatment for reducing challenging behavior and increasing academic behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise conducted prior to instructional sessions (antecedent physical exercise) on academic engagement and stereotypy during instructional sessions for two children diagnosed with ASD. Functional analysis results suggested stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement for both participants. A multielement design was employed to evaluate academic engagement and stereotypy during instructional sessions following randomly sequenced conditions involving either (a) no antecedent exercise, (b) brief durations of antecedent exercise, or (c) antecedent exercise that continued until the participant engaged in a systematically determined behavioral indicator of satiation. Both participants demonstrated higher levels of academic engagement and reduced levels of stereotypy during the instructional sessions which followed antecedent physical exercise that continued until behavioral indicators of satiation occurred. This study replicates previous research suggesting that individuals with ASD may benefit from physical exercise prior to academic instruction and further suggests that the duration of antecedent exercise may be optimally individualized based on behavioral indicators of satiation. PMID:25271070

Neely, Leslie; Rispoli, Mandy; Gerow, Stephanie; Ninci, Jennifer



Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis.  


Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue. PMID:24743466

Tomlinson, Deborah; Diorio, Caroline; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian



Running away from side effects: physical exercise as a complementary intervention for breast cancer patients.  


The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations of how to design exercise interventions in patients with different side effects. PMID:24894838

Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I; López-Tarruella, S; Jerez, Y; Barakat, R; Martín, M



The effects of a brief, water-based exercise intervention on cognitive function in older adults.  


Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline in older adults. Water-based exercise provides the same physiological benefits as land-based exercise with reduced risk of acute injury. The current study evaluated the effects of a brief, water-based exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and cardiovascular fitness in a group of community dwelling older adults. The exercise group (n = 27, Mage = 63.26 ± 7.64, 78% female) attended one moderate intensity water aerobics class per day for six consecutive days whereas the control group (n = 33, Mage = 65.67 ± 6.69, 75% female) continued their typical routine. Neuropsychological and cardiovascular fitness tests were given the week before and the week after the intervention to both groups. The exercise group demonstrated significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness, as well as executive function, attention, and memory over controls. This suggests a brief exercise program can provide benefits for older adults. PMID:25638041

Fedor, Andrew; Garcia, Sarah; Gunstad, John



Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

Kim, Sang Dol



Effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students.  


[Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

Kim, Sang Dol



Cardiorespiratory deconditioning with static and dynamic leg exercise during bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for an experimental study designed to compare the effects of heavy static and dynamic exercise training during 14 days of bed rest on the cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise performed by seven healthy men aged 19-22 yr. The parameters measured were submaximal and maximal oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, heart rate, and plasma volume. The results indicate that exercise alone during bed rest reduces but does not eliminate the reduction in maximal oxygen uptake. An additional positive hydrostatic effect is therefore necessary to restore maximal oxygen uptake to ambulatory control levels. The greater protective effect of static exercise on maximal oxygen uptake is probably due to a greater hydrostatic component from the isometric muscular contraction. Neither the static nor the dynamic exercise training regimes are found to minimize the changes in all the variables studied, thereby suggesting a combination of static and dynamic exercises.

Stremel, R. W.; Convertino, V. A.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.



Clinical aspects of physical exercise for diabetes/metabolic syndrome.  


Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to be regarded as essential in all fields of medical sciences and practical medicine. In the field of diabetes and exercise, among the epidemiological studies of physical exercise, recent mega-trials such as the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the U.S. have shown that lifestyle intervention programs involving diet and/or exercise reduce the progression of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes. In studies examining the endocrinological and metabolic effects of exercise, it has been demonstrated that physical exercise promotes the utilization of blood glucose and free fatty acids in muscles and lowers blood glucose levels in well-controlled diabetic patients. Long-term, mild, regular jogging increases the action of insulin in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism without influencing body mass index or maximal oxygen uptake. A significant correlation has been observed between delta MCR (Deltainsulin sensitivity) and the average number of steps performed in a day. Our recent data suggested that the improved effectiveness of insulin that occurs as a result of physical exercise is attributable, at least in part, to increases in GLUT4 protein, IRS1 and PI3-kinase protein in skeletal muscle. As a prescription for exercise, aerobic exercise of mild to moderate intensity, including walking and jogging, 10-30 min a day, 3-5 days a week, is recommended. Resistance training of mild intensity with the use of light dumbbells and stretch cords should be combined in elderly individuals who have decreased muscle strength. An active lifestyle is essential in the management of diabetes, which is one of typical lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:17498834

Sato, Yuzo; Nagasaki, Masaru; Kubota, Masakazu; Uno, Tomoko; Nakai, Naoya



Renal Tubule Physiology Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This kinesthetic exercise reviews reabsorption and secretion of glucose, amino acids, and selected ions in the kidney tubule. In the first part of the activity, students Â?role playÂ? as various parts of the nephron and tubules and learn where and when certain substances are absorbed and secreted. In the 2nd part of the activity, a mock Â?proximal convoluted tubuleÂ? is presented to each group, and students learn about SGLUT cotransporters and the concept of glucose saturation. Beads represent glucose and sodium molecules as students examine the concept of saturation. Students have questions to answer after the end of each segment in the 2nd part. The first part of the activity should take approximately 45 minutes. The second part of the activity should take approximately 15 minutes.

PhD Elizabeth Pennefather-O'Brien (Medicine Hat College Division of Sciences)



Sample Proficiency Test exercise  

SciTech Connect

The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C



Ginger ( Zingiber officinale) Reduces Muscle Pain Caused by Eccentric Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in rodents, but its effect on human muscle pain is uncertain. Heat treatment of ginger has been suggested to enhance its hypoalgesic effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 11 days of raw (study 1) and heat-treated (study 2) ginger supplementation on muscle pain. Study 1 and

Christopher D. Black; Matthew P. Herring; David J. Hurley; Patrick J. O'Connor



Sudden infant death syndrome: neonatal hypodynamia (reduced exercise level)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been described as a silent unexpected death during sleep. Infants with near-miss SIDS have shown a higher heart rate and diminished heart rate variability during sleep. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep rate variability was related to respiration. A decreased heart rate variability was also observed in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or prenatal hypoxia. It

G. M Reid



Effects of exercise training on cardiovascular adrenergic system  

PubMed Central

In heart failure (HF), exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses ?-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) which is known to be involved in both ?1-AR and ?2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of ?-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/?-2AR/catecholamine (CA) production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores ?-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular ?-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50% of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure control. PMID:24348425

Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Femminella, Grazia D.; Formisano, Roberto; Petraglia, Laura; Allocca, Elena; Bonaduce, Domenico



Does physical activity reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese individuals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For individuals considered overweight or obese, physical activity or more structured exercise is recommended to facilitate\\u000a weight loss and reduce risk of long-term disease. Physical activity and structured exercise programs, however, rarely result\\u000a in significant loss of body weight or body fat, especially in women. Despite the minimal effect of exercise on weight loss,\\u000a exercise has multiple health benefits for

Glenn A. Gaesser



Living without Dieting: Motivating the Obese to Exercise and to Eat Prudently. The R. Tait McKenzie Memorial Lecture, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a motivational approach for increasing exercise and decreasing fat consumption to reduce body weight in obese individuals. Exercise motivation includes communicating the physiological benefits and self-regulating exercise intensity. Prudent eating motivation includes stopping restrictive dieting, distinguishing between hunger and craving,…

Foreyt, John P.; Goodrick, G. Ken



Exercise for Hepatic Fat Accumulation in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by frequent ectopic fat accumulation in several tissues and organs. In particular, a number of studies showed that these subjects frequently have hepatic fat accumulation, which may play a role in the metabolic abnormalities typical of diabetes and has been also linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In the last decade, the effect of exercise on ectopic fat content of type 2 diabetic patients has raised growing interest. However, there are only a few small randomized controlled trials on this topic. Results from these intervention studies indicate that exercise training, independent of dietary modifications, may reduce hepatic fat content and serum transaminases in these patients, suggesting that exercise per se may be an effective strategy to be combined with the traditional dietary interventions. As regards the different training modalities, there is recent evidence that both aerobic and resistance exercise may equally reduce hepatic fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, information regarding the effect of exercise on liver histology and fat accumulation in other ectopic sites is still very limited. PMID:24078810

Bacchi, Elisabetta



Exercise increases endostatin in circulation of healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity increases the risk of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this relation are poorly understood. A recent report indicates that endostatin, an endogenous angiostatic factor, inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis, and suggests that reducing intimal and atherosclerotic plaque tissue neovascularization can inhibit the progression atherosclerosis in animal models. We hypothesize that exercise can elevate the circulatory endostatin level. Hence, exercise can protect against one of the mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Results We examined treadmill exercise tests in healthy volunteers to determine the effect of exercise on plasma levels of endostatin and other angiogenic regulators. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was calculated. Plasma levels of endostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were determined using ELISA. The total peak VO2 (L) in 7 male subjects was 29.5 ± 17.8 over a 4–10 minute interval of exercise. Basal plasma levels of endostatin (immediately before exercise) were 20.3 ± 3.2 pg/ml, the plasma levels increased to 29.3 ± 4.2, 35.2 ± 1.8, and 27.1 ± 2.2 ng/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There was a strong linear correlation between increased plasma levels of endostatin (%) and the total peak VO2 (L) related to exercise (R2 = 0.9388; P < 0.01). Concurrently, VEGF levels decreased to 28.3 ± 6.4, 17.6 ± 2.4, and 26.5 ± 12.5 pg/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There were no significant changes in plasma bFGF levels in those subjects before and after exercise. Conclusions The results suggest that circulating endostatin can be significantly increased by exercise in proportion to the peak oxygen consumption under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers. These findings may provide new insights into the molecular links between physical inactivity and the risk of angiogenesis dependent diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:14728720

Gu, Jian-Wei; Gadonski, Giovani; Wang, Julie; Makey, Ian; Adair, Thomas H



Toward exercise as personalized medicine.  


The early 21st century has witnessed a steady push by scientists, industry leaders, and government officials to make medicine more personalized. To date, the concept of personalized medicine has referred largely to the field of pharmacogenomics. In contrast, relatively few data exist regarding the application of preventive strategies such as physical exercise in the context of personalized medicine. Within this review, we highlight the extant literature and propose five strategies for scientists that may propel the exercise and sports science fields toward this global goal. Notably, these approaches are in addition to methods to maintain adherence to training - a well-known factor in determining exercise responsiveness. Briefly, these strategies include (1) evaluating participant responses to training at the individual as well as group level; (2) identifying sources of variability in responsiveness to training; (3) optimizing exercise dosing strategies to maximize benefits while minimizing barriers to participation; (4) evaluating the efficacy of multimodal interventions for relevant population subgroups; and (5) increasing the clinical relevance of study populations and outcomes in exercise trials. We look forward to seeing these strategies considered in trials of preventive health interventions such as exercise. Extensive future research in this area is needed for the vision of exercise as a personalized form of medicine to become a reality. PMID:23382011

Buford, Thomas W; Roberts, Michael D; Church, Timothy S



Restoration of plasma volume after 16 days of head-down tilt induced by a single bout of maximal exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seven healthy men performed maximal exercise 24 h before the end of 16 days exposure to 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that such an exercise technique could restore plasma volume (PV) at the end of a simulated space mission. Exercise consisted of supine cycling with graded work rates increasing by 16 W/min to volitional fatigue and required an average of 16 min. The experimental protocol was a standard cross-over design in which the order of treatment (exercise or control) was counterbalanced across all seven subjects. PV, fluid intake (ad libitum), urine output, renal function, and hormones associated with fluid homeostasis were measured before HDT, 24 h before the end of HDT just prior to exercise, and at the end of HDT 24 h after exercise. HDT reduced PV by 16% in both control and exercise conditions. Maximal exercise completely restored plasma volume within 24 h to 3.9 +/- 3.2% of pre-HDT levels despite continued HDT. Compared with control, exercise induced a 660-ml larger positive fluid balance because of greater fluid intake and reduced urine volume during the 24 h after exercise. These results suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise before return from 16 days of spaceflight may be completely effective in stimulating thirst and restoring plasma volume to preflight levels.

Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Doerr, D. F.