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1

Novel Regulatory Small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that has shown complex modes of regulation of its virulence factors to cause diverse diseases. Bacterial small RNAs are regarded as novel widespread regulators of gene expression in response to environmental signals. Recent studies have revealed that several small RNAs (sRNAs) have an important role in S. pyogenes physiology and pathogenesis by regulating gene expression at the translational level. To search for new sRNAs in S. pyogenes, we performed a genomewide analysis through computational prediction followed by experimental verification. To overcome the limitation of low accuracy in computational prediction, we employed a combination of three different computational algorithms (sRNAPredict, eQRNA and RNAz). A total of 45 candidates were chosen based on the computational analysis, and their transcription was analyzed by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Northern blot. Through this process, we discovered 7 putative novel trans-acting sRNAs. Their abundance varied between different growth phases, suggesting that their expression is influenced by environmental or internal signals. Further, to screen target mRNAs of an sRNA, we employed differential RNA sequencing analysis. This study provides a significant resource for future study of small RNAs and their roles in physiology and pathogenesis of S. pyogenes. PMID:23762235

Tesorero, Rafael A.; Yu, Ning; Wright, Jordan O.; Svencionis, Juan P.; Cheng, Qiang; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Cho, Kyu Hong

2013-01-01

2

The serotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes present in Britain during 1980-1990 and their association with disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. A total of 16 909 cultures of Streptococcus pyogenes (Lancefield group A) isolated in Britain during 1980-90 were examined for T- and M-protein antigens. One or other M antigen was detected in 92.6 % of the strains. The numbers of isolates of some serotypes, such as M3 and M12, did not show great variation from year-to-year, whereas there were

G. Colman; ASHA TANNA; ANDROULLA EFSTRATIOU; EWA T. GAWORZEWSKA

1993-01-01

3

Rapid identification of Streptococcus pyogenes by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow cytometry combined with immunofluorescence ofStreptococcus pyogenes was used to assay bacteria suspended in buffer solution and in saliva derived from throat swabs of healthy volunteers. The method allowed the enumeration of as few as 5 × 103 and 5 × 104 CFU per milliliter of buffer and saliva respectively. Controls includingStreptococcus salivarius instead ofStreptococcus pyogenes or buffer instead of

E. Sahar; R. Lamed; I. Ofek

1983-01-01

4

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, December 5, 2003, Volume 52, Number 28. Invasive Streptococcus Pyogenes After Allograft Implantation, Colorado, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a case of invasive disease with streptococcus pyogens (i.e., group A streptococcus (GAS)), after reconstructive knee surgery using contaminated allograft tissue and provides recommendations to reduce the risk for allograft-associated ...

2003-01-01

5

Streptococcus pyogenes clinical isolates and lipoteichoic acid.  

PubMed Central

Minimally subcultured clinical isolates of virulent nephritogenic and nonnephritogenic Streptococcus pyogenes of the same serotype showed major differences in lipoteichoic acid (LTA) production, secretion, and structure. These were related to changes in coccal adherence to and destruction of growing human skin cell monolayers in vitro. A possible relationship between cellular LTA content and group A streptococcal surface hydrophobicity was also investigated. Nephritogenic S. pyogenes M18 produced twice as much total (i.e., cellular and secretory) LTA as did the virulent, serologically identical, but nonnephritogenic isolate. Also, the LTAs from these organisms differed markedly. The polyglycerol phosphate chain of LTA from the nephritogenic isolate was longer (1.6 times) than was that from the nonnephritogenic isolate. Likewise, both LTAs indicated the presence of alanine and the absence of glucose. Amino sugars were found in LTA from only nephritogenic S. pyogenes. Teichoic acid, as a cellular component or secretory product, was not detected. The adherence of two different nephritogenic group A streptococcal serotypes (M18 and M2) exceeded that of the serologically identical but nonnephritogenic isolates (by about five times), indicating a correlation between virulent strains causing acute glomerulonephritis and adherence to human skin cell monolayers. Likewise, LTA from nephritogenic S. pyogenes M18 was more cytotoxic (1.5 times) than was that from the nonnephritogenic isolate for human skin cells, as determined by protein release. This difference was not perceptible by the more sensitive dye exclusion method (i.e., requiring less LTA), which emphasizes changes in host cell morphology and death. Also, the secretion of LTA by only virulent nephritogenic S. pyogenes M18 was exacerbated by penicillin (a maximum of four times). Finally, while the adherence of nephritogenic S. pyogenes M18 decreased markedly after continued subculturing in vitro, the surface hydrophobicity did not. PMID:2228247

Leon, O; Panos, C

1990-01-01

6

Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

Lefebure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

2012-01-01

7

CRISPR Inhibition of Prophage Acquisition in Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the major human pathogens, is a unique species since it has acquired diverse strain-specific virulence properties mainly through the acquisition of streptococcal prophages. In addition, S. pyogenes possesses clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)\\/Cas systems that can restrict horizontal gene transfer (HGT) including phage insertion. Therefore, it was of interest to examine the relationship between

Takashi Nozawa; Nayuta Furukawa; Chihiro Aikawa; Takayasu Watanabe; Bijaya Haobam; Ken Kurokawa; Fumito Maruyama; Ichiro Nakagawa

2011-01-01

8

Streptococcus pyogenes aortic aneurysm infection: forgotten but not gone  

PubMed Central

Historically, Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of endocarditis and infected aortic aneurysm. Today, endovascular infections due to this organism have become exceedingly rare. We report the first case of aortic aneurysm infection due to S. pyogenes treated with initial endoluminal repair, review previous reports and discuss current treatment options. PMID:24470961

J. Gardiner, Bradley; Wong, Joy; Yii, Ming; Buckenham, Timothy; M. Korman, Tony

2013-01-01

9

Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes after allograft implantation--Colorado, 2003.  

PubMed

Allograft tissues are used for various orthopedic procedures (e.g., ligament reconstruction, meniscal transplantation, and spinal surgery). In 2002, approximately one million allografts were distributed for transplantation (American Association of Tissue Banks [AATB], unpublished data, 2002). Recent reports of allograft-associated infections have prompted evaluation of the processing and quality-control methods employed by tissue processors. This report describes a case of invasive disease with Streptococcus pyogenes (i.e., group A streptococcus [GAS]), after reconstructive knee surgery using contaminated allograft tissue and provides recommendations to reduce the risk for allograft-associated infections. Although allograft infections are rare, they highlight the need for improved tissue evaluation and processing standards. PMID:14654764

2003-12-01

10

The Streptococcus pyogenes proteome: maps, virulence factors and vaccine candidates  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. A wealth of genomic information related to this pathogen has facilitated exploration of the proteome, particularly in response to environmental conditions thought to mimic various aspects of pathogenesis. Proteomic approaches are also used to identify immunoreactive proteins for vaccine development and to identify proteins that may induce autoimmunity. These studies have revealed new mechanisms involved in regulating the S. pyogenes proteome, which has opened up new avenues in the study of S. pyogenes pathogenesis. This article describes the methods used, and progress being made towards characterizing the S. pyogenes proteome, including studies seeking to identify potential vaccine candidates. PMID:21073313

Dmitriev, Alexander V; Chaussee, Michael S

2011-01-01

11

Quantitative Immunoelectrophoretic Analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes Membrane  

PubMed Central

The antigenic composition and molecular structure of the plasma membrane of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A; M type 6) were studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (XIE) and other related quantitative immunoelectrophoretic techniques. After establishment of a reference pattern of 29 immunoprecipitates, the relative differences in amounts of individual antigens contained in membranes isolated from cells that were harvested during the exponential or stationary phase of growth were examined. Relative increases and decreases in amounts of individual antigens were estimated from the areas subtended by immunoprecipitates after XIE of Triton X-100 extracts. The asymmetric distribution of antigens on the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane was established in absorption experiments with intact, stable protoplasts. Of the 29 immunoprecipitates, 8 appeared to contain antigens exposed on the outer surface of the membrane, whereas 11 appeared to contain antigens either located on the inner surface or unexposed. Six antigens appeared to have limited exposure on the outer surface, and four others remain to be assigned. Certain immunoprecipitates were characterized with respect to enzymatic activity or interaction with the lectin concanavalin A. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (EC 1.6.99.3), adenosine triphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3), and polynucleotide phosphorylase (EC 2.3.7.8) were demonstrated by zymogram techniques. The latter two activities were present within the same immunoprecipitate, suggesting the occurrence of a multienzyme complex. In addition, the areas under the immunoprecipitates containing the three enzymatic activities were not affected by absorption of antimembrane immunoglobulin with intact protoplasts and thus appeared to be located on the inner surface of the membrane. The results from absorption experiments also suggested that the exposure of outer protoplast surface antigens was greater on protoplasts from exponential-phase cells than on those from stationary-phase cells, even when found in increased amounts in the latter. Images PMID:160891

Kessler, Robert E.; van de Rijn, Ivo

1979-01-01

12

Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection.  

PubMed

Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The ?-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-vaccinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection. PMID:25077423

Klonoski, Joshua M; Hurtig, Heather R; Juber, Brian A; Schuneman, Margaret J; Bickett, Thomas E; Svendsen, Joshua M; Burum, Brandon; Penfound, Thomas A; Sereda, Grigoriy; Dale, James B; Chaussee, Michael S; Huber, Victor C

2014-09-01

13

Molecular epidemiology of sil locus in clinical Streptococcus pyogenes strains.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild noninvasive to severe invasive infections. Mutations in regulatory components have been implicated in the switch from colonization to invasive phenotypes. The inactivation of the sil locus, composed of six genes encoding a quorum-sensing complex, gives rise to a highly invasive strain. However, studies conducted on limited collections of GAS strains suggested that sil prevalence is around 15%; furthermore, whereas a correlation between the presence of sil and the genetic background was suggested, no link between the presence of a functional sil locus and the invasive status was assessed. We established a collection of 637 nonredundant strains covering all emm genotypes present in France and of known clinical history; 68%, 22%, and 10% were from invasive infections, noninvasive infections, and asymptomatic carriage, respectively. Among the 637 strains, 206 were sil positive. The prevalence of the sil locus varied according to the emm genotype, being present in >85% of the emm4, emm18, emm32, emm60, emm87, and emm90 strains and absent from all emm1, emm28, and emm89 strains. A random selection based on 2009 French epidemiological data indicated that 16% of GAS strains are sil positive. Moreover, due to mutations leading to truncated proteins, only 9% of GAS strains harbor a predicted functional sil system. No correlation was observed between the presence or absence of a functional sil locus and the strain invasiveness status. PMID:24671796

Plainvert, Céline; Dinis, Márcia; Ravins, Miriam; Hanski, Emanuel; Touak, Gérald; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Fouet, Agnès; Poyart, Claire

2014-06-01

14

The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection  

PubMed Central

The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus, provides a remarkable example of the extraordinary capacity of pathogens to exploit the host hemostatic system to support microbial survival and dissemination. The coagulation cascade comprises the contact system (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), both leading to fibrin formation. During the early phase of S. pyogenes infection, the activation of the contact system eventually leads to bacterial entrapment within a fibrin clot, where S. pyogenes is immobilized and killed. However, entrapped S. pyogenes can circumvent the antimicrobial effect of the clot by sequestering host plasminogen on the bacterial cell surface that, after conversion into its active proteolytic form, plasmin, degrades the fibrin network and facilitates the liberation of S. pyogenes from the clot. Furthermore, the surface-localized fibrinolytic activity also cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, thereby enabling S. pyogenes to migrate across barriers and disseminate within the host. This review summarizes the knowledge gained during the last two decades on the role of coagulation/fibrinolysis in host defense against S. pyogenes as well as the strategies developed by this pathogen to evade and exploit these host mechanisms for its own benefit. PMID:25309880

Loof, Torsten G.; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

2014-01-01

15

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

16

Pyogenic abscesses and parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases which during their course in the host switch the immune system from a T helper 1 to a T helper 2 response may be detrimental to the host, contributing to granuloma formation, eosinophilia, hyper-IgE, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Patients and animals with acute schistosomiasis and hyper-IgE in their serum develop pyogenic liver abscess in the presence of bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The Salmonella-S. mansoni association has also been well documented. The association of tropical pyomyositis (pyogenic muscle abscess) and pyogenic liver abscess with Toxocara infection has recently been described in the same context. In tropical countries that may be an interesting explanation for the great morbidity of bacterial diseases. If the association of parasitic infections and pyogenic abscesses and/or fungal diseases are confirmed, there will be a strong case in favor of universal treatment for parasitic diseases to prevent or decrease the morbidity of superinfection with bacteria and fungi. PMID:11340478

Lambertucci, J R; Rayes, A A; Serufo, J C; Nobre, V

2001-01-01

17

Protein F, a Fibronectin-Binding Protein, is an Adhesin of the Group A Streptococcus Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binding to fibronectin has been suggested to play an important role in adherence of the group A streptococcus Streptococcus pyogenes to host epithelial cells; however, the identity of the streptococcal fibronectin receptor has been elusive. Here we demonstrate that the fibronectin-binding property of S. pyogenes is mediated by protein F, a bacterial surface protein that binds fibronectin at high affinity.

Emanuel Hanski; Michael Caparon

1992-01-01

18

Clonal structure of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes in Northern Scotland.  

PubMed Central

We have used molecular techniques to characterize 51 group A streptococci from Scotland and 17 'serious disease' isolates from other countries, in order to establish the clonal structure of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes strains circulating between 1986 and 1993. Strains were grouped by restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping patterns, and were examined for the presence of alleles of the speA gene by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis. Serious and fatal infections in Scotland were caused by several clones. One clone (9 of 51 strains) was M type 1 and possessed the speA gene allele 2. This was the clone previously identified as causing severe infection in the USA. Another clone (5 of 51 strains) was M type 3 and had speA gene allele 3. In view of the clear association of more than one clone with severe, invasive and fatal infections, horizontal gene exchange between genotypes merits further investigation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7589263

Upton, M.; Carter, P. E.; Morgan, M.; Edwards, G. F.; Pennington, T. H.

1995-01-01

19

Factors That Cause Trimethoprim Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent. PMID:24492367

Bergmann, Rene; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

2014-01-01

20

Streptococcus pyogenes CovRS Mediates Growth in Iron Starvation and in the Presence of the Human Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide LL37  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAS causes many types of disease. Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus (GAS), is a common and serious human pathogen that causes many different types of disease (12, 38). Among these diseases are streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis (2, 40, 52). Serious nonsup- purative sequelae can occur in some individuals following GAS infections, including acute rheumatic fever infections,

Barbara J. Froehlich; Christopher Bates; June R. Scott

2009-01-01

21

Inhibition of Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilm Formation by Coral-Associated Actinomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials during infections. We screened coral-associated actinomycetes\\u000a (CAA) for antibiofilm activity against different biofilm forming M serotype of Streptococcus pyogenes. Actinomycetes isolated from the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera were screened for antibiofilm activity against S. pyogenes biofilms wherein several isolates clearly demonstrated antibiofilm activity. The biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BICs)

Paramasivam Nithyanand; Ramalingam Thenmozhi; Janarthanam Rathna; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2010-01-01

22

A comprehensive analysis of the Streptococcus pyogenes and human plasma protein interaction network.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is a major human bacterial pathogen responsible for severe and invasive disease associated with high mortality rates. The bacterium interacts with several human blood plasma proteins and clarifying these interactions and their biological consequences will help to explain the progression from mild to severe infections. In this study, we used a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques to comprehensively quantify the components of the S. pyogenes-plasma protein interaction network. From an initial list of 181 interacting human plasma proteins defined using liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis we further subdivided the interacting protein list using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) depending on the level of enrichment and protein concentration on the bacterial surface. The combination of MS methods revealed several previously characterized interactions between the S. pyogenes surface and human plasma along with many more, so far uncharacterised, possible plasma protein interactions with S. pyogenes. In follow-up experiments, the combination of MS techniques was applied to study differences in protein binding to a S. pyogenes wild type strain and an isogenic mutant lacking several important virulence factors, and a unique pair of invasive and non-invasive S. pyogenes isolates from the same patient. Comparing the plasma protein-binding properties of the wild type and the mutant and the invasive and non-invasive S. pyogenes bacteria revealed considerable differences, underlining the significance of these protein interactions. The results also demonstrate the power of the developed mass spectrometry method to investigate host-microbial relationships with a large proteomics depth and high quantitative accuracy. PMID:24525632

Sjöholm, Kristoffer; Karlsson, Christofer; Linder, Adam; Malmström, Johan

2014-07-01

23

Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates from the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1994 and 1995, 157 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from patients with invasive disease were consecutively collected in the San Francisco Bay area to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards by the disk method and by broth microdilution. For comparison of susceptibility patterns, an

MARY K. YORK; LAUREL GIBBS; FRANCOISE PERDREAU-REMINGTON; G. F. BROOKS

1999-01-01

24

Extensive Diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes in a Remote Human Population Reflects Global-Scale Transmission Rather than Localised Diversification  

PubMed Central

The Indigenous population of the Northern Territory of Australia (NT) suffers from a very high burden of Streptococcus pyogenes disease, including cardiac and renal sequelae. The aim of this study was to determine if S. pyogenes isolated from this population represent NT endemic strains, or conversely reflect strains with global distribution. emm sequence typing data were used to select 460 S. pyogenes isolates representing NT S. pyogenes diversity from 1987–2008. These isolates were genotyped using either multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or a high resolution melting-based MLST surrogate (Minim typing). These data were combined with MLST data from other studies on NT S. pyogenes to yield a set of 731 MLST or Minim typed isolates for analysis. goeBURST analysis of MLST allelic profiles and neighbour-joining trees of the MLST allele sequences revealed that a large proportion of the known global S. pyogenes MLST-defined diversity has now been found in the NT. Specifically, fully sequence typed NT isolates encompass 19% of known S. pyogenes STs and 43% of known S. pyogenes MLST alleles. These analyses provided no evidence for major NT-endemic strains, with many STs and MLST alleles shared between the NT and the rest of the world. The relationship between the number of known Minim types, and the probability that a Minim type identified in a calendar year would be novel was determined. This revealed that Minim types typically persist in the NT for >1 year, and indicate that the majority of NT Minim types have been identified. This study revealed that many diverse S. pyogenes strains exhibit global scale mobility that extends to isolated populations. The burden of S. pyogenes disease in the NT is unlikely to be due to the nature of NT S. pyogenes strains, but is rather a function of social and living conditions. PMID:24066079

Towers, Rebecca J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Currie, Bart J.; Davies, Mark R.; Walker, Mark J.; Dougan, Gordon; Giffard, Philip M.

2013-01-01

25

Distribution of small native plasmids in Streptococcus pyogenes in India.  

PubMed

Complete characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes population from a defined geographic region comprises information on the plasmids that circulate in these bacteria. Therefore, we determined the distribution of small plasmids (<5kb) in a collection of 279 S. pyogenes isolates from India, where diversity of strains and incidence rates of S. pyogenes infections are high. The collection comprised 77 emm-types. For plasmid detection and discrimination, we developed PCRs for different plasmid replication initiation protein genes, the putative repressor gene copG and bacteriocin genes dysA and scnM57. Plasmid distribution was limited to 13 emm-types. Co-detection analysis using aforementioned PCRs revealed four distinct plasmid sub-types, two of which were previously unknown. Representative plasmids pA852 and pA996 of the two uncharacterized plasmid sub-types were sequenced. These two plasmids could be assigned to the pMV158 and the pC194/pUB110 family of rolling-circle plasmids, respectively. The majority of small plasmids found in India belonged to the two newly characterized sub-types, with pA852- and pA996-like plasmids amounting to 42% and 22% of all detected plasmids, respectively. None of the detected plasmids coded for a known antibiotic resistance gene. Instead, all of the four plasmid sub-types carried known or potential bacteriocin genes. These genes may have influence on the evolutionary success of certain S. pyogenes genotypes. Notably, pA852-like plasmids were found in all isolates of the most prevalent emm-type 11.0. Together, a priori fitness of this genotype and increased fitness due to the acquired plasmids may have rendered type emm11.0 successful and caused the prevalence of pA852-like plasmids in India. PMID:24444719

Bergmann, René; Nerlich, Andreas; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

2014-05-01

26

Hyaluronan release from Streptococcus pyogenes: export by an ABC transporter.  

PubMed

Capsular hyaluronan of Streptococcus pyogenes is synthesized at the protoplast membrane. It is widely assumed that hyaluronan is exported by the synthase itself and that no additional protein is required for transfer through plasma membranes. However, we produced an insertional mutation that reduced the mucoid phenotype, hyaluronan production, and capsule formation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the insertion site identified a gene coding for a protein with an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) that belonged to an ABC transporter system and was located next to the hyaluronan synthesis genes. The mucoid phenotype was reconstituted by complementation with DNA encoding the ABC transporter system. These results indicated that an ABC transporter was required for efficient capsule production. PMID:15215229

Ouskova, Galina; Spellerberg, Barbara; Prehm, Peter

2004-10-01

27

Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors by multiplex PCR  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is a human pathogen that causes multiple infections worldwide. The pathogenic properties of GAS strains are often linked to the production of virulence factors such as toxins, proteases or DNases. Detection of virulence factors produced by GAS strains can be used to either determine pathogenic potential of the strain or as a rapid screening and typing method. We recently developed a method to detect simultaneously 20 GAS virulence factors (spd3, sdc, sdaB, sdaD, speB, spyCEP, scpA, mac, sic, speL, K, M, C, I, A, H, G, J, smeZ and ssa) in four low volume multiplex PCR reactions (Borek et al., 2011) and below we present a detailed protocol describing the method. PMID:23076284

Borek, Anna L.; Obszanska, Katarzyna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sitkiewicz, Izabela

2012-01-01

28

Hyperendemic Streptococcus pyogenes Infection Despite Prophylaxis with Penicillin G Benzathine. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In closely confined populations, in which epidemics of Streptococcus pyogenes infection are common, penicillin G benzathine has long been used prophylactically to reduce morbidity from this pathogen. We report on our investigations of the effectiveness of...

G. C. Gray, J. Escamilla, K. C. Hyams, J. P. Struewing, E. L. Kaplan

1991-01-01

29

Transcriptional Analysis of the Streptococcus pyogenes Salivaricin Locus  

PubMed Central

The sal lantibiotic locus plays an important role in the virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes. Our transcriptional analysis of the sal locus provides new information on the complex regulation of this operon. Transcription of the operon is regulated by a promoter upstream of the operon and by a second internal promoter upstream of the salKRZ genes. Here we identify the location of the internal promoter and provide information on how this promoter is autoregulated by proteins within the locus. We determined by primer extension that the salKR promoter is located within the salY gene and identified several regulatory regions important for expression. The higher activity of the promoter in a salKR deletion strain indicates a role in repression by the SalR response regulator. Further, this promoter had higher activity in a salA deletion strain, implicating corepression or a signaling role for the SalA peptide. Finally, we demonstrate that this promoter can be controlled by host factors. Analysis of transcriptional regulation of this locus provides a better understanding of the function of the sal locus in S. pyogenes pathogenesis. PMID:24244008

Namprachan-Frantz, Phanramphoei; Rowe, Hannah M.; Runft, Donna L.

2014-01-01

30

Cutaneous bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in infants and children.  

PubMed

Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in children. The medical burden of SSSIs, particularly abscesses, has increased nationwide since the emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. SSSIs represent a wide spectrum of disease severity. Prompt recognition, timely institution of appropriate therapy, and judicious antimicrobial use optimize patient outcomes. For abscesses, incision and drainage are paramount and might avoid the need for antibiotic treatment in uncomplicated cases. If indicated, empiric antimicrobial therapy should target Streptococcus pyogenes for nonpurulent SSSIs, such as uncomplicated cellulitis, and S aureus for purulent SSSIs such as abscesses. PMID:24636656

Larru, Beatriz; Gerber, Jeffrey S

2014-04-01

31

Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in Norway: Population Structure and Resistance Determinants  

PubMed Central

A 2.7% prevalence of macrolide resistance in 1,657 Norwegian clinical Streptococcus pyogenes isolates was primarily due to erm(TR) (59%) and mef(A) (20%). Four clonal complexes comprised 75% of the strains. Macrolide resistance in S. pyogenes in Norway is imported as resistant strains or locally selected in internationally disseminated susceptible clones. PMID:16641473

Littauer, P.; Caugant, D. A.; Sangvik, M.; Høiby, E. A.; Sundsfjord, A.; Simonsen, G. S.

2006-01-01

32

Variability in the Distribution of Genes Encoding Virulence Factors and Putative Extracellular Proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes in India, a Region with High Streptococcal Disease Burden, and Implication for Development of a Regional Multisubunit Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes causes a wide variety of human diseases and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Attempts to develop a vaccine were hampered by the genetic diversity of S. pyogenes across different regions of the world. This study sought to identify streptococcal antigens suitable for a region-specific vaccine in India. We used a two-step approach, first performing epidemiological analysis to identify the conserved antigens among Indian isolates. The second step consisted of validating the identified antigens by serological analysis. The 201 streptococcal clinical isolates from India used in this study represented 69 different emm types, with emm12 being the most prevalent. Virulence profiling of the North and South Indian S. pyogenes isolates with a custom-designed streptococcal virulence microarray identified seven conserved putative vaccine candidates. Collagen-like surface protein (SCI), putative secreted 5?-nucleotidase (PSNT), and C5a peptidase were found in 100% of the isolates, while R28, a putative surface antigen (PSA), and a hypothetical protein (HYP) were found in 90% of the isolates. A fibronectin binding protein, SfbI, was present in only 78% of the isolates. In order to validate the identified potential vaccine candidates, 185 serum samples obtained from patients with different clinical manifestations were tested for antibodies. Irrespective of clinical manifestations, serum samples showed high antibody titers to all proteins except for SCI and R28. Thus, the data indicate that PSNT, C5a peptidase, PSA, HYP, and SfbI are promising candidates for a region-specific streptococcal vaccine for the different parts of India. PMID:22971782

Sagar, Vivek; Bergmann, Rene; Nerlich, Andreas; McMillan, David J.; Nitsche Schmitz, D. Patric

2012-01-01

33

Molecular characterization of macrolide resistance mechanisms among Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from the PROTEKT 1999-2000 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the distribution of macrolide resistance mechanisms was determined for isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes obtained from the PROTEKT 1999- 2000 study (a global, longitudinal study of the antibacterial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections). The global macrolide resistance mechanism distribution results for 1043 macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates collected from 25

D. J. Farrell; I. Morrissey; S. Bakker; D. Felmingham

2002-01-01

34

Murine Vaginal Colonization Model for Investigating Asymptomatic Mucosal Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

While many virulence factors promoting Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease have been described, specific streptococcal factors and host properties influencing asymptomatic mucosal carriage remain uncertain. To address the need for a refined model of prolonged S. pyogenes asymptomatic mucosal colonization, we have adapted a preestrogenized murine vaginal colonization model for S. pyogenes. In this model, derivatives of strains HSC5, SF370, JRS4, NZ131, and MEW123 established a reproducible, asymptomatic colonization of the vaginal mucosa over a period of typically 3 to 4 weeks' duration at a relatively high colonization efficiency. Prior treatment with estradiol prolonged streptococcal colonization and was associated with reduced inflammation in the colonized vaginal epithelium as well as a decreased leukocyte presence in vaginal fluid compared to the levels of inflammation and leukocyte presence in non-estradiol-treated control mice. The utility of our model for investigating S. pyogenes factors contributing to mucosal carriage was verified, as a mutant with a mutation in the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) demonstrated significant impairment in vaginal colonization. An assessment of in vivo transcriptional activity in the CcpA? strain for several known CcpA-regulated genes identified significantly elevated transcription of lactate oxidase (lctO) correlating with excessive generation of hydrogen peroxide to self-lethal levels. Deletion of lctO did not impair colonization, but deletion of lctO in a CcpA? strain prolonged carriage, exceeding even that of the wild-type strain. Thus, while LctO is not essential for vaginal colonization, its dysregulation is deleterious, highlighting the critical role of CcpA in promoting mucosal colonization. The vaginal colonization model should prove effective for future analyses of S. pyogenes mucosal colonization. PMID:23460515

Watson, Michael E.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

2013-01-01

35

Development of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine formulation to protect against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Diseases resulting from infection by group A streptococcus (GAS) are an increasing burden on global health. A novel vaccine was developed targeting infection by Streptococcus pyogenes. The vaccine incorporates a recombinant fusion protein antigen (SpeAB) which was engineered by combining inactive mutant forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) from S. pyogenes. A rational, scientific approach to vaccine development was utilized to determine optimal formulation conditions with aluminum adjuvants. Investigations of the pH stability profile of SpeAB concluded the antigen was most stable near pH 8. Incorporation of the stabilizers sucrose and mannitol significantly enhanced the stability of the antigen. Vaccines were formulated in which most of the SpeAB was adsorbed to the adjuvant or remained in solution. A SpeAB vaccine formulation, stabilized with sucrose, in which the antigen remains adsorbed to the aluminum adjuvant retained the greatest potency as determined by evaluation of neutralizing antibody responses in mice. This vaccine has great potential to provide a safe and effective method for prevention of GAS disease. PMID:24837509

Morefield, Garry; Touhey, Graham; Lu, Fangjia; Dunham, Anisa; HogenEsch, Harm

2014-06-24

36

A Systematic and Functional Classification of Streptococcus pyogenes That Serves as a New Tool for Molecular Typing and Vaccine Development.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes ranks among the main causes of mortality from bacterial infections worldwide. Currently there is no vaccine to prevent diseases such as rheumatic heart disease and invasive streptococcal infection. The streptococcal M protein that is used as the substrate for epidemiological typing is both a virulence factor and a vaccine antigen. Over 220 variants of this protein have been described, making comparisons between proteins difficult, and hindering M protein-based vaccine development. A functional classification based on 48 emm-clusters containing closely related M proteins that share binding and structural properties is proposed. The need for a paradigm shift from type-specific immunity against S. pyogenes to emm-cluster based immunity for this bacterium should be further investigated. Implementation of this emm-cluster-based system as a standard typing scheme for S. pyogenes will facilitate the design of future studies of M protein function, streptococcal virulence, epidemiological surveillance, and vaccine development. PMID:24799598

Sanderson-Smith, Martina; De Oliveira, David M P; Guglielmini, Julien; McMillan, David J; Vu, Therese; Holien, Jessica K; Henningham, Anna; Steer, Andrew C; Bessen, Debra E; Dale, James B; Curtis, Nigel; Beall, Bernard W; Walker, Mark J; Parker, Michael W; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Van Melderen, Laurence; Sriprakash, Kadaba S; Smeesters, Pierre R

2014-10-15

37

Differential Recognition of Surface Proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes by Two Sortase Gene Homologs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus (GAS)) with its human host requires several surface proteins. In this study, we isolated mutations in a gene required for the surface localization of protein F by transposon mutagenesis of the M6 strain JRS4. This gene (srtA) encodes a protein homologous to Staphylococcus aureus sortase, which covalently links proteins containing an LPXTG

Timothy C. Barnett; June R. Scott

2002-01-01

38

Nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates That Lack Large Regions of the sag Operon Mediating Streptolysin S Production?  

PubMed Central

Among nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) strains (n = 9) isolated from patients with pharyngitis or acute otitis media, we identified three deletions in the region from the epf gene, encoding the extracellular matrix binding protein, to the sag operon, mediating streptolysin S production. PMID:20018818

Yoshino, Miho; Murayama, Somay Y.; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Wajima, Takeaki; Takahashi, Miki; Masaki, Junko; Kurokawa, Iku; Ubukata, Kimiko

2010-01-01

39

Streptococcus pyogenes and re-emergence of scarlet fever as a public health problem  

PubMed Central

Explosive outbreaks of infectious diseases occasionally occur without immediately obvious epidemiological or microbiological explanations. Plague, cholera and Streptococcus pyogenes infection are some of the epidemic-prone bacterial infections. Besides epidemiological and conventional microbiological methods, the next-generation gene sequencing technology permits prompt detection of genomic and transcriptomic profiles associated with invasive phenotypes. Horizontal gene transfer due to mobile genetic elements carrying virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, or mutations associated with the two component CovRS operon are important bacterial factors conferring survival advantage or invasiveness. The high incidence of scarlet fever in children less than 10 years old suggests that the lack of protective immunity is an important host factor. A high population density, overcrowded living environment and a low yearly rainfall are environmental factors contributing to outbreak development. Inappropriate antibiotic use is not only ineffective for treatment, but may actually drive an epidemic caused by drug-resistant strains and worsen patient outcomes by increasing the bacterial density at the site of infection and inducing toxin production. Surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection is important because it can complicate concurrent chickenpox and influenza. Concomitant outbreaks of these two latter infections with a highly virulent and drug-resistant S. pyogenes strain can be disastrous.

Wong, Samson SY; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-01-01

40

Activation of TAFI on the Surface of Streptococcus pyogenes Evokes Inflammatory Reactions by Modulating the Kallikrein\\/Kinin System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria-controlled regulation of host responses to infection is an important virulence mechanism that has been demonstrated to contribute to disease progression. Here we report that the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes employs the procarboxypeptidase TAFI (thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) to modulate the kallikrein\\/kinin system. To this end, bacteria initiate a chain of events starting with the recruitment and activation of TAFI. This

Sara H. Bengtson; Caroline Sandén; Matthias Mörgelin; Pauline F. Marx; Anders I. Olin; L. M. Fredrik Leeb-Lundberg; Joost C. M. Meijers; Heiko Herwald

2009-01-01

41

Biofilm formation enhances fomite survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Both Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae are widely thought to rapidly die outside the human host, losing infectivity following desiccation in the environment. However, to date, all literature investigating the infectivity of desiccated streptococci has used broth-grown, planktonic populations. In this study, we examined the impact of biofilm formation on environmental survival of clinical and laboratory isolates of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae as both organisms are thought to colonize the human host as biofilms. Results clearly demonstrate that while planktonic cells that are desiccated rapidly lose viability both on hands and abiotic surfaces, such as plastic, biofilm bacteria remain viable over extended periods of time outside the host and remain infectious in a murine colonization model. To explore the level and extent of streptococcal fomite contamination that children might be exposed to naturally, direct bacteriologic cultures of items in a day care center were conducted, which demonstrated high levels of viable streptococci of both species. These findings raise the possibility that streptococci may survive in the environment and be transferred from person to person via fomites contaminated with oropharyngeal secretions containing biofilm streptococci. PMID:24371220

Marks, Laura R; Reddinger, Ryan M; Hakansson, Anders P

2014-03-01

42

Biofilm Formation Enhances Fomite Survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Both Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae are widely thought to rapidly die outside the human host, losing infectivity following desiccation in the environment. However, to date, all literature investigating the infectivity of desiccated streptococci has used broth-grown, planktonic populations. In this study, we examined the impact of biofilm formation on environmental survival of clinical and laboratory isolates of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae as both organisms are thought to colonize the human host as biofilms. Results clearly demonstrate that while planktonic cells that are desiccated rapidly lose viability both on hands and abiotic surfaces, such as plastic, biofilm bacteria remain viable over extended periods of time outside the host and remain infectious in a murine colonization model. To explore the level and extent of streptococcal fomite contamination that children might be exposed to naturally, direct bacteriologic cultures of items in a day care center were conducted, which demonstrated high levels of viable streptococci of both species. These findings raise the possibility that streptococci may survive in the environment and be transferred from person to person via fomites contaminated with oropharyngeal secretions containing biofilm streptococci. PMID:24371220

Marks, Laura R.; Reddinger, Ryan M.

2014-01-01

43

Identification and Characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes Operon Involved in Binding of Hemoproteins and Acquisition of Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes can use a variety of heme compounds as an iron source. In this study, we investigate hemoprotein utilization by S. pyogenes. We demonstrate that surface proteins contribute to the binding of hemoproteins to S. pyogenes. We identify an ABC transporter from the iron complex family named sia for streptococcal iron acquisition, which consists of a lipoprotein

Christopher S. Bates; Griselle E. Montanez; Charles R. Woods; Rebecca M. Vincent; Zehava Eichenbaum

2003-01-01

44

Typing of Streptococcus pyogenes Strains Isolated from Throat Infections in the Region of Aachen, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Changes in the epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes infections may be associated with the introduction and reappearance of individual serotypes within a population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods: Typing of 216 consecutive isolates of S. pyogenes from patients with pharyngitis in the region of Aachen, Germany, was performed by sequencing the emm gene, slide-agglutination of the T-antigen and determining the serum opacity

C. M. Brandt; B. Spellerberg; M. Honscha; N. D. Truong; B. Hoevener; R. Lütticken

2001-01-01

45

Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates Due to Spontaneous Mutation and Horizontal Gene Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes has been described only anecdotally. In this study we describe two invasive ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates (ciprofloxacin MICs, 8 mg\\/liter), one of which shows evidence of interspecies recombination. The quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and parC were sequenced. In both isolates, there was no evidence for an efflux pump and no mutation in gyrA. Both

M. W. R. Pletz; L. McGee; C. A. Van Beneden; S. Petit; M. Bardsley; M. Barlow; K. P. Klugman

2006-01-01

46

Rapid Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes in Pleural Fluid Samples from Pediatric Patients with Empyema  

PubMed Central

A total of 120 pleural fluid specimens from 113 pediatric patients were tested using two rapid antigen detection assays for Streptococcus pyogenes. Results were compared to culture, Gram stain, and PCR results. Each rapid antigen assay detected 9 out of 10 (90%) PCR-positive samples, with 100% specificity. These antigen detection assays are useful to provide microbiological diagnosis of empyema caused by S. pyogenes. PMID:22622442

O'Leary, Amanda; Uhl, James R.; Patel, Robin; Shulman, Stanford T.

2012-01-01

47

Structure of the C-terminal domain of AspA (antigen I/II-family) protein from Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

The pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes can cause an array of diseases in humans, including moderate infections such as pharyngitis (strep throat) as well as life threatening conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and puerperal fever. The antigen I/II family proteins are cell wall anchored adhesin proteins found on the surfaces of most oral streptococci and are involved in host colonization and biofilm formation. In the present study we have determined the crystal structure of the C2-3-domain of the antigen I/II type protein AspA from S. pyogenes M type 28. The structure was solved to 1.8 Å resolution and shows that the C2-3-domain is comprised of two structurally similar DEv-IgG motifs, designated C2 and C3, both containing a stabilizing covalent isopeptide bond. Furthermore a metal binding site is identified, containing a bound calcium ion. Despite relatively low sequence identity, interestingly, the overall structure shares high similarity to the C2-3-domains of antigen I/II proteins from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans, although certain parts of the structure exhibit distinct features. In summary this work constitutes the first step in the full structure determination of the AspA protein from S. pyogenes. PMID:24918040

Hall, Michael; Nylander, Sa; Jenkinson, Howard F; Persson, Karina

2014-01-01

48

Structure of the C-terminal domain of AspA (antigen I/II-family) protein from Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes can cause an array of diseases in humans, including moderate infections such as pharyngitis (strep throat) as well as life threatening conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and puerperal fever. The antigen I/II family proteins are cell wall anchored adhesin proteins found on the surfaces of most oral streptococci and are involved in host colonization and biofilm formation. In the present study we have determined the crystal structure of the C2–3-domain of the antigen I/II type protein AspA from S. pyogenes M type 28. The structure was solved to 1.8 Å resolution and shows that the C2–3-domain is comprised of two structurally similar DEv-IgG motifs, designated C2 and C3, both containing a stabilizing covalent isopeptide bond. Furthermore a metal binding site is identified, containing a bound calcium ion. Despite relatively low sequence identity, interestingly, the overall structure shares high similarity to the C2–3-domains of antigen I/II proteins from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans, although certain parts of the structure exhibit distinct features. In summary this work constitutes the first step in the full structure determination of the AspA protein from S. pyogenes. PMID:24918040

Hall, Michael; Nylander, ?sa; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Persson, Karina

2014-01-01

49

Dissecting a Bacterial Collagen Domain from Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

To better investigate the relationship between sequence, stability, and folding, the Streptococcus pyogenes collagenous domain CL (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)79 was divided to create three recombinant triple helix subdomains A, B, and C of almost equal size with distinctive amino acid features: an A domain high in polar residues, a B domain containing the highest concentration of Pro residues, and a very highly charged C domain. Each segment was expressed as a monomer, a linear dimer, and a linear trimer fused with the trimerization domain (V domain) in Escherichia coli. All recombinant proteins studied formed stable triple helical structures, but the stability varied depending on the amino acid sequence in the A, B, and C segments and increased as the triple helix got longer. V-AAA was found to melt at a much lower temperature (31.0 °C) than V-ABC (V-CL), whereas V-BBB melted at almost the same temperature (?36–37 °C). When heat-denatured, the V domain enhanced refolding for all of the constructs; however, the folding rate was affected by their amino acid sequences and became reduced for longer constructs. The folding rates of all the other constructs were lower than that of the natural V-ABC protein. Amino acid substitution mutations at all Pro residues in the C fragment dramatically decreased stability but increased the folding rate. These results indicate that the thermostability of the bacterial collagen is dominated by the most stable domain in the same manner as found with eukaryotic collagens. PMID:21454494

Yu, Zhuoxin; Brodsky, Barbara; Inouye, Masayori

2011-01-01

50

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, emm type distribution and genetic diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Brazil.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10) and iMLSB (4). The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81) were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7). There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area. PMID:25410998

Arêas, Glauber P; Schuab, Rôde Bb; Neves, Felipe Pg; Barros, Rosana R

2014-11-01

51

Towards scalable production of a collagen-like protein from Streptococcus pyogenes for biomedical applications  

PubMed Central

Background Collagen has proved valuable as biomedical materials for a range of clinical applications, particularly in wound healing. It is normally produced from animal sources, such as from bovines, but concerns have emerged over transmission of diseases. Recombinant collagens would be preferable, but are difficult to produce. Recently, studies have shown that ‘collagens’ from bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes, can be produced in the laboratory as recombinant products, and that these are biocompatible. In the present study we have established that examples of bacterial collagens can be produced in a bioreactor with high yields providing proof of manufacture of this important group of proteins. Results Production trials in shake flask cultures gave low yields of recombinant product, < 1 g/L. Increased yields, of around 1 g/L, were obtained when the shake flask process was transferred to a stirred tank bioreactor, and the yield was further enhanced to around 10 g/L by implementation of a high cell density fed-batch process and the use of suitably formulated fully defined media. Similar yields were obtained with 2 different constructs, one containing an introduced heparin binding domain. The best yields, of up to 19 g/L were obtained using this high cell density strategy, with an extended 24 h production time. Conclusions These data have shown that recombinant bacterial collagen from S. pyogenes, can be produced in sufficient yield by a scalable microbial production process to give commercially acceptable yields for broad use in biomedical applications. PMID:23126526

2012-01-01

52

HMGB1 in severe soft tissue infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) has been associated with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, little is known about HMGB1 in necrotizing bacterial infections. We hypothesized that the local HMGB1 response is excessive in severe soft tissue infections (STIs), which are characterized by necrosis and hyperinflammation. To explore this, tissue biopsies were collected from patients with varying severity of Streptococcus pyogenes skin and STIs, including erysipelas, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Tissue sections were immunostained for HMGB1, S. pyogenes, and inflammatory cell infiltrates and results quantified by acquired computerized image analysis (ACIA). HMGB1 expression increased in parallel to disease severity and was significantly higher in necrotizing fasciitis than in erysipelas (p = 0.0023). Confocal microscopy of sections co-stained for HMGB1 and cell markers revealed both extracellular and cytoplasmic HMGB1, the latter of which was found predominantly in macrophages. To further verify macrophages as main source of activation triggered HMGB1 release, human macrophages were infected with clinical S. pyogenes isolates. The results demonstrated infection triggered release of HMGB1. Dual staining's visualized HMGB1 in areas close to, but not overlapping, with neutrophils, indicating a potential chemotactic role. In vitro transmigration experiments showed a chemotactic effect of HMGB1 on neutrophils. The data furthermore provided in vivo support that HGMB1 may form immunostimulatory complexes with IL-1?. Taken together, the findings provide the first in vivo evidence that HMGB1 is abundant at the local site of severe bacterial STIs and its levels correlated to severity of infections; hence, indicating its potential value as a biomarker for tissue pathology. PMID:24524027

Johansson, Linda; Snäll, Johanna; Sendi, Parham; Linnér, Anna; Thulin, Pontus; Linder, Adam; Treutiger, Carl-Johan; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

2014-01-01

53

HMGB1 in severe soft tissue infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) has been associated with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, little is known about HMGB1 in necrotizing bacterial infections. We hypothesized that the local HMGB1 response is excessive in severe soft tissue infections (STIs), which are characterized by necrosis and hyperinflammation. To explore this, tissue biopsies were collected from patients with varying severity of Streptococcus pyogenes skin and STIs, including erysipelas, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Tissue sections were immunostained for HMGB1, S. pyogenes, and inflammatory cell infiltrates and results quantified by acquired computerized image analysis (ACIA). HMGB1 expression increased in parallel to disease severity and was significantly higher in necrotizing fasciitis than in erysipelas (p = 0.0023). Confocal microscopy of sections co-stained for HMGB1 and cell markers revealed both extracellular and cytoplasmic HMGB1, the latter of which was found predominantly in macrophages. To further verify macrophages as main source of activation triggered HMGB1 release, human macrophages were infected with clinical S. pyogenes isolates. The results demonstrated infection triggered release of HMGB1. Dual staining's visualized HMGB1 in areas close to, but not overlapping, with neutrophils, indicating a potential chemotactic role. In vitro transmigration experiments showed a chemotactic effect of HMGB1 on neutrophils. The data furthermore provided in vivo support that HGMB1 may form immunostimulatory complexes with IL-1?. Taken together, the findings provide the first in vivo evidence that HMGB1 is abundant at the local site of severe bacterial STIs and its levels correlated to severity of infections; hence, indicating its potential value as a biomarker for tissue pathology. PMID:24524027

Johansson, Linda; Snäll, Johanna; Sendi, Parham; Linnér, Anna; Thulin, Pontus; Linder, Adam; Treutiger, Carl-Johan; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

2014-01-01

54

Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M1 Encodes Multiple Pathways for Entry into Human Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a serotype M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes to efficiently invade A549 human lung epithelial cells was previously shown to be dependent on bacterial exposure to human or bovine serum proteins or synthetic peptides containing the sequence RGD. In this study, stimulation by invasion agonists was deter- mined to be dependent on expression of the streptococcal cell surface

D. CUE; P. E. DOMBEK; H. LAM; P. P. CLEARY

1998-01-01

55

Effect of Elevated Atmospheric Pressure on Penicillin Binding by 'Staphylococcus aureus' and 'Streptococcus pyogenes'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gas pressure of 68 atm, elicited by helium-oxygen gas mixtures, reduced the susceptibility to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Streptococcus pyogenes. The elevated pressure also caused a reduction in the binding of 14C- penicillin to S. au...

N. A. Schlamm, O. P. Daily

1972-01-01

56

Multilocus Sequence Typing of Streptococcus pyogenes and the Relationships between emm Type and Clone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a tool that can be used to study the molecular epidemiology and population genetic structure of microorganisms. A MLST scheme was developed for Streptococcus pyogenes and the nucleotide sequences of internal fragments of seven selected housekeeping loci were obtained for 212 isolates. A total of 100 unique combinations of housekeeping alleles (allelic profiles) were identified.

MARK C. ENRIGHT; BRIAN G. SPRATT; AWDHESH KALIA; JOHN H. CROSS; D. E. Bessen

2001-01-01

57

Establishment of a Superficial Skin Infection Model in Mice by Using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new animal model for the purpose of studying superficial infections is presented. In this model an infection is established by disruption of the skin barrier by partial removal of the epidermal layer by tape stripping and subsequent application of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The infection and the infection route are purely topical, in contrast to those

Elisabeth Kugelberg; Tobias Norstrom; Thomas K. Petersen; Tore Duvold; Dan I. Andersson; Diarmaid Hughes

2005-01-01

58

Analysis of the coverage capacity of the StreptInCor candidate vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for infections as pharyngitis, sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The M protein is the major bacterial antigen and consists of both polymorphic N-terminal portion and a conserved region. In the present study, we analyzed the in vitro ability of StreptInCor a C-terminal candidate vaccine against S. pyogenes to induce antibodies to neutralize/opsonize the most common S. pyogenes strains in Sao Paulo by examining the recognition by sera from StreptInCor immunized mice. We also evaluated the presence of cross-reactive antibodies against human heart valve tissue. Anti-StreptInCor antibodies were able to neutralize/opsonize at least 5 strains, showing that immunization with StreptInCor is effective against several S. pyogenes strains and can prevent infection and subsequent sequelae without causing autoimmune reactions. PMID:23994376

De Amicis, Karine M; Freschi de Barros, Samar; Alencar, Raquel E; Postól, Edilberto; Martins, Carlo de Oliveira; Arcuri, Helen Andrade; Goulart, Cibelly; Kalil, Jorge; Guilherme, Luiza

2014-07-01

59

Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5? end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges. PMID:25161960

Nguyen, Scott V.; McShan, William M.

2014-01-01

60

Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ?10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms. PMID:24875883

Kasper, Katherine J; Zeppa, Joseph J; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T; Xu, Stacey X; Mazzuca, Delfina M; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P Patrick; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; McCormick, John K

2014-05-01

61

Bacterial Superantigens Promote Acute Nasopharyngeal Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a Human MHC Class II-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as ‘trademark’ virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ?10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC –II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms. PMID:24875883

Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T.; Xu, Stacey X.; Mazzuca, Delfina M.; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L.; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P. Patrick; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour; McCormick, John K.

2014-01-01

62

A Novel Role for Pro-Coagulant Microvesicles in the Early Host Defense against Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that stimulation of whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells with bacterial virulence factors results in the sequestration of pro-coagulant microvesicles (MVs). These particles explore their clotting activity via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of coagulation; however, their pathophysiological role in infectious diseases remains enigmatic. Here we describe that the interaction of pro-coagulant MVs with bacteria of the species Streptococcus pyogenes is part of the early immune response to the invading pathogen. As shown by negative staining electron microscopy and clotting assays, pro-coagulant MVs bind in the presence of plasma to the bacterial surface. Fibrinogen was identified as a linker that, through binding to the M1 protein of S. pyogenes, allows the opsonization of the bacteria by MVs. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a strong interaction between pro-coagulant MVs and fibrinogen with a KD value in the nanomolar range. When performing a mass-spectrometry-based strategy to determine the protein quantity, a significant up-regulation of the fibrinogen-binding integrins CD18 and CD11b on pro-coagulant MVs was recorded. Finally we show that plasma clots induced by pro-coagulant MVs are able to prevent bacterial dissemination and possess antimicrobial activity. These findings were confirmed by in vivo experiments, as local treatment with pro-coagulant MVs dampens bacterial spreading to other organs and improved survival in an invasive streptococcal mouse model of infection. Taken together, our data implicate that pro-coagulant MVs play an important role in the early response of the innate immune system in infectious diseases. PMID:23935504

Oehmcke, Sonja; Westman, Johannes; Malmström, Johan; Mörgelin, Matthias; Olin, Anders I.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Herwald, Heiko

2013-01-01

63

Pyogenic Sacroiliitis due to Group A Streptococcus following Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery  

PubMed Central

Background. Although the incidence of pregnancy-associated pyogenic sacroiliitis is low, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis of the condition is challenging due to its nonspecific clinical features. Case. A 31-year-old primigravida had an uncomplicated pregnancy and labour. Postpartum, she developed persistent fever and debilitating hip pain on ambulation. White cell count was normal (7.3?×?109/L) and C-reactive protein was elevated (468.4?mg/L). Streptococcus pyogenes was identified on vaginal swabs and blood cultures, and a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed bilateral sacroiliitis. Conclusion. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a potentially lethal cause of postpartum pain. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis even in low-risk women who present with debilitating pelvic pain in or around pregnancy, particularly when initial therapy appears unsuccessful. PMID:24396619

Owen, Alexander Michael; Adno, Alan Maurice; Marry, Jyothi

2013-01-01

64

Complete Genome Assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, a Group A ?-Hemolytic Reference Strain  

PubMed Central

We present the complete genome assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (Rosenbach) as submitted to GenBank under accession number CP008926. This group A nonmotile ?-hemolytic clinical isolate is used for quality control in a variety of commercially available tests. The assembled genome is 1.84 Mb (38.5% G+C content) and contains 1,788 coding regions. PMID:25258274

Minogue, T. D.; Daligault, H. A.; Davenport, K. W.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Chertkov, O.; Coyne, S. R.; Freitas, T.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Xu, Y.

2014-01-01

65

Complete Genome Assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, a Group A ?-Hemolytic Reference Strain.  

PubMed

We present the complete genome assembly of Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (Rosenbach) as submitted to GenBank under accession number CP008926. This group A nonmotile ?-hemolytic clinical isolate is used for quality control in a variety of commercially available tests. The assembled genome is 1.84 Mb (38.5% G+C content) and contains 1,788 coding regions. PMID:25258274

Minogue, T D; Daligault, H A; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Chertkov, O; Coyne, S R; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

2014-01-01

66

Complete genome sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1,852,442-bp sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyo- genes, a Gram-positive pathogen, has been determined and con- tains 1,752 predicted protein-encoding genes. Approximately one- third of these genes have no identifiable function, with the remainder falling into previously characterized categories of known microbial function. Consistent with the observation that S. pyogenes is responsible for a wider variety of

Joseph J. Ferretti; William M. McShan; Dragana Ajdic; Dragutin J. Savic; Gorana Savic; Kevin Lyon; Charles Primeaux; Steven Sezate; Alexander N. Suvorov; Steve Kenton; Hong Shing Lai; Shao Ping Lin; Yudong Qian; Hong Gui Jia; Fares Z. Najar; Qun Ren; Hua Zhu; Lin Song; Jim White; Xiling Yuan; Sandra W. Clifton; Bruce A. Roe; Robert McLaughlin

2001-01-01

67

Macrolide Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates from Throat Infections in the Region of Aachen, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrolide-resistance was assessed in 216 consecutive Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from throat infections in the region of Aachen, Germany. Seventeen isolates were resistant to erythromycin: 12 isolates revealed a macrolide (M) phenotype and harbored mefA, and five strains expressed an inducible macrolide-lincosamide- streptogramin B (MLS B) phenotype of which four strains harbored ermA(TR) and one strain contained ermB(AM). Telithromycin (HMR 3647)

C. M. Brandt; M. Honscha; N. D. Truong; R. Holland; B. Hovener; A. Bryskier; R. Lutticken; R. R. Reinert

2001-01-01

68

Post-Antibiotic Effects of Cefdinir on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) of a new cephalosporin, cefdinir, were determined against a range of organisms using a viable counting technique. Cefdinir exerted considerable PAEs against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, but no overall post-antibiotic inhibition of growth was detected against Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Exposure to cefdinir made the gram-negative organisms susceptible to the washing procedure used for

B. M. A. Howard; R. J. Pinney; J. T. Smith

1994-01-01

69

Antibacterial Activity of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. Leaf Extract against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf was evaluated for antibacterial activity against 47 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. The extract exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity against all the tested isolates with similar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 3.91–62.5??g?mL?1) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 3.91–62.5??g?mL?1) ranges. No surviving cells were detected at 16 h after treatment with 8?×?MIC of the extract. The extract-treated cells demonstrated no lysis and cytoplasmic leakage through the bacterial membrane. Electron micrographs further revealed that the extract did not cause any dramatic changes on the treated cells. Rhodomyrtone, an isolated compound, exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity (14 isolates), expressed very low MIC (0.39–1.56??g?mL?1) and MBC (0.39-1.56??g?mL?1) values. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract and rhodomyrtone displayed promising antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes. PMID:22973404

Limsuwan, Surasak; Kayser, Oliver; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

2012-01-01

70

Antibacterial Activity of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. Leaf Extract against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf was evaluated for antibacterial activity against 47 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. The extract exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity against all the tested isolates with similar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 3.91-62.5??g?mL(-1)) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 3.91-62.5??g?mL(-1)) ranges. No surviving cells were detected at 16 h after treatment with 8?×?MIC of the extract. The extract-treated cells demonstrated no lysis and cytoplasmic leakage through the bacterial membrane. Electron micrographs further revealed that the extract did not cause any dramatic changes on the treated cells. Rhodomyrtone, an isolated compound, exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity (14 isolates), expressed very low MIC (0.39-1.56??g?mL(-1)) and MBC (0.39-1.56??g?mL(-1)) values. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract and rhodomyrtone displayed promising antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes. PMID:22973404

Limsuwan, Surasak; Kayser, Oliver; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

2012-01-01

71

Platelet Activation by Streptococcus pyogenes Leads to Entrapment in Platelet Aggregates, from Which Bacteria Subsequently Escape.  

PubMed

Platelet activation and aggregation have been reported to occur in response to a number of Gram-positive pathogens. Here, we show that platelet aggregates induced by Streptococcus pyogenes were unstable and that viable bacteria escaped from the aggregates over time. This was not due to differential activation in response to the bacteria compared with physiological activators. All the bacterial isolates induced significant platelet activation, including integrin activation and alpha and dense-granule release, at levels equivalent to those induced by potent physiological platelet activators that induced stable aggregates. The ability to escape the aggregates and to resist the antibacterial effects of platelets was dependent on active protein synthesis by the bacteria within the aggregate. We conclude that S. pyogenes bacteria can temporarily cover themselves with activated platelets, and we propose that this may facilitate survival of the bacteria in the presence of platelets. PMID:25069984

Svensson, Lisbeth; Baumgarten, Maria; Mörgelin, Matthias; Shannon, Oonagh

2014-10-01

72

Establishment of a Superficial Skin Infection Model in Mice by Using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

A new animal model for the purpose of studying superficial infections is presented. In this model an infection is established by disruption of the skin barrier by partial removal of the epidermal layer by tape stripping and subsequent application of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The infection and the infection route are purely topical, in contrast to those used in previously described animal models in mice, such as the skin suture-wound model, where the infection is introduced into the deeper layers of the skin. Thus, the present model is considered more biologically relevant for the study of superficial skin infections in mice and humans. Established topical antibiotic treatments are shown to be effective. The procedures involved in the model are simple, a feature that increases throughput and reproducibility. This new model should be applicable to the evaluation of novel antimicrobial treatments of superficial infections caused by S. aureus and S. pyogenes. PMID:16048958

Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Norström, Tobias; Petersen, Thomas K.; Duvold, Tore; Andersson, Dan I.; Hughes, Diarmaid

2005-01-01

73

The Cryptic Competence Pathway in Streptococcus pyogenes Is Controlled by a Peptide Pheromone  

PubMed Central

Horizontal gene transfer is an important means of bacterial evolution that is facilitated by transduction, conjugation, and natural genetic transformation. Transformation occurs after bacterial cells enter a state of competence, where naked DNA is acquired from the extracellular environment. Induction of the competent state relies on signals that activate master regulators, causing the expression of genes involved in DNA uptake, processing, and recombination. All streptococcal species contain the master regulator SigX and SigX-dependent effector genes required for natural genetic transformation; however, not all streptococcal species have been shown to be naturally competent. We recently demonstrated that competence development in Streptococcus mutans requires the type II ComRS quorum-sensing circuit, comprising an Rgg transcriptional activator and a novel peptide pheromone (L. Mashburn-Warren, D. A. Morrison, and M. J. Federle, Mol. Microbiol. 78:589–606, 2010). The type II ComRS system is shared by the pyogenic, mutans, and bovis streptococci, including the clinically relevant pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we describe the activation of sigX by a small-peptide pheromone and an Rgg regulator of the type II ComRS class. We confirm previous reports that SigX is functional and able to activate sigX-dependent gene expression within the competence regulon, and that SigX stability is influenced by the cytoplasmic protease ClpP. Genomic analyses of available S. pyogenes genomes revealed the presence of intact genes within the competence regulon. While this is the first report to show natural induction of sigX, S. pyogenes remained nontransformable under laboratory conditions. Using radiolabeled DNA, we demonstrate that transformation is blocked at the stage of DNA uptake. PMID:22730123

Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Morrison, Donald A.

2012-01-01

74

The cryptic competence pathway in Streptococcus pyogenes is controlled by a peptide pheromone.  

PubMed

Horizontal gene transfer is an important means of bacterial evolution that is facilitated by transduction, conjugation, and natural genetic transformation. Transformation occurs after bacterial cells enter a state of competence, where naked DNA is acquired from the extracellular environment. Induction of the competent state relies on signals that activate master regulators, causing the expression of genes involved in DNA uptake, processing, and recombination. All streptococcal species contain the master regulator SigX and SigX-dependent effector genes required for natural genetic transformation; however, not all streptococcal species have been shown to be naturally competent. We recently demonstrated that competence development in Streptococcus mutans requires the type II ComRS quorum-sensing circuit, comprising an Rgg transcriptional activator and a novel peptide pheromone (L. Mashburn-Warren, D. A. Morrison, and M. J. Federle, Mol. Microbiol. 78:589-606, 2010). The type II ComRS system is shared by the pyogenic, mutans, and bovis streptococci, including the clinically relevant pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we describe the activation of sigX by a small-peptide pheromone and an Rgg regulator of the type II ComRS class. We confirm previous reports that SigX is functional and able to activate sigX-dependent gene expression within the competence regulon, and that SigX stability is influenced by the cytoplasmic protease ClpP. Genomic analyses of available S. pyogenes genomes revealed the presence of intact genes within the competence regulon. While this is the first report to show natural induction of sigX, S. pyogenes remained nontransformable under laboratory conditions. Using radiolabeled DNA, we demonstrate that transformation is blocked at the stage of DNA uptake. PMID:22730123

Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Morrison, Donald A; Federle, Michael J

2012-09-01

75

The structure of pyogenecin immunity protein, a novel bacteriocin-like immunity protein from streptococcus pyogenes.  

SciTech Connect

Many Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce anti-bacterial peptides and small proteins called bacteriocins, which enable them to compete against other bacteria in the environment. These peptides fall structurally into three different classes, I, II, III, with class IIa being pediocin-like single entities and class IIb being two-peptide bacteriocins. Self-protective cognate immunity proteins are usually co-transcribed with these toxins. Several examples of cognates for IIa have already been solved structurally. Streptococcus pyogenes, closely related to LAB, is one of the most common human pathogens, so knowledge of how it competes against other LAB species is likely to prove invaluable. We have solved the crystal structure of the gene-product of locus Spy-2152 from S. pyogenes, (PDB: 2fu2), and found it to comprise an anti-parallel four-helix bundle that is structurally similar to other bacteriocin immunity proteins. Sequence analyses indicate this protein to be a possible immunity protein protective against class IIa or IIb bacteriocins. However, given that S. pyogenes appears to lack any IIa pediocin-like proteins but does possess class IIb bacteriocins, we suggest this protein confers immunity to IIb-like peptides. Combined structural, genomic and proteomic analyses have allowed the identification and in silico characterization of a new putative immunity protein from S. pyogenes, possibly the first structure of an immunity protein protective against potential class IIb two-peptide bacteriocins. We have named the two pairs of putative bacteriocins found in S. pyogenes pyogenecin 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Chang, C.; Coggill, P.; Bateman, A.; Finn, R.; Cymborowski, M.; Otwinowski, Z.; Minor, W.; Volkart, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst.; Univ. of Virginia; UT Southwestern Medical Center

2009-12-17

76

[T serotypes distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pyogenes in children with pharyngotonsillitis in Asahikawa].  

PubMed

Between June 2006 and April 2007, I measured T serotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 367 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children with pharyngotonsillitis in Asahikawa. Prevalent serotypes were 12 (33.8%), 1 (22.9%), and 28 (12.5%). The MIC90s of beta-lactams were 0.008 microg/ml in penicillin G, cefcapene, cefditoren, cefteram, cefdinir and faropenem, and 0.015 microg/ml in amoxicillin. Of 367 isolates, macrolide-resistant (erythromycin > 0.5 micro/ml) strains account for 42 (11.4%). PMID:19288853

Sakata, Hiroshi

2008-12-01

77

Lactobacillus plantarum reduces Streptococcus pyogenes virulence by modulating the IL-17, IL-23 and Toll-like receptor 2/4 expressions in human epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is a common colonizer of the mucosal layers in the mouth, nose, and pharynx but it is also a major Gram-positive human pathogen that causes infections ranging from pharyngitis to severe systemic diseases. The lactobacilli colonize the oral tracts and are known to protect against colonization by many pathogens. Epithelial cells participate in the innate host defense by expressing a variety of proinflammatory cytokines and TLRs in the interaction with microorganisms. The potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated for its capacity to influence the innate immune response of HEp-2 and A549 epithelial cells to S. pyogenes infection. In both epithelial cell types, pre-treatment with L. plantarum showed inhibition of S. pyogenes growth and a greater decrease in IL-17 and IL-23 levels compared to the control. Pre-treatment with the anti-TLR2/4 antibody abolished the inhibitory effects of L. plantarum on IL-17 and IL-23 production following S. pyogenes infection, indicating that L. plantarum downregulates TLR2/4-dependent IL-17 and IL-23 production. Overall, our findings suggest that in epithelial cell cultures with S. pyogenes, cytokine responses are modulated by the presence of L. plantarum through the induction of TLR2/TLR4. PMID:23892030

Rizzo, Antonietta; Losacco, Antonio; Carratelli, Caterina Romano; Domenico, Marina Di; Bevilacqua, Nazario

2013-10-01

78

Characterization of hyaluronic acid specific hyaluronate lyase (HylP) from Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is associated with a wide variety of mucosal and invasive infections that claim human life. The conversion from non pathogenic to toxigenic strain of S. pyogenes are thought to be mediated by bacteriophage infection in several cases. The hyaluronic acid (HA) degrading enzyme Hyaluronate lyase (HL) is proposed to be one of the key bacteriophage-encoded virulence factors. In the present work, HL of S. pyogenes bacteriophage H4489A (HylP) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and their structural and functional properties were studied. The enzyme exists in an extended trimeric conformation whose function is influenced by calcium ions. The collagenous Gly-X-Y motif of the enzyme influences stability and interact with calcium ions suggesting its role in the enzyme regulation The HylP shows sequential unfolding through the N-terminal domain. The primary catalytic residues of the enzyme seem to be in the first pocket consisting of Asp170 and Tyr182; however the enzyme activity is considerably reduced with mutation in the second pocket consisting of Glu295 and Tyr298. The catalytic residues span between the regions containing 135-308 amino acids where both the catalytic pocket has a prominent positively charged residue. The net positive potential of the cleft may help in recruiting the negatively charged polymeric HA. Interestingly, unlike other phage HLs, HylP is inhibited by l-ascorbic through non competitive manner. PMID:24721581

Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Malhotra, Soniya; Akhtar, Md Sohail

2014-07-01

79

Transcriptional regulation of a bacteriophage encoded extracellular DNase (Spd-3) by Rgg in Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

The Streptococcus pyogenes transcriptional regulator Rgg controls the expression of virulence-associated genes encoded both within the core genome and within horizontally transmissible DNA such as temperate bacteriophage. Previously, we showed that Rgg binds to the non-coding DNA upstream of the bacteriophage gene encoding an extracellular DNase Spd-3. In the current study, we further characterized Rgg-mediated regulation of spd-3 expression. Two spd-3 transcripts were identified by northern blotting. The 5' ends were 27 and 594 nucleotides upstream of the start codon as determined with primer extension analysis and 5' RACE (rapid amplification of c-DNA ends), respectively. Results obtained with gel shift assays showed that purified Rgg bound specifically to non-coding DNA containing the promoters of both transcripts. Transcriptional fusion analyses confirmed the presence of Rgg-repressible promoters within these DNA regions. In addition, repression was associated with direct DNA binding by Rgg as determined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results show that the chromosomally encoded transcriptional regulator, Rgg, directly represses both bacteriophage promoters controlling the expression of Spd-3. The results provide new information regarding the regulation of prophage encoded virulence factors of S. pyogenes and highlight the complex evolutionary history of S. pyogenes and temperate bacteriophage. PMID:23613830

Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Chaussee, Michael S

2013-01-01

80

Streptococcus pyogenes Arginine and Citrulline Catabolism Promotes Infection and Modulates Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

A bacterium's ability to acquire nutrients from its host during infection is an essential component of pathogenesis. For the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, catabolism of the amino acid arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway supplements energy production and provides protection against acid stress in vitro. Its expression is enhanced in murine models of infection, suggesting an important role in vivo. To gain insight into the function of the ADI pathway in pathogenesis, the virulence of mutants defective in each of its enzymes was examined. Mutants unable to use arginine (?ArcA) or citrulline (?ArcB) were attenuated for carriage in a murine model of asymptomatic mucosal colonization. However, in a murine model of inflammatory infection of cutaneous tissue, the ?ArcA mutant was attenuated but the ?ArcB mutant was hyperattenuated, revealing an unexpected tissue-specific role for citrulline metabolism in pathogenesis. When mice defective for the arginine-dependent production of nitric oxide (iNOS?/?) were infected with the ?ArcA mutant, cutaneous virulence was rescued, demonstrating that the ability of S. pyogenes to utilize arginine was dispensable in the absence of nitric oxide-mediated innate immunity. This work demonstrates the importance of arginine and citrulline catabolism and suggests a novel mechanism of virulence by which S. pyogenes uses its metabolism to modulate innate immunity through depletion of an essential host nutrient. PMID:24144727

Cusumano, Zachary T.; Watson, Michael E.

2014-01-01

81

Mode of Expression and Functional Characterization of FCT3 Pilus Region-Encoded Proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M49  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus (GAS)) pilus components, suggested to play a role in pathogenesis, are encoded in the variable FCT (fibronectin- and collagen-binding T-antigen) region. We investigated the functions of sortase A (SrtA), sortase C2 (SrtC2), and the FctA protein of the most prevalent type 3 FCT region from a serotype M49 strain. Although it is

Masanobu Nakata; Thomas Koller; Karin Moritz; Deborah Ribardo; Ludwig Jonas; Kevin S. McIver; Tomoko Sumitomo; Yutaka Terao; Shigetada Kawabata; Andreas Podbielski; Bernd Kreikemeyer

2009-01-01

82

Genome sequence of a nephritogenic and highly transformable M49 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

The 1,815,783-bp genome of a serotype M49 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]), strain NZ131, has been determined. This GAS strain (FCT type 3; emm pattern E), originally isolated from a case of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, is unusually competent for electrotransformation and has been used extensively as a model organism for both basic genetic and pathogenesis investigations. As with the previously sequenced S. pyogenes genomes, three unique prophages are a major source of genetic diversity. Two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions were present in the genome, providing genetic information on previous prophage encounters. A unique cluster of genes was found in the pathogenicity island-like emm region that included a novel Nudix hydrolase, and, further, this cluster appears to be specific for serotype M49 and M82 strains. Nudix hydrolases eliminate potentially hazardous materials or prevent the unbalanced accumulation of normal metabolites; in bacteria, these enzymes may play a role in host cell invasion. Since M49 S. pyogenes strains have been known to be associated with skin infections, the Nudix hydrolase and its associated genes may have a role in facilitating survival in an environment that is more variable and unpredictable than the uniform warmth and moisture of the throat. The genome of NZ131 continues to shed light upon the evolutionary history of this human pathogen. Apparent horizontal transfer of genetic material has led to the existence of highly variable virulence-associated regions that are marked by multiple rearrangements and genetic diversification while other regions, even those associated with virulence, vary little between genomes. The genome regions that encode surface gene products that will interact with host targets or aid in immune avoidance are the ones that display the most sequence diversity. Thus, while natural selection favors stability in much of the genome, it favors diversity in these regions. PMID:18820018

McShan, W Michael; Ferretti, Joseph J; Karasawa, Tadahiro; Suvorov, Alexander N; Lin, Shaoping; Qin, Biafang; Jia, Honggui; Kenton, Steve; Najar, Fares; Wu, Hongmin; Scott, Julie; Roe, Bruce A; Savic, Dragutin J

2008-12-01

83

Zinc Binding and Dimerization of Streptococcus pyogenes Pyrogenic Exotoxin C Are Not Essential for T-Cell Stimulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Streptococcal pyrogenic enterotoxin C (Spe-C) is a superantigen virulence factor produced by Streptococcus pyogenes that activates T-cells polyclonally. The biologically active form of Spe-C is thought to be a homodimer containing an essential zinc coordi...

W. Swietnicki, A. M. Barnie, B. K. Dyas, R. G. Ulrich

2003-01-01

84

Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius  

PubMed Central

Salivaricin G32, a 2667?Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes—produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23%) of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection. PMID:22567013

Wescombe, Philip A.; Dyet, Kristin H.; Dierksen, Karen P.; Power, Daniel A.; Jack, Ralph W.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Inglis, Megan A.; Wescombe, Anna L.; Tagg, John R.

2012-01-01

85

Carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children in Pokhara, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the incidence of carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children. Methods Specimen from posterior pharyngeal wall and tonsils were collected on calcium alginate coated swabs from 102 participants. Processing of specimen and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by standard procedures. Results Potential pathogens isolated in our study were S. pneumoniae (14.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.7%), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (3.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes (3.9%) and Haemophilus influenzae (1.9%). Important findings in antibiogram include high resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin (73%) and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin (23%). Conclusions Pharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae among school children was found high and there is need of introduction of pneumococcal vaccines among children. Despite expected universal vaccination, pharyngeal colonization by Corynebacterium diphtheriae is possible and there is possibility of transmission.

Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Gokhale, Shishir; Sharma, Annavarapu Laxminarasimha; Gupta, Umesh; Gaur, Abhishek; Gowda, Supram; Raut, Shristi; Thapa, Sangeeta; Khadka, Rupendra

2014-01-01

86

Structural conservation, variability, and immunogenicity of the T6 backbone pilin of serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that causes a broad range of diseases ranging from acute pharyngitis to the poststreptococcal sequelae of acute rheumatic fever. GAS pili are highly diverse, long protein polymers that extend from the cell surface. They have multiple roles in infection and are promising candidates for vaccine development. This study describes the structure of the T6 backbone pilin (BP; Lancefield T-antigen) from the important M6 serotype. The structure reveals a modular arrangement of three tandem immunoglobulin-like domains, two with internal isopeptide bonds. The T6 pilin lysine, essential for polymerization, is located in a novel VAKS motif that is structurally homologous to the canonical YPKN pilin lysine in other three- and four-domain Gram-positive pilins. The T6 structure also highlights a conserved pilin core whose surface is decorated with highly variable loops and extensions. Comparison to other Gram-positive BPs shows that many of the largest variable extensions are found in conserved locations. Studies with sera from patients diagnosed with GAS-associated acute rheumatic fever showed that each of the three T6 domains, and the largest of the variable extensions (V8), are targeted by IgG during infection in vivo. Although the GAS BP show large variations in size and sequence, the modular nature of the pilus proteins revealed by the T6 structure may aid the future design of a pilus-based vaccine. PMID:24778112

Young, Paul G; Moreland, Nicole J; Loh, Jacelyn M; Bell, Anita; Atatoa Carr, Polly; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N

2014-07-01

87

Transport of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid by Streptococcus pyogenes and its derived L-form  

SciTech Connect

We studied the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) in Streptococcus pyogenes and its physiologically isotonic L-form. S. pyogenes cells starved for glucose or treated with carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone accumulated limited amounts of AIB. A high apparent K/sub m/ value characterized the glucose-independent transport of AIB. The rate and extent of AIB accumulation significantly increased in the presence of glucose. Two saturable transport components with distinct apparent K/sub m/values characterized glycolysis-coupled transport of AIB. A biphasic Lineweaver-Burk plot was also obtained for L-alanine transport by glycolyzing S. pyogenes cells. AIB seems to share a common transport system(s) with glycine, L- and D-anine, L-serine, and L-valine. This was shown by the competitive exchange efflux of accumulated AIB. About 30% of the AIB uptake was not inhibited by a saturating amount of L-valine, indicating the existence of more than one system for AIB transport, p-Chloromercuribenzoate markedly inhibited the accumulation of AIB by both glycolyzing and glucose-starved cells. In contrast, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone affected only metabolism-dependent uptake of AIB, which was also sensitive to dinitrophenol, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate, fluoride (NaF), arsenate, and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. These results are interpreted according to the chemiosmotic theory of Mitchell, whereby a proton motive force constitutes the driving force for AIB accumulation. AIB was not accumulated by the L-form. However, a temporary accumulation of AIB by a counterflow mechanism and a saturable system with a low apparent affinity were demonstrated for AIB transport by this organism. We suggest that a deficiency in the coupling of energy to AIB transport is responsible for the apparent lack of active AIB accumulation by the L-form.

Reizer, J.; Panos, C.

1982-01-01

88

Proteomic analysis of putative heme-binding proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is an important human bacterium with high pathogenicity. Heme is a major source of iron that plays a critical role in bacterial survival and virulence. In this study, heme-affinity chromatography, two-dimensional-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were combined to identify putative heme-binding proteins and heme-regulatory proteins. In total, 68 heme-regulatory proteins and 284 putative heme-binding proteins were identified, among which 37 proteins showed expression alterations in response to heme deficiency. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that several key metabolic pathways had changed in the absence of heme, among which glycolysis was a major pathway impaired under heme-deficient conditions. New potential heme-binding proteins were successfully identified in this study providing novel clues for the study of the heme transport mechanism. Heme-binding proteins may play fundamental roles in many important biological pathways and thus contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. PMID:24777071

Wang, Nanjie; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Nan; Yu, Guangchuang; Han, Junlong; Cao, Kun; Guo, Zhong; Sun, Xuesong; He, Qing-Yu

2014-08-01

89

Oral Erythromycin Prophylaxis against Streptococcus pyogenes Infection in Penicillin-Allergic Military Recruits: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically, military recruits have required benzathine penicillin G to prevent epidemics of Streptococcus pyogenes. In this randomized clinical trial, low-dose oral erythromycin was evaluated as an alternative for prophylaxis against group A,6-hemolytic...

J. Fujikawa, J. P. Struewing, K. C. Hyames, E. L. Kaplan, A. K. Tupponce

1992-01-01

90

Structural and functional characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas2 protein under different pH conditions.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an RNA-guided microbial defense system against invading foreign genetic materials. Cas2 is one of the core Cas proteins found universally in all the subtypes of CRISPR-Cas systems and is required for incorporating new spacers into CRISPR loci. Cas2 homologues from different CRISPR-Cas subtypes were characterized previously as metal-dependent nucleases with different substrate preferences, and it was proposed that a pH-dependent conformational change mediates metal binding and catalysis. Here, we report the crystal structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas2 at three different pHs (5.6, 6.5, and 7.5), as well as the results of its nuclease activity assay against double-stranded DNAs at varying pHs (6.0-9.0). Although S. pyogenes Cas2 exhibited strongly pH-dependent catalytic activity, there was no significant conformational difference among the three crystal structures. However, structural comparisons with other Cas2 homologues revealed structural variability and the flexible nature of its putative hinge regions, supporting the hypothesis that conformational switching is important for catalysis. Taken together, our results confirm that Cas2 proteins have pH-dependent nuclease activity against double-stranded DNAs, and provide indirect structural evidence for their conformational changes. PMID:25079131

Ka, Donghyun; Kim, Dayoun; Baek, Gyeongyun; Bae, Euiyoung

2014-08-15

91

Functional and structural properties of a novel protein and virulence factor (Protein sHIP) in Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant bacterial pathogen in the human population. The importance of virulence factors for the survival and colonization of S. pyogenes is well established, and many of these factors are exposed to the extracellular environment, enabling bacterial interactions with the host. In the present study, we quantitatively analyzed and compared S. pyogenes proteins in the growth medium of a strain that is virulent to mice with a non-virulent strain. Particularly, one of these proteins was present at significantly higher levels in stationary growth medium from the virulent strain. We determined the three-dimensional structure of the protein that showed a unique tetrameric organization composed of four helix-loop-helix motifs. Affinity pull-down mass spectrometry analysis in human plasma demonstrated that the protein interacts with histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), and the name sHIP (streptococcal histidine-rich glycoprotein-interacting protein) is therefore proposed. HRG has antibacterial activity, and when challenged by HRG, sHIP was found to rescue S. pyogenes bacteria. This and the finding that patients with invasive S. pyogenes infection respond with antibody production against sHIP suggest a role for the protein in S. pyogenes pathogenesis. PMID:24825900

Wisniewska, Magdalena; Happonen, Lotta; Kahn, Fredrik; Varjosalo, Markku; Malmström, Lars; Rosenberger, George; Karlsson, Christofer; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Pozdnyakova, Irina; Frick, Inga-Maria; Björck, Lars; Streicher, Werner; Malmström, Johan; Wikström, Mats

2014-06-27

92

Phenotypes and Genotypes of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes Strains in Italy and Heterogeneity of Inducibly Resistant Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 387 clinical strains of erythromycin-resistant (MIC, >1 mg\\/ml) Streptococcus pyogenes, all isolated in Italian laboratories from 1995 to 1998, were examined. By the erythromycin-clindamycin double-disk test, 203 (52.5%) strains were assigned to the recently described M phenotype, 120 (31.0%) were assigned to the inducible macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance (iMLS) phenotype, and 64 (16.5%) were assigned

ELEONORA GIOVANETTI; MARIA PIA MONTANARI; MARINA MINGOIA; PIETRO EMANUELE VARALDO

1999-01-01

93

Translocation of antibiotic resistance markers of a plasmid-free Streptococcus pyogenes (group A) strain into different streptococcal hemolysin plasmids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type strain A454 (Streptococcus pyogenes) transferred en bloc its erythromycin (Em) and tetracycline (Tc) resistance markers into several plasmid-free streptococcal recipients. No plasmid DNA was detected in either the wild-type or the transconjugant strains. Crosses were performed between A454 and S. faecalis Rec+ or Rec- recipients carrying hemolysin-bacteriocin plasmids, pIP964 or pAD1. The Em Tc-resistant transconjugants obtained harbored either the

Chantal Le Bouguenec; Thea Horaud; Gilda Bieth; R. Colimon; C. Dauguet

1984-01-01

94

Comparison of emm Typing and Ribotyping with Three Restriction Enzymes To Characterize Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 336 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates recently recovered from patients with pharyngitis from 13 countries were characterized by emm typing and riboprinting using an automated Riboprinter (Dupont\\/ Qualicon) based on the patterns produced by three restriction enzymes, EcoRI, PstI, and HindIII. Three enzymes were necessary to increase the discrimination of ribogroups formed by each enzyme. A total of 40

Stella Z. Doktor; Jill M. Beyer; Robert K. Flamm; Virginia D. Shortridge

2005-01-01

95

Morphological Alterations of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes Exposed to Cefdinir, a New Oral Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affinity for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and the morphological alteration of Staphylococcus aureus 209-P JC and Streptococcus pyogenes C-203 exposed to cefdinir were studied. Although cefdinir was bactericidal against both strains, the extent of the decrease in colony-forming units (CFU) was similar in a fairly wide range of concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy of S. aureus 209-P JC revealed that cefdinir induced

Kazuo Hatano; Takeshi Nishino

1994-01-01

96

Hydrogen Peroxide Production in Streptococcus pyogenes: Involvement of Lactate Oxidase and Coupling with Aerobic Utilization of Lactate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pyogenes strains can be divided into two classes, one capable and the other incapable of producing H2O2 (M. Saito, S. Ohga, M. Endoh, H. Nakayama, Y. Mizunoe, T. Hara, and S. Yoshida, Micro- biology 147:2469-2477, 2001). In the present study, this dichotomy was shown to parallel the presence or absence of H2O2-producing lactate oxidase activity in permeabilized cells. Both

Masanori Seki; Ken-ichiro Iida; Mitsumasa Saito; Hiroaki Nakayama; Shin-ichi Yoshida

2004-01-01

97

Non-Instrumental Immunoassay Based on Coloured Polyacrolein Latex: Application to Group-Specific Polysaccharide of Streptococcus Pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-instrumental immunoassay methods based on immunofiltration and microtiter particle agglutination (MPA) techniques have been developed using coloured polyacrolein latex. These methods have been applied to the quantification of the group-specific polysaccharide, A-PS, of S. pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) and compared to the standard ELISA tests. The assay with the ability to detect the lowest concentration of antigen was MPA; as

Irene S. Pavlova; Yuri V. Lukin; Dmitri N. Avdeev; Vladimir A. Kulshin

1995-01-01

98

The AgI/II Family Adhesin AspA Is Required for Respiratory Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is a human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive diseases such as toxic shock syndrome and sepsis. The upper respiratory tract is the primary reservoir from which GAS can infect new hosts and cause disease. The factors involved in colonisation are incompletely known however. Previous evidence in oral streptococci has shown that the AgI/II family proteins are involved. We hypothesized that the AspA member of this family might be involved in GAS colonization. We describe a novel mouse model of GAS colonization of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract to elucidate these interactions. We used two clinical M serotypes expressing AspA, and their aspA gene deletant isogenic mutants in experiments using adherence assays to respiratory epithelium, macrophage phagocytosis and neutrophil killing assays and in vivo models of respiratory tract colonisation and infection. We demonstrated the requirement for AspA in colonization of the respiratory tract. AspA mutants were cleared from the respiratory tract and were deficient in adherence to epithelial cells, and susceptible to phagocytosis. Expression of AspA in the surrogate host Lactococcus lactis protected bacteria from phagocytosis. Our results suggest that AspA has an essential role in respiratory infection, and may function as a novel anti-phagocytic factor. PMID:23638083

Franklin, Linda; Nobbs, Angela H.; Bricio-Moreno, Laura; Wright, Christopher J.; Maddocks, Sarah E.; Sahota, Jaspreet Singh; Ralph, Joe; O'Connor, Matthew

2013-01-01

99

Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria modulate membrane traffic in human neutrophils and selectively inhibit azurophilic granule fusion with phagosomes.  

PubMed

We recently reported that the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes of the M1 serotype survives and replicates intracellularly after being phagocytosed by human neutrophils. These data raised the possibility that the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites by neutrophils, and the release of microbicidal molecules from their azurophilic and specific granules into phagosomes, can be modulated by S. pyogenes bacteria expressing surface-associated M and/or M-like proteins. We now demonstrate, using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, that live wild-type S. pyogenes, after internalization by human neutrophils, inhibits the fusion of azurophilic granules with phagosomes. In contrast, azurophilic granule-content is efficiently delivered to phagosomes containing bacteria not expressing M and/or M-like proteins. Also, when heat-killed wild-type bacteria are used as the phagocytic prey, fusion of azurophilic granules with phagosomes is observed. The inhibition caused by live wild-type S. pyogenes is specific for azurophilic granule-phagosome fusion, because the mobilization of specific granules and the production of reactive oxygen species are induced to a similar extent by all strains tested. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that viable S. pyogenes bacteria expressing M and M-like proteins selectively prevent the fusion of azurophilic granules with phagosomes. PMID:16548894

Staali, Leïla; Bauer, Susanne; Mörgelin, Matthias; Björck, Lars; Tapper, Hans

2006-04-01

100

Analysis of Polymorphic Residues Reveals Distinct Enzymatic and Cytotoxic Activities of the Streptococcus pyogenes NAD+ Glycohydrolase*  

PubMed Central

The Streptococcus pyogenes NAD+ glycohydrolase (SPN) is secreted from the bacterial cell and translocated into the host cell cytosol where it contributes to cell death. Recent studies suggest that SPN is evolving and has diverged into NAD+ glycohydrolase-inactive variants that correlate with tissue tropism. However, the role of SPN in both cytotoxicity and niche selection are unknown. To gain insight into the forces driving the adaptation of SPN, a detailed comparison of representative glycohydrolase activity-proficient and -deficient variants was conducted. Of a total 454 amino acids, the activity-deficient variants differed at only nine highly conserved positions. Exchanging residues between variants revealed that no one single residue could account for the inability of the deficient variants to cleave the glycosidic bond of ?-NAD+ into nicotinamide and ADP-ribose; rather, reciprocal changes at 3 specific residues were required to both abolish activity of the proficient version and restore full activity to the deficient variant. Changing any combination of 1 or 2 residues resulted in intermediate activity. However, a change to any 1 residue resulted in a significant decrease in enzyme efficiency. A similar pattern involving multiple residues was observed for comparison with a second highly conserved activity-deficient variant class. Remarkably, despite differences in glycohydrolase activity, all versions of SPN were equally cytotoxic to cultured epithelial cells. These data indicate that the glycohydrolase activity of SPN may not be the only contribution the toxin has to the pathogenesis of S. pyogenes and that both versions of SPN play an important role during infection. PMID:23689507

Chandrasekaran, Sukantha; Ghosh, Joydeep; Port, Gary C.; Koh, Eun-ik; Caparon, Michael G.

2013-01-01

101

Self-association of streptococcus pyogenes collagen-like constructs into higher order structures.  

PubMed

A number of bacterial collagen-like proteins with Gly as every third residue and a high Pro content have been observed to form stable triple-helical structures despite the absence of hydroxyproline (Hyp). Here, the high yield cold-shock expression system is used to obtain purified recombinant collagen-like protein (V-CL) from Streptococcus pyogenes containing an N-terminal globular domain V followed by the collagen triple-helix domain CL and the modified construct with two tandem collagen domains V-CL-CL. Both constructs and their isolated collagenous domains form stable triple-helices characterized by very sharp thermal transitions at 35-37 degrees C and by high values of calorimetric enthalpy. Procedures for the formation of collagen SLS crystallites lead to parallel arrays of in register V-CL-CL molecules, as well as centrosymmetric arrays of dimers joined at their globular domains. At neutral pH and high concentrations, the bacterial constructs all show a tendency towards aggregation. The isolated collagen domains, CL and CL-CL, form units of diameter 4-5 nm which bundle together and twist to make larger fibrillar structures. Thus, although this S. pyogenes collagen-like protein is a cell surface protein with no indication of participation in higher order structure, the triple-helix domain has the potential of forming fibrillar structures even in the absence of hydroxyproline. The formation of fibrils suggests bacterial collagen proteins may be useful for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. PMID:19472339

Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Yu, Zhuoxin; Silva, Teresita; Thiagarajan, Geetha; Ramshaw, John A M; Inouye, Masayori; Brodsky, Barbara

2009-06-01

102

Transcription of the Streptococcus pyogenes Hyaluronic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis Operon Is Regulated by Previously Unknown Upstream Elements.  

PubMed

The important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) produces a hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule that plays critical roles in immune evasion. Previous studies showed that the hasABC operon encoding the capsule biosynthesis enzymes is under the control of a single promoter, P1, which is negatively regulated by the two-component regulatory system CovR/S. In this work, we characterize the sequence upstream of P1 and identify a novel regulatory region controlling transcription of the capsule biosynthesis operon in the M1 serotype strain MGAS2221. This region consists of a promoter, P2, which initiates transcription of a novel small RNA, HasS, an intrinsic transcriptional terminator that inefficiently terminates HasS, permitting read-through transcription of hasABC, and a putative promoter which lies upstream of P2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and transcriptional reporter data identified CovR as a negative regulator of P2. We found that the P1 and P2 promoters are completely repressed by CovR, and capsule expression is regulated by the putative promoter upstream of P2. Deletion of hasS or of the terminator eliminates CovR-binding sequences, relieving repression and increasing read-through, hasA transcription, and capsule production. Sequence analysis of 44 GAS genomes revealed a high level of polymorphism in the HasS sequence region. Most of the HasS variations were located in the terminator sequences, suggesting that this region is under strong selective pressure. We discovered that the terminator deletion mutant is highly resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing and is significantly more virulent in a mouse model of GAS invasive disease than the wild-type strain. Together, these results are consistent with the naturally occurring mutations in this region modulating GAS virulence. PMID:25287924

Falaleeva, Marina; Zurek, Oliwia W; Watkins, Robert L; Reed, Robert W; Ali, Hadeel; Sumby, Paul; Voyich, Jovanka M; Korotkova, Natalia

2014-12-01

103

Mapping the Protein-Protein Interface between a Toxin and its Cognate Antitoxin from the Bacterial Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Protein-protein interactions are ubiquitous and essential for most biological processes. Although new proteomic technologies have generated large catalogs of interacting proteins, considerably less is known about these interactions at the molecular level, information that would aid in predicting protein interactions, designing therapeutics to alter these interactions, and understanding the effects of disease-producing mutations. Here we describe mapping the interacting surfaces of the bacterial toxin SPN (Streptococcus pyogenes NAD+ hydrolase) in complex with its antitoxin IFS (immunity factor for SPN) by using hydrogen-deuterium amide exchange and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This approach affords data in a relatively short time for small amounts of protein, typically 5–7 pmol per analysis. The results show a good correspondence with a recently determined crystal structure of the IFS-SPN complex, but additionally provide strong evidence for a folding transition of the IFS protein that accompanies its binding to SPN. The outcome shows that mass-based chemical footprinting of protein interaction surfaces can provide information about protein dynamics that is not easily obtained by other methods and can potentially be applied to large, multi-protein complexes that are out of range for most solution-based methods of biophysical analysis. PMID:21466233

Sperry, Justin B.; Smith, Craig L.; Caparon, Michael G.; Ellenberger, Tom; Gross, Michael L.

2011-01-01

104

Leukotriene B4 enhances innate immune defense against the puerperal sepsis agent Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Puerperal sepsis is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a major etiologic agent of severe postpartum sepsis yet little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. Tissue macrophages provide innate defense against GAS and their actions are highly regulated. The intracellular second messenger cAMP can negatively regulate macrophage actions against GAS. Because leukotriene (LT) B4 has been shown to suppress intracellular cAMP in macrophages, we hypothesized that it could enhance innate defenses against GAS. We assessed the capacity of LTB4 to modulate anti-streptococcal actions of human macrophages, including placental and decidual macrophages and used a novel intrauterine infection model of GAS in mice lacking the 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) enzyme to determine the role of endogenous LTs in host defense against this pathogen. Animals lacking 5LO were significantly more vulnerable to intrauterine GAS infection than wild-type mice and showed enhanced dissemination of bacteria out of the uterus and a more robust inflammatory response compared to wild-type mice. Additionally, LTB4 reduced intracellular cAMP levels via the BLT1 receptor and was a potent stimulant of macrophage phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase-dependent intracellular killing of GAS. Importantly, interference was observed between the macrophage immunomodulatory actions of LTB4 and the cAMP-inducing lipid prostaglandin E2, suggesting that interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds may be important in vivo. This work underscores the potential for pharmacological targeting of lipid mediator signaling cascades in the treatment of invasive GAS infections. PMID:23325886

Soares, Elyara M.; Mason, Katie L.; Rogers, Lisa M.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Faccioli, Lucia H.; Aronoff, David M.

2012-01-01

105

Extensive genetic diversity among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M5.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M5 has been characterized. Strain genotypes were defined by macrorestriction profile, 16S ribotype, emm gene subtype, insertion element IS1239 profile, and exotoxin gene determinant. By these criteria, clinical isolates of M5 constituted a multiplicity of strain clusters rather than a homogeneous population as found for certain serotypes. Distance matrices and an unrooted tree were constructed from macrorestriction data with three rarely cutting endonucleases, determined by PFGE. A single IS1239 profile was common to 85% of isolates but there was great diversity of both ribotype and macrorestriction profile, and 18 different emm gene subtypes were detected by PCR-RFLP. DNA sequence analysis of the antigen-coding 5' (hypervariable) region of emm gene amplicons (about 240 bp) showed that 14/18 exhibited up to 6% divergence. Four amplicons had highly divergent sequences--corresponding to those previously determined for emm6, emm11, emm18 and emm77. Further serological and hybridization studies were used to analyse the discrepancy between the Lancefield serotype of these strains (M5) and their emm genotype. Overall, this study shows a high degree of genetic diversity in serotype M5, with implications for the Lancefield scheme itself, for the epidemiology of group A streptococci, and for recombinant DNA strategies for M protein-based vaccine development. PMID:9534234

Desai, M; Tanna, A; Efstratiou, A; George, R; Clewley, J; Stanley, J

1998-03-01

106

Role of surface residue 184 in the catalytic activity of NADH oxidase from Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpNox) is a flavoprotein harboring one molecule of noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide. It catalyzes the oxidation of NADH by reducing molecular O2 to H2O directly through a four-electron reduction. In this study, we selected the lysine residues on the surface of SpNox and mutated them into arginine residues to study the effect on the enzyme activity. A single-point mutation (K184R) at the surface of SpNox enhanced NADH oxidase activity by approximately 50 % and improved thermostability with 46.6 % longer half life at 30 °C. Further insights into the function of residue K184 were obtained by substituting it with other nonpolar, polar, positively charged, and negatively charged residues. To elucidate the role of this residue, computer-assisted molecular modeling and substrate docking were performed. The results demonstrate that even a single mutation at the surface of the enzyme induces changes in the interaction at the active site and affects the activity and stability. Additionally, the data also suggest that the K184R mutant can be used as an effective biocatalyst for NAD(+) regeneration in L-rare sugar production. PMID:24687749

Gao, Hui; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Raushan Kumar; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Jung-Kul

2014-08-01

107

Kinetic and Structural Characterization for Cofactor Preference of Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase from Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

The ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) that is found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms has been used in various ways as a signaling molecule or a significant component generating metabolic energy under conditions of nutrient limitation or stress, through GABA catabolism. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) catalyzes the oxidation of succinic semialdehyde to succinic acid in the final step of GABA catabolism. Here, we report the catalytic properties and two crystal structures of SSADH from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpSSADH) regarding its cofactor preference. Kinetic analysis showed that SpSSADH prefers NADP+ over NAD+ as a hydride acceptor. Moreover, the structures of SpSSADH were determined in an apo-form and in a binary complex with NADP+ at 1.6 Å and 2.1 Å resolutions, respectively. Both structures of SpSSADH showed dimeric conformation, containing a single cysteine residue in the catalytic loop of each subunit. Further structural analysis and sequence comparison of SpSSADH with other SSADHs revealed that Ser158 and Tyr188 in SpSSADH participate in the stabilization of the 2’-phosphate group of adenine-side ribose in NADP+. Our results provide structural insights into the cofactor preference of SpSSADH as the gram-positive bacterial SSADH. PMID:25256219

Jang, Eun Hyuk; Ah Park, Seong; Min Chi, Young; Lee, Ki Seog

2014-01-01

108

Kinetic and Structural Characterization for Cofactor Preference of Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase from Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

The ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) that is found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms has been used in various ways as a signaling molecule or a significant component generating metabolic energy under conditions of nutrient limitation or stress, through GABA catabolism. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) catalyzes the oxidation of succinic semialdehyde to succinic acid in the final step of GABA catabolism. Here, we report the catalytic properties and two crystal structures of SSADH from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpSSADH) regarding its cofactor preference. Kinetic analysis showed that SpSSADH prefers NADP(+) over NAD(+) as a hydride acceptor. Moreover, the structures of SpSSADH were determined in an apo-form and in a binary complex with NADP(+) at 1.6 Å and 2.1 Å resolutions, respectively. Both structures of SpSSADH showed dimeric conformation, containing a single cysteine residue in the catalytic loop of each subunit. Further structural analysis and sequence comparison of SpSSADH with other SSADHs revealed that Ser158 and Tyr188 in SpSSADH participate in the stabilization of the 2'-phosphate group of adenine-side ribose in NADP(+). Our results provide structural insights into the cofactor preference of SpSSADH as the gram-positive bacterial SSADH. PMID:25256219

Jang, Eun Hyuk; Park, Seong Ah; Chi, Young Min; Lee, Ki Seog

2014-10-31

109

The characterization of two new low molecular weight proteins (LMPs) from Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Two novel extracellular mitogenic substances were isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes strain NY-5 and characterized. The purification steps involved an initial enrichment of the proteins from culture supernatant by silica gel adsorption, followed by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The purified materials were homogeneous in SDS-PAGE, showed estimated molecular weights of 12 kD and isoelectric points of 4.7 and 4.3, respectively. Both proteins (LMP-12k-4.3pI and LMP-12k-4.7pI) demonstrated lymphocyte transformation activity at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml. The LMP-12k-4.7pI showed a 69.2% homology of the amino acid sequence with that of a phosphocarrier protein of Staphylococcus aureus and with a total identity in the active centre. The same protein was also isolated from streptococcal group C strain H46A with an N-terminal amino acid sequence being identical. The LMP-12k-4.7pI demonstrated biochemical properties identical with those of the earlier described streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type D. The LMP-12k-4.3pI did not show such a clear relation to other functional proteins. PMID:1520957

Gerlach, D; Alouf, H; Morávek, L; Pavlik, M; Köhler, W

1992-06-01

110

An Association Between Peptidoglycan Synthesis and Organization of the Streptococcus pyogenes ExPortal  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The ExPortal of Streptococcus pyogenes is a focal microdomain of the cytoplasmic membrane that clusters the translocons of the general secretory pathway with accessory factors to facilitate the maturation of secreted polypeptides. While it is known that the ExPortal is enriched in anionic lipids, the mechanisms that organize the ExPortal are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the role of the cell wall in organizing and maintaining the ExPortal. Removal of the cell wall resulted in a loss of ExPortal focal integrity accompanied by the circumferential redistribution of ExPortal lipid and protein components. A similar loss occurred upon treatment with gallidermin, a nonpermeabilizing lantibiotic that targets the lipid II precursor of peptidoglycan synthesis, and this treatment disrupted the secretion of several ExPortal substrates. Furthermore, several enzymes involved in the membrane-associated steps of lipid II synthesis, including MraY and MurN, were found to localize to a single discrete focus in the membrane that was coincident with the focal location of the secretory translocons and the anionic lipid microdomain. These data suggest that the ExPortal is associated with the site of peptidoglycan precursor synthesis and that peptidoglycan biogenesis influences ExPortal organization. These data add to an emerging literature indicating that cell wall biogenesis, cell division, and protein secretion are spatially coorganized processes. PMID:24065630

Vega, Luis Alberto; Port, Gary C.; Caparon, Michael G.

2013-01-01

111

Cellular aspects of M protein and SfbI anchoring to Streptococcus pyogenes wall  

PubMed Central

Summary Wall-anchored surface proteins are critical for the in vivo survival of Streptococcus pyogenes. Cues in the signal sequence direct the membrane translocation of surface proteins: M protein to the septum, and SfbI to the poles. Both proteins are subsequently anchored to the wall by the membrane bound enzyme sortase A. However, the cellular features of these pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that M protein and SfbI are anchored simultaneously throughout the cell cycle. M protein is rapidly anchored at the septum, and in part of the cell cycle, is anchored simultaneously at the mother and daughter septa. Conversely, SfbI accumulates gradually on peripheral peptidoglycan, resulting in a polar distribution. Sortase is not required for translocation of M protein or SfbI at their respective locations. Methicillin-induced unbalanced peptidoglycan synthesis diminishes surface M protein but not SfbI. Furthermore, overexpression of the division regulator DivIVA also diminishes surface M protein but increases SfbI. These results demonstrate a close connection between the regulation of cell division and protein anchoring. Better understanding of the spatial regulation of surface anchoring may lead to the identification of novel targets for the development of anti-infective agents, given the importance of surface molecules for pathogenesis. PMID:22512736

Raz, Assaf; Talay, Susanne; Fischetti, Vincent

2012-01-01

112

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes resistant to macrolides but sensitive to clindamycin: a common resistance pattern mediated by an efflux system.  

PubMed Central

Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Finland, Australia, and the United Kingdom and, more recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes strains from the United States were shown to have an unusual resistance pattern to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B antibiotics. This pattern, referred to as M resistance, consists of susceptibility to clindamycin and streptogramin B antibiotics but resistance to 14- and 15-membered macrolides. An evaluation of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotypes among our streptococcal strains collected from 1993 to 1995 suggested that this unusual resistance pattern is not rare. Eighty-five percent (n = 66) of the S. pneumoniae and 75% (n = 28) of the S. pyogenes strains in our collection had an M phenotype. The mechanism of M resistance was not mediated by target modification, as isolated ribosomes from a pneumococcal strain bearing the M phenotype were fully sensitive to erythromycin. Further, the presence of an erm methylase was excluded with primers specific for an erm consensus sequence. However, results of studies that determined the uptake and incorporation of radiolabeled erythromycin into cells were consistent with the presence of a macrolide efflux determinant. The putative efflux determinant in streptococci seems to be distinct from the multicomponent macrolide efflux system in coagulase-negative staphylococci. The recognition of the prevalence of the M phenotype in streptococci has implications for sensitivity testing and may have an impact on the choice of antibiotic therapy in clinical practice. PMID:8843287

Sutcliffe, J; Tait-Kamradt, A; Wondrack, L

1996-01-01

113

Outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes emm type 58 in a high dependency unit of a level-1 trauma center of India  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can cause illnesses ranging from self-limited to severe, life-threatening, invasive infections. The objective of the following study was to investigate a suspected Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak in a high dependency unit (HDU) of our trauma center. Materials and Methods: All the isolates of beta hemolytic Streptococci were identified by standard microbiological methods, Vitek 2 system and latex agglutination tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Exotoxin genes, including speA, speB, speC, speF, smeZ, ssa, speG, speH, speJ, speL, speM and speI were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The emm types of isolates of S. pyogenes were determined by sequencing the variable 5’ end of emm gene after amplification by PCR. Results: In a 28 bedded poly-trauma ward with a four bedded HDU three out of four patients developed S. pyogenes emm type 58 infection. The strain was macrolide and tetracycline resistant and produced the Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins speB, speC, speG, speF and smeZ. Surveillance sampling was done for investigation from patients, health-care workers and environmental samples. Conclusion: An outbreak of GAS infections was established caused by the uncommonly reported emm type 58. The outbreak was controlled by prompt treatment, intensive surveillance, feedback and training. PMID:24678149

Mathur, Purva; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Gupta, Gunjan; Punia, Parul; Tak, Vibhor; John, Nibu Varghese; Agrawal, Deepak; Misra, Manesh C.

2014-01-01

114

Type I Interferon Production Induced by Streptococcus pyogenes-Derived Nucleic Acids Is Required for Host Protection  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive human pathogen that is recognized by yet unknown pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Engagement of these receptor molecules during infection with S. pyogenes, a largely extracellular bacterium with limited capacity for intracellular survival, causes innate immune cells to produce inflammatory mediators such as TNF, but also type I interferon (IFN). Here we show that signaling elicited by type I IFNs is required for successful defense of mice against lethal subcutaneous cellulitis caused by S. pyogenes. Type I IFN signaling was accompanied with reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. Mechanistic analysis revealed that macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) employ different signaling pathways leading to IFN-beta production. Macrophages required IRF3, STING, TBK1 and partially MyD88, whereas in cDCs the IFN-beta production was fully dependent on IRF5 and MyD88. Furthermore, IFN-beta production by macrophages was dependent on the endosomal delivery of streptococcal DNA, while in cDCs streptococcal RNA was identified as the IFN-beta inducer. Despite a role of MyD88 in both cell types, the known IFN-inducing TLRs were individually not required for generation of the IFN-beta response. These results demonstrate that the innate immune system employs several strategies to efficiently recognize S. pyogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that succeeded in avoiding recognition by the standard arsenal of TLRs. PMID:21625574

Gratz, Nina; Hartweger, Harald; Matt, Ulrich; Kratochvill, Franz; Janos, Marton; Sigel, Stefanie; Drobits, Barbara; Li, Xiao-Dong; Knapp, Sylvia; Kovarik, Pavel

2011-01-01

115

Type I interferon production induced by Streptococcus pyogenes-derived nucleic acids is required for host protection.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive human pathogen that is recognized by yet unknown pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Engagement of these receptor molecules during infection with S. pyogenes, a largely extracellular bacterium with limited capacity for intracellular survival, causes innate immune cells to produce inflammatory mediators such as TNF, but also type I interferon (IFN). Here we show that signaling elicited by type I IFNs is required for successful defense of mice against lethal subcutaneous cellulitis caused by S. pyogenes. Type I IFN signaling was accompanied with reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. Mechanistic analysis revealed that macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) employ different signaling pathways leading to IFN-beta production. Macrophages required IRF3, STING, TBK1 and partially MyD88, whereas in cDCs the IFN-beta production was fully dependent on IRF5 and MyD88. Furthermore, IFN-beta production by macrophages was dependent on the endosomal delivery of streptococcal DNA, while in cDCs streptococcal RNA was identified as the IFN-beta inducer. Despite a role of MyD88 in both cell types, the known IFN-inducing TLRs were individually not required for generation of the IFN-beta response. These results demonstrate that the innate immune system employs several strategies to efficiently recognize S. pyogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that succeeded in avoiding recognition by the standard arsenal of TLRs. PMID:21625574

Gratz, Nina; Hartweger, Harald; Matt, Ulrich; Kratochvill, Franz; Janos, Marton; Sigel, Stefanie; Drobits, Barbara; Li, Xiao-Dong; Knapp, Sylvia; Kovarik, Pavel

2011-05-01

116

Molecular modeling and simulation of FabG, an enzyme involved in the fatty acid pathway of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes (SP) is the major cause of pharyngitis accompanied by strep throat infections in humans. 3-keto acyl reductase (FabG), an important enzyme involved in the elongation cycle of the fatty acid pathway of S. pyogenes, is essential for synthesis of the cell-membrane, virulence factors and quorum sensing-related mechanisms. Targeting SPFabG may provide an important aid for the development of drugs against S. pyogenes. However, the absence of a crystal structure for FabG of S. pyogenes limits the development of structure-based drug designs. Hence, in the present study, a homology model of FabG was generated using the X-ray crystallographic structure of Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 2PNF). The modeled structure was refined using energy minimization. Furthermore, active sites were predicted, and a large dataset of compounds was screened against SPFabG. The ligands were docked using the LigandFit module that is available from Discovery Studio version 2.5. From this list, 13 best hit ligands were chosen based on the docking score and binding energy. All of the 13 ligands were screened for Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADMET) properties. From this, the two best descriptors, along with one descriptor that lay outside the ADMET plot, were selected for molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. In vitro testing of the ligands using biological assays further substantiated the efficacy of the ligands that were screened based on the in silico methods. PMID:23988477

Shafreen, Rajamohmed Beema; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2013-09-01

117

The Fibronectin-Binding Protein ofStreptococcus pyogenes, SfbI, Is Involved in the Internalization of Group A Streptococci by Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pyogenes organisms (group A streptococci) are considered to be highly adhesive extracellular pathogens. However, it has recently been reported that S. pyogenes has the capacity to efficiently invade eukaryotic cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of S. pyogenesfibronectin-binding protein (SfbI) with fibronectin on nonphagocytic HEp-2 cells triggers bacterial internalization. Blocking of the SfbI adhesin by either

GABRIELLA MOLINARI; SUSANNE R. TALAY; PETER VALENTIN-WEIGAND

1997-01-01

118

Single- and multistep resistance selection studies on the activity of retapamulin compared to other agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Retapamulin had the lowest rate of spontaneous mutations by single-step passaging and the lowest parent and selected mutant MICs by multistep passaging among all drugs tested for all Staphylococcus aureus strains and three Streptococcus pyogenes strains which yielded resistant clones. Retapamulin has a low potential for resistance selection in S. pyogenes, with a slow and gradual propensity for resistance development in S. aureus. PMID:16436741

Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Appelbaum, Peter C

2006-02-01

119

Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements carrying mef(I) and catQ determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

The linkage between the macrolide efflux gene mef(I) and the chloramphenicol inactivation gene catQ was first described in Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain Spn529), where the two genes are located in a module designated IQ element. Subsequently, two different defective IQ elements were detected in Streptococcus pyogenes (strains Spy029 and Spy005). The genetic elements carrying the three IQ elements were characterized, and all were found to be Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). The ICE from S. pneumoniae (ICESpn529IQ) was sequenced, whereas the ICEs from S. pyogenes (ICESpy029IQ and ICESpy005IQ, the first Tn5253-like ICEs reported in this species) were characterized by PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and restriction analysis. ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ were found to share the intSp 23FST81 integrase gene and an identical Tn916 fragment, whereas ICESpy005IQ has int5252 and lacks Tn916. All three ICEs were found to lack the linearized pC194 plasmid that is usually associated with Tn5253-like ICEs, and all displayed a single copy of a toxin-antitoxin operon that is typically contained in the direct repeats flanking the excisable pC194 region when this region is present. Two different insertion sites of the IQ elements were detected, one in ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ, and another in ICESpy005IQ. The chromosomal integration of the three ICEs was site specific, depending on the integrase (intSp 23FST81 or int5252). Only ICESpy005IQ was excised in circular form and transferred by conjugation. By transformation, mef(I) and catQ were cotransferred at a high frequency from S. pyogenes Spy005 and at very low frequencies from S. pneumoniae Spn529 and S. pyogenes Spy029. PMID:25070090

Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Morroni, Gianluca; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Del Grosso, Maria; Pantosti, Annalisa; Varaldo, Pietro E

2014-10-01

120

The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases  

SciTech Connect

Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Pavia); (Lund); (Southern Research)

2011-09-20

121

Streptococcus pyogenes polymyxin B-resistant mutants display enhanced ExPortal integrity.  

PubMed

The ExPortal protein secretion organelle in Streptococcus pyogenes is an anionic phospholipid-containing membrane microdomain enriched in Sec translocons and postsecretion protein biogenesis factors. Polymyxin B binds to and disrupts ExPortal integrity, resulting in defective secretion of several toxins. To gain insight into factors that influence ExPortal organization, a genetic screen was conducted to select for spontaneous polymyxin B-resistant mutants displaying enhanced ExPortal integrity. Whole-genome resequencing of 25 resistant mutants revealed from one to four mutations per mutant genome clustered primarily within a core set of 10 gene groups. Construction of mutants with individual deletions or insertions demonstrated that 7 core genes confer resistance and enhanced ExPortal integrity through loss of function, while 3 were likely due to gain of function and/or combinatorial effects. Core resistance genes include a transcriptional regulator of lipid biosynthesis, several genes involved in nutrient acquisition, and a variety of genes involved in stress responses. Two members of the latter class also function as novel regulators of the secreted SpeB cysteine protease. Analysis of the most frequently isolated mutation, a single nucleotide deletion in a track of 9 consecutive adenine residues in pstS, encoding a component of a high-affinity Pi transporter, suggests that this sequence functions as a molecular switch to facilitate stress adaptation. Together, these data suggest the existence of a membrane stress response that promotes enhanced ExPortal integrity and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24794568

Port, Gary C; Vega, Luis A; Nylander, Andrew B; Caparon, Michael G

2014-07-01

122

Protective Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Streptococci against Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilm Formation and Epithelial Cell Infection  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) encounter many streptococcal species of the physiological microbial biome when entering the upper respiratory tract of humans, leading to the question how GAS interact with these bacteria in order to establish themselves at this anatomic site and initiate infection. Here we show that S. oralis and S. salivarius in direct contact assays inhibit growth of GAS in a strain-specific manner and that S. salivarius, most likely via bacteriocin secretion, also exerts this effect in transwell experiments. Utilizing scanning electron microscopy documentation, we identified the tested strains as potent biofilm producers except for GAS M49. In mixed-species biofilms, S. salivarius dominated the GAS strains, while S. oralis acted as initial colonizer, building the bottom layer in mixed biofilms and thereby allowing even GAS M49 to form substantial biofilms on top. With the exception of S. oralis, artificial saliva reduced single-species biofilms and allowed GAS to dominate in mixed biofilms, although the overall two-layer structure was unchanged. When covered by S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms, epithelial cells were protected from GAS adherence, internalization, and cytotoxic effects. Apparently, these species can have probiotic effects. The use of Affymetrix array technology to assess HEp-2 cell transcription levels revealed modest changes after exposure to S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms which could explain some of the protective effects against GAS attack. In summary, our study revealed a protection effect of respiratory tract bacteria against an important airway pathogen and allowed a first in vitro insight into local environmental processes after GAS enter the respiratory tract. PMID:23241973

Fiedler, Tomas; Riani, Catur; Koczan, Dirk; Standar, Kerstin

2013-01-01

123

[Noninstrumental immunoanalysis based on dyed polyacrolein latexes. Determination of a group-specific polysaccharide from Streptococcus pyogenes].  

PubMed

Non-instrumental immunoassays based on immunofiltration and microtiter particle agglutination (MPA) techniques have been developed using coloured polyacrolein latex. These methods have been applied to the quantification of the group-specific polysaccharide (PS) of S. pyogenes (group A streptococcus) and compared with standard ELISA tests. The most efficient method was MPA; as little as 0.05 ng A-PS/ml could be detected in 1.5 h. In comparison with ELISA test, the sensitivity of MPA was 10 times higher and the procedure was much simpler. The sensitivity of immunofiltration assay using both enzyme and latex conjugates was shown to be the same (50 ng/ml A-PS) and the duration of the assay 3-5 min. No cross-reactions of latex conjugates with non A streptococcus cell lysates have been observed. The developed methods are rapid, robust, easy to perform, don't need any sophisticated equipment and specially trained staff. PMID:7993377

Pvlova, I S; Lukin, Iu V; Kovalenko, V A; Avdeev, D N; Kul'shin, V A; Zubov, V P

1994-07-01

124

Crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes EndoS, an immunomodulatory endoglycosidase specific for human IgG antibodies.  

PubMed

To evade host immune mechanisms, many bacteria secrete immunomodulatory enzymes. Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common human pathogens, secretes a large endoglycosidase, EndoS, which removes carbohydrates in a highly specific manner from IgG antibodies. This modification renders antibodies incapable of eliciting host effector functions through either complement or Fc ? receptors, providing the bacteria with a survival advantage. On account of this antibody-specific modifying activity, EndoS is being developed as a promising injectable therapeutic for autoimmune diseases that rely on autoantibodies. Additionally, EndoS is a key enzyme used in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogenously glycosylated antibodies with tailored Fc ? receptor-mediated effector functions. Despite the tremendous utility of this enzyme, the molecular basis of EndoS specificity for, and processing of, IgG antibodies has remained poorly understood. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of EndoS and provide a model of its encounter complex with its substrate, the IgG1 Fc domain. We show that EndoS is composed of five distinct protein domains, including glycosidase, leucine-rich repeat, hybrid Ig, carbohydrate binding module, and three-helix bundle domains, arranged in a distinctive V-shaped conformation. Our data suggest that the substrate enters the concave interior of the enzyme structure, is held in place by the carbohydrate binding module, and that concerted conformational changes in both enzyme and substrate are required for subsequent antibody deglycosylation. The EndoS structure presented here provides a framework from which novel endoglycosidases could be engineered for additional clinical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24753590

Trastoy, Beatriz; Lomino, Joseph V; Pierce, Brian G; Carter, Lester G; Günther, Sebastian; Giddens, John P; Snyder, Greg A; Weiss, Thomas M; Weng, Zhiping; Wang, Lai-Xi; Sundberg, Eric J

2014-05-01

125

Crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes EndoS, an immunomodulatory endoglycosidase specific for human IgG antibodies  

PubMed Central

To evade host immune mechanisms, many bacteria secrete immunomodulatory enzymes. Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common human pathogens, secretes a large endoglycosidase, EndoS, which removes carbohydrates in a highly specific manner from IgG antibodies. This modification renders antibodies incapable of eliciting host effector functions through either complement or Fc ? receptors, providing the bacteria with a survival advantage. On account of this antibody-specific modifying activity, EndoS is being developed as a promising injectable therapeutic for autoimmune diseases that rely on autoantibodies. Additionally, EndoS is a key enzyme used in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogenously glycosylated antibodies with tailored Fc ? receptor-mediated effector functions. Despite the tremendous utility of this enzyme, the molecular basis of EndoS specificity for, and processing of, IgG antibodies has remained poorly understood. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of EndoS and provide a model of its encounter complex with its substrate, the IgG1 Fc domain. We show that EndoS is composed of five distinct protein domains, including glycosidase, leucine-rich repeat, hybrid Ig, carbohydrate binding module, and three-helix bundle domains, arranged in a distinctive V-shaped conformation. Our data suggest that the substrate enters the concave interior of the enzyme structure, is held in place by the carbohydrate binding module, and that concerted conformational changes in both enzyme and substrate are required for subsequent antibody deglycosylation. The EndoS structure presented here provides a framework from which novel endoglycosidases could be engineered for additional clinical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24753590

Trastoy, Beatriz; Lomino, Joseph V.; Pierce, Brian G.; Carter, Lester G.; Günther, Sebastian; Giddens, John P.; Snyder, Greg A.; Weiss, Thomas M.; Weng, Zhiping; Wang, Lai-Xi; Sundberg, Eric J.

2014-01-01

126

Simultaneous isolation of emm89-type Streptococcus pyogenes strains with a wild-type or mutated covS gene from a single streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patient.  

PubMed

Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a re-emerging infectious disease in many developed countries. Recent studies have suggested that mutations in CovRS, a two-component regulatory system in Streptococcus pyogenes, play important roles in the pathogenesis of STSS. However, in vivo evidence of the significance of CovRS in human infections has not been fully demonstrated. We investigated five S. pyogenes strains isolated simultaneously from the pharynx, sputum, knee joint, cerebrospinal fluid and blood of a single STSS patient. All were emm89-type strains, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed that the strains of pharynx and blood were isogenic. The growth rates of the strains from pharynx and sputum were faster than those of the other strains. Protein profiles of the culture supernatants of strains from the pharynx and sputum were also different from those of the other strains. Sequence analyses revealed that strains from the knee joint, cerebrospinal fluid and blood contained a single nucleotide difference in the covS coding region, resulting in one amino acid change, compared with the other strains. Introduction of a plasmid containing the covS gene from the pharynx strain to the blood strain increased the production of SpeB protein. This suggests that the one amino acid alteration in CovS was relevant to pathogenesis. This report supports the idea that mutated CovS plays important roles in vivo in the dissemination of S. pyogenes from the upper respiratory tract of human to aseptic tissues such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:24464696

Masuno, Katsuaki; Okada, Ryo; Zhang, Yan; Isaka, Masanori; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shibata, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tadao

2014-04-01

127

[Primary peritonitis combined with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following an upper respiratory tract infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes].  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman with no previous history of major health problems presented with an acute abdomen and symptoms of shock. Three days earlier she had been diagnosed as having acute laryngitis which was treated with steroids. On admission she was suffering from hypotension, renal failure, liver failure and coagulopathy. Emergency laparotomy revealed purulent fluid spread diffusely throughout the abdominal cavity. Streptococcus pyogenes was grown in culture from this fluid, enabling a diagnosis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) with primary peritonitis to be made. This combination is rare, and has been described only a few times. Only one other patient is known in whom this combination was preceded by respiratory symptoms. The treatment consists of abdominal lavage, intravenous administration of antibiotics and immunoglobulins, and support for renal function, liver function, respiration and coagulation. PMID:18512531

Van Den Bossche, M J A; Devriendt, D; Weyne, L; Van Ranst, M

2008-04-12

128

Nucleotide sequence of the type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) gene from Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage T12.  

PubMed Central

The gene specifying type A streptococcal exotoxin (speA), also known as erythrogenic toxin, was cloned from the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage T12 genome and analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. The speA gene consists of 753 base pairs and codes for a 29,244-molecular-weight protein. The speA gene product contains a putative 30-amino acid signal peptide, resulting in a molecular weight of 25,787 for the secreted protein. A possible promoter and ribosome-binding site are present in the region upstream from the speA gene, and a transcriptional terminator is located 69 bases downstream from the translational termination codon. The amino acid sequence of the carboxy-terminal portion of the type A streptococcal exotoxin exhibits extensive homology with the carboxy terminus of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins B and C1. PMID:3514452

Weeks, C R; Ferretti, J J

1986-01-01

129

Illustration of a common framework for relating multiple typing methods by application to macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

The studies that correlate the results obtained by different typing methodologies rely solely on qualitative comparisons of the groups defined by each methodology. We propose a framework of measures for the quantitative assessment of correspondences between different typing methods as a first step to the global mapping of type equivalences. A collection of 325 macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates associated with pharyngitis cases in Portugal was used to benchmark the proposed measures. All isolates were characterized by macrolide resistance phenotyping, T serotyping, emm sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), using SmaI or Cfr9I and SfiI. A subset of 41 isolates, representing each PFGE cluster, was also characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The application of Adjusted Rand and Wallace indices allowed the evaluation of the strength and the directionality of the correspondences between the various typing methods and showed that if PFGE or MLST data are available one can confidently predict the emm type (Wallace coefficients of 0.952 for both methods). In contrast, emm typing was a poor predictor of PFGE cluster or MLST sequence type (Wallace coefficients of 0.803 and 0.655, respectively). This was confirmed by the analysis of the larger data set available from http://spyogenes.mlst.net and underscores the necessity of performing PFGE or MLST to unambiguously define clones in S. pyogenes. PMID:16825375

Carriço, J A; Silva-Costa, C; Melo-Cristino, J; Pinto, F R; de Lencastre, H; Almeida, J S; Ramirez, M

2006-07-01

130

Emergence of type I restriction modification system-negative emm1 type Streptococcus pyogenes clinical isolates in Japan.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes emm1 type is the dominant cause of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) in Japan and many other developed countries. Recently, the number of STSS patients in Japan was reported to be increasing. Hence, we analyzed the S. pyogenes clinical isolates detected in Japan after 2005. We found that the regions encoding the Spy1908–1910 two-component regulatory system and the adjacent type I restriction modification system were deleted in some emm1 type isolates. The isolates with the deletion were detected only in the emm1 strains that were isolated between 2010 and 2013, but not before 2010. Twenty-six of 46 (56.5%) emm1 type isolates were isolated in 2010–2013, and among these isolates, five of seven (71.4%) emm1 type STSS isolates were shown to have that deletion. PFGE and PCR analysis for the presence of several pyrogenic exotoxin-related genes suggested that the emm1 isolates with and without the deletion shared the same genetic background. The emm1 isolates with the deletion could incorporate exogenous plasmids by experimental electroporation transformation far more efficiently. These results suggested that the novel emm1 isolates have occupied a fairly large part of total emm1 isolates. PMID:25356467

Okada, Ryo; Matsumoto, Masakado; Zhang, Yan; Isaka, Masanori; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Hasegawa, Tadao

2014-10-01

131

Non-instrumental immunoassay based on coloured polyacrolein latex: application to group-specific polysaccharide of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Non-instrumental immunoassay methods based on immunofiltration and microtiter particle agglutination (MPA) techniques have been developed using coloured polyacrolein latex. These methods have been applied to the quantification of the group-specific polysaccharide, A-PS, of S.pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) and compared to the standard ELISA tests. The assay with the ability to detect the lowest concentration of antigen was MPA; as little as 0.05 ng A-PS/ml or 10(4) cells/ml could be detected in 1.5 h. In comparison to ELISA test the sensitivity of MPA was 10 times higher and the procedure of the assay was much more simple. The sensitivity of the immunofiltration assay using both enzyme and latex markers was shown to be the same (50 ng A-PS/ml) and the duration of the assay 3-5 min. No cross-reactions of latex conjugates with non A Streptococcus cell lysates have been observed. The developed methods are easy to perform and require neither sophisticated equipment nor specially trained personal. PMID:7629278

Pavlova, I S; Lukin, Y V; Avdeev, D N; Kulshin, V A

1995-05-01

132

Cleavage of Interleukin 1beta (IL1beta) Precursor to Produce Active IL1beta by a Conserved Extracellular Cysteine Protease from Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B), a conserved extracellular cysteine protease expressed by the human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, was purified and shown to cleave inactive human interleukin 1beta precursor (pIL-1beta) to produce biologically active IL-1beta. SPE B cleaves pIL-1beta one residue amino-terminal to the site where a recently characterized endogenous human cysteine protease acts. IL-1beta resulting from cleavage of

Vivek Kapur; Mark W. Majesky; Ling-Ling Li; Roy A. Black; James M. Musser

1993-01-01

133

A Two-Component Regulatory System, CsrR-CsrS, Represses Expression of Three Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence Factors, Hyaluronic Acid Capsule, Streptolysin S, and Pyrogenic Exotoxin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain Tn916 insertions in the chromosome of an M1-type, nonmucoid Streptococcus pyogenes isolate (MGAS166) were previously shown to result in stable mucoidy with increased expression of the capsular synthetic genes. The transposon insertions in these strains are directly upstream of an apparent operon encoding a two-component regulatory system, designated csrR-csrS. Compared with MGAS166, these mucoid mutants are more hemolytic and

ANDREW HEATH; VICTOR J. DIRITA; NEIL L. BARG; N. CARY ENGLEBERG

1999-01-01

134

Multiple length peptide-pheromone variants produced by Streptococcus pyogenes directly bind Rgg proteins to confer transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pyogenes, a human-restricted pathogen, accounts for substantial mortality related to infections worldwide. Recent studies indicate that streptococci produce and respond to several secreted peptide signaling molecules (pheromones), including those known as short hydrophobic peptides (SHPs), to regulate gene expression by a quorum-sensing mechanism. Upon transport into the bacterial cell, pheromones bind to and modulate activity of receptor proteins belonging to the Rgg family of transcription factors. Previously, we reported biofilm regulation by the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing circuit in S. pyogenes. The aim of this study was to identify the composition of mature pheromones from cell-free culture supernatants that facilitate biofilm formation. Bioluminescent reporters were employed to detect active pheromones in culture supernatants fractionated by reverse-phase chromatography, and mass spectrometry was used to characterize their properties. Surprisingly, multiple SHPs that varied by length were detected. Synthetic peptides of each variant were tested individually using bioluminescence reporters and biofilm growth assays, and although activities differed widely among the group, peptides comprising the C-terminal eight amino acids of the full-length native peptide were most active. Direct Rgg/SHP interactions were determined using a fluorescence polarization assay that utilized FITC-labeled peptide ligands. Peptide receptor affinities were seen to be as low as 500 nm and their binding affinities directly correlated with observed bioactivity. Revelation of naturally produced pheromones along with determination of their affinity for cognate receptors are important steps forward in designing compounds whose purpose is positioned for future therapeutics aimed at treating infections through the interference of bacterial communication. PMID:24958729

Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Nanavati, Dhaval; Federle, Michael J

2014-08-01

135

Proteome-wide selected reaction monitoring assays for the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is a targeted proteomics technology used to identify and quantify proteins with high sensitivity, specificity and high reproducibility. Execution of SRM-MS relies on protein-specific SRM assays, a set of experimental parameters that requires considerable effort to develop. Here we present a proteome-wide SRM assay repository for the gram-positive human pathogen group A Streptococcus. Using a multi-layered approach we generated SRM assays for 10,412 distinct group A Streptococcus peptides followed by extensive testing of the selected reaction monitoring assays in >200 different group A Streptococcus protein pools. Based on the number of SRM assay observations we created a rule-based selected reaction monitoring assay-scoring model to select the most suitable assays per protein for a given cellular compartment and bacterial state. The resource described here represents an important tool for deciphering the group A Streptococcus proteome using selected reaction monitoring and we anticipate that concepts described here can be extended to other pathogens. PMID:23250431

Karlsson, Christofer; Malmstrom, Lars; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmstrom, Johan

2012-01-01

136

A highly active and negatively charged Streptococcus pyogenes lysin with a rare D-alanyl-L-alanine endopeptidase activity protects mice against streptococcal bacteremia.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage endolysins have shown great efficacy in killing Gram-positive bacteria. PlyC, a group C streptococcal phage lysin, represents the most efficient lysin characterized to date, with a remarkably high specificity against different streptococcal species, including the important pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. However, PlyC is a unique lysin, in terms of both its high activity and structure (two distinct subunits). We sought to discover and characterize a phage lysin active against S. pyogenes with an endolysin architecture distinct from that of PlyC to determine if it relies on the same mechanism of action as PlyC. In this study, we identified and characterized an endolysin, termed PlyPy (phage lysin from S. pyogenes), from a prophage infecting S. pyogenes. By in silico analysis, PlyPy was found to have a molecular mass of 27.8 kDa and a pI of 4.16. It was active against a majority of group A streptococci and displayed high levels of activity as well as binding specificity against group B and C streptococci, while it was less efficient against other streptococcal species. PlyPy showed the highest activity at neutral pH in the presence of calcium and NaCl. Surprisingly, its activity was not affected by the presence of the group A-specific carbohydrate, while the activity of PlyC was partly inhibited. Additionally, PlyPy was active in vivo and could rescue mice from systemic bacteremia. Finally, we developed a novel method to determine the peptidoglycan bond cleaved by lysins and concluded that PlyPy exhibits a rare d-alanyl-l-alanine endopeptidase activity. PlyPy thus represents the first lysin characterized from Streptococcus pyogenes and has a mechanism of action distinct from that of PlyC. PMID:24637688

Lood, Rolf; Raz, Assaf; Molina, Henrik; Euler, Chad W; Fischetti, Vincent A

2014-06-01

137

Dynamin inhibition interferes with inflammasome activation and cytokine gene expression in Streptococcus pyogenes-infected human macrophages.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have analysed the ability of Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A streptococcus (GAS)] to activate the NACHT-domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and PYD-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome complex in human monocyte-derived macrophages and the molecules and signalling pathways involved in GAS-induced inflammatory responses. We focused upon analysing the impact of dynamin-dependent endocytosis and the role of major streptococcal virulence factors streptolysin O (SLO) and streptolysin S (SLS) in the immune responses induced by GAS. These virulence factors are involved in immune evasion by forming pores in host cell membranes, and aid the bacteria to escape from the endosome-lysosome pathway. We analysed cytokine gene expression in human primary macrophages after stimulation with live or inactivated wild-type GAS as well as with live SLO and SLS defective bacteria. Interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-10 cytokines were produced after bacterial stimulation in a dose-dependent manner and no differences in cytokine levels were seen between live, inactivated or mutant bacteria. These data suggest that streptolysins or other secreted bacterial products are not required for the inflammatory responses induced by GAS. Our data indicate that inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis in macrophages attenuates the induction of IL-1?, TNF-?, interferon (IFN)-? and CXCL-10 mRNAs. We also observed that pro-IL-1? protein was expressed and efficiently cleaved into mature-IL-1? via inflammasome activation after bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that multiple signalling pathways are involved in GAS-stimulated inflammatory responses in human macrophages. PMID:25079511

Latvala, S; Mäkelä, S M; Miettinen, M; Charpentier, E; Julkunen, I

2014-11-01

138

Generation and Surface Localization of Intact M Protein in Streptococcus pyogenes Are Dependent on sagA  

PubMed Central

The M protein is an important surface-located virulence factor of Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus (GAS). Expression of M protein is primarily controlled by Mga, a transcriptional activator protein. A recent report suggested that the sag locus, which includes nine genes necessary and sufficient for production of streptolysin S, another GAS virulence factor, is also needed for transcription of emm, encoding the M protein (Z. Li, D. D. Sledjeski, B. Kreikemeyer, A. Podbielski, and M. D. Boyle, J. Bacteriol. 181:6019–6027, 1999). To investigate this in more detail, we constructed an insertion-deletion mutation in sagA, the first gene in the sag locus, in the M6 strain JRS4. The resulting strain, JRS470, produced no detectable streptolysin S and showed a drastic reduction in cell surface-associated M protein, as measured by cell aggregation and Western blot analysis. However, transcription of the emm gene was unaffected by the sagA mutation. Detailed analysis with monoclonal antibodies and an antipeptide antibody showed that the M protein in the sagA mutant strain was truncated so that it lacks the C-repeat region and the C-terminal domain required for anchoring it to the cell surface. This truncated M protein was largely found, as expected, in the culture supernatant. Lack of surface-located M protein made the sagA mutant strain susceptible to phagocytosis. Thus, although sagA does not affect transcription of the M6 protein gene, it is needed for the surface localization of this important virulence factor. PMID:11598078

Biswas, Indranil; Germon, Pierre; McDade, Kathleen; Scott, June R.

2001-01-01

139

A peptide antagonist of CD28 signaling attenuates toxic shock and necrotizing soft-tissue infection induced by Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) express superantigen (SAg) exotoxin proteins capable of inducing lethal shock. To induce toxicity, SAgs must bind not only to the major histocompatibility complex II molecule of antigen-presenting cells and the variable ? chain of the T-cell receptor but also to the dimer interface of the T-cell costimulatory receptor CD28. Here, we show that the CD28-mimetic peptide AB103 (originally designated "p2TA") protects mice from lethal challenge with streptococcal exotoxin A, as well as from lethal GAS bacterial infection in a murine model of necrotizing soft-tissue infection. Administration of a single dose of AB103 increased survival when given up to 5 hours after infection, reduced inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial burden at the site of infection, and improved muscle inflammation in a dose-dependent manner, without compromising cellular and humoral immunity. Thus, AB103 merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic in SAg-mediated necrotizing soft-tissue infection. PMID:23493729

Ramachandran, Girish; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Harris, Kristina M; Arad, Gila; Shirvan, Anat; Shemesh, Ronen; Detolla, Louis J; Benazzi, Cinzia; Opal, Steven M; Kaempfer, Raymond; Cross, Alan S

2013-06-15

140

Inactivation of Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease significantly decreases mouse lethality of serotype M3 and M49 strains.  

PubMed Central

Cysteine proteases have been implicated as important virulence factors in a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, but little direct evidence has been presented to support this notion. Virtually all strains of the human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes express a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). Two sets of isogenic strains deficient in SpeB cysteine protease activity were constructed by integrational mutagenesis using nonreplicating recombinant plasmids containing a truncated segment of the speB gene. Immunoblot analyses and enzyme assays confirmed that the mutant derivatives were deficient in expression of enzymatically active SpeB cysteine protease. To test the hypothesis that the cysteine protease participates in host mortality, we assessed the ability of serotype M3 and M49 wild-type strains and isogenic protease-negative mutants to cause death in outbred mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Compared to wild-type parental organisms, the serotype M3 speB mutant lost virtually all ability to cause mouse death (P < 0.00001), and similarly, the virulence of the M49 mutant was detrimentally altered (P < 0.005). The data unambiguously demonstrate that the streptococcal enzyme is a virulence factor, and thereby provide additional evidence that microbial cysteine proteases are critical in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:9169486

Lukomski, S; Sreevatsan, S; Amberg, C; Reichardt, W; Woischnik, M; Podbielski, A; Musser, J M

1997-01-01

141

Invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes: seasonal variation of severity and clinical characteristics, Iceland, 1975 to 2012.  

PubMed

Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of invasive Group A streptococcal infections (IGASI) are highly variable. Long-term studies are needed to understand the interplay between epidemiology and virulence. In a population-based study of IGASI in Iceland from 1975 to 2012, 288 cases were identified by positive cultures from normally sterile body sites. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and emm-types of viable Streptococcus pyogenes isolates (n=226) determined. Comparing the first and last decade of the study period, IGASI incidence increased from 1.09 to 3.96 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The most common were emm types 1 (25%), 28 (11%) and 89 (11%); emm1 strains were most likely to cause severe infections. Infections in adults were significantly more likely to be severe during the seasonal peak from January to April (risk ratio: 2.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.34–4.15). Significant seasonal variability in severity was noted among patients with diagnosis of sepsis, respiratory infection and cellulitis, with 38% of severe infections in January to April compared with 16% in other months (p<0.01). A seasonal increase in severity of IGASI suggested that generalised seasonal increase in host susceptibility, rather than introduction of more virulent strains may play a role in the pathogenesis of these potentially fatal infections. PMID:24821122

Olafsdottir, L B; Erlendsdóttir, H; Melo-Cristino, J; Weinberger, D M; Ramirez, M; Kristinsson, K G; Gottfredsson, M

2014-01-01

142

Closed Genome Sequence of Noninvasive Streptococcus pyogenes M/emm3 Strain STAB902  

PubMed Central

We report a closed genome sequence of group A Streptococcus genotype emm3 (GAS M/emm3) strain STAB902, isolated from a superficial pyodermatitis. The genome is composed of 1,892,124 bp, 6 integrated prophages, and has 1,858 identified coding sequences (CDSs). It has been fitted with the two available invasive GAS M/emm3 strains. PMID:25169855

Soriano, Nicolas; Vincent, Pascal; Moullec, Severine; Meygret, Alexandra; Lagente, Vincent

2014-01-01

143

Potential antibiotic and anti-infective effects of rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. on Streptococcus pyogenes as revealed by proteomics.  

PubMed

Rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf extract has a strong antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Our previous studies indicated that the bactericidal activity of rhodomyrtone might involve intracellular targets. In the present studies we followed a proteomics approach to investigate the mode of action of rhodomyrtone on S. pyogenes. For this purpose, S. pyogenes was cultivated in the presence of 0.39 ?g/ml rhodomyrtone, which corresponds to 50% of the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results show that the amounts of various enzymes associated with important metabolic pathways were strongly affected, which is consistent with the growth-inhibiting effect of rhodomyrtone. Additionally, cells of S. pyogenes grown in the presence of rhodomyrtone produced reduced amounts of known virulence factors, such as the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the CAMP factor, and the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C. Taken together, these findings indicate that rhodomyrtone has both antimicrobial and anti-infective activities, which make it an interesting candidate drug. PMID:21439802

Limsuwan, Surasak; Hesseling-Meinders, Anne; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Kayser, Oliver

2011-08-15

144

The ancillary protein 1 of Streptococcus pyogenes FCT-1 pili mediates cell adhesion and biofilm formation through heterophilic as well as homophilic interactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Gram-positive pili are known to play a role in bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells and in the formation of biofilm microbial communities. In the present study we undertook the functional characterization of the pilus ancillary protein 1 (AP1_M6) from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates expressing the FCT-1 pilus variant, known to be strong biofilm formers. Cell binding and biofilm formation assays using S. pyogenes in-frame deletion mutants, Lactococcus expressing heterologous FCT-1 pili and purified recombinant AP1_M6, indicated that this pilin is a strong cell adhesin that is also involved in bacterial biofilm formation. Moreover, we show that AP1_M6 establishes homophilic interactions that mediate inter-bacterial contact, possibly promoting bacterial colonization of target epithelial cells in the form of three-dimensional microcolonies. Finally, AP1_M6 knockout mutants were less virulent in mice, indicating that this protein is also implicated in GAS systemic infection. PMID:22320452

Becherelli, Marco; Manetti, Andrea G O; Buccato, Scilla; Viciani, Elisa; Ciucchi, Laura; Mollica, Giulia; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Imma

2012-01-01

145

Engineering multiple biological functional motifs into a blank collagen-like protein template from Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Bacterially derived triple-helical, collagen-like proteins are attractive as potential biomedical materials. The collagen-like domain of the Scl2 protein from S. pyogenes lacks any specific binding sites for mammalian cells yet possesses the inherent structural integrity of the collagen triple-helix of animal collagens. It can, therefore, be considered as a structurally-stable "blank slate" into which various defined, biological sequences, derived from animal collagens, can be added by substitutions or insertions, to enable production of novel designed materials to fit specific functional requirements. In the present study, we have used site directed mutagenesis to substitute two functional sequences, one for heparin binding and the other for integrin binding, into different locations in the triple-helical structure. This provided three new constructs, two containing the single substitutions and one containing both substitutions. The stability of these constructs was marginally reduced when compared to the unmodified sequence. When compared to the unmodified bacterial collagen, both the modified collagens that contain the heparin binding site showed marked binding of fluorescently labeled heparin. Similarly, the modified collagens from both constructs containing the integrin binding site showed significant adhesion of L929 cells that are known to possess the appropriate integrin receptor. C2C12 cells that lack any appropriate integrins did not bind. These data show that bacterial collagen-like sequences can be modified to act like natural extracellular matrix collagens by inserting one or more unique biological domains with defined function. PMID:23913780

Peng, Yong Y; Stoichevska, Violet; Schacht, Kristin; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Ramshaw, John A M

2014-07-01

146

Increased kasugamycin sensitivity in Escherichia coli caused by the presence of an inducible erythromycin resistance (erm) gene of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

An inducible erythromycin resistance gene (erm) of Streptococcus pyogenes was introduced into Escherichia coli by transformation with a plasmid. The recipient E. coli cells were either kasugamycin sensitive (wildtype) or kasugamycin resistant (ksgA). The MIC values of erythromycin increased from 150 micrograms/ml to greater than 3000 micrograms/ml for E. coli. An extract of transformed cells, particularly a high-salt ribosomal wash, contained an enzyme that was able to methylate 23S rRNA from untransformed cells in vitro; however, 23S rRNA from transformed cells was not a substrate for methylation by such an extract. 165 rRNA and 30S ribosomal subunits of either the wild type or a kasugamycin resistant (ksgA) mutant were not methylated in vitro. Transformation of E. coli by the erm-containing plasmid led to a reduction of the MIC values for kasugamycin. This happened in wild-type as well as in ksgA cells. However, in vitro experiments with purified ksgA encoded methylase demonstrated that also in erm transformed E. coli, the ksgA encoded enzyme was active in wild-type, but not in ksgA cells. It was also shown by in vitro experiments that ribosomes from erm ksgA cells have become sensitive to kasugamycin. Our experiments show that in vivo methylation of 23S rRNA, presumably of the adenosine at position 2058, leads to enhanced resistance to erythromycin and to reduced resistance to kasugamycin. This, together with previous data, argues for a close proximity of the two sites on the ribosome that are substrates for adenosine dimethylation. PMID:3071738

Suvorov, A N; van Gemen, B; van Knippenberg, P H

1988-12-01

147

Unique Genomic Arrangements in an Invasive Serotype M23 Strain of Streptococcus pyogenes Identify Genes That Induce Hypervirulence.  

PubMed

The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF(-)) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ?M23ND.1 to ?M23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank of each phage insertion, suggesting that the phages were integrated by horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analyses revealed unique large-scale genomic rearrangements that result in genomic rearrangements that differ from those of previously sequenced GAS strains. These rearrangements resulted in an imbalanced genomic architecture and translocations of chromosomal virulence genes. The covS sensor in M23ND was identified as a pseudogene, resulting in the attenuation of speB function and increased expression of the genes for the chromosomal virulence factors multiple-gene activator (mga), M protein (emm23), C5a peptidase (scpA), fibronectin-binding proteins (sfbI and fbp54), streptolysin O (slo), hyaluronic acid capsule (hasA), streptokinase (ska), and DNases (spd and spd3), which were verified by PCR. These genes are responsible for facilitating host epithelial cell binding and and/or immune evasion, thus further contributing to the virulence of M23ND. In conclusion, strain M23ND has become highly pathogenic as the result of a combination of multiple genetic factors, particularly gene composition and mutations, prophage integrations, unique genomic rearrangements, and regulated expression of critical virulence factors. PMID:25225265

Bao, Yunjuan; Liang, Zhong; Booyjzsen, Claire; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Li, Yang; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Song, Hui; Castellino, Francis J

2014-12-01

148

Fibrinogen Cleavage by the Streptococcus pyogenes Extracellular Cysteine Protease and Generation of Antibodies That Inhibit Enzyme Proteolytic Activity  

PubMed Central

The extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes is a virulence factor that plays a significant role in host-pathogen interaction. Streptococcal protease is expressed as an inactive 40-kDa precursor that is autocatalytically converted into a 28-kDa mature (active) enzyme. Replacement of the single cysteine residue involved in formation of the enzyme active site with serine (C192S mutation) abolished detectable proteolytic activity and eliminated autocatalytic processing of zymogen to the mature form. In the present study, we investigated activity of the wild-type (wt) streptococcal protease toward human fibrinogen and bovine casein. The former is involved in blood coagulation, wound healing, and other aspects of hemostasis. Treatment with streptococcal protease resulted in degradation of the COOH-terminal region of fibrinogen ? chain, indicating that fibrinogen may serve as an important substrate for this enzyme during the course of human infection. Polyclonal antibodies generated against recombinant 40- and 28-kDa (r40- and r28-kDa) forms of the C192S streptococcal protease mutant exhibited high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers but demonstrated different inhibition activities toward proteolytic action of the wt enzyme. Activity of the wt protease was readily inhibited when the reaction was carried out in the presence of antibodies generated against r28-kDa C192S mutant. Antibodies produced against r40-kDa C192S mutant had no significant effect on proteolysis. These data suggest that the presence of the NH2-terminal prosegment prevents generation of functionally active antibodies and indicate that inhibition activity of antibodies most likely depends on their ability to bind the active-site region epitope(s) of the protein. PMID:10456870

Matsuka, Yury V.; Pillai, Subramonia; Gubba, Siddeswar; Musser, James M.; Olmsted, Stephen B.

1999-01-01

149

The luxS gene of Streptococcus pyogenes regulates expression of genes that affect internalization by epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes was recently reported to possess a homologue of the luxS gene that is responsible for the production of autoinducer 2, which participates in quorum sensing of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. To test the effect of LuxS on streptococcal internalization, a LuxS mutant was constructed in strain SP268, an invasive M3 serotype. Functional analysis of the mutant revealed that it was internalized by HEp-2 cells with higher efficiency than the wild type (wt). Several genes, including hasA (hyaluronic acid synthesis), speB (streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B), and csrR (capsule synthesis regulator), a part of a two-component regulatory system, are known to affect the internalization of strain SP268 (J. Jadoun, O. Eyal, and S. Sela, Infect. Immun. 70:462-469, 2002). Therefore, the expression of these genes in the mutant and in the wt was examined. LuxS mutation significantly reduced the mRNA level of speB and increased the mRNA level of emm3. No substantial effect was observed on transcription of hasA and csrR. Yet less hyaluronic acid capsule was expressed in the mutant. Further analysis revealed that luxS is under the regulation of the two-component global regulator CsrR. Our results indicate that LuxS activity in strain SP268 plays an important role in the expression of virulence factors associated with epithelial cell internalization. PMID:14500483

Marouni, Mehran J; Sela, Shlomo

2003-10-01

150

Identification of novel growth phase- and media-dependent small non-coding RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes M49 using intergenic tiling arrays  

PubMed Central

Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have attracted attention as a new class of gene regulators in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Genome-wide screening methods have been successfully applied in Gram-negative bacteria to identify sRNA regulators. Many sRNAs are well characterized, including their target mRNAs and mode of action. In comparison, little is known about sRNAs in Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we identified novel sRNAs in the exclusively human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes M49 (Group A Streptococcus, GAS M49), employing a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. GAS is an important pathogen that causes diseases ranging from mild superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes of the naso-pharynx, to severe toxic and invasive diseases. Results We identified 55 putative sRNAs in GAS M49 that were expressed during growth. Of these, 42 were novel. Some of the newly-identified sRNAs belonged to one of the common non-coding RNA families described in the Rfam database. Comparison of the results of our screen with the outcome of two recently published bioinformatics tools showed a low level of overlap between putative sRNA genes. Previously, 40 potential sRNAs have been reported to be expressed in a GAS M1T1 serotype, as detected by a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. Our screen detected 12 putative sRNA genes that were expressed in both strains. Twenty sRNA candidates appeared to be regulated in a medium-dependent fashion, while eight sRNA genes were regulated throughout growth in chemically defined medium. Expression of candidate genes was verified by reverse transcriptase-qPCR. For a subset of sRNAs, the transcriptional start was determined by 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR) analysis. Conclusions In accord with the results of previous studies, we found little overlap between different screening methods, which underlines the fact that a comprehensive analysis of sRNAs expressed by a given organism requires the complementary use of different methods and the investigation of several environmental conditions. Despite a high conservation of sRNA genes within streptococci, the expression of sRNAs appears to be strain specific. PMID:23062031

2012-01-01

151

Antimicrobial resistance amongst isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in the PROTEKT antimicrobial surveillance programme during 1999-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of susceptibility to a range of antimicrobials was tested for 1485 isolates of Strepto- coccus pyogenes and 1547 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus included in the international PROTEKT (Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithro- mycin) surveillance study (1999-2000). Overall, almost 10% of S. pyogenes isolates were erythro- mycin A resistant. There was a wide heterogeneity

Rafael Cantón; Elena Loza; M. Isabel Morosini; Fernando Baquero

152

High-resolution crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes ?-NAD+ glycohydrolase in complex with its endogenous inhibitor IFS reveals a highly water-rich interface  

PubMed Central

One of the virulence factors produced by Streptococcus pyogenes is ?-NAD+ glycohydrolase (SPN). S. pyogenes injects SPN into the cytosol of an infected host cell using the cytolysin-mediated translocation pathway. As SPN is toxic to bacterial cells themselves, S. pyogenes possesses the ifs gene that encodes an endogenous inhibitor for SPN (IFS). IFS is localized intracellularly and forms a complex with SPN. This intracellular complex must be dissociated during export through the cell envelope. To provide a structural basis for understanding the interactions between SPN and IFS, the complex was overexpressed between the mature SPN (residues 38–451) and the full-length IFS (residues 1–161), but it could not be crystallized. Therefore, limited proteolysis was used to isolate a crystallizable SPNct–IFS complex, which consists of the SPN C-terminal domain (SPNct; residues 193–451) and the full-length IFS. Its crystal structure has been determined by single anomalous diffraction and the model refined at 1.70?Å resolution. Interestingly, our high-resolution structure of the complex reveals that the interface between SPNct and IFS is highly rich in water molecules and many of the interactions are water-mediated. The wet interface may facilitate the dissociation of the complex for translocation across the cell envelope. PMID:24121349

Yoon, Ji Young; An, Doo Ri; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyoun Sook; Lee, Sang Jae; Im, Ha Na; Jang, Jun Young; Suh, Se Won

2013-01-01

153

Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Our multicenter nationwide surveillance data indicated that erythromycin (ERY) resistance among group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolates in Taiwan declined from 53.1% in 1998 and 2000 to 14.6% in 2002 and 2004 and 10.7% in 2006 to 2010 (P < 0.01). The present study aimed to assess the epidemiology of GAS in Taiwan and identify factors associated with ERY resistance. All 127 ERY-resistant (ERYr) isolates and 128 randomly selected ERY-susceptible (ERYs) isolates recovered from 1998 to 2010 were emm typed. ERYr isolates were also characterized by ERY resistance phenotype and mechanisms and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Multilocus sequence typing was performed on selected ERYr isolates. The predominant emm types in ERYr isolates were emm22 (n = 33, 26.0%), emm12 (n = 24, 18.9%), emm4 (n = 21, 16.5%), and emm106 (n = 15, 11.8%). In ERYs isolates, emm12 (n = 27, 21.9%), emm1 (n = 18, 14.1%), emm106 (n = 16, 12.5%), and emm11 (n = 9, 7.1%) predominated. The most common ERY resistance phenotype was the M phenotype (resistant to macrolides) (70.9%), with all but one isolate carrying mef(A), followed by the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance (cMLSB) phenotype (26.8%), with isolates carrying erm(B) or erm(TR). ERYr isolates of the emm12-sequence type 36 (ST36) lineage with the cMLSB phenotype were mostly present before 2004, while those of the emm22-ST46 lineage with the M phenotype predominated in later years. Recovery from respiratory (throat swab) specimens was an independent factor associated with ERY resistance. emm1 and emm11 GAS isolates were significantly associated with ERYs, while emm22 was detected only in ERYr GAS. In addition, emm106 isolates were prevalent among the abscess/pus isolates, whereas emm12 isolates were strongly associated with a respiratory (throat) origin. In addition to identifying factors associated with ERY resistance in GAS, our study provides helpful information on the changing GAS epidemiology in Taiwan. PMID:24478481

Huang, Chia-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Chen, Pei-Chen; Wang, Hui-Ying; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Chang, Shan-Chwen

2014-01-01

154

Structure and Kinetic Investigation of Streptococcus pyogenes Family GH38 alpha-Mannosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe enzymatic hydrolysis of ??mannosides is catalyzed by glycoside hydrolases (GH), termed ??mannosidases. These enzymes are found in different GH sequence–based families. Considerable research has probed the role of higher eukaryotic “GH38” ??mannosides that play a key role in the modification and diversification of hybrid N-glycans; processes with strong cellular links to cancer and autoimmune disease. The most extensively studied

Michael D. L. Suits; Yanping Zhu; Edward J. Taylor; Julia Walton; David L. Zechel; Harry J. Gilbert; Gideon J. Davies; Andreas Hofmann

2010-01-01

155

Phenotypes and Genotypes of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes Strains in Italy and Heterogeneity of Inducibly Resistant Strains  

PubMed Central

A total of 387 clinical strains of erythromycin-resistant (MIC, ?1 ?g/ml) Streptococcus pyogenes, all isolated in Italian laboratories from 1995 to 1998, were examined. By the erythromycin-clindamycin double-disk test, 203 (52.5%) strains were assigned to the recently described M phenotype, 120 (31.0%) were assigned to the inducible macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance (iMLS) phenotype, and 64 (16.5%) were assigned to the constitutive MLS resistance (cMLS) phenotype. The inducible character of the resistance of the iMLS strains was confirmed by comparing the clindamycin MICs determined under normal testing conditions and those determined after induction by pregrowth in 0.05 ?g of erythromycin per ml. The MICs of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, spiramycin, and the ketolide HMR3004 were then determined and compared. Homogeneous susceptibility patterns were observed for the isolates of the cMLS phenotype (for all but one of the strains, HMR3004 MICs were 0.5 to 8 ?g/ml and the MICs of the other drugs were >128 ?g/ml) and those of the M phenotype (resistance only to the 14- and 15-membered macrolides was recorded, with MICs of 2 to 32 ?g/ml). Conversely, heterogeneous susceptibility patterns were observed in the isolates of the iMLS phenotype, which were subdivided into three distinct subtypes designated iMLS-A, iMLS-B, and iMLS-C. The iMLS-A strains (n = 84) were highly resistant to the 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides and demonstrated reduced susceptibility to low-level resistance to HMR3004. The iMLS-B strains (n = 12) were highly resistant to the 14- and 15-membered macrolides, susceptible to the 16-membered macrolides (but highly resistant to josamycin after induction), and susceptible to HMR3004 (but intermediate or resistant after induction). The iMLS-C strains (n = 24) had lower levels of resistance to the 14- and 15-membered macrolides (with erythromycin MICs increasing two to four times after induction), were susceptible to the 16-membered macrolides (but resistant to josamycin after induction), and remained susceptible to HMR3004, also after induction. The erythromycin resistance genes in 100 isolates of the different groups were investigated by PCR. All cMLS and iMLS-A isolates tested had the ermAM (ermB) gene, whereas all iMLS-B and iMLS-C isolates had the ermTR gene (neither methylase gene was found in isolates of other groups). The M isolates had only the macrolide efflux (mefA) gene, which was also found in variable proportions of cMLS, iMLS-A, iMLS-B, and iMLS-C isolates. The three iMLS subtypes were easily differentiated by a triple-disk test set up by adding a josamycin disk to the erythromycin and clindamycin disks of the conventional double-disk test. Tetracycline resistance was not detected in any isolate of the iMLS-A subtype, whereas it was observed in over 90% of both iMLS-B and iMLS-C isolates. PMID:10428916

Giovanetti, Eleonora; Montanari, Maria Pia; Mingoia, Marina; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele

1999-01-01

156

Regulation of SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes by pH and NaCl: a Model for In Vivo Gene Expression†  

PubMed Central

For a pathogen such as Streptococcus pyogenes, ecological success is determined by its ability to sense the environment and mount an appropriate adaptive transcriptional response. Thus, determining conditions for analyses of gene expression in vitro that are representative of the in vivo environment is critical for understanding the contributions of transcriptional response pathways to pathogenesis. In this study, we determined that the gene encoding the SpeB cysteine protease is up-regulated over the course of infection in a murine soft-tissue model. Conditions were identified, including growth phase, acidic pH, and an NaCl concentration of <0.1 M, that were required for expression of speB in vitro. Analysis of global expression profiles in response to these conditions in vitro identified a set of coregulated genes whose expression patterns showed a significant correlation with that of speB when examined during infection of murine soft tissues. This analysis revealed that a culture medium that promotes high levels of SpeB expression in vitro produced an expression profile that showed significant correlation to the profile observed in vivo. Taken together, these studies establish culture conditions that mimic in vivo expression patterns; that growth phase, pH, and NaCl may mimic relevant cues sensed by S. pyogenes during infection; and that identification of other environmental cues that alter expression of speB in vitro may provide insight into the signals that direct global patterns of gene expression in vivo. PMID:16385029

Loughman, Jennifer A.; Caparon, Michael

2006-01-01

157

Differential endometrial cell sensitivity to a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin links Trueperella pyogenes to uterine disease in cattle.  

PubMed

Purulent disease of the uterus develops in 40% of dairy cows after parturition, when the epithelium of the endometrium is disrupted to expose the underlying stroma to bacteria. The severity of endometrial pathology is associated with isolation of Trueperella pyogenes. In the present study, T. pyogenes alone caused uterine disease when infused into the uterus of cattle where the endometrial epithelium was disrupted. The bacterium secretes a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin (PLO), and the plo gene was identical and the plo gene promoter was highly similar amongst 12 clinical isolates of T. pyogenes. Bacteria-free filtrates of the T. pyogenes cultures caused hemolysis and endometrial cytolysis, and PLO was the main cytolytic agent, because addition of anti-PLO antibody prevented cytolysis. Similarly, a plo-deletion T. pyogenes mutant did not cause hemolysis or endometrial cytolysis. Endometrial stromal cells were notably more sensitive to PLO-mediated cytolysis than epithelial or immune cells. Stromal cells also contained more cholesterol than epithelial cells, and reducing stromal cell cholesterol content using cyclodextrins protected against PLO. Although T. pyogenes or plo-deletion T. pyogenes stimulated accumulation of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8, from endometrium, PLO did not stimulate inflammatory responses by endometrial or hematopoietic cells, or in vitro organ cultures of endometrium. The marked sensitivity of stromal cells to PLO-mediated cytolysis provides an explanation for how T. pyogenes acts as an opportunistic pathogen to cause pathology of the endometrium once the protective epithelium is lost after parturition. PMID:24478394

Amos, Matthew R; Healey, Gareth D; Goldstone, Robert J; Mahan, Suman M; Düvel, Anna; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Sandra, Olivier; Zieger, Peter; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle; Smith, David G E; Sheldon, Iain Martin

2014-03-01

158

Liquid-liquid diffusion crystallization improves the X-ray diffraction of EndoS, an endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Streptococcus pyogenes with activity on human IgG.  

PubMed

Endoglycosidase S (EndoS) is an enzyme secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes that specifically hydrolyzes the ?-1,4-di-N-acetylchitobiose core glycan on immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. One of the most common human pathogens and the cause of group A streptococcal infections, S. pyogenes secretes EndoS in order to evade the host immune system by rendering IgG effector mechanisms dysfunctional. On account of its specificity for IgG, EndoS has also been used extensively for chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneous IgG glycoprotein preparations and is being developed as a novel therapeutic for a wide range of autoimmune diseases. The structural basis of its enzymatic activity and substrate specificity, however, remains unknown. Here, the purification and crystallization of EndoS are reported. Using traditional hanging-drop and sitting-drop vapor-diffusion crystallization, crystals of EndoS were grown that diffracted to a maximum of 3.5 Å resolution but suffered from severe anisotropy, the data from which could only be reasonably processed to 7.5 Å resolution. When EndoS was crystallized by liquid-liquid diffusion, it was possible to grow crystals with a different space group to those obtained by vapor diffusion. Crystals of wild-type endoglycosidase and glycosynthase constructs of EndoS grown by liquid-liquid diffusion diffracted to 2.6 and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively, with a greatly diminished anisotropy. Despite extensive efforts, the failure to reproduce these liquid-liquid diffusion-grown crystals by vapor diffusion suggests that these crystallization methods each sample a distinct crystallization space. PMID:24316841

Trastoy, Beatriz; Lomino, Joseph V; Wang, Lai Xi; Sundberg, Eric J

2013-12-01

159

SpyA, a C3-Like ADP-Ribosyltransferase, Contributes to Virulence in a Mouse Subcutaneous Model of Streptococcus pyogenes Infection ? † ‡  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes is an important human pathogen with an expansive repertoire of verified and putative virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that a mutant deficient in the production of the streptococcal ADP-ribosyltransferase SpyA generates lesions of reduced size in a subcutaneous mouse infection model. At early stages of infection, when the difference in lesion size is first established, inflamed tissue isolated from lesions of mice infected with spyA mutant bacteria has higher levels of mRNA encoding the chemokines CXCL1 and CCL2 than does tissue isolated from mice infected with wild-type bacteria. In addition, at these early times, the mRNA levels for the gene encoding the intermediate filament vimentin are higher in the mutant-infected tissue. As wound resolution progresses, mRNA levels of the gene encoding matrix metallopeptidase 2 are lower in mutant-infected tissue. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spyA mutant is internalized more efficiently than wild-type bacteria by HeLa cells. We conclude that SpyA contributes to streptococcal pathogenesis in the mouse subcutaneous infection model. Our observations suggest that the presence of SpyA delays wound healing in this model. PMID:21422178

Hoff, Jessica S.; DeWald, Mark; Moseley, Steve L.; Collins, Carleen M.; Voyich, Jovanka M.

2011-01-01

160

Extracellular Cysteine Protease Produced by Streptococcus pyogenes Participates in the Pathogenesis of Invasive Skin Infection and Dissemination in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of an extracellular cysteine protease encoded by the speB gene in group A Streptococcus (GAS) skin infection was studied with a mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with a wild-type GAS serotype M3 strain or a cysteine protease-inactivated isogenic derivative grown to stationary phase. The mortality rate of mice injected with the M3 speB mutant strain was significantly

SLAWOMIR LUKOMSKI; CHARLES A. MONTGOMERY; JACQUELINE RURANGIRWA; ROBERT S. GESKE; JAMES P. BARRISH; GERALD J. ADAMS; JAMES M. MUSSER

161

Pathological fracture and pyogenic osteomyelitis in a patient with type 2 Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

In Gaucher disease (GD), enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) results in the alleviation of hematological abnormalities and visceral infiltration as well as improvement in quality of life and life-span. However, several years may be required for skeletal manifestations, which are usually observed in type 1 and 3 GD, to respond to ERT. Infants with type 2 GD rarely present skeletal manifestations because most of these patients die within the first 2 years of life before they develop skeletal involvement. The use of ERT may prolong the lifespan of these patients and influence the natural history of the disease. The present study reports a new natural history of treated GD in which a 2-year and 7-month-old girl with type 2 GD who was receiving ERT developed valproate-induced Fanconi syndrome, pathological fractures, and pyogenic osteomyelitis. In conclusion, skeletal disease may occur in any type of GD, and Fanconi syndrome may lead to severe skeletal complications in patients with GD. PMID:24412634

Hayashi, Anri; Kawakita, Rie; Kumada, Tomohiro; Nozaki, Fumihito; Hiejima, Ikuko; Miyajima, Tomoko; Kusunoki, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuya

2014-10-01

162

Lactobacilli Reduce Cell Cytotoxicity Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes by Producing Lactic Acid That Degrades the Toxic Component Lipoteichoic Acid? †  

PubMed Central

Lactobacilli are known to prevent colonization by many pathogens; nevertheless, the mechanisms of their protective effect are largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the role of lactobacilli during infection of epithelial cells with group A streptococci (GAS). GAS cause a variety of illnesses ranging from noninvasive disease to more severe invasive infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Invasion of deeper tissues is facilitated by GAS-induced apoptosis and cell death. We found that lactobacilli inhibit GAS-induced host cell cytotoxicity and shedding of the complement regulator CD46. Further, survival assays demonstrated that lactic acid secreted by lactobacilli is highly bactericidal toward GAS. In addition, lactic acid treatment of GAS, but not heat killing, prior to infection abolishes the cytotoxic effects against human cells. Since lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of GAS is heat resistant and cytotoxic, we explored the effects of lactic acid on LTA. By applying such an approach, we demonstrate that lactic acid reduces epithelial cell damage caused by GAS by degrading both secreted and cell-bound LTA. Taken together, our experiments reveal a mechanism by which lactobacilli prevent pathogen-induced host cell damage. PMID:21245448

Maudsdotter, Lisa; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

2011-01-01

163

Highly Effective Renaturation of a Streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes DT7 as Inclusion Bodies Overexpressed in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The streptokinase (SK) is emerging as an important thrombolytic therapy agent in the treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. We reported highly effective renaturation of a SK from S. pyogeness DT7 overexpressed in E. coli, purification, and biochemical characterization. A gene coding for the SK was cloned from S. pyogeness DT7. Because accumulation of active SK is toxic to the host cells, we have expressed it in the form of inclusion bodies. The mature protein was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 DE3/pESK under the control of the strong promoter tac induced by IPTG with a level of 60% of the total cell proteins. The activity of the rSK, renatured in phosphate buffer supplemented with Triton X-100 and glycerol, was covered with up to 41 folds of its initial activity. The purified of protein was identified with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry through four peptide fragments, which showed 100% identification to the corresponding peptides of the putative SK from GenBank. Due to overexpression and highly effective renaturation of large amounts of inclusion bodies, the recombinant E. coli BL21 DE3/pESK system could be potentially applied for large-scale production of SK used in the therapy of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24883307

Nguyen, Sy Le Thanh; Quyen, Dinh Thi; Vu, Hong Diep

2014-01-01

164

Presence of the tet(O) Gene in Erythromycin- and Tetracycline-Resistant Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and Linkage with either the mef(A) or the erm(A) Gene  

PubMed Central

Sixty-three recent Italian clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes resistant to both erythromycin (MICs ? 1 ?g/ml) and tetracycline (MICs ? 8 ?g/ml) were genotyped for macrolide and tetracycline resistance genes. We found 19 isolates carrying the mef(A) and the tet(O) genes; 25 isolates carrying the erm(A) and tet(O) genes; and 2 isolates carrying the erm(A), tet(M), and tet(O) genes. The resistance of all erm(A)-containing isolates was inducible, but the isolates could be divided into two groups on the basis of erythromycin MICs of either >128 or 1 to 4 ?g/ml. The remaining 17 isolates included 15 isolates carrying the erm(B) gene and 2 isolates carrying both the erm(B) and the mef(A) genes, with all 17 carrying the tet(M) gene. Of these, 12 carried Tn916-Tn1545-like conjugative transposons. Conjugal transfer experiments demonstrated that the tet(O) gene moved with and without the erm(A) gene and with the mef(A) gene. These studies, together with the results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis experiments and hybridization assays with DNA probes specific for the tet(O), erm(A), and mef(A) genes, suggested a linkage of tet(O) with either erm(A) or mef(A) in erythromycin- and tetracycline-resistant S. pyogenes isolates. By amplification and sequencing experiments, we detected the tet(O) gene ca. 5.5 kb upstream from the mef(A) gene. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of the tet(O) gene in S. pyogenes and showing that it may be linked with another gene and can be moved by conjugation from one chromosome to another. PMID:12936983

Giovanetti, Eleonora; Brenciani, Andrea; Lupidi, Remo; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Varaldo, Pietro E.

2003-01-01

165

Novel Clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST), (11 of which were not previously described) were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy. PMID:24941079

Jefferies, Johanna M.; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Devi Sekaran, Shamala; Clarke, Stuart C.

2014-01-01

166

Mutations in the Control of Virulence Sensor Gene from Streptococcus pyogenes after Infection in Mice Lead to Clonal Bacterial Variants with Altered Gene Regulatory Activity and Virulence  

PubMed Central

The cluster of virulence sensor (CovS)/responder (CovR) two-component operon (CovRS) regulates ?15% of the genes of the Group A Streptococcal pyogenes (GAS) genome. Bacterial clones containing inactivating mutations in the covS gene have been isolated from patients with virulent invasive diseases. We report herein an assessment of the nature and types of covS mutations that can occur in both virulent and nonvirulent GAS strains, and assess whether a nonvirulent GAS can attain enhanced virulence through this mechanism. A group of mice were infected with a globally-disseminated clonal M1T1 GAS (isolate 5448), containing wild-type (WT) CovRS (5448/CovR+S+), or less virulent engineered GAS strains, AP53/CovR+S+ and Manfredo M5/CovR+S+. SpeB negative GAS clones from wound sites and/or from bacteria disseminated to the spleen were isolated and the covS gene was subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Numerous examples of inactivating mutations were found in CovS in all regions of the gene. The mutations found included frame-shift insertions and deletions, and in-frame small and large deletions in the gene. Many of the mutations found resulted in early translation termination of CovS. Thus, the covS gene is a genomic mutagenic target that gives GAS enhanced virulence. In cases wherein CovS? was discovered, these clonal variants exhibited high lethality, further suggesting that randomly mutated covS genes occur during the course of infection, and lead to the development of a more invasive infection. PMID:24968349

Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W.; Donahue, Deborah L.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Castellino, Francis J.

2014-01-01

167

Pyogenic sacroiliitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven definite and three probable cases of pyogenic sacroiliitis are presented and compared to 72 cases found in the English literature. Patients may present with a subacute localized or an acute systemic illness. Six of our patients were parenteral drug abusers. Sacroiliac uptake of gallium 67 citrate and\\/or technetium 99m pyrophosphate suggested the diagnosis which was confirmed by fluoroscopically controlled

Gerald Gordon; Sherwin A. Kabins

1980-01-01

168

Genetic Inactivation of an Extracellular Cysteine Protease (SpeB) Expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes Decreases Resistance to Phagocytosis and Dissemination to Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), a conserved cysteine protease expressed by virtually all Strepto- coccus pyogenes strains, has recently been shown to be an important virulence factor (S. Lukomski, S. Sreevat- san, C. Amberg, W. Reichardt, M. Woischnik, A. Podbielski, and J. M. Musser, J. Clin. Invest. 99:2574-2580, 1997). Genetic inactivation of SpeB significantly decreased the lethality of a serotype

SLAWOMIR LUKOMSKI; EUGENE H. BURNS; PHILIP R. WYDE; ANDREAS PODBIELSKI; JACQUELINE RURANGIRWA; DONNA K. MOORE-POVEDA; JAMES M. MUSSER

1998-01-01

169

A novel double-tryptophan peptide pheromone is conserved in mutans and pyogenic Streptococci and Controls Competence in Streptococcus mutans via an Rgg regulator  

PubMed Central

Summary All streptococcal genomes encode the alternative sigma factor SigX and 21 SigX-dependent proteins required for genetic transformation, yet no pyogenic streptococci are known to develop competence. Resolving this paradox may depend on understanding the regulation of sigX. We report the identification of a regulatory circuit linked to the sigX genes of both mutans and pyogenic streptococci that uses a novel small, double-tryptophan-containing competence-inducing peptide (CIP) pheromone. In both groups, the CIP gene, which we designate comS, and sigX have identical, noncanonical promoters consisting of 9-bp inverted repeats separated from a ?10 hexamer by 19 bp. comS is adjacent to a gene encoding a putative transcription factor of the Rgg family and is regulated by its product, which we designate ComR. Deletion of comR or comS in S. mutans abolished transformability, as did deletion of the oligopeptide permease subunit oppD, suggesting that CIP is imported. Providing S. mutans with synthetic fragments of CIP revealed that seven C-terminal residues, including the WW motif, cause robust induction of both sigX and the competent state. We propose that this circuit is the proximal regulator of sigX in S. mutans, and we infer that it controls competence in a parallel way in all pyogenic streptococci. PMID:20969646

Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Morrison, Donald A.; Federle, Michael J.

2010-01-01

170

The Streptococcus pyogenes Capsule Is Required for Adhesion of Bacteria to Virus-Infected Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Lethal Bacterial-Viral Superinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparent worldwide resurgence of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections remains unexplained. However, we recently demonstrated in mice that when an otherwise nonlethal intranasal GAS infection is preceded by a nonlethal influenza A virus (IAV) infection, induction of lethal invasive GAS infections is often the result. In the present study, we established several isogenic mutants from a GAS isolate

Shigefumi Okamoto; Shigetada Kawabata; Yutaka Terao; Hideaki Fujitaka; Yoshinobu Okuno; Shigeyuki Hamada

2004-01-01

171

Influenza A virus facilitates Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission and disease.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) kills approximately 1.6 million people annually. Pneumococcal infections predominantly manifest as pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae is also a member of the normal nasopharyngeal flora, colonizing up to 80% of children. Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) has been associated with both pneumococcal disease and transmission. However, to date no animal model has been available to investigate the role of IAV in the spread of S. pneumoniae. Here we investigate pneumococcal-influenza synergism with a particular focus on the role of IAV on pneumococcal transmission. Infant mice were colonized with S. pneumoniae and subsequently infected with IAV 3 d later. Using this novel model we show increased pneumococcal colonization and disease in the presence of IAV. Notably, in vivo imaging showed that IAV was essential for the transmission of S. pneumoniae from colonized ("index") mice to their naive cohoused littermates ("contacts"). Transmission occurred only when all mice were infected with IAV and was prevented when an IAV-neutralizing antibody was used to inhibit IAV replication in either index mice or contact mice. Together, these data provide novel insights into pneumococcal-influenza synergism and may indicate a previously unappreciated role of IAV in the spread of S. pneumoniae. PMID:20097876

Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Short, Kirsty R; Price, John T; Wilksch, Jonathan J; Brown, Lorena E; Briles, David E; Strugnell, Richard A; Wijburg, Odilia L

2010-06-01

172

Molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance mechanisms of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline in Spain (1994-2006)  

PubMed Central

Background Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human diseases ranging in severity from uncomplicated pharyngitis to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and shows high rates of macrolide resistance in several countries. Our goal is to identify antimicrobial resistance in Spanish GAS isolates collected between 1994 and 2006 and to determine the molecular epidemiology (emm/T typing and PFGE) and resistance mechanisms of those resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. Results Two hundred ninety-five out of 898 isolates (32.8%) were erythromycin resistant, with the predominance of emm4T4, emm75T25, and emm28T28, accounting the 67.1% of the 21 emm/T types. Spread of emm4T4, emm75T25 and emm28T28 resistant clones caused high rates of macrolide resistance. The distribution of the phenotypes was M (76.9%), cMLSB (20.3%), iMLSB (2.7%) with the involvement of the erythromycin resistance genes mef(A) (89.5%), msr(D) (81.7%), erm(B) (37.3%) and erm(A) (35.9%). Sixty-one isolates were tetracycline resistant, with the main representation of the emm77T28 among 20 emm/T types. To note, the combination of tet(M) and tet(O) tetracycline resistance genes were similar to tet(M) alone reaching values close to 40%. Resistance to both antibiotics was detected in 19 isolates of 7 emm/T types, being emm11T11 and the cMLSB phenotype the most frequent ones. erm(B) and tet(M) were present in almost all the strains, while erm(A), mef(A), msr(D) and tet(O) appeared in less than half of them. Conclusions Spanish GAS were highly resistant to macrolides meanwhile showed minor resistance rate to tetracycline. A remarkable correlation between antimicrobial resistance and emm/T type was noticed. Clonal spread of emm4T4, emm75T25 and emm28T28 was the main responsable for macrolide resistance where as that emm77T28 clones were it to tetraclycline resistance. A wide variety of macrolide resistance genes were responsible for three macrolide resistance phenotypes. PMID:22998619

2012-01-01

173

Crystal structure of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from a Gram-positive bacterium, Streptococcus pyogenes at 2.19 ? resolution shows the closed structure of the substrate-binding cleft  

PubMed Central

Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) catalyses the release of tRNA and peptide components from peptidyl-tRNA molecules. Pth from a Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (SpPth) was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallised. Three-dimensional structure of SpPth was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.19 Å resolution. Structure determination showed that the asymmetric unit of the unit cell contained two crystallographically independent molecules, designated A and B. The superimposition of C? traces of molecules A and B showed an r.m.s. shift of 0.4 Å, indicating that the structures of two crystallographically independent molecules were identical. The polypeptide chain of SpPth adopted an overall ?/? conformation. The substrate-binding cleft in SpPth is formed with three loops: the gate loop, Ile91–Leu102; the base loop, Gly108–Gly115; and the lid loop, Gly136–Gly150. Unlike in the structures of Pth from Gram-negative bacteria, the entry to the cleft in the structure of SpPth appeared to be virtually closed. However, the conformations of the active site residues were found to be similar. PMID:25389518

Singh, Avinash; Gautam, Lovely; Sinha, Mau; Bhushan, Asha; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, T.P.

2014-01-01

174

Pharmacodynamic Analysis and Clinical Trial of Amoxicillin Sprinkle Administered Once Daily for 7 Days Compared to Penicillin V Potassium Administered Four Times Daily for 10 Days in the Treatment of Tonsillopharyngitis Due to Streptococcus pyogenes in Children?  

PubMed Central

An a priori pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target of 40% daily time above the MIC (T >MIC; based on the MIC90 of 0.06 ?g/ml for Streptococcus pyogenes reported in the literature) was shown to be achievable in a phase 1 study of 23 children with a once-daily (QD) modified-release, multiparticulate formulation of amoxicillin (amoxicillin sprinkle). The daily T >MIC achieved with the QD amoxicillin sprinkle formulation was comparable to that achieved with a four-times-daily (QID) penicillin VK suspension. An investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter study involving 579 children 6 months to 12 years old with acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis was then undertaken. Children were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either the amoxicillin sprinkle (475 mg for ages 6 months to 4 years, 775 mg for ages 5 to 12 years) QD for 7 days or 10 mg/kg of body weight of penicillin VK QID for 10 days (up to the maximum dose of 250 mg QID). Unexpectedly, the rates of bacteriological eradication at the test of cure were 65.3% (132/202) for the amoxicillin sprinkle and 68.0% (132/194) for penicillin VK (95% confidence interval, ?12.0% to 6.6%). Thus, neither antibiotic regimen met the minimum criterion of ?85% eradication ordinarily required by the U.S. FDA for first-line treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to S. pyogenes. The results of subgroup analyses across demographic characteristics and current infection characteristics and by age/weight categories were consistent with the primary-efficacy result. The clinical cure rates for amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK were 86.1% (216/251) and 91.9% (204/222), respectively (95% confidence interval, ?11.6% to ?0.4%). The results of a post hoc PD analysis suggested that a requirement for 60% daily T >MIC90 more accurately predicted the observed high failure rates for bacteriologic eradication with the amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK suspension studied. Based on the association between longer treatment courses and maximal bacterial eradication rates reported in the literature, an alternative composite PK/PD target taking into consideration the duration of therapy, or total T >MIC, was considered and provides an alternative explanation for the observed failure rate of amoxicillin sprinkle. PMID:18332170

Pichichero, M. E.; Casey, J. R.; Block, S. L.; Guttendorf, R.; Flanner, H.; Markowitz, D.; Clausen, S.

2008-01-01

175

Pyogenic Liver Abscess with a Focus on Klebsiella pneumoniae as a Primary Pathogen: An Emerging Disease with Unique Clinical Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Pyogenic liver abscess is a common intraabdominal infection. Historically, Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been the predominant causative agent. Klebsiella liver abscess (KLA) was first reported in Taiwan and has surpassed E. coli as the number one isolate from patients with hepatic abscesses in that country and reports from other countries, including the United States, have increased. We examined the

Edith R. Lederman; Nancy F. Crum

2005-01-01

176

Identification of a High-Virulence Clone of Type III Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) Causing Invasive Neonatal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal genotypes of 128 isolates of six serotypes (Ia, Ib, Ic, II, Ic\\/II, and III) of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) recovered predominantly from human infants in the United States were characterized by an analysis of electrophoretically demonstrable allelic profiles at 11 metabolic enzyme loci. Nineteen distinctive electrophoretic types (ETs), representing multilocus clonal genotypes, were identified. Mean genetic diversity per

James M. Musser; Stephen J. Mattingly; Roland Quentin; Alain Goudeau; Robert K. Selander

1989-01-01

177

Growth Inhibition of Streptococcus pyogenes by Bacitracin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blood agar plate demonstrates that the beta-hemolytic colonies were sensitive to bacitracin and did not grow around the antibiotic containing disc. It also demonstrates that other colony types are present in this sample that are not hemolytic.

American Society For Microbiology;

2002-01-01

178

Arcanobacterium pyogenes : molecular pathogenesis of an animal opportunist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a commensal and an opportunistic pathogen of economically important livestock, causing diseases as diverse as mastitis, liver abscessation and pneumonia. This organism possesses a number of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenic potential. A. pyogenes expresses a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which is a haemolysin and is cytolytic for immune cells, including macrophages. Expression of pyolysin is

B. Helen Jost; Stephen J. Billington

2005-01-01

179

Broncopneumonia causada por Arcanobacterium pyogenes em Veado Campeiro (Ozoteceros bezearticus). Bronchopneumonia caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Pampas Deer (Ozoteceros bezearticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a commensal bacteria of the mucous membranes of the respiratory and genital tracts of a number of domestic and wildlife animal species. However, following a stress or traumatic insults, A. pyogenes can become an opportunistic pathogen, associated with suppurative infections. Stress is an important risk factor for disease in all animals but especially in wild animals unaccustomed

Joelma Lucioli; Fernando Henrique Furlan; Denis Augusto Spricigo; Sandra Maria Ferraz; Sandra Davi Traverso

180

Agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine: Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These organisms are early colonizers and, for that reason, are difficult to control by management procedures such as segregated early weaning. Vaccination, serodiagnostic testing, and even serotyping are complicated by the presence of multiple serotypes, cross-reactive antigens, and the absence of clear markers for virulence. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management of the causative agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:10369563

MacInnes, J I; Desrosiers, R

1999-01-01

181

Genetic Characterization of Streptococcus iniae in Diseased Farmed Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in Iran  

PubMed Central

Genetic characterization of strains of Streptococcus iniae recovered from morbidity and mortality of farmed rainbow trout in different provinces of Iran were studied. The Gram-positive cocci isolates were obtained from the kidney tissues of diseased rainbow trout on blood agar at 25°C for 72?h. The grown bacteria were then characterized using biochemical and molecular works. The identified 26 isolates of S. iniae producing a 513?bp in PCR procedure were then compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using 9 random primers. The phylogenetic tree of the RAPD product using UPMGA software included these strains in one genetic group but into two clusters. The results of this study show that S. iniae strains from the diseased rainbow trout in the north part of Iran are genetically similar to those strains in the south and west parts of the country. PMID:22550467

Erfanmanesh, A.; Soltani, M.; Pirali, E.; Mohammadian, S.; Taherimirghaed, A.

2012-01-01

182

Odontogene pyogene Infektionen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Das Patientengut mit odontogenen pyogenen Infektionen im Zeitraum von 1987-1997 der Klinik für Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie der Klinikum Erfurt GmbH wurde in einer retrospektiven Studie analysiert. Dabei wurden Aussagen über die Häufigkeit, die Schwere und die Therapie der Erkrankung getroffen, wobei die gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen im Einzugsgebiet Auswirkungen auf das Überweisungsverhalten und den Krankheitsverlauf belegen. Odontogene pyogene Infektionen sind

J. Piesold; S. Vent; S. Schönfeldt

1999-01-01

183

Clindamycin-Resistant Group B Streptococcus and Failure of Intrapartum Prophylaxis to Prevent Early-Onset Disease  

PubMed Central

Guidelines recommend intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for parturient women who have a screen positive for group B Streptococcus (GBS). Clindamycin should be used for IAP only if the maternal GBS isolate is susceptible. We report a case of clindamycin-resistant GBS disease in a newborn infant whose mother received clindamycin IAP, and we review clindamycin susceptibility testing. PMID:20056242

Blaschke, Anne J.; Pulver, Laurie S.; Korgenski, E. Kent; Savitz, Lucy A.; Daly, Judy A.; Byington, Carrie L.

2011-01-01

184

Interkingdom Signaling Induces Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Dispersion and Transition from Asymptomatic Colonization to Disease  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common human nasopharyngeal commensal colonizing 10% to 40% of healthy individuals, depending on age. Despite a low invasive disease rate, widespread carriage ensures that infection occurs often enough to make S. pneumoniae a leading bacterial cause of respiratory disease worldwide. However, the mechanisms behind transition from asymptomatic colonization to dissemination and disease in otherwise sterile sites remain poorly understood but are epidemiologically strongly linked to infection with respiratory viruses. In this report, we show that infection with influenza A virus and treatment with the resulting host signals (febrile-range temperatures, norepinephrine, extracytoplasmic ATP, and increased nutrient availability) induce the release of bacteria from biofilms in a newly developed biofilm model on live epithelial cells both in vitro and during in vivo colonization. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties different from those of both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, with the dispersed population showing differential virulence gene expression characteristics resulting in a significantly increased ability to disseminate and cause infection of otherwise sterile sites, such as the middle ear, lungs, and bloodstream. The results offer novel and important insights into the role of interkingdom signaling between microbe and host during biofilm dispersion and transition to acute disease. PMID:23882016

Marks, Laura R.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Knight, Paul R.; Hakansson, Anders P.

2013-01-01

185

The role of an uncommon type of oral streptococcus sanguis in the etiology of behcet's disease.  

PubMed

The relationships of Behcet's disease (BD) with oral diseases and the prevalence of an uncommon type of oralStreptococcus sanguis (Str. sanguis) in the oral cavity were investigated in a case-control study. BD patients were compared to patient controls (collagen disease) and healthy controls.An interview questionnaire survey of BD and oral diseases showed that during the pre-onset, onset, and post-onset periods, the incidences of tonsillitis and dental caries, or the history of dental treatment, were greater in BD cases. Typological analysis showed a higher prevalence of an uncommon type ofStr. sanguis, differing from the common type, among BD cases compared to control groups. These results, showing a higher incidence of tonsillitis and dental caries during the presymptomatic period, a greater frequency of dental treatments during the symptomatic period, and the presence of an uncommon type ofStr. sanguis, indicate thatStr. sanguis of an uncommon type is related to increased risk of BD, and the possibility of a causal role is suggested. PMID:21432453

Tsuchida, M; Mineshita, S; Okonogi, H; Sugimori, K; Hoshi, K; Horiuchi, T; Wang, L M; Fujimoto, E K

1997-07-01

186

Interaction of Streptococcus agalactiae and Cellular Innate Immunity in Colonization and Disease  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is highly adapted to humans, where it is a normal constituent of the intestinal and vaginal flora. Yet, GBS has highly invasive potential and causes excessive inflammation, sepsis, and death at the beginning of life, in the elderly and in diabetic patients. Thus, GBS is a model pathobiont that thrives in the healthy host, but has not lost its potential virulence during coevolution with mankind. It remains incompletely understood how the innate immune system contains GBS in the natural niches, the intestinal and genital tracts, and which molecular events underlie breakdown of mucocutaneous resistance. Newborn infants between days 7 and 90 of life are at risk of a particularly striking sepsis manifestation (late-onset disease), where the transition from colonization to invasion and dissemination, and thus from health to severe sepsis is typically fulminant and not predictable. The great majority of late-onset sepsis cases are caused by one clone, GBS ST17, which expresses HvgA as a signature virulence factor and adhesin. In mice, HvgA promotes the crossing of both the mucosal and the blood–brain barrier. Expression levels of HvgA and other GBS virulence factors, such as pili and toxins, are regulated by the upstream two-component control system CovR/S. This in turn is modulated by acidic epithelial pH, high glucose levels, and during the passage through the mouse intestine. After invasion, GBS has the ability to subvert innate immunity by mechanisms like glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-dependent induction of IL-10 and ?-protein binding to the inhibitory phagocyte receptors sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 5 and 14. On the host side, sensing of GBS nucleic acids and lipopeptides by both Toll-like receptors and the inflammasome appears to be critical for host resistance against GBS. Yet, comprehensive models on the interplay between GBS and human immune cells at the colonizing site are just emerging. PMID:25400631

Landwehr-Kenzel, Sybille; Henneke, Philipp

2014-01-01

187

Comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted Streptococcus agalactiae  

PubMed Central

In addition to causing severe invasive infections in humans, Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is also a major cause of bovine mastitis. Here we provide the first genome sequence for S. agalactiae isolated from a cow diagnosed with clinical mastitis (strain FSL S3-026). Comparison to eight S. agalactiae genomes obtained from human disease isolates revealed 183 genes specific to the bovine strain. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for the presence/absence of a subset of these loci in additional bovine and human strains revealed strong differentiation between the two groups (Fisher exact test: p < 0.0001). The majority of the bovine strain-specific genes (~85%) clustered tightly into eight genomic islands, suggesting these genes were acquired through lateral gene transfer (LGT). This bovine GBS also contained an unusually high proportion of insertion sequences (4.3% of the total genome), suggesting frequent genomic rearrangement. Comparison to other mastitis-causing species of bacteria provided strong evidence for two cases of interspecies LGT within the shared bovine environment: bovine S. agalactiae with Streptococcus uberis (nisin U operon) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (lactose operon). We also found evidence for LGT, involving the salivaricin operon, between the bovine S. agalactiae strain and either Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus salivarius. Our findings provide insight intomechanismsfacilitatingenvironmentaladaptationandacquisitionofpotential virulence factors, while highlighting both the key role LGT has played in the recent evolution of the bovine S. agalactiae strain, and the importance of LGT among pathogens within a shared environment. PMID:21536150

Richards, Vincent P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Lefebure, Tristan; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Stanhope, Michael J.

2011-01-01

188

Intrapartum chemoprophylaxis for group B streptococcus infection to prevent neonatal disease: who should be treated?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the maternal risk factors associated with early onset Group B streptococcus (GBS) sepsis and determine the potential impact of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis using these risk factors. Using a computerized perinatal database, 26,525 deliveries over a five-year period (1989 to 1994) were identified. Neonates with GBS-positive cultures were identified and the neonatal and maternal chart of each case was reviewed. Twenty-six neonates (1 of 1000) had GBS sepsis documented by blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. Maternal risk factor(s) were identified in 13 (50%) cases: preterm labor (5), preterm premature rupture of the membranes (5), prolonged rupture of membranes (6), sibling affected by symptomatic GBS infection (2), or maternal fever during labor (5). There were four mothers whose neonates had GBS sepsis in spite of intrapartum antibiotics. Intrapartum chemoprophylaxis for GBS based on risk factors alone will identify only half of the neonates who develop disease. Extension of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis to patients with risk factors appears to be necessary to prevent early onset disease in the other half. Since 85.7% of our total obstetrical population has no risk factors, this policy would require treating 1749 women to prevent one case of GBS sepsis. Chemoprophylaxis could be more appropriately targeted if mothers colonized with GBS could be identified in early labor. PMID:8989480

Philipson, E H; Herson, V C

1996-11-01

189

Serotype Distribution and Invasive Potential of Group B Streptococcus Isolates Causing Disease in Infants and Colonizing Maternal-Newborn Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSerotype-specific polysaccharide based group B streptococcus (GBS) vaccines are being developed. An understanding of the serotype epidemiology associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in infants is necessary to determine the potential coverage of serotype-specific GBS vaccines.MethodsColonizing GBS isolates were identified by vaginal swabbing of mothers during active labor and from skin of their newborns post-delivery. Invasive GBS isolates from

Mashudu Madzivhandila; Peter V. Adrian; Clare L. Cutland; Locadiah Kuwanda; Stephanie J. Schrag; Shabir A. Madhi; Adam Ratner

2011-01-01

190

Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus parauberis Strain SK-417, Isolated from Diseased Sebastes ventricosus in Kagoshima, Japan  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus parauberis strain SK-417 was isolated from the brain of a diseased Sebastes ventricosus, collected from an aquaculture farm in April 2013 in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The draft genome sequence, obtained with a 454 GS Junior sequencing system, consists of 33 large contigs of >500 bp, totaling 1,958,836 bp, and has a G+C content of 35.4%. PMID:24855302

Oguro, Kazuki; Yamane, Jin; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-ichirou

2014-01-01

191

Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection in naturally occurring equine respiratory disease.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to characterise the molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection among isolates collected sequentially from recently weaned, pasture maintained Welsh mountain ponies with naturally occurring respiratory disease. Weekly nasopharyngeal and tracheal lavage samplings over a 10-week period were conducted in 29 ponies. Two PCR typing methods based on characterisation of the M-protein hypervariable (HV) region and the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer were then applied to isolates of S. zooepidemicus recovered from nasopharyngeal swab and tracheal wash samples. S. zooepidemicus infection was highly prevalent during the study, being isolated from 94% of tracheal washes and 88% of nasopharyngeal swabs. Among 39 different S. zooepidemicus types isolated, more were isolated from the trachea (n=33) than the nasopharynx (n=27). There was evidence from temporal patterns of infection for clonal succession over time by the more prevalent S. zooepidemicus types. Novel S. zooepidemicus types were identified, including previously untyped HV regions and intra-strain multiples of both the HV region and intergenic spacer types. PMID:17433734

Newton, J R; Laxton, R; Wood, J L N; Chanter, N

2008-03-01

192

Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Causing Invasive Diseases from Shenzhen Children's Hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide guidance for clinical disease prevention and treatment, this study examined the epidemiology, antibiotic susceptibility, and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) associated with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) among children less than 14 years of age in Shenzhen, China. Materials and Methods All the clinical strains were isolated from children less than 14 years old from January 2009 to August 2012. The serotypes and antibiotic resistance of strains of S. pneumoniae were determined using the capsular swelling method and the E-test. Results A total of 89 strains were isolated and 87 isolates were included. The five prevailing serotypes were 19F (28.7%), 14 (16.1%), 23F (11.5%), 19A (9.2%) and 6B (6.9%). The most common sequence types (ST) were ST271 (21.8%), ST876 (18.4%), ST320 (8.0%) and ST81 (6.9%) which were mainly related to 19F, 14, 19A and 23F, respectively. The potential coverage by 7-, 10-, and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were 77.0%, 77.0%, and 89.7%, respectively. Among the 87 isolates investigated, 11.5% were resistant to penicillin, and for meningitis isolates, the resistance rate was 100%. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was exhibited by 49 (56.3%) isolates. Eighty-four isolates were resistance to erythromycin, among which, 56 (66.7%) carried the ermB gene alone and 28 (33.3%) expressed both the ermB and mefA/E genes. Conclusions The potential coverage of PCV13 is higher than PCV7 and PCV10 because high rates of serotypes 19A and 6A in Shenzhen. The clinical treatment of IPD needs a higher drug concentration of antibiotics. Continued surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes distribution of IPD isolates may be necessary. PMID:23840728

Ma, Zhuoya; Yao, Kaihu; Yu, Sangjie; Zheng, Yuejie; Yang, Yonghong

2013-01-01

193

An outbreak of M serotype 1 group A Streptococcus in a neonatal intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe the investigation and control of an outbreak of M serotype 1, Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) infections in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: The study was conducted in an NICU in a large urban universityaffiliated hospital. Retrospective review was performed of all infants and health care workers in the NICU, especially those either

Judith R. Campbell; Carlos A. Arango; Joseph A. Garcia-Prats; Carol J. Baker

1996-01-01

194

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection.  

PubMed

The importance of group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) as a significant pathogen has recently been better recognized. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease can range in severity from milder skin and soft-tissue conditions such as wound infection, erysipelas, and cellulitis, to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, thus sharing the clinical picture with S. pyogenes. The most common clinical manifestation of bacteremia is cellulitis. An increase in the incidence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia has been recognized. Invasive forms of this infection are most commonly found in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities and skin breakdown. The case fatality in bacteremia has been reported to be 15-18%. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and emm types of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia are summarized. PMID:24682845

Rantala, S

2014-08-01

195

Replacement of Histidine 340 with Alanine Inactivates the Group A Streptococcus Extracellular Cysteine Protease Virulence Factor  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes expresses a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease that is a virulence factor for invasive disease, including soft tissue infection. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a His340Ala recombinant mutant protein that was made as a stable 40-kDa zymogen by Escherichia coli. Purified His340Ala protein was proteolytically inactive when bovine casein and human fibronectin were used as substrates. Wild-type 28-kDa streptococcal protease purified from S. pyogenes processed the 40-kDa mutant zymogen to a 28-kDa mature form, a result suggesting that the derivative protein retained structural integrity. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that His340 is an enzyme active site residue, an idea confirmed by recent solution of the zymogen crystal structure (T. F. Kagawa, J. C. Cooney, H. M. Baker, S. McSweeney, M. Liu, S. Gubba, J. M. Musser, and E. N. Baker, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:2235–2240, 2000). The data provide additional insight into structure-function relationships in this S. pyogenes virulence factor. PMID:10816533

Gubba, Siddeswar; Cipriano, Vincent; Musser, James M.

2000-01-01

196

Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Is More Discriminating Than Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis for Typing Pyogenic Streptococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The SmaI restriction endonuclease digestion\\u000a \\u000a patterns of chromosomal DNAs from 99 pyogenic streptococci belonging to\\u000a \\u000a Lancefield group A (41 Streptococcus pyogenes), group C (seven S.\\u000a \\u000a dysgalactiae, 11 \\\\QS. equisimilis\\\\W, three S. equi, eight\\u000a \\u000a S. zooepidemicus) and group G (25 human group G\\u000a \\u000a Streptococcus, four S. canis) were analyzed by pulsed-field\\u000a \\u000a gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the results were compared with

Frédéric Bert; Catherine Branger; Nicole Lambert-Zechovsky

1997-01-01

197

Responses of innate immune cells to group A Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes, is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic human pathogen which causes a wide range of mostly self-limiting but also several life-threatening diseases. Innate immune responses are fundamental for defense against GAS, yet their activation by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and GAS-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is incompletely understood. In recent years, the use of animal models together with the powerful tools of human molecular genetics began shedding light onto the molecular mechanisms of innate immune defense against GAS. The signaling adaptor MyD88 was found to play a key role in launching the immune response against GAS in both humans and mice, suggesting that PRRs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are involved in sensing this pathogen. The specific TLRs and their ligands have yet to be identified. Following GAS recognition, induction of cytokines such as TNF and type I interferons (IFNs), leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been recognized as key events in host defense. A comprehensive knowledge of these mechanisms is needed in order to understand their frequent failure against GAS immune evasion strategies.

Fieber, Christina; Kovarik, Pavel

2014-01-01

198

Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n=384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim\\/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinary pathogens, all

Henk J. Wisselink; Kees T. Veldman; Chris Van den Eede; Sarah A. Salmon; Dik J. Mevius

2006-01-01

199

The role of fructans on dental biofilm formation by Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii and Actinomyces viscosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental plaque biofilm plays a pivotal role in the progression of dental diseases. Polysaccharides are of great importance in the ecology of the dental biofilm. We studied the effect of fructans, glucans and a mixture of both fructans and glucans, synthesized in situ by immobilized fructosyltransferase or glucosyltransferase, on the adhesion of Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii and Actinomyces

Ramona Rozen; Gilad Bachrach; Moshe Bronshteyn; Itzhak Gedalia; Doron Steinberg

2001-01-01

200

Identification of a Streptolysin S-Associated Gene Cluster and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Streptococcus iniae Disease  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus iniae causes meningoencephalitis and death in cultured fish species and soft-tissue infection in humans. We recently reported that S. iniae is responsible for local tissue necrosis and bacteremia in a murine subcutaneous infection model. The ability to cause bacteremia in this model is associated with a genetic profile unique to strains responsible for disease in fish and humans (J. D. Fuller, D. J. Bast, V. Nizet, D. E. Low, and J. C. S. de Azavedo, Infect. Immun. 69:1994-2000, 2001). S. iniae produces a cytolysin that confers a hemolytic phenotype on blood agar media. In this study, we characterized the genomic region responsible for S. iniae cytolysin production and assessed its contribution to virulence. Transposon (Tn917) mutant libraries of commensal and disease-associated S. iniae strains were generated and screened for loss of hemolytic activity. Analysis of two nonhemolytic mutants identified a chromosomal locus comprising 9 genes with 73% homology to the group A streptococcus (GAS) sag operon for streptolysin S (SLS) biosynthesis. Confirmation that the S. iniae cytolysin is a functional homologue of SLS was achieved by PCR ligation mutagenesis, complementation of an SLS-negative GAS mutant, and use of the SLS inhibitor trypan blue. SLS-negative sagB mutants were compared to their wild-type S. iniae parent strains in the murine model and in human whole-blood killing assays. These studies demonstrated that S. iniae SLS expression is required for local tissue necrosis but does not contribute to the establishment of bacteremia or to resistance to phagocytic clearance. PMID:12228303

Fuller, Jeffrey D.; Camus, Alvin C.; Duncan, Carla L.; Nizet, Victor; Bast, Darrin J.; Thune, Ronald L.; Low, Donald E.; de Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

2002-01-01

201

Comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted Streptococcus agalactiae.  

PubMed

In addition to causing severe invasive infections in humans, Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is also a major cause of bovine mastitis. Here we provide the first genome sequence for S. agalactiae isolated from a cow diagnosed with clinical mastitis (strain FSL S3-026). Comparison to eight S. agalactiae genomes obtained from human disease isolates revealed 183 genes specific to the bovine strain. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for the presence/absence of a subset of these loci in additional bovine and human strains revealed strong differentiation between the two groups (Fisher exact test: p<0.0001). The majority of the bovine strain-specific genes (? 85%) clustered tightly into eight genomic islands, suggesting these genes were acquired through lateral gene transfer (LGT). This bovine GBS also contained an unusually high proportion of insertion sequences (4.3% of the total genome), suggesting frequent genomic rearrangement. Comparison to other mastitis-causing species of bacteria provided strong evidence for two cases of interspecies LGT within the shared bovine environment: bovine S. agalactiae with Streptococcus uberis (nisin U operon) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (lactose operon). We also found evidence for LGT, involving the salivaricin operon, between the bovine S. agalactiae strain and either Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus salivarius. Our findings provide insight into mechanisms facilitating environmental adaptation and acquisition of potential virulence factors, while highlighting both the key role LGT has played in the recent evolution of the bovine S. agalactiae strain, and the importance of LGT among pathogens within a shared environment. PMID:21536150

Richards, Vincent P; Lang, Ping; Bitar, Paulina D Pavinski; Lefébure, Tristan; Schukken, Ynte H; Zadoks, Ruth N; Stanhope, Michael J

2011-08-01

202

A STUDY OF BACILLUS PYOGENES  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pyogenes is probably quite common in this country, as it is known to be in Europe. A careful study of twelve strains from cattle and one from a hog has disclosed the following characteristics which have not been reported or have been in dispute. Bacillus pyogenes is Gram-positive and pleomorphic, producing forms ranging from short chains of streptococcoid elements to branching filaments. It is hemolytic, producing the beta type of hemolysis in blood agar. It is not hemoglobinophilic, though its growth is greatly favored by some higher protein material such as egg albumin, serum, or blood. It ferments xylose in addition to the substances previously reported. The coagulation of milk by Bacillus pyogenes is primarily an enzyme coagulation and the subsequent digestion of the curd takes place in an acid medium. The intravenous injection of rabbits was invariably fatal. The lesions most commonly developed were those of the bones. Paralysis was frequently produced, and in each case was caused by lesions in the vertebrae exerting pressure against the ventral columns of the spinal cord. Muscle abscesses were also frequently produced. The authors regard the organism as belonging to the Corynebacteria rather than to the influenza group. PMID:19868442

Brown, J. Howard; Orcutt, Marion L.

1920-01-01

203

Surface properties of Streptococcus phocae strains isolated from diseased Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

Streptococcus phocae is an emerging pathogen for Chilean Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, but the factors determining its virulence are not yet elucidated. In this work, cell surface-related properties such as hydrophobicity and haemagglutination, adhesion to mucus and cell lines, capsule detection, survival and biofilm formation in skin mucus and serum resistance of the isolates responsible for outbreaks in Atlantic salmon and seals were examined. Adhesion to hydrocarbons and the results of salt aggregation tests indicated most of the S. phocae were strongly hydrophobic. All isolates exhibited a similar ability to attach to the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE) cells line, but were not able to enter CHSE cells. Haemagglutination was not detected. Our data clearly indicate that S. phocae can resist the killing activity of mucus and serum and proliferate in them, which could be associated with the presence of a capsular layer around the cells. Pathogenicity studies using seal and fish isolates demonstrated mortality or pathological signs in fish injected only with the Atlantic salmon isolate. No mortalities or histopathological alterations were observed in fish injected with extracellular products. PMID:21306587

González-Contreras, A; Magariños, B; Godoy, M; Irgang, R; Toranzo, A E; Avendaño-Herrera, R

2011-03-01

204

Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as group A Streptococcus, GAS), the agent of streptococcal sore throat and invasive soft-tissue infections, attaches to human pharyngeal or skin epithelial cells through specific recognition of its hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide by the hyaluronic-acid-binding protein CD44 (refs 1, 2). Because ligation of CD44 by hyaluronic acid can induce epithelial cell movement on extracellular matrix, we

Colette Cywes; Michael R. Wessels

2001-01-01

205

Trueperella pyogenes infections in swine: clinical course and pathology.  

PubMed

Trueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen causing purulent infections in pigs and other animal species. T. pyogenes infections in pigs are local and/or generalized depending on the immune status of the animals, their individual susceptibility and environmental factors. The occurrence of these infections on pig farms causes substantial economic losses in breeding and rearing. In sows from the breeding herd, the disease leads to infertility, embryonic death, abortion, and disorders of the menstrual cycle and lactation. Mastitis is the major cause of losses in piglets. Disorders of the musculoskeletal system, including inflammatory polyarthritis, fractures and degenerative joint disease results in the culling of animals with high breeding value. In other technological groups, multi-organ inflammations and movement disorders dominate, leading to a reduction of the slaughter value and elimination of pigs from breeding. Understanding of the clinical and pathological aspects of T. pyogenes infections in pigs will enable the development of effective methods of combating this disease on pig farms. PMID:24988872

Jarosz, ? S; Gradzki, Z; Kalinowski, M

2014-01-01

206

Spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in nondrug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the clinical, microbiological, and radiologic features of patients without drug addiction suffering from spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Methods: We collected all microbiologically proved cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis seen between January 1980 and December 1999 in a teaching hospital. Patients with prior spinal instrumentation or surgery and injection drug users were excluded. Results: Sixty-four patients, with a

Joan M Nolla; Javier Ariza; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Jordi Fiter; Joaquín Bermejo; Josep Valverde; Daniel Roig Escofet; Francesc Gudiol

2002-01-01

207

Percutaneous Drainage of Pyogenic Liver Abscesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of percutaneous catheter drainage in 23 cases of primary or secondary pyogenic liver abscess. The overall success rate was 76%. Only three (60%) of five cases of secondary abscess (infected hematoma or infected tumor) were cured with catheter drainage, but 11 (91%) of the last 12 primary pyogenic abscesses were drained successfully. Six patients with

Randall D. Johnson; Peter A. Mueller; Steven L. Dawson; Rodney J. Butch; Joseph F. Sirneone; Jack Wittenberg

208

[Pyogenic granuloma of the oral mucosa].  

PubMed

Pyogenic granuloma is regarded as a vascular proliferation that may result from trauma or local irritation. The most common intraoral site is the gingiva, affected in 75?% of cases. Therapy of pyogenic granuloma consists of surgical excision. Recurrence after excision may occur. In our patient, there were no post-operative complications. PMID:24722911

Baratli, J; Hölzle, F; Megahed, M

2014-05-01

209

mga genosensor for early detection of human rheumatic heart disease.  

PubMed

The 5' amino-labeled DNA probe complementary to mga gene of Streptococcus pyogenes was immobilized on carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes electrode and hybridized with 0.1-100 ng/6 ?l single-stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) of S. pyogenes from throat swab of suspected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients. Electrochemical response was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance (EI). The sensitivity of the sensor was 106.03?(?A/cm(2))/ng and limit of detection (LOD) was found 0.014 ng/6 ?l with regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.921 using DPV. The genosensor was characterized by FTIR and SEM, and electrode was found stable for 6 months on storage at 4 °C with 5-6 % loss in initial DPV current. mga genosensor is the first report on RHD sensor which can save life of several suspected patients by early diagnosis in 30 min. PMID:24639090

Singh, Swati; Kaushal, Ankur; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

2014-05-01

210

The Core Promoter of the Capsule Operon of Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Necessary for Colonization and Invasive Disease  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal of the human nasopharynx but can cause invasive diseases, including otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. The capsular polysaccharide (capsule) is a critical virulence factor required for both asymptomatic colonization and invasive disease, yet the expression level is different in each anatomical site. During colonization, reduced levels of capsule promote binding to the host epithelium and biofilm formation, while during systemic infection, increased capsule is required to evade opsonophagocytosis. How this regulation of capsule expression occurs is incompletely understood. To investigate the contribution of transcriptional regulation on capsule level in the serotype 4 strain TIGR4, we constructed two mutants harboring a constitutive promoter that was either comparably weaker (Pcat) or stronger (PtRNAGlu) than the wild-type (WT) capsule promoter, Pcps. Mild reductions in cpsA and cpsE transcript levels in the Pcat promoter mutant resulted in a 2-fold reduction in total amounts of capsule and in avirulence in murine models of lung and blood infection. Additionally, the PtRNAGlu mutant revealed that, despite expressing enhanced levels of cpsA and cpsE and possessing levels of capsule comparable to those of WT TIGR4, it was still significantly attenuated in all tested in vivo niches. Further analysis using chimeric promoter mutants revealed that the WT ?10 and ?35 boxes are required for optimal nasopharyngeal colonization and virulence. These data support the hypothesis that dynamic transcriptional regulation of the capsule operon is required and that the core promoter region plays a central role in fine-tuning levels of capsule to promote colonization and invasive disease. PMID:24478084

Shainheit, Mara G.; Mule, Matthew

2014-01-01

211

Disease Isolates of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Non-Typeable S. pneumoniae Presumptively Identified as Atypical S. pneumoniae in Spain  

PubMed Central

We aimed to obtain insights on the nature of a collection of isolates presumptively identified as atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from invasive and non-invasive infections in Spain. One-hundred and thirty-two isolates were characterized by: optochin susceptibility in ambient and CO2-enriched atmosphere; bile solubility; PCR-based assays targeting pneumococcal genes lytA, ply, pspA, cpsA, Spn9802, aliB-like ORF2, and a specific 16S rRNA region; multilocus sequence analysis; and antimicrobial susceptibility. By multilocus sequence analysis, 61 isolates were S. pseudopneumoniae, 34 were pneumococci, 13 were S. mitis, and 24 remained unclassified as non-pneumococci. Among S. pseudopneumoniae isolates, 51 (83.6%) were collected from respiratory tract samples; eight isolates were obtained from sterile sources. High frequency of non-susceptibility to penicillin (60.7%) and erythromycin (42.6%) was found. Only 50.8% of the S. pseudopneumoniae isolates displayed the typical optochin phenotype originally described for this species. None harbored the cpsA gene or the pneumococcal typical lytA restriction fragment length polymorphism. The Spn9802 and the specific 16S rRNA regions were detected among the majority of the S. pseudopneumoniae isolates (n?=?59 and n?=?49, respectively). The ply and pspA genes were rarely found. A high genetic diversity was found and 59 profiles were identified. Among the S. pneumoniae, 23 were capsulated and 11 were non-typeable. Three non-typeable isolates, associated to international non-capsulated lineages, were recovered from invasive disease sources. In conclusion, half of the atypical pneumococcal clinical isolates were, in fact, S. pseudopneumoniae and one-fourth were other streptococci. We identified S. pseudopneumoniae and non-typeable pneumococci as cause of disease in Spain including invasive disease. PMID:23437306

Fenoll, Asuncion; Linares, Josefina; de Lencastre, Herminia; Ardanuy, Carmen; Sa-Leao, Raquel

2013-01-01

212

Dynamic Changes in the Streptococcus pneumoniae Transcriptome during Transition from Biofilm Formation to Invasive Disease upon Influenza A Virus Infection.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of infectious disease globally. Nasopharyngeal colonization occurs in biofilms and precedes infection. Prior studies have indicated that biofilm-derived pneumococci are avirulent. However, influenza A virus (IAV) infection releases virulent pneumococci from biofilms in vitro and in vivo. Triggers of dispersal include IAV-induced changes in the nasopharynx, such as increased temperature (fever) and extracellular ATP (tissue damage). We used whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare the S. pneumoniae transcriptome in biofilms, bacteria dispersed from biofilms after exposure to IAV, febrile-range temperature, or ATP, and planktonic cells grown at 37°C. Compared with biofilm bacteria, actively dispersed S. pneumoniae, which were more virulent in invasive disease, upregulated genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymatic assays for ATP and lactate production confirmed that dispersed pneumococci exhibited increased metabolism compared to those in biofilms. Dispersed pneumococci also upregulated genes associated with production of bacteriocins and downregulated colonization-associated genes related to competence, fratricide, and the transparent colony phenotype. IAV had the largest impact on the pneumococcal transcriptome. Similar transcriptional differences were also observed when actively dispersed bacteria were compared with avirulent planktonic bacteria. Our data demonstrate complex changes in the pneumococcal transcriptome in response to IAV-induced changes in the environment. Our data suggest that disease is caused by pneumococci that are primed to move to tissue sites with altered nutrient availability and to protect themselves from the nasopharyngeal microflora and host immune response. These data help explain pneumococcal virulence after IAV infection and have important implications for studies of S. pneumoniae pathogenesis. PMID:25135685

Pettigrew, Melinda M; Marks, Laura R; Kong, Yong; Gent, Janneane F; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline; Hakansson, Anders P

2014-11-01

213

A Novel Gene Involved in the Survival of Streptococcus mutans under Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

A Streptococcus mutans mutant defective in aciduricity was constructed by random-insertion mutagenesis. Sequence analysis of the mutant revealed a mutation in gidA, which is known to be involved in tRNA modification in Streptococcus pyogenes. Complementation of gidA by S. pyogenes gidA recovered the acid tolerance of S. mutans. Although the gidA-inactivated S. pyogenes mutant exhibited significantly reduced expression of multiple extracellular virulence proteins, the S. mutans mutant did not. On the other hand, the gidA mutant of S. mutans showed reduced ability to withstand exposure to other stress conditions (high osmotic pressure, high temperature, and bacitracin stress) besides an acidic environment. In addition, loss of GidA decreased the capacity for glucose-dependent biofilm formation by over 50%. This study revealed that gidA plays critical roles in the survival of S. mutans under stress conditions, including lower pH. PMID:24123744

Li, Dan; Shibata, Yukie; Takeshita, Toru

2014-01-01

214

A novel gene involved in the survival of Streptococcus mutans under stress conditions.  

PubMed

A Streptococcus mutans mutant defective in aciduricity was constructed by random-insertion mutagenesis. Sequence analysis of the mutant revealed a mutation in gidA, which is known to be involved in tRNA modification in Streptococcus pyogenes. Complementation of gidA by S. pyogenes gidA recovered the acid tolerance of S. mutans. Although the gidA-inactivated S. pyogenes mutant exhibited significantly reduced expression of multiple extracellular virulence proteins, the S. mutans mutant did not. On the other hand, the gidA mutant of S. mutans showed reduced ability to withstand exposure to other stress conditions (high osmotic pressure, high temperature, and bacitracin stress) besides an acidic environment. In addition, loss of GidA decreased the capacity for glucose-dependent biofilm formation by over 50%. This study revealed that gidA plays critical roles in the survival of S. mutans under stress conditions, including lower pH. PMID:24123744

Li, Dan; Shibata, Yukie; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

215

Induction of group A Streptococcus virulence by a human antimicrobial peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes or GAS) freshly isolated from individuals with streptococcal sore throat or invasive (``flesh-eating'') infection often grow as mucoid colonies on primary culture but lose this colony appearance after laboratory passage. The mucoid phenotype is due to abundant production of the hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide, a key virulence determinant associated with severe GAS infections. These observations

Ioannis Gryllos; Hien J. Tran-Winkler; Ming-Fang Cheng; Hachung Chung; Robert Bolcome; Wuyuan Lu; Robert I. Lehrer; Michael R. Wessels

2008-01-01

216

Lyme disease and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): an overview  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease (LD) is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector- borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed. PMID:22393303

Rhee, Hanna; Cameron, Daniel J

2012-01-01

217

Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.  

PubMed

Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented. PMID:23231486

Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

2012-12-01

218

Pyogenic sacroiliitis and pyomyositis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematous.  

PubMed

Pyogenic sacroiliitis and pyomyositis are uncommon infectious diseases and their diagnoses are often delayed. They are typically seen in children and young adults and are rare in middle-aged people especially in those affected by rheumatic diseases. We present the first case of a Staphylococcus aureus related pyogenic sacroiliitis associated with iliacus and gluteal pyomyositis occurring in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Antibiotic treatment was administered for a total of 6 weeks with a total recovery. Pyogenic sacroiliitis and pyomyositis, although remaining rare events, should be remembered as severe complications in immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory diseases. Early clinical suspicion, imaging diagnosis, and adequate therapy are decisive for the satisfactory outcome. PMID:25165609

Chebbi, Wafa; Jerbi, Saida; Kessomtini, Wassia; Fradi, Asma; Zantour, Baha; Sfar, Mohamed Habib

2014-01-01

219

Group B streptococcus cystitis presenting in a diabetic patient with a massive abdominopelvic abscess: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus is a Gram-positive pathogen that is typically associated with neonatal disease and infection in pregnant women. Group B streptococcus also causes invasive infections in non-pregnant adults including urinary tract infections. The spectrum of urinary tract infections caused by group B streptococcus includes cystitis, pyelonephritis, urosepsis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is particularly common among elderly individuals. A rare form of invasive group B streptococcus infection in adults is secondary abscess. Here, we present the first reported case of a patient who developed an unusual, massive abdominopelvic abscess secondary to acute group B streptococcus urinary tract infection. Case presentation A 46-year-old African-American woman presented to the University Emergency Department complaining of urinary tract infection symptoms and severe abdominal pain. Diagnostic imaging by transvaginal ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a massive peripherally-enhancing, low-attenuating fluid collection within her pelvis. The patient’s abdominopelvic abscess was drained by ultrasound-guided drainage and this yielded a septic aspirate that was culture positive for abundant S. agalactiae. A recent history of urinary tract infection symptoms in the patient suggested that her abscess developed secondary to cystitis. Complete resolution of the abscess as a favorable outcome was achieved in this case following surgical drainage and appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Conclusion Acute bacterial urinary tract infection leading to an abdominopelvic abscess has not previously been reported in the literature. This case report defines a new disease etiology associated with acute streptococcal cystitis and it will be of interest in cases of urinary tract infections where there is an association with abdominal and/or pelvic pain. A brief review of the literature on unusual secondary abscesses due to group B streptococcus is provided alongside this case to highlight the clinical significance and prognoses of these rare infections. Finally, this case emphasizes the requirement to distinguish unusual etiologies of pyogenic abscesses in order to guide successful clinical management and to treat patients with antibiotics active against the causal organism. PMID:22883571

2012-01-01

220

Group A Streptococcal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... geographical locations. See Protocols for Surveillance of Streptococcus pyogenes Infections and their Sequelae . One protocol focused on ... for Surveillance of Acute Diseases Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes : Pharyngitis, Impetigo and Invasive Diseases”. The following publications ...

221

Identification of ?-haemolysin-encoding genes in Streptococcus anginosus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus anginosus is an emerging pathogen, but little is known about its virulence factors. To detect the genes responsible for ?-haemolysis we performed genomic mutagenesis of the ?-haemolytic S. anginosus type strain ATCC 12395 using the vector pGhost9:ISS1. Integration site analysis of 15 non-haemolytic mutants identified a gene cluster with high homology to the genes of the streptolysin S (SLS) encoding sag gene cluster of S. pyogenes. The gene cluster harbours 10 open reading frames displaying significant similarities to the S. pyogenes genes sagA-sagI, with the identities on protein level ranging from 38 to 87%. Complementation assays of S. anginosus sagB and sagD integration mutants with the respective genes confirmed their importance for ?-haemolysin production and suggest the presence of post-translational modifications in S. anginosus SLS similar to SLS of S. pyogenes. Characterization of the S. anginosus haemolysin in comparison to the S. pyogenes SLS showed that the haemolysin is surface bound, but in contrast to S. pyogenes neither fetal calf serum nor RNA was able to stabilize the haemolysin of S. anginosus in culture supernatants. Inhibition of ?-haemolysis by polyethylene glycol of different sizes was carried out, giving no evidence of a pore-forming haemolytic mechanism. Analysis of a whole genome shotgun sequence of Streptococcus constellatus, a closely related streptococcal species that belongs to the S. anginosus group, revealed a similar sag gene cluster. Employing a genomic mutagenesis strategy we were able to determine an SLS encoding gene cluster in S. anginosus and demonstrate its importance for ?-haemolysin production in S. anginosus. PMID:23594064

Asam, D; Mauerer, S; Walheim, E; Spellerberg, B

2013-08-01

222

[Serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing acute exacerbations and pneumonia in children with chronic respiratory diseases].  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates obtained from children with chronic respiratory diseases admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of acute exacerbations between 2008-2010 at Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Sixty one S.pneumoniae strains isolated from the respiratory samples of patients were studied for erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracyline, trimethoprim-sulphametoxazole (TMP-SMX), vancomycin, levofloxacin susceptibilities by disk diffusion method; MIC values of penicillin and ceftriaxone were determined by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). Results were evaluated according to the CLSI standards. The erythromycin-clindamycin double disc method was applied for the detection of macrolide resistance phenotypes. The presence of macrolide resistance genes, ermB, mef(A)/(E), ermTR were determined by PCR using specific primers for each gene. The serotypes were determined by multiplex PCR using specific primers for 40 different serotypes. According to CLSI criteria, penicillin resistance in S.pneumoniae isolates were found to be 8.2% (5/61) and intermediate resistance rate was 54% (33/61) for oral penicillin. Penicillin resistance were found to be only 1.6% (1/61) for parenteral penicillin. Resistance rates of erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracyline, TMP-SMX were detected as 55.8%, 46%, 47.5% and 67.2%; respectively. No resistance was detected to vancomycin and levofloxacin. Constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSB) phenotype and M phenotype were observed in 82.4% (n= 28) and 17.6% (n= 6) of the macrolide resistant isolates, respectively. Inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSB) phenotype was not detected. The macrolid resistance genotypes, ermB, mef(A)/(E), were positive 50% and 14.7%; respectively. Both ermB and mef(A)/(E) genes were detected 35.3% of the macrolid resistant isolates. None of the isolates were positive for ermTR gene. The most common S.pneumoniae serotypes were determined as serotype 19F, 23F and 6, furthermore penicillin (34%, 15.7% and 18.4%, respectively) and macrolide (38.2%, 20.6% and 14.7%, respectively) resistance rates of those serotypes were found relatively high. Serotype covarage of 7-, 10-, 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccines and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine were 65%, 67%, 69%, and 78.6%, respectively. In our country, use of the vaccines with these coverage rates has been observed to be effective in children exposed to intensive use of antibiotics with chronic lung disease. PMID:24237437

Alt?nkanat Gelmez, Gül?en; Soysal, Ahmet; Kuzdan, Canan; Karada?, Bülent; Hasdemir, Ufuk; Bak?r, Mustafa; Söyletir, Güner

2013-10-01

223

Extracellular matrix formation enhances the ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae to cause invasive disease.  

PubMed

During infection, pneumococci exist mainly in sessile biofilms rather than in planktonic form, except during sepsis. However, relatively little is known about how biofilms contribute to pneumococcal pathogenesis. Here, we carried out a biofilm assay on opaque and transparent variants of a clinical serotype 19F strain WCH159. After 4 days incubation, scanning electron microscopy revealed that opaque biofilm bacteria produced an extracellular matrix, whereas the transparent variant did not. The opaque biofilm-derived bacteria translocated from the nasopharynx to the lungs and brain of mice, and showed 100-fold greater in vitro adherence to A549 cells than transparent bacteria. Microarray analysis of planktonic and sessile bacteria from transparent and opaque variants showed differential gene expression in two operons: the lic operon, which is involved in choline uptake, and in the two-component system, ciaRH. Mutants of these genes did not form an extracellular matrix, could not translocate from the nasopharynx to the lungs or the brain, and adhered poorly to A549 cells. We conclude that only the opaque phenotype is able to form extracellular matrix, and that the lic operon and ciaRH contribute to this process. We propose that during infection, extracellular matrix formation enhances the ability of pneumococci to cause invasive disease. PMID:21611130

Trappetti, Claudia; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Oggioni, Marco R; Paton, James C

2011-01-01

224

Molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and surveillance of invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, a review  

PubMed Central

Invasive disease caused by the encapsulated bacteria Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the introduction of successful conjugate polysaccharide vaccines that target disease-associated strains. In addition, resistance, or more accurately reduced susceptibility, to therapeutic antibiotics is spreading in populations of these organisms. There is therefore a continuing requirement for the surveillance of vaccine and non-vaccine antigens and antibiotic susceptibilities among isolates from invasive disease, which is only partially met by conventional methods. This need can be met with molecular and especially nucleotide sequence-based typing methods, which are fully developed in the case of N. meningitidis and which could be more widely deployed in clinical laboratories for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. PMID:21622526

Harrison, Odile B.; Brueggemann, Angela B.; Caugant, Dominique A.; van der Ende, Arie; Frosch, Matthias; Gray, Stephen; Heuberger, Sigrid; Krizova, Paula; Olcen, Per; Slack, Mary; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Maiden, Martin C. J

2014-01-01

225

Ampicillin-sulbactam therapy for multiple pyogenic hepatic abscesses.  

PubMed

A patient with multiple, pyogenic hepatic abscesses is described, and the pathophysiology, etiologies, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and management of the disease are reviewed. A 55-year-old man with a history of ethanol abuse and pancreatitis developed fever, chills, general malaise, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain two weeks before hospitalization. Baseline laboratory and hematology results included serum albumin concentration, 3.2 g/dL; serum alkaline phosphatase concentration, 239 mIU/mL; total serum bilirubin concentration, 1.3 mg/dL; white blood cell count, 18,400/cu mm; red blood cell count, 4.7 million/cu mm; hemoglobin, 12.5 g/dL; and hematocrit, 38.8%. Abdominal ultrasound showed echo-free cavities throughout the hepatic parenchyma; abdominal computed-tomography (CT) scan showed hepatomegaly and multiple radiolucent spaces. CT-guided needle aspiration of a hepatic mass yielded purulent material that grew Fusobacterium necrophorum under anaerobic conditions. On day 7, the patient was started on i.v. ampicillin sodium-sulbactam sodium. A CT scan two weeks later showed a reduction in the number and sizes of abscesses. The patient continued i.v. therapy for one month, then was discharged on a regimen of p.o. amoxicillin trihydrate-clavulanate potassium. Hepatic abscesses are either amebic or pyogenic; the latter usually has a higher mortality. The etiologies of pyogenic hepatic abscesses include ascending cholangitis, portal vein bacteremia, systemic bacteremia, extension from a contiguous focus of infection, and trauma. Diagnosis is difficult and relies highly on clinical suspicion. Clinical symptoms include hepatomegaly, fever, chills, and malaise. Abnormal laboratory values include leukocytosis, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia. The abscesses are frequently polymicrobial; Escherichia coli is the most commonly isolated species. CT is the best radiological technique for diagnosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2292177

Zenon, G J; Cadle, R M; Hamill, R J

1990-12-01

226

Complete genome sequencing and analysis of a Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain GGS_124 isolated from a patient with STSS. RESULTS: We found that GGS_124 consisted of a circular genome of 2,106,340 bp. Comparative analyses among bacterial genomes indicated that GGS_124

Yumi Shimomura; Kayo Okumura; Somay Yamagata Murayama; Junji Yagi; Kimiko Ubukata; Teruo Kirikae; Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama

2011-01-01

227

Pyogenic psoas abscess: Worldwide variations in etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle results from primary suppuration or direct extension of intraabdominal infection. The etiology varies with the country of origin. Our experience with 9 cases prompted a review of 367 cases from the world literature. A total of 286 primary abscesses occurred mainly in developing nations (200 cases), although 74 were reported from the United States.

Michael A. Ricci; Frederick B. Rose; Kenneth K. Meyer

1986-01-01

228

Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis associated with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans.  

PubMed

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, formerly known as Oerskovia xanthineolytica, is a rare human pathogen, often in association with a foreign body. A case of pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis associated with C. cellulans in an immunocompetent boy is described, underlining the importance of prompt surgical and microbiologic evaluation. PMID:18832122

Tucker, Joseph D; Montecino, Rafael; Winograd, Jonathan M; Ferraro, Maryjane; Michelow, Ian C

2008-12-01

229

Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Associated with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans?  

PubMed Central

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, formerly known as Oerskovia xanthineolytica, is a rare human pathogen, often in association with a foreign body. A case of pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis associated with C. cellulans in an immunocompetent boy is described, underlining the importance of prompt surgical and microbiologic evaluation. PMID:18832122

Tucker, Joseph D.; Montecino, Rafael; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Ferraro, MaryJane; Michelow, Ian C.

2008-01-01

230

Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (?4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (?4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.

2013-01-01

231

Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C presenting as recurrent prosthetic knee joint infection in a patient with a history of congenital asplenia and underlying autoimmune disease: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

This report describes a case of primary Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia with prosthetic joint infection caused by serotype 6C with recurrent infection in a patient with a history of congenital asplenia and underlying autoimmune disease. Isolates from the primary and recurrent infections were determined to be indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This study expands the conditions associated with recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 6C. PMID:24139971

Roberts, Amity L; Hewlett, Angela L; Yu, Jigui; Nahm, Moon H; Fey, Paul D; Iwen, Peter C

2013-12-01

232

A Case of Acute Pyogenic Sacroiliitis and Bacteremia Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a rare osteoarticular infection, occurring most frequently in children and young adults. Diagnosis of the disease is challenging because of a general lack of awareness of the disease and its nonspecific signs and symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative bacteria in pyogenic sacroiliitis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has typically been considered a hospital-associated pathogen; however, community-acquired (CA)-MRSA infections are becoming increasingly common in Korea. We report the first domestic case of acute pyogenic sacroiliitis with abscess and bacteremia caused by CA-MRSA. The pathogen carried the type IV-A staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, and was identified as sequence type (ST) 72 by multilocus sequence typing. PMID:24475359

Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Kang Lock; Baek, Hae Lim; Jang, Seung Jun; Moon, Song Mi

2013-01-01

233

Pneumococcal Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Pneumococcal Disease Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Streptococcus Pneumoniae Streptococcus ...

234

Characterization and Protective Immunogenicity of the SzM Protein of Streptococcus zooepidemicus NC78 from a Clonal Outbreak of Equine Respiratory Disease  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus zooepidemicus of Lancefield group C is a highly variable tonsillar and mucosal commensal that usually is associated with opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract of vertebrate hosts. More-virulent clones have caused epizootics of severe respiratory disease in dogs and horses. The virulence factors of these strains are poorly understood. The antiphagocytic protein SeM is a major virulence factor and protective antigen of Streptococcus equi, a clonal biovar of an ancestral S. zooepidemicus strain. Although the genome of S. zooepidemicus strain H70, an equine isolate, contains a partial homolog (szm) of sem, expression of the gene has not been documented. We have identified and characterized SzM from an encapsulated S. zooepidemicus strain from an epizootic of equine respiratory disease in New Caledonia. The SzM protein of strain NC78 (SzMNC78) has a predicted predominantly alpha-helical fibrillar structure with an LPSTG cell surface anchor motif and resistance to hot acid. A putative binding site for plasminogen is present in the B repeat region, the sequence of which shares homology with repeats of the plasminogen binding proteins of human group C and G streptococci. Equine plasminogen is activated in a dose-dependent manner by recombinant SzMNC78. Only 23.20 and 25.46% DNA homology is shared with SeM proteins of S. equi strains CF32 and 4047, respectively, and homology ranges from 19.60 to 54.70% for SzM proteins of other S. zooepidemicus strains. As expected, SzMNC78 reacted with convalescent-phase sera from horses with respiratory disease associated with strains of S. zooepidemicus. SzMNC78 resembles SeM in binding equine fibrinogen and eliciting strong protective antibody responses in mice. Sera of vaccinated mice opsonized S. zooepidemicus strains NC78 and W60, the SzM protein of which shared partial amino acid homology with SzMNC78. We conclude that SzM is a protective antigen of NC78; it was strongly reactive with serum antibodies from horses during recovery from S. zooepidemicus-associated respiratory disease. PMID:23740925

Velineni, Sridhar

2013-01-01

235

Giant Pyogenic Granuloma in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma, also known as lobular capillary hemangioma, is a common benign vascular proliferative lesion that can present at any age on the skin or mucous membranes. Most lesions do not exceed 2 cm, but there are a handful of giant cutaneous pyogenic granulomas that have been reported, often in individuals with underlying immune dysfunction. Here, we report the first giant pyogenic granuloma in a patient with a hematological malignancy, chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Plovanich, Molly; Tsibris, Hillary C.; Lian, Christine G.; Mostaghimi, Arash

2014-01-01

236

Extragingival pyogenic granuloma histologically mimicking capillary hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma is a tumor-like proliferation to a non-specific infection. The tumor-like growth is considered to be non-neoplastic in nature and presents in various clinical and histological forms in the oral cavity. Hemangiomas are benign vascular anomalies characterized by benign proliferation of blood vessels. The aim of this article is to drive attention toward the uncommon location of capillary hemangioma on the palate. In spite of their benign nature, intraoral capillary hemangiomas are always clinically important to be diagnosed well in time and suitably managed. The lesion in the present case although clinically diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma gave a histological picture of capillary hemangioma when surgically excised.

Dahiya, Ritu; Kathuria, Abhinav

2014-01-01

237

Gold-mercaptopropionic acid-polyethylenimine composite based DNA sensor for early detection of rheumatic heart disease.  

PubMed

The first gold-mercaptopropionic acid-polyethylenimine composite based electrochemical DNA biosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in humans causing rheumatic heart disease (heart valve damage). No biosensor is available for the detection of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Therefore, the mga gene based sensor was developed by the covalent immobilization of a 5'-carboxyl modified single stranded DNA probe onto the gold composite electrode. The immobilized probe was hybridized with the genomic DNA (G-DNA) of S. pyogenes from throat swabs and the electrochemical response was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance (EI). Covalent immobilization of the probe onto the gold composite and its hybridization with G-DNA was characterized by FTIR and SEM. The sensitivity of the sensor was 110.25 ?A cm(-2) ng(-1) with DPV and the lower limit of detection was 10 pg per 6 ?L. The sensor was validated with patient throat swab samples and results were compared with available methods. The sensor is highly specific to S. pyogenes and can prevent damage to heart valves by the early detection of the infection in only 30 min. PMID:24875529

Singh, Swati; Kaushal, Ankur; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Ashok

2014-07-21

238

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.  

PubMed

In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration. PMID:21908365

Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2011-09-01

239

Single and Multiple Pyogenic Liver Abscesses: Clinical Course, Etiology, and Results of Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A total of 483 patients with pyogenic\\u000a liver abscess during the years 1986 to June 1995 were studied at Chang\\u000a Gung Memorial Hospital in Kaohsiung: 343 were a single abscess and 140\\u000a were multiple abscesses. Males were predominantly affected by this\\u000a disease. Abdominal pain was more frequent with the single abscess than\\u000a with multiple abscesses, and jaundice was more

Fong-Fu Chou; Shyr-Ming Sheen-Chen; Yaw-Sen Chen; Mao-Chan Chen

1997-01-01

240

Evolutionary pathway to increased virulence and epidemic group A Streptococcus disease derived from 3,615 genome sequences.  

PubMed

We sequenced the genomes of 3,615 strains of serotype Emm protein 1 (M1) group A Streptococcus to unravel the nature and timing of molecular events contributing to the emergence, dissemination, and genetic diversification of an unusually virulent clone that now causes epidemic human infections worldwide. We discovered that the contemporary epidemic clone emerged in stepwise fashion from a precursor cell that first contained the phage encoding an extracellular DNase virulence factor (streptococcal DNase D2, SdaD2) and subsequently acquired the phage encoding the SpeA1 variant of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A superantigen. The SpeA2 toxin variant evolved from SpeA1 by a single-nucleotide change in the M1 progenitor strain before acquisition by horizontal gene transfer of a large chromosomal region encoding secreted toxins NAD(+)-glycohydrolase and streptolysin O. Acquisition of this 36-kb region in the early 1980s into just one cell containing the phage-encoded sdaD2 and speA2 genes was the final major molecular event preceding the emergence and rapid intercontinental spread of the contemporary epidemic clone. Thus, we resolve a decades-old controversy about the type and sequence of genomic alterations that produced this explosive epidemic. Analysis of comprehensive, population-based contemporary invasive strains from seven countries identified strong patterns of temporal population structure. Compared with a preepidemic reference strain, the contemporary clone is significantly more virulent in nonhuman primate models of pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis. A key finding is that the molecular evolutionary events transpiring in just one bacterial cell ultimately have produced millions of human infections worldwide. PMID:24733896

Nasser, Waleed; Beres, Stephen B; Olsen, Randall J; Dean, Melissa A; Rice, Kelsey A; Long, S Wesley; Kristinsson, Karl G; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Vuopio, Jaana; Raisanen, Kati; Caugant, Dominique A; Steinbakk, Martin; Low, Donald E; McGeer, Allison; Darenberg, Jessica; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Van Beneden, Chris A; Hoffmann, Steen; Musser, James M

2014-04-29

241

Evolutionary pathway to increased virulence and epidemic group A Streptococcus disease derived from 3,615 genome sequences  

PubMed Central

We sequenced the genomes of 3,615 strains of serotype Emm protein 1 (M1) group A Streptococcus to unravel the nature and timing of molecular events contributing to the emergence, dissemination, and genetic diversification of an unusually virulent clone that now causes epidemic human infections worldwide. We discovered that the contemporary epidemic clone emerged in stepwise fashion from a precursor cell that first contained the phage encoding an extracellular DNase virulence factor (streptococcal DNase D2, SdaD2) and subsequently acquired the phage encoding the SpeA1 variant of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A superantigen. The SpeA2 toxin variant evolved from SpeA1 by a single-nucleotide change in the M1 progenitor strain before acquisition by horizontal gene transfer of a large chromosomal region encoding secreted toxins NAD+-glycohydrolase and streptolysin O. Acquisition of this 36-kb region in the early 1980s into just one cell containing the phage-encoded sdaD2 and speA2 genes was the final major molecular event preceding the emergence and rapid intercontinental spread of the contemporary epidemic clone. Thus, we resolve a decades-old controversy about the type and sequence of genomic alterations that produced this explosive epidemic. Analysis of comprehensive, population-based contemporary invasive strains from seven countries identified strong patterns of temporal population structure. Compared with a preepidemic reference strain, the contemporary clone is significantly more virulent in nonhuman primate models of pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis. A key finding is that the molecular evolutionary events transpiring in just one bacterial cell ultimately have produced millions of human infections worldwide. PMID:24733896

Nasser, Waleed; Beres, Stephen B.; Olsen, Randall J.; Dean, Melissa A.; Rice, Kelsey A.; Long, S. Wesley; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Vuopio, Jaana; Raisanen, Kati; Caugant, Dominique A.; Steinbakk, Martin; Low, Donald E.; McGeer, Allison; Darenberg, Jessica; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Van Beneden, Chris A.; Hoffmann, Steen; Musser, James M.

2014-01-01

242

Isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from the porcine gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes is an inhabitant of the mucous membranes of the respiratory and genital tracts of a number of domestic animal species. However, following a precipitating physical or microbial insult, A. pyogenes can become an opportunistic pathogen, associated with suppurative infections. The isolation of A. pyogenes from the bovine ruminal wall indicated that this organism may also inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of, at least, cattle. To determine whether A. pyogenes was also present on the gastric mucosa of a monogastric animal, porcine stomachs were cultured for the presence of this organism. Of 13 stomachs sampled, A. pyogenes was isolated from 5 (39%). The identity of the organism was confirmed by PCR with primers specific to the plo gene, which encodes the A. pyogenes haemolytic exotoxin pyolysin. In addition, an isolate from each positive stomach was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the identification as A. pyogenes was confirmed. These data indicate that A. pyogenes may be resident on the gastric mucosa of pigs. PMID:12241094

Jost, B H; Post, K W; Songer, J G; Billington, S J

2002-08-01

243

Modern management of pyogenic hepatic abscess: a case series and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Pyogenic hepatic abscesses are relatively rare, though untreated are uniformly fatal. A recent paradigm shift in the management of liver abscesses, facilitated by advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology, has decreased mortality rates. The aim of this study was to review our experience in managing pyogenic liver abscess, review the literature in this field, and propose guidelines to aid in the current management of this complex disease. Methods Demographic and clinical details of all patients admitted to a single institution with liver abscess over a 5 year period were reviewed. Clinical presentation, aetiology, diagnostic work-up, treatment, morbidity and mortality data were collated. Results Over a 5 year period 11 patients presented to a single institution with pyogenic hepatic abscess (55% males, mean age 60.3 years). Common clinical features at presentation were non-specific constitutional symptoms and signs. Aetiology was predominantly gallstones (45%) or diverticular disease (27%). In addition to empiric antimicrobial therapy, all patients underwent radiologically guided percutaneous drainage of the liver abscess at diagnosis and only 2 patients required surgical intervention, including one 16-year old female who underwent hemi-hepatectomy for a complex and rare Actinomycotic abscess. There were no mortalities after minimum follow-up of one year. Conclusions Pyogenic liver abscesses are uncommon, and mortality has decreased over the last two decades. Antimicrobial therapy and radiological intervention form the mainstay of modern treatment. Surgical intervention should be considered for patients with large, complex, septated or multiple abscesses, underlying disease or in whom percutaneous drainage has failed. PMID:21435221

2011-01-01

244

Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licensed in veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n=384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinary pathogens, all strains were susceptible to ceftiofur, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and penicillin. MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were < or = 0.03, 0.5, 2 and < or = 0.13 microg/mL, respectively. A low degree of resistance was observed for gentamicin (1.3%), spectinomycin (3.6%) and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (6.0%). MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were 8, 16 and 2 microg/mL, respectively. A high level of resistance was observed for tetracycline (75.1%). A MIC-90 value of 64 microg/mL was found for this antibiotic. Serotype-associated differences in MIC-90 values were observed for tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/suphamethoxazole. PMID:16387456

Wisselink, Henk J; Veldman, Kees T; Van den Eede, Chris; Salmon, Sarah A; Mevius, Dik J

2006-03-10

245

Human Disease Isolates of Serotype M4 and M22 Group A Streptococcus Lack Genes Required for Hyaluronic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes human pharyngitis and invasive infections and frequently colonizes individuals asymptomatically. Many lines of evidence generated over decades have shown that the hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor contributing to these infections. While conducting a whole-genome analysis of the in vivo molecular genetic changes that occur in GAS during longitudinal human pharyngeal interaction, we discovered that serotypes M4 and M22 GAS strains lack the hasABC genes necessary for hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis. Using targeted PCR, we found that all 491 temporally and geographically diverse disease isolates of these two serotypes studied lack the hasABC genes. Consistent with the lack of capsule synthesis genes, none of the strains produced detectable hyaluronic acid. Despite the lack of a hyaluronic acid capsule, all strains tested multiplied extensively ex vivo in human blood. Thus, counter to the prevailing concept in GAS pathogenesis research, strains of these two serotypes do not require hyaluronic acid to colonize the upper respiratory tract or cause abundant mucosal or invasive human infections. We speculate that serotype M4 and M22 GAS have alternative, compensatory mechanisms that promote virulence. PMID:23131832

Flores, Anthony R.; Jewell, Brittany E.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Beres, Stephen B.; Musser, James M.

2012-01-01

246

Alterations of pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from children with otolaryngological infectious disease in the Sapporo district of Japan.  

PubMed

Evaluation of beta-lactam susceptibility and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping of penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) 1A, 2B, and 2X were performed for Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from children with otolaryngological infectious disease in the Sapporo district, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Of 174 S. pneumoniae isolates, 14 (8%) were penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP), 87 (50%) were penicillin-intermediately-resistant, and 73 (42%) were penicillin-sensitive. Seventy-six (44%) had alterations in all of the three genes examined (pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x), 81 (47%) had alterations in one or two of the genes, and 17 (10%) had no alterations. Isolates with alterations in all three genes showed low susceptibility to penicillin, while, in contrast, isolates with no alteration showed relatively high susceptibility to penicillin. Similar relationships were observed for other beta-lactams. The prevalence of PRSP in our study ranged from 5% to 12.8% (average, 8%), and there was much variation in the prevalence of PBP gene alterations among the cities. The results suggest that local differences in patterns of PBP gene alterations can be observed even at the district level. PCR-based genotyping of PBP genes is rapid, convenient, and useful to investigate genetic susceptibility to beta-lactams. Further, not only nationwide or prefectural surveys but also local surveillance at the district level is important for determining antimicrobial susceptibility status in daily practice. PMID:17235642

Harimaya, Atsushi; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Sato, Kiyoshi; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Himi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Nobuhiro

2006-12-01

247

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteomyelitis represents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Two cases of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis occurring weeks to months after a urinary tract infection with Escherichia coli are described. The rarity and subtle clinical presentation of this condition, the presence of pre-existing degenerative arthritic changes, and delayed appearance of radiologic signs of progression to destructive osteomyelitis contributed to a significant delay in diagnosis. Increased awareness of vertebral osteomyelitis as a clinical entity combined with information from radionuclide scanning may permit earlier detection of this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6367920

Kern, R. Z.; Houpt, J. B.

1984-01-01

248

Serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in Brazil before and after ten-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation.  

PubMed

The ten-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the national immunization program for childhood vaccination schedules by the Brazilian Health Public Service in March 2010. The aim of this study was to compare Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and potential coverage before (January 2006-June 2010) and after (July 2010-September 2012) PCV10 introduction. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), patient demographics, and disease characteristics were recorded. This study was conducted at the University Hospital of Sao Paulo University in Brazil from January 2006 to September 2012. Serotyping was performed using multiplex PCR typing, and antimicrobial sensitivity by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). A total of 259 S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from patients with IPD. The ages of the patients ranged from 3 months to 95 years old. The strains were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, and blood. The incidence of IPD among patients at HU-USP changed after the introduction of PCV10. The overall incidence of IPD was 3.42 cases per 1000 admissions in the vaccine pre- implementation period and of 2.99 cases per 1000 admissions in the vaccine post-implementation period. The incidence of IPD among children<2 y.o. attended at HU-USP changed significantly after the introduction of PCV10, from 20.30 to 3.97 of incidence. The incidence of PCV10- serotypes decrease from 16.47 to 0.44 in the same age, before and after PC10 implementation, respectively. Moreover, it was possible to realize the sensitivity to penicillin among isolates increased significantly in the post-vaccine period. Data from this study suggest that PCV10 contributed to decrease with PID rate among children less than 2 y.o. The resistance rate among pneumococcal isolates also could be observed since serotypes with greater resistance to beta lactam antibiotics were not easily isolated after vaccination. PMID:23747454

dos Santos, Silvia R; Passadore, Lilian F; Takagi, Elizabeth H; Fujii, Cristiane M; Yoshioka, Cristina R M; Gilio, Alfredo E; Martinez, Marina B

2013-12-01

249

Rapid identification of Streptococcus and Enterococcus species using diffuse reflectance-absorbance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse reflectance-absorbance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to analyse 19 hospital isolates which had been identified by conventional means to one of Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus bovis, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, or S. pyogenes. Principal components analysis of the FT-IR spectra showed that this ‘unsupervised’ learning method failed to form six separable clusters (one for each species)

Royston Goodacre; Eadaoin M. Timmins; Paul J. Rooney; Jem J. Rowland; Douglas B. Kell

1996-01-01

250

Contribution of Each of Four Superantigens to Streptococcus equi-Induced Mitogenicity, Gamma Interferon Synthesis, and Immunity ?  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide. The disease is characterized by abscessation and swelling of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, which can literally strangle the horse to death. S. equi produces four recently acquired phage-associated bacterial superantigens (sAgs; SeeH, SeeI, SeeL, and SeeM) that share homology with the mitogenic toxins of Streptococcus pyogenes. The aim of this study was to characterize the contribution of each of these S. equi sAgs to mitogenic activity in vitro and quantify the sAg-neutralizing capacity of sera from naturally infected horses in order to better understand their role in pathogenicity. Each of the sAgs was successfully cloned, and soluble proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. SeeI, SeeL, and SeeM induced a dose-dependent proliferative response in equine CD4 T lymphocytes and synthesis of gamma interferon (IFN-?). SeeH did not stimulate equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but induced proliferation of asinine PBMC. Allelic replacement mutants of S. equi strain 4047 with sequential deletion of the superantigen genes were generated. Deletion of seeI, seeL, and seeM completely abrogated the mitogenic activity and synthesis of IFN-?, in equine PBMC, of the strain 4047 culture supernatant. Sera from naturally infected convalescent horses had only limited sAg-neutralizing activities. We propose that S. equi sAgs play an important role in S. equi pathogenicity by stimulating an overzealous and inappropriate Th1 response that may interfere with the development of an effective immune response. PMID:20123710

Paillot, Romain; Robinson, Carl; Steward, Karen; Wright, Nicola; Jourdan, Thibaud; Butcher, Nicola; Heather, Zoe; Waller, Andrew S.

2010-01-01

251

[The Corynebacterium pyogenes infection of cattle. 2. Tenacity of Corynebacterium pyogenes].  

PubMed

Some common agents were tested for their effectiveness against Corynebacterium pyogenes. The pathogen proved most susceptable to Wofasteril. All germs were killed within ten minutes by a 0.005% solution. Equally good action was recorded from all the other tested agents as well (lactic acid, Lugol's solution, formalin, cupric sulphate, alcohol, and aethacridine. Other studies were conducted with the view to testing the survival capacity of Corynebacterium pyogenes in different media and storage conditions. The pathogen survived three months in routine media and mastitis secretion at room temperature. Regrowth of 38 in 50 strains took place after nine months of refrigerator storage in slanting blood agar tubes with paraffin plugs. Germs sampled from mastitis secretion and stored in a refrigerator were cultivable even after one year had elapsed. The detectability rate of Corynebacterium pyogenes did not change over months by storage of wound infection material at 12 degrees C below zero. The pathogen remained detectable five days from artificial contamination of cattle skin. PMID:336001

Nattermann, H; Horsch, F

1977-01-01

252

Serum and salivary IgA antibody responses to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in orofacial granulomatosis and Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a condition of unknown aetiology with histological and, in some cases, clinical association with Crohn's disease (CD). However, the exact relationship between OFG and CD remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine whether OFG could be distinguished immunologically from CD by comparing non-specific and specific aspects of humoral immunity in serum, whole saliva and parotid saliva in three groups of patients: (a) OFG only (n = 14), (b) those with both oral and gut CD (OFG + CD) (n = 12) and (c) CD without oral involvement (n = 22) and in healthy controls (n = 29). Non-specific immunoglobulin (IgA, SigA, IgA subclasses and IgG) levels and antibodies to whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum, whole saliva and parotid saliva. Serum IgA and IgA1 and IgA2 subclasses were raised in all patient groups (P < 0·01). Salivary IgA (and IgG) levels were raised in OFG and OFG + CD (P < 0·01) but not in the CD group. Parotid IgA was also raised in OFG and OFG + CD but not in CD. The findings suggest that serum IgA changes reflect mucosal inflammation anywhere in the GI tract but that salivary IgA changes reflect involvement of the oral cavity. Furthermore, the elevated levels of IgA in parotid saliva suggest involvement of the salivary glands in OFG. Serum IgA antibodies to S. cerevisiae were raised markedly in the two groups with gut disease while serum IgA (or IgG) antibodies to C. albicans were elevated significantly in all three patient groups (P < 0·02). No differences were found with antibodies to S. mutans. Whole saliva IgA antibodies to S. cerevisiae (and C. albicans) were raised in the groups with oral involvement. These findings suggest that raised serum IgA antibodies to S. cerevisiae may reflect gut inflammation while raised SIgA antibodies to S. cerevisiae or raised IgA or IgA2 levels in saliva reflect oral but not gut disease. Analysis of salivary IgA and IgA antibodies to S. cerevisiae as well as serum antibodies in patients presenting with OFG may allow prediction of gut involvement. PMID:15008983

SAVAGE, N W; BARNARD, K; SHIRLAW, P J; RAHMAN, D; MISTRY, M; ESCUDIER, M P; SANDERSON, J D; CHALLACOMBE, S J

2004-01-01

253

SpyAD, a moonlighting protein of group A Streptococcus contributing to bacterial division and host cell adhesion.  

PubMed

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen causing a wide repertoire of mild and severe diseases for which no vaccine is yet available. We recently reported the identification of three protein antigens that in combination conferred wide protection against GAS infection in mice. Here we focused our attention on the characterization of one of these three antigens, Spy0269, a highly conserved, surface-exposed, and immunogenic protein of unknown function. Deletion of the spy0269 gene in a GAS M1 isolate resulted in very long bacterial chains, which is indicative of an impaired capacity of the knockout mutant to properly divide. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the protein was mainly localized at the cell septum and could interact in vitro with the cell division protein FtsZ, leading us to hypothesize that Spy0269 is a member of the GAS divisome machinery. Predicted structural domains and sequence homologies with known streptococcal adhesins suggested that this antigen could also play a role in mediating GAS interaction with host cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by showing that recombinant Spy0269 could bind to mammalian epithelial cells in vitro and that Lactococcus lactis expressing Spy0269 on its cell surface could adhere to mammalian cells in vitro and to mice nasal mucosa in vivo. On the basis of these data, we believe that Spy0269 is involved both in bacterial cell division and in adhesion to host cells and we propose to rename this multifunctional moonlighting protein as SpyAD (Streptococcus pyogenes Adhesion and Division protein). PMID:24778116

Gallotta, Marilena; Gancitano, Giovanni; Pietrocola, Giampiero; Mora, Marirosa; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Tuscano, Giovanna; Chiarot, Emiliano; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Taddei, Anna Rita; Rindi, Simonetta; Speziale, Pietro; Soriani, Marco; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada; Bensi, Giuliano

2014-07-01

254

Protein Array Profiling of Tic Patient Sera Reveals a Broad Range and Enhanced Immune Response against Group A Streptococcus Antigens  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, GAS) is widely recognized as a major cause of common pharyngitis as well as of severe invasive diseases and non-suppurative sequelae associated with the existence of GAS antigens eliciting host autoantibodies. It has been proposed that a subset of paediatric disorders characterized by tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms would exacerbate in association with relapses of GAS-associated pharyngitis. This hypothesis is however still controversial. In the attempt to shed light on the contribution of GAS infections to the onset of neuropsychiatric or behavioral disorders affecting as many as 3% of children and adolescents, we tested the antibody response of tic patient sera to a representative panel of GAS antigens. In particular, 102 recombinant proteins were spotted on nitrocellulose-coated glass slides and probed against 61 sera collected from young patients with typical tic neuropsychiatric symptoms but with no overt GAS infection. Sera from 35 children with neither tic disorder nor overt GAS infection were also analyzed. The protein recognition patterns of these two sera groups were compared with those obtained using 239 sera from children with GAS-associated pharyngitis. This comparative analysis identified 25 antigens recognized by sera of the three patient groups and 21 antigens recognized by tic and pharyngitis sera, but poorly or not recognized by sera from children without tic. Interestingly, these antigens appeared to be, in quantitative terms, more immunogenic in tic than in pharyngitis patients. Additionally, a third group of antigens appeared to be preferentially and specifically recognized by tic sera. These findings provide the first evidence that tic patient sera exhibit immunological profiles typical of individuals who elicited a broad, specific and strong immune response against GAS. This may be relevant in the context of one of the hypothesis proposing that GAS antigen-dependent induction of autoantibodies in susceptible individuals may be involved the occurrence of tic disorders. PMID:19623252

Bombaci, Mauro; Grifantini, Renata; Mora, Marirosa; Reguzzi, Valerio; Petracca, Roberto; Meoni, Eva; Balloni, Sergio; Zingaretti, Chiara; Falugi, Fabiana; Manetti, Andrea G. O.; Margarit, Immaculada; Musser, James M.; Cardona, Francesco; Orefici, Graziella; Grandi, Guido; Bensi, Giuliano

2009-01-01

255

Population Snapshot of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in South Africa Prior to Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines  

PubMed Central

We determined the sequence types of isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) prior to routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in South Africa. PCV-13 serotypes and 6C isolates collected in 2007 (1 461/2 437, 60%) from patients of all ages as part of on-going, national, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD, were selected for genetic characterization. In addition, all 134 non-PCV isolates from children <2 years were selected for characterization. Sequence type diversity by serotype and age category (children <5 years vs. individuals ?5 years) was assessed for PCV serotypes using Simpson’s index of diversity. Similar genotypes circulated among isolates from children and adults and the majority of serotypes were heterogeneous. While globally disseminated clones were common among some serotypes (e.g., serotype 1 [clonal complex (CC) 217, 98% of all serotype 1] and 14 [CC230, 43%)]), some were represented mainly by clonal complexes rarely reported elsewhere (e.g., serotype 3 [CC458, 60%] and 19A [CC2062, 83%]). In children <2 years, serotype 15B and 8 were the most common serotypes among non-PCV isolates (16% [22/134] and 15% [20/134] isolates, respectively). Sequence type 7052 and 53 were most common among serotypes 15B and 8 isolates and accounted for 58% (7/12) and 64% (9/14) of the isolates, respectively. Serotype 19F, 14, 19A and 15B had the highest proportions of penicillin non-susceptible isolates. Genotypes rarely reported in other parts of the world but common among some of our serotypes highlight the importance of our data as these genotypes may emerge post PCV introduction. PMID:25233455

Ndlangisa, Kedibone M.; du Plessis, Mignon; Wolter, Nicole; de Gouveia, Linda; Klugman, Keith P.; von Gottberg, Anne; GERMS-SA, for

2014-01-01

256

Insight into the evolution of the histidine triad protein (HTP) family in Streptococcus.  

PubMed

The Histidine Triad Proteins (HTPs), also known as Pht proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae, constitute a family of surface-exposed proteins that exist in many pathogenic streptococcal species. Although many studies have revealed the importance of HTPs in streptococcal physiology and pathogenicity, little is known about their origin and evolution. In this study, after identifying all htp homologs from 105 streptococcal genomes representing 38 different species/subspecies, we analyzed their domain structures, positions in genome, and most importantly, their evolutionary histories. By further projecting this information onto the streptococcal phylogeny, we made several major findings. First, htp genes originated earlier than the Streptococcus genus and gene-loss events have occurred among three streptococcal groups, resulting in the absence of the htp gene in the Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups. Second, the copy number of htp genes in other groups of Streptococcus is variable, ranging from one to four functional copies. Third, both phylogenetic evidence and domain structure analyses support the division of two htp subfamilies, designated as htp I and htp II. Although present mainly in the pyogenic group and in Streptococcus suis, htp II members are distinct from htp I due to the presence of an additional leucine-rich-repeat domain at the C-terminus. Finally, htp genes exhibit a faster nucleotide substitution rate than do housekeeping genes. Specifically, the regions outside the HTP domains are under strong positive selection. This distinct evolutionary pattern likely helped Streptococcus to easily escape from recognition by host immunity. PMID:23527301

Shao, Zhu-Qing; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Pan, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

2013-01-01

257

[Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in sheep infected experimentally with Corynebacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli].  

PubMed

A comparative experiment was carried out with sheep that were infected i/v and via the joints with Corynebacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli, and with normal sheep left as controls. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined of amoxicillin-trihydrate following its i/m application to all animals in a 20 percent oil suspension. It was found that there was delayed excretion of the antibiotic, and as a rule it was maintained in higher concentrations in the diseased animals. the differences were likely to be due to changes in the metabolic processes and to injury of the kidneys. PMID:3898563

Drumev, D; Ko?chev, K; Lashev, L; Borisov, I

1985-01-01

258

Necrotizing fasciitis of the retroperitoneum: an unusual presentation of Group A Streptococcus infection  

PubMed Central

A 14-year-old girl presented with symptoms resembling acute appendicitis. Five days after appendectomy and continued fever and severe abdominal pain, blood cultures were found positive for Streptococcus pyogenes. Two days later a diagnosis of group A streptococcal peritonitis with necrotizing retroperitoneal fasciitis was confirmed by retroperitoneal cultures obtained at laparotomy. Although multiple organ systems showed impaired functioning, including hepatic, renal and respiratory changes, she did not meet the criteria for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. She was treated with a combination of high-dose parenteral penicillin and clindamycin, followed by prolonged treatment with clindamycin orally. Recovery was complicated by persistent hydronephrosis, which was slow to resolve. PMID:9576000

Devin, Captain Brian; McCarthy, Major Anne; Mehran, Major Reza; Auger, Colonel Claude

1998-01-01

259

Vru (Sub0144) controls expression of proven and putative virulence determinants and alters the ability of Streptococcus uberis to cause disease in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

The regulation and control of gene expression in response to differing environmental stimuli is crucial for successful pathogen adaptation and persistence. The regulatory gene vru of Streptococcus uberis encodes a stand-alone response regulator with similarity to the Mga of group A Streptococcus. Mga controls expression of a number of important virulence determinants. Experimental intramammary challenge of dairy cattle with a mutant of S. uberis carrying an inactivating lesion in vru showed reduced ability to colonize the mammary gland and an inability to induce clinical signs of mastitis compared with the wild-type strain. Analysis of transcriptional differences of gene expression in the mutant, determined by microarray analysis, identified a number of coding sequences with altered expression in the absence of Vru. These consisted of known and putative virulence determinants, including Lbp (Sub0145), SclB (Sub1095), PauA (Sub1785) and hasA (Sub1696). PMID:22383474

Egan, Sharon A.; Ward, Philip N.; Watson, Michael; Field, Terence R.

2012-01-01

260

Characterization ofStreptococcus agalactiaeStrains by Multilocus Enzyme Genotype and Serotype: Identification of Multiple Virulent Clone Families That Cause Invasive Neonatal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal genotypes of 277 isolates of 16 serotypes ofStreptococcus agalactiaewere characterized by analysis of electrophoretically demonstrable allele profiles at 12 metabolic enzyme loci. The collection com- prised the type strain and 276 strains recovered from French symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Sixty-one distinctive electrophoretic types (ETs), representing multilocus clonal genotypes, were identified. ClusteranalysisoftheETsrevealedtwoprimaryphylogeneticdivisionsseparatedbyageneticdistanceof0.62. Division I contained 67 isolates which could

ROLAND QUENTIN; HELENE HUET; FU-SHENG WANG; PIERRE GESLIN; ALAIN GOUDEAU; ANDROBERT K. SELANDER

1995-01-01

261

Effect of Elevated Atmospheric Pressure on Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Pyogenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Staphylococcus aureus showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, vancomycin, sodium cephalothin and tetracycline, but increased susceptibility to sodium colistimethate, at a pressure of 68 atm in helium or helium-oxygen gas. Susceptibility of streptoc...

N. A. Schlamm

1972-01-01

262

Association of a Serum Opacity Reaction with Serological Type in Streptococcus pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Krumwiede (1954) reported that some group A streptococci formed a lipoproteinase which was capable of producing opalescence in horse serum. A survey of a large number of strains of group A streptococci has shown that those strains which carry an easily identifiable M antigen rarely produce the serum opalescence reaction, except for Types 2 and 9. On the other

H. GOODER

1961-01-01

263

Adjuvant immunotherapy with intrapleural Streptococcus pyogenes (OK-432) in lung cancer patients after resection.  

PubMed

A prospective randomized study to evaluate the effect of adjuvant intrapleural OK-432 immunotherapy after resection of lung tumor was conducted in 93 patients with primary lung cancer. Among them, 46 patients had had intrapleural OK-432 injection, 47 had not. In the meantime, serial measurements of serum immunosuppressive acidic protein, of serum interleukin-2 receptor and of the subpopulation of the peripheral blood cells and lymphocytes were performed in all these patients. Patient characteristics in these two groups (sex, age, histological type, pathological stage, type of operation, and performance status) were compatible. The results showed that adjuvant intrapleural OK-432 injection after resection had no beneficial effect on a patient's survival time. Patients who received intrapleural OK-432, had an increase in blood leukocytes, granulocytes and monocytes and serum immunosuppressive acidic protein level. But the cell numbers of total T cells, suppressor/cytoxic cells, helper/inducer cells and natural killer cells of peripheral blood were decreased in the OK-432 positive group. Over half of the patients had transient 1- or 2-day febrile reactions after intrapleural OK-432 injection. It was concluded that neither clinical observation nor immunological monitoring of peripheral blood could demonstrate a beneficial effect from intrapleural OK-432 immunotherapy after complete resection of the tumor. PMID:7954529

Lee, Y C; Luh, S P; Wu, R M; Lee, C J

1994-10-01

264

Linkage relationships of mutations endowing Streptococcus pyogenes with resistance to antibiotics that affect the ribosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mutations conferring resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, and lincomycin on the group A streptococcal strain 56188 have been mapped by two- and three-point crosses using transduction with bacteriophage A25. The markers are located in two linkage regions too distant to be cotransduced. One harbors the streptomycin and kanamycin loci which are transduced jointly at 78% and the other

Horst Malke

1972-01-01

265

Streptococcus pyogenes type 12 M protein gene regulation by upstream sequences.  

PubMed Central

A partial nucleotide sequence that included 1,693 base pairs of the M12 (emm12) gene of group A streptococci (strain CS24) and adjacent upstream DNA was determined. Type 12 M protein-specific mRNA of strain CS24 is transcribed from two promoters (P1 and P3) separated by 30 bases. The transcription start sites of the emm12 gene were located more than 400 bases downstream of a deletion that causes decreased M-protein gene transcription in strain CS64. Deletion analysis of M protein-expressing plasmids indicated that an upstream region greater than 1 kilobase is required for M-protein gene expression. The M-protein gene transcriptional unit appears to be monocistronic. Analysis of the emm12 DNA sequence revealed three major repeat regions. Two copies of each repeat, A and B, existed within the variable 5' end of the gene; repeat C demarcated the 5' end of the constant region shared by emm12 and emm6. Images PMID:2445730

Robbins, J C; Spanier, J G; Jones, S J; Simpson, W J; Cleary, P P

1987-01-01

266

Processing, stability, and kinetic parameters of C5a peptidase from Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

A recombinant streptococcal C5a peptidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and its catalytic properties and thermal stability were subjected to examination. It was shown that the NH2-terminal region of C5a peptidase (Asn32-Asp79/Lys90) forms the pro-sequence segment. Upon maturation the propeptide is hydrolyzed either via an autocatalytic intramolecular cleavage or by exogenous protease streptopain. At pH 7.4 the enzyme exhibited maximum activity in the narrow range of temperatures between 40 and 43 degrees C. The process of heat denaturation of C5a peptidase investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the protein undergoes biphasic unfolding transition with Tm of 50 and 70 degrees C suggesting melting of different parts of the molecule with different stability. Unfolding of the less stable structures was accompanied by the loss of proteolytic activity. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to the COOH-terminus of human complement C5a we demonstrated that in vitro peptidase catalyzes hydrolysis of two His67-Lys68 and Ala58-Ser59 peptide bonds. The high catalytic efficiency obtained for the SQLRANISHKDMQLGR extended peptide compared to the poor hydrolysis of its derivative Ac-SQLRANISH-pNA that lacks residues at P2'-P7' positions, suggest the importance of C5a peptidase interactions with the P' side of the substrate. PMID:12354115

Anderson, Elizabeth T; Wetherell, Michael G; Winter, Laurie A; Olmsted, Stephen B; Cleary, Patrick P; Matsuka, Yury V

2002-10-01

267

Cathelicidin LL-37 in severe Streptococcus pyogenes soft tissue infections in humans.  

PubMed

Severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and severe cellulitis, caused by group A streptococci (GAS) are rapidly progressing life-threatening infections characterized by massive bacterial loads in the tissue even late after the onset of infection. Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the innate host defense, and cathelicidins have been shown to protect against murine necrotic skin infections caused by GAS. However, it has been demonstrated that the streptococcal cysteine protease SpeB proteolytically inactivates the human cathelicidin LL-37 in vitro. Here we have investigated the expression of LL-37 and its interaction with GAS and SpeB during acute severe soft tissue infections by analyses of patient tissue biopsy specimens. The results showed large amounts of LL-37, both the proform (hCAP18) and the mature peptide, in the tissue. Confocal microscopy identified neutrophils as the main source of the peptide. A distinct colocalization between the bacteria and LL-37 could be noted, and bacterial loads showed positive correlation to the LL-37 levels. Areas with high LL-37 levels coincided with areas with large amounts of SpeB. Confocal microscopy confirmed strong colocalization of GAS, SpeB, and LL-37 at the bacterial surface. Taken together, the findings of this study provide in vivo support of the hypothesis that SpeB-mediated inactivation of LL-37 at the streptococcal surface represents a bacterial resistance mechanism at the infected tissue site in patients with severe GAS tissue infections. PMID:18490458

Johansson, Linda; Thulin, Pontus; Sendi, Parham; Hertzén, Erika; Linder, Adam; Akesson, Per; Low, Donald E; Agerberth, Birgitta; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

2008-08-01

268

Cathelicidin LL37 in Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Soft Tissue Infections in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and severe cellulitis, caused by group A streptococci (GAS) are rapidly progressing life-threatening infections characterized by massive bacterial loads in the tissue even late after the onset of infection. Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the innate host defense, and cathelicidins have been shown to protect against murine necrotic skin infections caused

Linda Johansson; Pontus Thulin; Parham Sendi; Erika Hertzen; Adam Linder; P. Akesson; Donald E. Low; Birgitta Agerberth; Anna Norrby-Teglund

2008-01-01

269

Specific Interactions between F1 Adhesin of Streptococcus pyogenes and N-terminal Modules of Fibronectin*  

E-print Network

, and the Department of Clinical Microbiology, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91010, Israel, rang- ing from nonsuppurative infections of the pharynx and skin to toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing

Mosher, Deane F.

270

Differences in virulence repertoire and cell invasive potential of group A Streptococcus emm1-2 in comparison to emm1 genotype.  

PubMed

Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) type emm1 is widely associated with streptococcal invasive disease. This type is prevalent worldwide but is rare in India. Instead, emm1-2 type which is closely related to emm1 but is a distinct type is more prevalent. Although emm1 has been well characterized, information available on emm1-2 is rare. In this study we present a comparative study of both types. DNA microarray analysis showed segregation of emm1 and emm1-2 isolates into two distinct clusters. Out of 229 arrayed genes, 83-87% were present, 6-9% absent and 4-8% genes were ambiguous in emm1 isolates. emm1-2 strains harboured only 68-77%, 11-13% were absent and 10-20% ambiguous genes. Fourteen genes, present in all emm1, were completely absent in the emm1-2 isolates. sfb1 is a gene which encodes for Streptococcal fibronectin binding adhesin and invasin which has restricted distribution among different emm types of GAS. A variant of sfb1 (sfb1-2) was the only gene which was present in all emm1-2 isolates, but absent from all emm1 strains. Sfb1 and Sfb1-2 differ in sequences in the aromatic domain and the proline rich repeat region, whereas the fibronectin binding region was conserved and exhibited similar fibronectin binding activity. The presence of Sfb1-2 in emm1-2 strains was concomitant with significantly higher fibronectin-binding and invasion efficiency of HEp-2 cells when compared to emm1 isolates. The role of Sfb1-2 in invasion was confirmed by latex bead assay. emm1-2 isolates follow membrane ruffling mechanism during invasion and intracellularly follow classical endocytic pathway. Further studies are required to understand the correlation between the presence of emm1-2 isolates and the disease pattern in North India. PMID:24856243

Sagar, Vivek; Bergmann, Rene; Nerlich, Andreas; McMillan, David J; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric; Fulde, Marcus; Talay, Susanne; Geffers, Robert; Hoe, Nancy; Kumar, Rajesh; Rohde, Manfred; Chakraborti, Anuradha; Chhatwal, Gursharan S

2014-07-01

271

Relatedness of Streptococcus canis from canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis.  

PubMed Central

The emergence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in dogs caused by Streptococcus canis has been reported by our laboratory. Since clonal expansion is thought to be partially responsible for the spread of invasive strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in humans, the relatedness of 15 isolates of S. canis from canine STSS and/or NF was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and biotyping; production of proteases and of a CAMP-like reaction were also examined. Only 2 of the 15 STSS and/or NF isolates were clonally related, suggesting that the emergence of canine STSS/NF is not the result of clonal expansion of one or more highly virulent strains of S. canis. All of the isolates produced proteases and demonstrated a CAMP-like reaction, which appear to be additional characteristics of S. canis. PMID:10369564

DeWinter, L M; Prescott, J F

1999-01-01

272

Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of Integrative Conjugative Element Tn5253 of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Conjugative transposon Tn5253, an integrative conjugative element (ICE) of Streptococcus pneumoniae carrying the cat and tet(M) genes, was shown to be 64,528 bp in size and to contain 79 open reading frames, of which only 38 could be annotated. Two distinct genetic elements were found integrated into Tn5253: Tn5251 (18,033 bp), of the Tn916-Tn1545 family of ICEs, and ?cat(pC194) (7,627 bp), which could not conjugate but was capable of intracellular mobility by excision, circularization, and integration by homologous recombination. The highest conjugation frequency of Tn5253 was observed when Streptococcus pyogenes was the donor (6.7 × 10?3 transconjugants/donor). PMID:24295984

Iannelli, Francesco; Santoro, Francesco; Oggioni, Marco R.

2014-01-01

273

Antimicrobial evaluation of certain plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen crude extracts, including six hexanic, six chloroformic and six methanolic from six different plant species used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory infections, were evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus,Enterococcus faecalis,Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined for each extract using a two-fold dilution assay. The

Gabriela Rojas; Juan Lévaro; Jaime Tortoriello; Victor Navarro

2001-01-01

274

Streptococcus suis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent outbreak of Streptococcus suis infection associated with the slaughter, preparation or consumption of pigs in Sichuan, China has led to concerns that similar outbreaks could occur in other Asian countries. Although the pig farming industry is flourishing in Taiwan, reports of S. suis infection remain rare. We report 2 cases of S. suis meningitis successfully treated with ceftriaxone

Yu-Tsung Huang; Lee-Jene Teng; Shen-Wu Ho; Po-Ren Hsueh

275

Phylogenomics and the dynamic genome evolution of the genus Streptococcus.  

PubMed

The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

Richards, Vincent P; Palmer, Sara R; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M; Highlander, Sarah K; Town, Christopher D; Burne, Robert A; Stanhope, Michael J

2014-04-01

276

Extracellular arginine aminopeptidase from Streptococcus gordonii FSS2.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gordonii is a primary etiological agent in the development of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE), producing thrombus formation and tissue damage on the surfaces of heart valves. This is ironic, considering its normal role as a benign inhabitant of the oral microflora. However, strain FSS2 of S. gordonii has been found to produce several extracellular aminopeptidase- and fibrinogen-degrading activities during growth in a pH-controlled batch culture. In this report, we describe the purification, characterization, and partial cloning of a predicted serine class arginine aminopeptidase (RAP) with some cysteine class characteristics. Isolation of this enzyme by anion-exchange, gel filtration, and isoelectric focusing chromatography yielded a protein monomer of approximately 70 kDa, as shown by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, gel filtration, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. Nested-PCR cloning enabled the isolation of a 324-bp-long DNA fragment encoding the 108-amino-acid N terminus of RAP. Culture activity profiles and N-terminal sequence analysis indicated the export of this protein from the cell surface. Homology was found with a putative dipeptidase from Streptococcus pyogenes and nonspecific dipeptidases from Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis. We believe that RAP may serve as a critical factor for arginine acquisition during nutrient stress in vivo and also in the proteolysis of host proteins and peptides during SBE pathology. PMID:11796618

Goldstein, J M; Nelson, D; Kordula, T; Mayo, J A; Travis, J

2002-02-01

277

Post-partum pyogenic abscess containing Ascaris lumbricoides  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual case of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses containing Ascariasis lumbricoides in a 35-year-old post-partum female who had delivered 1 month back. Open drainage of liver abscess along with liver worm was done. Patient did well post-operatively. PMID:23961448

Hamid, Raashid; Wani, Sajad; Ahmad, Nawab; Akhter, Afrozah

2013-01-01

278

[Antibiotherapy of severe ENT infections in children: propositions of the French Group of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (PID) of the French Society of Pediatrics].  

PubMed

The French Group of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (PID) of the French Society of Pediatrics found necessary to issue in 2011 therapeutic proposals concerning antibiotic treatment in severe ENT infections in children (acute mastoiditis, severe sinusitis, peripharyngeal abscess). They took into account, for each clinical situation, published studies and existing guidelines, the most frequently encountered bacterial species, their usual sensitivity to antibiotics, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) characteristics. These propositions aim to ensure the proper use of antibiotics and to limit the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics by minimizing the use of broadspectrum molecules, especially cephalosporins and penems. These infections are often multi microbial and respond to aerobic flora similar to that found in non severe community acquired ENT infections and soft tissue infections ( Streptococcus pyogenes or group A Streptococcus(GAS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae). Anaerobic flora may be associated and implicated in some situations. In most cases, high-dosage of amoxicillin +/- clavulanic acid offers the best PK/PD profile and allows to avoid the overuse of injectable third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:24360297

Grimprel, E; Hentgen, V; Lorrot, M; Haas, H; Cohen, R

2013-11-01

279

Introduction and Proliferation of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A  

E-print Network

Introduction and Proliferation of Multidrug- Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A Clones of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A (Sp19A) and with increasing drug resistance within media (AOM) caused by Sp19A in southern Israel before the introduction of PCV7. Methods. AOM in children

Dever, Jennifer A.

280

Experimentally induced orchitis associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes: clinical, ultrasonographic, seminological and pathological features.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to describe the features of experimentally induced orchitis associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes and confirm the pathogenicity of the organism for the ovine testicle. One testicle of each of nine rams was inoculated with 1.3 +/- 10(4) colony-forming-units of an A. pyogenes isolate and regular clinical, ultrasonographic, bacteriological and seminological examinations were carried out up to 204 days after challenge. The rams were sequentially euthanatized 3, 6, 9, 18, 30, 50, 71, 113 and 204 days after challenge and a gross- and histopathological examination of their testicles was performed. All rams developed clinical orchitis and general signs. The initial ultrasonographic findings were changes of size and echogenicity of the genitalia, whilst in the long-standing phase they were wider appearance of the mediastinum testis, presence of hyperechogenic foci, changes of echogenicity of the genitalia and increased echogenicity of the scrotum and tunics. The following changes in semen evaluation parametres were recorded: the pH, the percentage of dead sperms, the percentage of abnormal sperms and the number of nonsperm round cells increased, whilst the mass motility, the individual motility and the sperm concentration decreased; the following sperm defects were observed: misshapen or piriform heads, sperms with coiled tails, sperms without tail and sperms with proximal cytoplasmic droplet; at the early stages neutrophils were the prevailing nonsperm round cell type, later the proportion of immature germ cells increased and in the long-standing phase there were enlogated spermatids and leucocytes; it is noteworthy that semen evaluation parametres were restored to normal at the late stages of the disease. A. pyogenes was consistently isolated from the semen samples after challenge, as well as from the dissected genitalia. The salient post-mortem findings were: initially, subcutaneous oedema, fluid into the vaginal cavity, congested and distended vessels, increased size of the genitalia and a hard dark area inside the testicles; subsequently, there were changes of size of the genitalia, thickening of scrotum and tunics and presence of fibrin on the testicular surface; in the long-standing phase of the disorder, there were induration of scrotum and tunics with adhesion between the tunics and discolouration of the surface of the genitalia. The prominent histopathological changes were observed in the inoculated testicles; milder changes were seen in the respective epididymides; interstitial oedema, diffuse neutrophilic infiltration and extravasation were observed in the early stages after challenge; lymphocytic infiltration with concurrent fibrosis, mineralization and inspissation of the tubular elements of the seminiferous tubules and presence of vacuolated Sertoli cells were seen later; finally, regeneration of the epithelium and presence of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia with various degrees of spermatogenic activity were evident. These findings, allied to the isolation of A. pyogenes from field cases of ovine orchitis, provide clear evidence that A. pyogenes is pathogenic for the ovine genitalia; however, the mechanisms of transition of the organism from commensal to pathogenic state are not clear. It is also noteworthy that some degree of fertility was restored in the late stages of the disorder. Ultrasonography appeared to be useful for the diagnosis of intra-scrotal abnormalities, especially during investigation of the long-standing stage of the disease, after clinical findings have subsided. PMID:15325557

Gouletsou, P G; Fthenakis, G C; Cripps, P J; Papaioannou, N; Lainas, T; Psalla, D; Amiridis, G S

2004-10-01

281

Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced\\u000a conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to\\u000a antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection\\u000a remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body

Wei-Hua Chen; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

2007-01-01

282

Pyogenic liver abscess: Multivariate analysis of risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-three patients with pyogenic liver abscess during the year 1978–1988 were studied in the Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital. The overall mortality rate was 19.2% in this study. By using univariate analysis, it was revealed that clinical jaundice, pleural effusion, bilobar abscess, profound hypoalbuminemia (2 mg\\/dl), elevated level of serum AST (>100 IU\\/L), alkaline phosphatase (>150 IU\\/L), and marked leukocytosis (>20,000

King-Teh Lee; Pai-Ching Sheen; Jong-Shyong Chen; Chen-Guo Ker

1991-01-01

283

Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body to combat the infection rather than to interfere with it. The combination of radical debridement and instrumentation has lots of merits such as, restoration and maintenance of the sagittal alignment of the spine, stabilization of the spinal column and reduction of bed rest period. This issue must be viewed in the context of the overall and detailed health conditions of the subjecting patient. We think the culprit for the recurrence of infection is not the implants itself, but is the compromised general health condition of the patients. In this review, we focus on surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with special attention to the role of spinal instrumentation in the presence of pyogenic infection. PMID:17106664

Chen, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

2006-01-01

284

Screening of Streptococcus pneumoniae ABC Transporter Mutants Demonstrates that LivJHMGF, a Branched-Chain Amino Acid ABC Transporter, Is Necessary for Disease Pathogenesis?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial ABC transporters are an important class of transmembrane transporters that have a wide variety of substrates and are important for the virulence of several bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, many S. pneumoniae ABC transporters have yet to be investigated for their role in virulence. Using insertional duplication mutagenesis mutants, we investigated the effects on virulence and in vitro growth of disruption of 9 S. pneumoniae ABC transporters. Several were partially attenuated in virulence compared to the wild-type parental strain in mouse models of infection. For one ABC transporter, required for full virulence and termed LivJHMGF due to its similarity to branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) transporters, a deletion mutant (?livHMGF) was constructed to investigate its phenotype in more detail. When tested by competitive infection, the ?livHMGF strain had reduced virulence in models of both pneumonia and septicemia but was fully virulent when tested using noncompetitive experiments. The ?livHMGF strain had no detectable growth defect in defined or complete laboratory media. Recombinant LivJ, the substrate binding component of the LivJHMGF, was shown by both radioactive binding experiments and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy to specifically bind to leucine, isoleucine, and valine, confirming that the LivJHMGF substrates are BCAAs. These data demonstrate a previously unsuspected role for BCAA transport during infection for S. pneumoniae and provide more evidence that functioning ABC transporters are required for the full virulence of bacterial pathogens. PMID:19470745

Basavanna, Shilpa; Khandavilli, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Cohen, Jonathan M.; Hosie, Arthur H. F.; Webb, Alexander J.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Brown, Jeremy S.

2009-01-01

285

Co-development of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma on the alveolar ridge associated with a dental implant: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The development of various benign oral mucosal lesions associated with dental implants, such as pyogenic granuloma or peripheral giant cell granuloma, has been rarely reported. However, the occurrence of vascular diseases, such as hemangioma, related to dental implants has not been explored in the literature. In this study, we report a case of co-development of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma on the alveolar ridge associated with a dental implant in a patient undergoing antithrombotic therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is first case of hemangioma formation associated with a dental implant. Case presentation A 68-year-old Korean man was referred for intermittent bleeding and a dome-shaped overgrowing mass on his upper alveolar ridge. He underwent dental implantation 5 years ago, and was started on warfarin for cerebral infarction a year ago. He had experienced gum bleeding and gingival mass formation 6 months after warfarinization; then, his implant fixture was removed. However, his gingival mass has been gradually increasing. The gingival mass was surgically excised, and revealed the coexistence of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma in histological analysis of the specimen. The lesion has showed no recurrence for more than a year. Conclusions Regarding immunostaining features, the endothelial cell markers, CD34 and CD31, and the mesenchymal cell marker, vimentin, were strongly detected, but cell proliferation marker, Ki-67, was negatively expressed in the endothelial cells of the hemangioma portion. However, in the pyogenic granuloma portion, CD34 was almost negatively detected, whereas vimentin and Ki-67 were highly detected in the fibroblast-like tumor cells. According to these heterogeneous characteristics of the lesion, the patient was diagnosed with coexistence of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma associated with the dental implant on the attached gingiva. We recommend that patients with dental implants who have chronic peri-implantitis under antithrombotic therapy should be closely followed to ensure early detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. PMID:24934284

2014-01-01

286

Disseminated abscessation complicated with bone marrow abscess caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in a goat.  

PubMed

An 8-month-old, Nubian wether with a history of systemic illness was euthanatized for a pathological examination. At necropsy, the presence of disseminated abscessation and cellulitis in the limbs was noted. Other postmortem findings associated with the visceral disease in this animal included multiple abscess lesions, mainly in the lungs, kidneys, phalanxes and vertebrae. Histopathologically, lesions of arteriolitis were found as evidenced by bacterial embolisms in pulmonary and renal arteriola, indicating a bacteremia in the patient. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was consistently isolated from 8 lesions of abscessations, including the lesions of subcutaneous abscesses as well as bone marrow abscess in phalanxes and thoracic vertebrae. This is the first published report of disseminated arcanobacterial infection with bone marrow abscess of both the phalanxes and vertebrae in goat. PMID:20467209

Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Su, Nan-Yu; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen

2010-08-01

287

Pyogenic liver abscess and peritonitis due to Rhizopus oryzae in a child with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome.  

PubMed

Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by symmetric palmoplantar keratodermatitis and severe periodontal destruction. Mutations in the cathepsin C gene (CTSC) have recently been detected in PLS. Immune dysregulation, due to a mutation in CTSC, increases the risk of pyogenic infections in PLS patients. A child with PLS is presented here with liver abscesses and peritonitis caused by Rhizopus oryzae. His liver abscess and peritonitis were cured with amphotericin B without surgical care. This is the first case in the literature liver abscess due to Rhizopus oryzae in a child with PLS. PMID:21165748

Dalgic, Buket; Bukulmez, Aysegul; Sari, Sinan

2011-06-01

288

Brain abscess due to Streptococcus oralis in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

A bacteriologically proven case of brain abscess, due to Streptococcus oralis is being reported in a 12-year-old girl who is a known case of congenital heart disease. The patient presented with fever, headache and vomiting. Pus cultures yielded S. oralis. PMID:24713909

Solanki, R; Subramanian, S; Lakshmi, V; Bhushanam, V; Kumar, A

2014-01-01

289

Isolation of Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes from cases of feline otitis externa and canine cystitis.  

PubMed

Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a normal inhabitant of the mucous membranes of domestic animals, such as cattle, sheep, swine, and goats. It is also an opportunistic pathogen in these animals, where it causes a variety of purulent infections involving the skin, joints, and visceral organs. Two recent cases of isolation of A. pyogenes from companion animals are reported. In the first case, a cat presented with a chronic otitis externa, from which A. pyogenes was isolated in pure culture. The second case involved a dog with a urinary tract infection, where A. pyogenes was isolated from urine as the predominant bacterial species. In both cases, the A. pyogenes isolates were presumptively identified by macrobiochemical tests, and then their identities were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:11939339

Billington, S J; Post, K W; Jost, B H

2002-03-01

290

Osteomyelitis complicating Streptococcus milleri endocarditis.  

PubMed Central

A patient with osteomyelitis of the spine complicating bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus milleri is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first time this organism has been associated with this complication. Images Figure 1 PMID:2385559

Barham, N. J.; Flint, E. J.; Mifsud, R. P.

1990-01-01

291

An unusual presentation of pyogenic granuloma of the lower lip  

PubMed Central

Exophytic growth of the oral cavity often presents a diagnostic challenge because a diverse group of the pathologic process can produce such lesions. Inflammatory hyperplasia is one of the important etiology behind the exophytic growths of the oral cavity. The pyogenic granuloma (PG) is the most common type of inflammatory hyperplasia found in the oral cavity especially in the gingiva. Extragingival occurrence of PG is very rare. This case report has described an extragingival PG which occurred on the lower labial mucosa in a 54-year-old male patient.

Asha, V.; Dhanya, M.; Patil, Bharati A.; Revanna, G.

2014-01-01

292

Management of oral pyogenic granuloma with sodium tetra decyl sulphate. A case series.  

PubMed

Pyogenic granuloma, or granuloma pyogenicum, is a common, tumor-like growth of the oral cavity or skin that is considered to be an exaggerated, localized connective tissue reaction to a minor injury or irritation. A total of five clinical cases of oral pyogenic granuloma were randomly selected in the age group between 26 and 41 years. All these cases were treated with sodium tetra decyl sulphate and examined for regression and reccurrence of the lesion for six months. Various treatment modalities consist of conservative surgical excision, cryosurgery, laser surgery and sclerotherapy. Sclerotherapy with sodium tetra decyl sulphate is a relatively simple and effective method for treating oral pyogenic granuloma. PMID:24027901

Samatha, Y; Reddy, T Harshavardhan; Jyothirrmai; Ravikiran, A; Sankar, A J Sai

2013-01-01

293

Pyothorax associated with a Mycoplasma sp and Arcanobacterium pyogenes in a kitten.  

PubMed

Pyothorax associated with a Mycoplasma sp and Arcanobacterium pyogenes was diagnosed at necropsy in a 1-month-old female Van kitten. The pleural cavity contained approximately 50 mL of blood-tinged, reddish-brown, nonodourous fluid bilaterally. Gram positive coccobacilli were seen in the exudate from necrotic plaques on the pleurae. Mycoplasma sp and A pyogenes were isolated from a sample of the fluid in the pleural cavity. The concomitant presence of Mycoplasma sp and A pyogenes could be considered another variation on the polymicrobial nature of pyothorax and associated pleural lesions in cats. PMID:12153057

Gulbahar, M Y; Gurturk, K

2002-06-01

294

Multiple pyogenic granuloma of the penis in a four-year-old child: a case report  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granulomas are common, acquired, benign vascular lesions of the skin and mucous membranes that can develop both spontaneously and traumatically. We present a unique case of a four-year healthy, uncircumcised boy with multiple pyogenic granuloma on the mucous face of the penis foreskin. Although penile multiple pyogenic granulomas have previously been described in adults, there are no reports of similar problems in children. In this patient, the pathogenesis of the lesions is probably trauma related as reported in the anamnesis. Therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:19918487

Di Giacomo, Martina; Bertocchini, Alessia; Loggini, Barbara; Pingitore, Raffaele

2009-01-01

295

[A rare case of a diabetic patient with small cell lung cancer, initially diagnosed as pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis].  

PubMed

A rare case of a patient with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with small cell lung cancer, initially diagnosed as pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis, was reported. A 40-year-old male patient was diagnosed with NIDDM about 3 years earlier, but he did not receive any treatment. Then, a two-month history of high fever, persistent cough and back pain developed. Chest X-ray film showed a lung infiltrate with a small cavity in the upper portion of the left lung. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a tumor mass shadow with osteoclasia along the bodies of the 6th and 7th thoracic vertebral bone. Staphylococcus aureus infection was confirmed by arterial blood culture. Administration of antibiotics resulted in the disappearance of the left lung infiltrate and a slight reduction of the tumor mass in the thoracic vertebral bone, suggesting pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis as an unusual complication of NIDDM. However, as the tumor mass still remained, needle biopsy for the mass lesion was performed, resulting in the diagnosis of metastasis of small cell carcinoma from the left lung. Gene aberration in this lung disease has been reported recently, and its correlation with NIDDM which may also be induced by genetic abnormality is an interesting question that remains to be resolved. PMID:7750628

Miyamoto, T; Oda, N; Mokuno, T; Sawai, Y; Nishida, Y; Mano, T; Kotake, M; Masunaga, R; Ito, Y; Asano, K

1995-03-20

296

Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lubke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

2013-01-01

297

Streptococcus viridians bacteraemia and colonic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Even though Streptococcus bacteraemia is an infrequent presentation of colonic malignancies, there is a well-established link between Streptococcus bovis bacteraemia and colonic malignancies. Most of the physicians are well aware of this correlation and further workup is pursued in most of the cases. However, many physicians may not be aware that other species of Streptococcus viridians, other than S. bovis, can be associated with colonic malignancies. In this case report, we present a case of Streptococcus viridians (anginosus) bacteraemia as a complication of an undiagnosed sigmoid adenocarcinoma. While further evidence is needed to warrant a gastrointestinal (GI) workup in a patient with other species of Streptococcus viridians bacteraemia, we would like to increase the awareness in the physicians' community regarding Streptococcus viridians, other than S. bovis bacteraemia. This would be especially relevant for patients who have no GI screening, as Streptococcus viridians bacteraemia can be an early sign of colonic neoplasm. PMID:24876211

Mulita, Avenir; Ajayi, Tokunbo

2014-01-01

298

Modern management of pyogenic hepatic abscess: a case series and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pyogenic hepatic abscesses are relatively rare, though untreated are uniformly fatal. A recent paradigm shift in the management\\u000a of liver abscesses, facilitated by advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology, has decreased mortality rates. The\\u000a aim of this study was to review our experience in managing pyogenic liver abscess, review the literature in this field, and\\u000a propose guidelines to aid in

Helen M Heneghan; Nuala A Healy; Sean T Martin; Ronan S Ryan; Niamh Nolan; Oscar Traynor; Ronan Waldron

2011-01-01

299

Transformation of encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

We describe the high-efficiency transformation of several virulent, encapsulated isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transformation was effected by the induction of competence with competence factor and was apparently the result both of inducing noncompetent recipients and overcoming the inhibition imposed by the capsule. PMID:3782044

Yother, J; McDaniel, L S; Briles, D E

1986-01-01

300

Single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated with minimally invasive anterior debridement and fusion combined with posterior fixation via Wiltse approach.  

PubMed

The effect and safety of anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach were assessed in the single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Seventeen patients from 2007 to 2009 underwent anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach. Postoperative follow-up time was 24-41 months. Data included the patients' general information, microbiology, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, intervertebral fusion rate, and preoperative and final follow-up scores for American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Ten patients had undergone a prior spinal invasive procedure, and 7 had hematogenous infection. The infected segments included L1-2, L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 in 1, 2, 5, and 9 cases, respectively. Thirteen bacterial cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4), Streptococcus (3), and Escherichia coli (1). The operative time was 213.8±45.6 min, and the intraoperative blood loss was 180.6±88.1 mL. Postoperative complications consisted of urinary retention (2 cases), constipation (3), and deep vein thrombosis (2). On the final follow-up, VAS scores and ODIs were significantly lower than those of preoperation, while the ASIA grades improved. All the cases achieved good intervertebral bony fusion. Anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach can successfully treat single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis, with less trauma and reliable immobilization. It is a viable option for clinical application. PMID:24142724

Lin, Yang; Chen, Wen-jian; Zhu, Wen-tao; Li, Feng; Fang, Huang; Chen, An-min; Xiong, Wei

2013-10-01

301

Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Domestic Rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.  

PubMed

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits. PMID:23465082

Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

2014-12-01

302

Bacteriophage enzymes for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections: Stability and stabilization of the enzyme lysing Streptococcus pyogenes cells  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant, phage associated lytic enzyme Ply C capable to lyse streptococci of groups A and C was stabilized in the variety of the micelles containing compositions to improve the stability of the enzyme for further application in medicine. It was shown that, in the micellar polyelectrolyte composition M16, the enzyme retained its activity for 2 months; while in a buffer solution under the same conditions ((pH 6.3, room temperature), it completely lost its activity in 2 days

Klyachko, N. L.; Dmitrieva, N. F.; Eshchina, A. S.; Ignatenko, O. V.; Filatova, L. Y.; Rainina, Evguenia I.; Kazarov, A. K.; Levashov, A. V.

2008-06-01

303

Immunological Research on Basic Specific and Non-Specific Protein Antigens of the Type Streptococcus Pyogenes (Group a).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immunoelectrophoresis and electrophoresis have confirmed that acid-alcohol gamma extracts contained several type specific and non-specific protein antigens which were basic proteins. Their isoelectric point is above 8.5, while that of the non-type specifi...

R. Wahl, J. Goichot, G. Drach

1966-01-01

304

Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and Streptococcus pyogenes erythrogenic toxin A modulate inflammatory mediator release from human neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

We studied the influence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and streptococcal erythrogenic (pyrogenic) toxin A (ETA) on intact and digitonin-permeabilized human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). As was shown by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 or ETA alone, in the absence of any additional stimulus, did not induce the generation of the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) from PMNs in a wide range of concentrations. In addition, pretreatment of intact PMNs with either toxin potentiated formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)- and washed Staphylococcus aureus cell-induced generation of LTB4 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This increase included LTB4 as well as its inactive omega-oxidated compounds. Further studies revealed evidence that toxin exposure was accompanied by enhanced cellular receptor expression for fMLP as well as for LTB4. The intrinsic GTPase activity of membrane fractions was modulated by both toxins. Short-term incubation with ETA increased the GTPase activity of PMNs up to 141%. Inhibitory effects were obtained when GTP-binding protein functions were stimulated with sodium fluoride (NaF). In addition, specific binding of Gpp(NH)p to GTP-binding protein was inhibited by both toxins during the first 10 min of incubation and was restored at later times of incubation. Our data therefore suggest that both toxins significantly affect the signal transduction pathways of human PMNs, which results in immunomodulatory functions. PMID:8381770

Hensler, T; Koller, M; Geoffroy, C; Alouf, J E; Konig, W

1993-01-01

305

Identification and Characterization of HtsA, a Second Heme-Binding Protein Made by Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococci (GAS) can use heme and hemoproteins as sources of iron. However, the machinery for heme acquisition in GAS has not been firmly revealed. Recently, we identified a novel heme-associated cell surface protein (Shp) made by GAS. The shp gene is cotranscribed with eight downstream genes, including spy1795, spy1794, and spy1793 encoding a putative ABC transporter (designated HtsABC). In this study, spy1795 (designated htsA) was cloned from a serotype M1 strain, and recombinant HtsA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. HtsA binds 1 heme molecule per molecule of protein. HtsA was produced in vitro and localized to the bacterial cell surface. GAS up-regulated transcription of htsA in human blood compared with that in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract. The level of the htsA transcript dramatically increased under metal cation-restricted conditions compared with that under metal cation-replete conditions. The cation content, cell surface location, and gene transcription of HtsA were also compared with those of MtsA and Spy0385, the lipoprotein components of two other putative iron acquisition ABC transporters of GAS. Our results suggest that HtsABC is an ABC transporter that may participate in heme acquisition in GAS. PMID:14500516

Lei, Benfang; Liu, Mengyao; Voyich, Jovanka M.; Prater, Christopher I.; Kala, Subbarao V.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Musser, James M.

2003-01-01

306

Live Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus pyogenes differentially regulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene expression in human primary macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages are phagocytes that rec- ognize bacteria and subsequently activate appro- priate innate and adaptive immune responses. TLRs are essential in identifying conserved bacte- rial structures and in initiating and mediating in- nate immune responses. In this work, we have characterized TLR gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages in response to stimulation with two live Gram-positive bacteria, a human commensal

Minja Miettinen; Ville Veckman; Sinikka Latvala; Timo Sareneva; Sampsa Matikainen; Ilkka Julkunen

2008-01-01

307

Macedocin, a Food-Grade Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198, a strain isolated from Greek Kasseri cheese, produces a food-grade lantibiotic named macedocin. Macedocin has a molecular mass of 2,794.76 ± 0.42 Da, as determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. Partial N-terminal sequence analysis revealed 22 amino acid residues that correspond with the amino acid sequence of the lantibiotics SA-FF22 and SA-M49, both of which were isolated from the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Macedocin inhibits a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria, as well as several food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, including Clostridium tyrobutyricum. It displays a bactericidal effect towards the most sensitive indicator strain, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei LMG 13558T, while the producer strain itself displays autoinhibition when it is grown under conditions that do not favor bacteriocin production. Macedocin is active at pHs between 4.0 and 9.0, and it retains activity even after incubation for 20 min at 121°C with 1 atm of overpressure. Inhibition of macedocin by proteolytic enzymes is variable. PMID:12450808

Georgalaki, Marina D.; Van den Berghe, Erika; Kritikos, Dimitrios; Devreese, Bart; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Kalantzopoulos, George; De Vuyst, Luc; Tsakalidou, Effie

2002-01-01

308

STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF STREPTOCOCCUS HEMOLYTICUS TO THE RHEUMATIC PROCESS  

PubMed Central

In the first two papers findings were presented which point to a close relationship between the incidence of rheumatic fever and the distribution of Streptococcus hemolyticus. The fact was emphasized that in the rheumatic subject a recrudescence of the disease process is usually preceded by pharyngeal infection with hemolytic streptococci. These organisms conspicuous in the throat flora during the period of infection preliminary to an attack of acute rheumatism fell into six antigenic groups and produced toxins which in 70 per cent were neutralized by a monovalent streptococcus antiserum. In the present study, four series of observations have been presented, demonstrating the development of immune bodies to hemolytic streptococcus during the course of rheumatic fever. The agglutination and complement fixation reactions of sera from patients with acute rheumatism suggest recent infection with streptococcus. Precipitin tests indicate that at the time of appearance of the rheumatic attack, individuals develop, in their blood, precipitins to the protein fractions of hemolytic streptococcus. That these precipitins may not be entirely specific is recognized from their cross-reactions with antigens of chemically related organisms. The studies made in association with E. W. Todd of England have demonstrated that at the onset of an attack of acute rheumatism, there occurs in each instance a rise in the antistreptolysin titer of the patient's serum. This titer is much higher than that observed in normal subjects or in patients with bacterial infection other than hemolytic streptococcus. This presence of antistreptolysin with an N.D. of 0.005 cc. is considered strong evidence of recent infection by hemolytic streptococcus. In conclusion, the relationship between the incidence of hemolytic streptococcus and the geographical distribution of rheumatic fever, the relationship between the recrudescence in the rheumatic subject and infection of the throat with hemolytic streptococcus, the development of immune bodies for hemolytic streptococcus at the onset of the rheumatic attack and the apparently specific relationship of antistreptolysin formation to infection with hemolytic streptococcus,—together this combined evidence indicates that the infectious agent initiating the rheumatic process is Streptococcus hemolyticus. PMID:19870091

Coburn, Alvin F.; Pauli, Ruth H.

1932-01-01

309

Phenotypic characteristics and virulence genotypes of Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes strains isolated from European bison (Bison bonasus).  

PubMed

Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes is an opportunistic animal pathogen, which in European bison is associated with different suppurative infections mainly of the urogenital tract. Little is known about the virulence of this bacterium and about the pathogenesis of infections. The main objective of this study was to determine phenotypic properties and virulence genotypes of the twenty-five T. pyogenes strains isolated from lesions in various tissues of free-living European bison. Classical bacteriological methods were used for phenotypic characterization. Genes encoding seven known and putative virulence factors of T. pyogenes were detected by PCR technique. Analysis of 16S rDNA partial sequences was performed to establish phylogenetic relationships of the isolated strains. All isolates showed typical morphological features of T. pyogenes and variable biochemical activity. Most of them displayed a strong positive effect in synergistic CAMP test. For all isolates the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence was identical to that of the T. pyogenes reference strain. All isolates carried the plo and fimA genes, while the nanH, nanP, cbpA, fimC and fimG genes were present in 40, 44, 12, 88 and 24% of the isolates, respectively. The T. pyogenes strains isolated from European bison represented various phenotypes and virulence genotypes, but there was no association between the investigated properties of the bacteria and the type of anatomopathological lesions from which they were isolated. These results indicate that the studied virulence factors of T. pyogenes are not significant determinants of the localization and type of infection caused by this bacterium. PMID:22658663

Rzewuska, Magdalena; Stefa?ska, Ilona; Osi?ska, Barbara; Kizerwetter-?wida, Magdalena; Chrobak, Dorota; Kaba, Jaros?aw; Bielecki, Wojciech

2012-11-01

310

Expression of fibronectin-binding protein FbpA modulates adhesion in Streptococcus gordonii.  

PubMed

Fibronectin binding is considered to be an important virulence factor in streptococcal infections. Adhesion of the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii to immobilized forms of fibronectin is mediated, in part, by a high molecular mass wall-anchored protein designated CshA. In this study, a second fibronectin-binding protein of S. gordonii is described that has been designated as FbpA (62.7 kDa). This protein, which is encoded by a gene located immediately downstream of the cshA gene, shows 85 and 81% identity to the fibronectin-binding proteins PavA, of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and FBP54, of Streptococcus pyogenes, respectively. Purified recombinant FbpA bound to immobilized human fibronectin in a dose-dependant manner, and isogenic mutants in which the fbpA gene was inactivated were impaired in their binding to fibronectin. This effect was apparent only for cells in the exponential phase of growth, and was associated with reduced surface hydrophobicity and the surface expression of CshA. Cells in the stationary phase of growth were unaffected in their ability to bind to fibronectin. By utilizing gene promoter fusions with cat (encoding chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase), it was demonstrated that cshA expression was down-regulated during the exponential phase of growth in the fbpA mutant. Expression of fbpA, but not cshA, was sensitive to atmospheric O2 levels, and was found to be up-regulated in the presence of elevated O2 levels. The results suggest that FbpA plays a regulatory role in the modulation of CshA expression and, thus, affects the adhesion of S. gordonii to fibronectin. PMID:12055283

Christie, Julie; McNab, Roderick; Jenkinson, Howard F

2002-06-01

311

Replacing and Additive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (“replacing HGT”) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (“additive HGT”). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY–SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE direction. This finding is of particular interest in light of the recent increase in virulence of pathogenic SDE. We find much stronger evidence for SPY–SDE gene flow among replacing than among additive transfers, suggesting a primary influence from homologous recombination between co-occurring SPY and SDE cells in human hosts. Putative virulence genes are correlated with transfer events, but this correlation is found to be driven by additive, not replacing, HGTs. The genes affected by additive HGTs are enriched for functions having to do with transposition, recombination, and DNA integration, consistent with previous findings, whereas replacing HGTs seen to influence a more diverse set of genes. Additive transfers are also found to be associated with evidence of positive selection. These findings shed new light on the manner in which HGT has shaped pathogenic bacterial genomes. PMID:22617954

Choi, Sang Chul; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Gronau, Ilan; Stanhope, Michael J.; Siepel, Adam

2012-01-01

312

Genotypic characterization and evaluation of an antibiotic resistance of Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes) isolated from milk of dairy cows with clinical mastitis.  

PubMed

Trueperella pyogenes, recently reclassified from the genus Arcanobacterium, is considered the causative agent of acute suppurative mastitis called summer mastitis. T. pyogenes produces a variety of known and putative virulence factors that include pyolysin and factors promoting adhesion to host cells. The objective of this study was to report the presence of virulence genes in T. pyogenes isolates that were identified as etiological agents of clinical mastitis in cows, as well as to determine antimicrobial resistance and distribution of selected determinants that can be associated with phenotypic resistance among these isolates. The presence of genes (plo, nanH, nanP, cbpA, fimA, fimC, fimE, fimG, tet(W), erm(X), erm(B)) was examined by conventional PCRs. Resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined by the broth microdilution method. Among T. pyogenes isolates of bovine mastitis origin the genes encoding all virulence factors occurred. Besides pyolysin gene plo, the fimA was the only gene detected in all isolates, whereas other virulence factor genes were found with different frequencies. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was observed to tetracycline (85.5% isolates) and erythromycin (9.1%). Isolates non-susceptible to erythromycin simultaneously exhibited increased MIC of pirlimycin. Beta-lactams were active against isolates. We found the correlation between the presence of tetracycline and macrolide resistance genes and corresponding resistance phenotype. Genotypic characterization of a large number of T. pyogenes isolates from different herds performed in this study may be useful in explanation, which virulence factors play a significant role in the establishment of bovine mammary gland infection. PMID:22868181

Zastempowska, Ewa; Lassa, Henryka

2012-12-28

313

Pyogenic granuloma on the upper lip: an unusual location.  

PubMed

Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign non-neoplastic mucocutaneous lesion. It is a reactional response to constant minor trauma and might be related to hormonal changes. In the mouth, PG is manifested as a sessile or pedunculated, resilient, erythematous, exophytic and painful papule or nodule with a smooth or lobulated surface that bleeds easily. PG preferentially affects the gingiva, but may also occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa and palate. The most common treatment is surgical excision. This paper describes a mucocutaneous PG on the upper lip, analyzing the clinical characteristics and discussing the features that distinguish this lesion from other similar oral mucosa lesions. The diagnosis of oral lesions is complex and leads the dentist to consider distinct lesions with different diagnostic methods. This case report with a 4 year-follow-up calls the attention to the uncommon mucocutaneous labial location of PG and to the fact that surgical excision is the safest method for diagnosis and treatment of PG of the lip, even when involving the mucosa and skin. PMID:21085814

Gonçales, Eduardo Sanches; Damante, José Humberto; Fischer Rubira, Cassia Maria; Taveira, Luís Antônio de Assis

2010-01-01

314

Pyogenic granuloma on the upper lip: an unusual location  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign non-neoplastic mucocutaneous lesion. It is a reactional response to constant minor trauma and might be related to hormonal changes. In the mouth, PG is manifested as a sessile or pedunculated, resilient, erythematous, exophytic and painful papule or nodule with a smooth or lobulated surface that bleeds easily. PG preferentially affects the gingiva, but may also occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa and palate. The most common treatment is surgical excision. This paper describes a mucocutaneous PG on the upper lip, analyzing the clinical characteristics and discussing the features that distinguish this lesion from other similar oral mucosa lesions. The diagnosis of oral lesions is complex and leads the dentist to consider distinct lesions with different diagnostic methods. This case report with a 4 year-follow-up calls the attention to the uncommon mucocutaneous labial location of PG and to the fact that surgical excision is the safest method for diagnosis and treatment of PG of the lip, even when involving the mucosa and skin PMID:21085814

GONÇALES, Eduardo Sanches; DAMANTE, José Humberto; FISCHER RUBIRA, Cassia Maria; TAVEIRA, Luís Antônio de Assis

2010-01-01

315

Factors influencing mortality in the treatment of pyogenic hepatic abscess.  

PubMed

This analysis of 80 patients with pyogenic hepatic abscess seen at this hospital demonstrated that there was no significant change in the incidence, age, sex, race, location or number of abscesses, symptoms, physical findings, labrotory data, routine roentgenograms, or complications over a 21 year period. However, there were relatively more women, the patients were older, and the incidence of appendicitis as an etiologic factor was much lower in this series than in the preantibiotic era. Ascending cholangitis was the most common etiologic factor throught this series, although malignant extrahepatic obstruction has become more prevalent in recent years. Escherichia coli remains the most commonly isolated organism, and gram-negative organisms are found in 72 per cent of the cultures. More than one organism was isolated in 65 per cent of the patients and there has been a significant increase in the number of anaerobic organisms isolated in recent years. Furthermore, a majority of anaerobic abscesses were solitary, and therefore, they had a better prognosis. The factors associated with a poor prognosis were age greater than 70 years, multiple abscesses, a biliary cause, an associated malignant condition, jaundice, an elevated serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase level, hypoalbuminemia, polymorphonucleocytosis, bactermia especially with multiple organisms, aerobic infection, and pulmonary, peritoneal, or other significant complication. PMID:1124472

Pitt, H A; Zuidema, G D

1975-02-01

316

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from cattle and pigs.  

PubMed

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 18 antimicrobial agents were determined for 49 Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolates (42 bovine isolates and 7 porcine isolates). Benzylpenicillin and ampicillin were the most active antibiotics, with MIC ranges of < or = 0.0125-0.05 microgram/ml for both bovine and porcine isolates. All isolates were susceptible to penicillins and cephems. MICs for 90% of the isolates of dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin and oxytetracycline for bovine isolates were > 100 micrograms/ml, 1.56 micrograms/ml and 25 micrograms/ml, respectively. More resistance to dihydrostreptomycin appeared among porcine isolates (85.7%) than among bovine isolates (52.4%). Resistance to gentamicin occurred in only 3 (7.1%) of the bovine isolates. Resistance to oxytetracycline also appeared more frequent among porcine isolates (85.7%) than among bovine isolates (57.1%). All bovine isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, tilmocosin and lincomycin, but two porcine isolates (28.6%) were simultaneously resistant to these antibiotics. Tiamulin was as active as tilmicosin, with an MIC for 50% of the isolates (MIC50) of 0.05 microgram/ml for both bovine and porcine isolates. The MIC50s of chloramphenicol and its derivatives florfenicol and thiamphenicol were all 1.56 micrograms/ml. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin and ofloxacin were not so active as penicillins and macrolides, with MIC50s of 0.78 microgram/ml and 1.56 micrograms/ml, respectively, for both bovine and porcine isolates. PMID:10763384

Yoshimura, H; Kojima, A; Ishimaru, M

2000-03-01

317

Parallel evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis to pathogenic and mutualistic lifestyles.  

PubMed

The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analysis shows that the species constitutes one evolutionary lineage in a cluster of the otherwise commensal Streptococcus mitis strains, with which humans live in harmony. In a comparative analysis of 35 genomes, including phylogenetic analyses of all predicted genes, we have shown that the pathogenic pneumococcus has evolved into a master of genomic flexibility while lineages that evolved into the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with their host by stabilizing an approximately 15%-reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Our data further provide evidence that interspecies gene transfer between S. pneumoniae and S. mitis occurs in a unidirectional manner, i.e., from S. mitis to S. pneumoniae. Import of genes from S. mitis and other mitis, anginosus, and salivarius group streptococci ensured allelic replacements and antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae. Our study explains how the unique structural diversity of the pneumococcal capsule emerged and conceivably will continue to increase and reveals a striking example of the fragile border between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. While genomic plasticity enabling quick adaptation to environmental stress is a necessity for the pathogenic streptococci, the commensal lifestyle benefits from stability. Importance: One of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the commensal Streptococcus mitis are closely related obligate symbionts associated with hominids. Faced with a shortage of accessible hosts, the two opposing lifestyles evolved in parallel. We have shown that the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with its host by stabilizing a reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Meanwhile, the pathogenic pneumococcus evolved into a master of genomic flexibility and imports genes from S. mitis and other related streptococci. This process ensured antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae, which conceivably will continue to increase and present a challenge to disease prevention. PMID:25053789

Kilian, Mogens; Riley, David R; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Tettelin, Hervé

2014-01-01

318

21 CFR 522.1696a - Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conditions of use . (A) Treatment of bacterial pneumonia (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces pyogenes pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus ); upper respiratory infections such as rhinitis or pharyngitis (A. pyogenes ); blackleg...

2010-04-01

319

Bilateral acute pyogenic conjunctivitis with iritis induced by unilateral topical application of bacterial peptidoglycan muramyl dipeptide in adult rabbits.  

PubMed

The factors responsible for the conjunctivitis and iritis associated with acute ocular infection and post enteric inflammatory disease are not fully known. The pro-inflammatory activity of unilateral topical application of muramyl dipeptide (MDP; the smallest bio-active Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component) was investigated in adult rabbits. The resultant bilateral conjunctivitis/iritis and pyogenic responses were characterized. Bilateral symptoms were graded by slit lamp examinations; tear fluid, Schirmer tests (tear production), blood and aqueous humor (AH) samples were obtained from MDP-treated and untreated rabbits. MDP concentration, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity (GGT; key enzyme in glutathione recapture, xenobiotic detoxification, eicosanoid synthesis and neutrophil function), protein concentration, and tear cell density, cytology, and immunofluorescent antibody reactivity to GGT and calreticulin (CRT; MDP-binding protein) were determined. MDP was cleared from ipsilateral tears and serum by 6 h, but was undetected in mock-treated contralateral tears. Bilateral signs of acute transient pyogenic conjunctivitis, characterized by tearing, lid edema, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis and leukocytic infiltrate with iritis (erythema and aqueous flare) were detected. Milder symptoms occurred in the mock-treated contralateral eyes. Bilateral symptoms, tear production, tear protein, GGT activity, and mucopurulent discharge (containing up to 2.5-5.0 × 10(6) cells/mL) were elevated 4-8 h post MDP and resolved to near pre-treatment levels by 24 h. Tear GGT activity and protein levels were higher in MDP-treated and mock-treated contralateral eyes than in eyes of untreated adult rabbits (p's < 0.001). Elevated tear GGT activity was associated with histopathology and increased vascular and epithelial permeability to serum protein, GGT-positive epithelia cells, macrophages and heterophils. Repeat MDP applications induced recurrent induction and resolution patterns of bilateral conjunctivitis/iritis and tear GGT activity, but ipsilateral GGT responses were lower. The results suggest unilateral topical MDP application to adult rabbit eyes induces a bilateral acute pyogenic conjunctivitis/iritis (PCI) characterized by increased vascular and epithelial permeability similar to acute bacterial conjunctivitis in man. The detection of CRT/GGT positive heterophils in tears suggests efferocytosis (phagocytosis of dead/dying cells). Tear GGT activity may be a useful means to quantify MDP-induced toxicity and extraocular inflammation. PMID:24135297

Langford, Marlyn P; Foreman, Bridgett D; Srur, Lana; Ganley, James P; Redens, Thomas B

2013-11-01

320

Case Report: Group B Streptococcus meningitis in an adolescent    

PubMed Central

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) usually colonizes the gastrointestinal and lower genital tracts of asymptomatic hosts, yet the incidence of invasive disease is on the rise . We describe a case of an 18 year old woman, recently diagnosed with lupus, who reported a spontaneous abortion six weeks prior to her hospitalization.  She presented with fever, altered mental status, and meningeal signs, paired with a positive blood culture for GBS. Magnetic resonance imaging of her brain demonstrated an extra-axial fluid collection, and she was diagnosed with meningitis.  She received prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy and aggressive treatment for lupus, leading to clinical recovery. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing GBS as a potential pathogen in all patients presenting with CNS infection .   PMID:25339988

Vittorino, Roselle; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; Ratner, Adam J.; Starr, Amy; McCann, Teresa

2014-01-01

321

Different Genetic Elements Carrying the tet(W) Gene in Two Human Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus suis? †  

PubMed Central

The genetic support for tet(W), an emerging tetracycline resistance determinant, was studied in two strains of Streptococcus suis, SsCA and SsUD, both isolated in Italy from patients with meningitis. Two completely different tet(W)-carrying genetic elements, sharing only a tet(W)-containing segment barely larger than the gene, were found in the two strains. The one from strain SsCA was nontransferable, and aside from an erm(B)-containing insertion, it closely resembled a genomic island recently described in an S. suis Chinese human isolate in sequence, organization, and chromosomal location. The tet(W)-carrying genetic element from strain SsUD was transferable (at a low frequency) and, though apparently noninducible following mitomycin C treatment, displayed a typical phage organization and was named ?SsUD.1. Its full sequence was determined (60,711 bp), the highest BLASTN score being Streptococcus pyogenes ?m46.1. ?SsUD.1 exhibited a unique combination of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes. Besides tet(W), it contained a MAS (macrolide-aminoglycoside-streptothricin) fragment with an erm(B) gene having a deleted leader peptide and a cadC/cadA cadmium efflux cassette. The MAS fragment closely resembled the one recently described in pneumococcal transposons Tn6003 and Tn1545. These resistance genes found in the ?SsUD.1 phage scaffold differed from, but were in the same position as, cargo genes carried by other streptococcal phages. The chromosome integration site of ?SsUD.1 was at the 3? end of a conserved tRNA uracil methyltransferase (rum) gene. This site, known to be an insertional hot spot for mobile elements in S. pyogenes, might play a similar role in S. suis. PMID:21115784

Palmieri, Claudio; Princivalli, Maria Stella; Brenciani, Andrea; Varaldo, Pietro E.; Facinelli, Bruna

2011-01-01

322

Expression of Streptococcus mutans gtf genes in Streptococcus milleri.  

PubMed Central

The Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferase (GTF) genes gtfB and gtfC were ligated into Escherichia coli-streptococcus shuttle plasmids and introduced into Streptococcus milleri. gtfB transformant KSB8 formed an S. mutans-like rough colony on mitis salivarius agar and expressed an extracellular GTF-I, of 158 kDa, and two cell-bound GTF-Is, of 158 and 135 kDa. gtfC transformant KSC43 formed a semirough colony on mitis salivarius agar and expressed primarily an extracellular GTF-SI, of 146 kDa, and two cell-bound GTF-SIs, of 146 and 152 kDa. The extracellular GTFs from KSB8 and KSC43 were purified and characterized. The two types of GTF also reacted specifically with monoclonal antibodies directed against each enzyme. Both enzymes synthesized significant amounts of oligosaccharides, consisting primarily of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages, as well as water-insoluble glucans, containing alpha-1,3-glucosidic linkages. Insoluble-glucan-synthesizing activities of both enzymes were stimulated (three- to sixfold) by the addition of dextran T10 and were inhibited in the presence of 1.5 M ammonium sulfate. The Km(s) for sucrose and the optimal pHs were also similar for both enzymes. However, when the transformants were grown in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with sucrose, KSC43 cells, expressing GTF-SI activity, adhered to glass surfaces in vitro, while KSB8 cells, expressing GTF-I activity, did not. These results are discussed relative to the potential role of the gtfB and gftC genes in S. mutans cariogenicity. Images PMID:1377183

Fukushima, K; Ikeda, T; Kuramitsu, H K

1992-01-01

323

Pyogenic granuloma of labial mucosa: A misnomer in an anomolous site  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma is tumor-like proliferation to a nonspecific infection. Clinically, pyogenic granuloma presents as sessile or pedunculated exophytic mass with a smooth or lobulated surface which has a tendency to bleed easily. These lesions tend to occur slightly more in females, frequently involving the gingiva of the maxillary region. Histologically, these lesions show an excessive proliferation of vascular type of connective tissue to a nonspecific infection. The most common treatment is surgical excision with eradication of local irritants. This case report describes a pyogenic granuloma on the labial mucosa in a 33-year-old male, discussing the clinical features and histopathologic features that distinguish this lesion from other similar oral mucosa lesions. PMID:23066251

Ravi, Vaiyapuri; Jacob, Mathew; Sivakumar, Aandamuthu; Saravanan, Srinivasan; Priya, Kesavan

2012-01-01

324

A Gray-purple Mass on the Floor of the Mouth: Gigantic Mucogingival Pyogenic Granuloma in a Teenage Patient  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma is defined as a benign neoplasm of vascular phenotype. This case describes the clinical and histopathological features of a gigantic mucogingival pyogenic granuloma, in a 14-year-old healthy black boy. This exophytic gray-purple mass, related to a toothpick injury, had more than twelve-month evolution on the anterior mandible involving lingual area besides to the floor of the mouth pressing the right salivary duct. Conservative excision was performed, followed by uncomplicated healing with no recurrence in two years. The histopathological examination reported a pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary haemangioma). The authors provide a discussion of the presurgical differential diagnosis of the lesion. This case report presents an extremely uncommon location of a gigantic pyogenic granuloma, involving mucogingival complex and affecting the salivary outflow. This clinical manuscript may shed light on the controversies about possible mechanisms inducing oral pyogenic granuloma. PMID:24987485

Brunet-LLobet, Lluis; Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Mrina, Ombeni; Nadal, Alfons

2014-01-01

325

Mixed pyogenic and tuberculous liver abscess: clinical suspicion is what matters.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare cause of liver abscess, even in country like India where it is a very common infection. Moreover, tubercular liver abscess (TLA) is the most unusual pattern of hepatic tuberculosis. We report an unusual case of liver abscess in an immune-competent patient presenting only with weight loss. On investigation, initially it appeared pyogenic, but later turn out to be a mixed infection with tuberculosis. He responded well to antibiotic and antitubercular drugs. A mixed pyogenic and TLA is very uncommon. We conclude that, tuberculosis should be suspected in liver abscess, especially in the absence of typical features and failure to respond to antibiotics. PMID:23814224

Singh, Rajnish; Kumar, Naveen; Sundriyal, Deepak; Trisal, Deepshikha

2013-01-01

326

Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish  

PubMed Central

Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26), seals (n = 6), a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST) 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of S. agalactiae strains. PMID:23419028

2013-01-01

327

Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quality consequences, and control, prevention, and therapy were included. Streptococcus agalactiae is an oblique parasite of the bovine mammary gland and is susceptible to treatment with a variety of antibiotics. Despite this fact, where state or provincial census data are available, herd prevalence levels range from 11% (Alberta, 1991) to 47% (Vermont, 1985). Infection with S. agalactiae is associated with elevated somatic cell count and total bacteria count and a decrease in the quantity and quality of milk products produced. Bulk tank milk culture has, using traditional milk culture techniques, had a low sensitivity for identifying S. agalactiae at the herd level. New culture methods, using selective media and large inocula, have substantially improved the sensitivity of bulk tank culture. Efficacy of therapy on individual cows remains high. Protocols for therapy of all infected animals in a herd are generally successful in eradicating the pathogen from the herd, especially if they are followed up with good udder hygiene techniques. PMID:9220132

Keefe, G P

1997-01-01

328

Survey and Evaluation of Department of Defense Women's Immunity to Bacterial Superantigens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The common Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes produce toxins, such as SEB, that cause diseases ranging from food poisoning to an acute, life-threatening toxic-shock syndrome. Vaccines for this and other related toxins ...

R. C. Ulrich

1996-01-01

329

Molecular identification and further characterization of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis and from various other origins.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to identify phenotypically and genotypically 61 Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis and from various other origins. The A. pyogenes isolates showed the typical cultural and biochemical properties of this species and displayed CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities with various indicator strains. The species identity could be confirmed genotypically by amplification and sequencing of the superoxide dismutase A encoding gene sodA of reference strains representing 8 species of genus Arcanobacterium and subsequent design of A. pyogenes sodA gene-specific oligonucleotide primer. The A. pyogenes sodA gene-specific oligonucleotide primer allowed, together with previously described A. pyogenes 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region-specific oligonucleotide primer, a reliable molecular identification of all 61 A. pyogenes of various origins. The additionally performed PCR-mediated amplification of 5 known and putative virulence factor encoding genes revealed that 100, 20, 87, 75, and 98% of the A. pyogenes carried the genes plo, cbpA, nanH, nanP, and fimA, which allowed an individual strain characterization. This might help to elucidate the role the putative virulence factors play in bovine mastitis and in various other infections caused by this bacterial pathogen. PMID:21426970

Hijazin, M; Ulbegi-Mohyla, H; Alber, J; Lämmler, C; Hassan, A A; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Weiss, R; Zschöck, M

2011-04-01

330

Clinical course, treatment, and multivariate analysis of risk factors for pyogenic liver abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pyogenic liver abscess is a threatening condition. The purpose of this study was to audit the clinical behavior and to analyze the risk factors.Methods: One hundred and thirty-three patients treated in five hospitals during the years 1985 to 1997 were studied. By univariate and multivariate analysis we tried to identify any risk factor associated with complicated clinical course and

José Antonio Alvarez Pérez; Juan José González; Ricardo Felipe Baldonedo; Lourdes Sanz; Guillermo Carreño; Aurora Junco; José Ignacio Rodr??guez; Mar??a Dolores Mart??nez; José Ignacio Jorge

2001-01-01

331

Arrangement and number of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers are associated with erythromycin susceptibility in emm12, emm75 and emm92 of group A streptococcus.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are composed of numerous repeat-spacer units and are considered a prokaryotic defence system against foreign nucleic acids. Since antibiotic-resistant genes are frequently encoded in foreign nucleic acids, the aim of this study was to test whether erythromycin susceptibility in group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is associated with characteristics of CRISPR elements. Erythromycin susceptibility of 330 isolates collected between 1997 and 2003 was analysed. Among 29 emm types, emm12, emm75 and emm92 showed significant changes in erythromycin-resistance rates. By sequencing the spacers from two CRISPR loci, spacer contents in emm12, emm75 and emm92 strains were associated with erythromycin susceptibility. Strains with fewer spacers were more resistant to erythromycin. Moreover, in emm4 strains, which showed no significant change in their annual erythromycin-resistance rate, CRISPR type and number of spacers were not correlated with erythromycin susceptibility. These results highlight a novel association between CRISPR spacer content and erythromycin susceptibility in group A streptococcus. PMID:24118239

Zheng, P-X; Chiang-Ni, C; Wang, S-Y; Tsai, P-J; Kuo, C-F; Chuang, W-J; Lin, Y-S; Liu, C-C; Wu, J-J

2014-06-01

332

Identification, susceptibility, and detection of integron-gene cassettes of Arcanobacterium pyogenes in bovine endometritis.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify, determine the susceptibility, and detect gene cassettes of Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes isolates from cows with endometritis. Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolates were identified first by using the API Coryne Vit system test, and further through PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 23 antimicrobial agents against A. pyogenes were tested using standard broth microdilution assays according to the protocols of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The genes of integrons I and II were amplified by PCR using specific primers. Thirty-two A. pyogenes isolates were isolated from 136 endometritic cows in the Hohhot region. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that all isolates were highly sensitive to fluoroquinolones (100%), macrolides (approximately 81.2 to 100%) and florfenicol (90.6%), aminoglycosides (approximately 15.6 to 81.2%), and tetracyclines (approximately 43.7 to 68.7%). However, 53.1% were resistant to clindamycin, approximately 50 to 65.6% were resistant to penicillins, and approximately 37.5 to 71.9% were resistant to cephalosporins. One hundred percent were resistant to sulfonamides and bacitracin zinc. The integrons were further confirmed by sequencing. No class II integrons were detected, whereas 50% (n = 16) of the A. pyogenes isolates were positive for the presence of the intI I gene, but only 13 contained gene cassettes. Sequence analysis of gene cassettes revealed 6 gene cassettes, 4 of which encode resistant determinants of aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA5, aadA24, and aadB) and 1 of which encodes the resistance gene of chloramphenicol (cmlA6). The function of the sixth identified cassette, designated ORF1, is unknown. The gene cassette arrays aadA24-ORF1, aadA5, and aadA1-addB-cmlA6 were found in 46.13% (6/13), 38.46% (5/13), and 38.46% (5/13) of the isolates, respectively. These cassettes segregated according to a consistent pattern, with aadA5 always alone, ORF1 always with aadA24, and aadA1-aadB and cmlA6 always together. Most of the positive integrons existed in the multiresistant isolates (n = approximately 3 to 7), indicating that the integrons played an important role in the dissemination and spread of antimicrobial resistance. This is the first report of A. pyogenes infections in dairy cows in China and of detection of gene cassettes and integrons in A. pyogenes. PMID:19620647

Liu, M-C; Wu, C-M; Liu, Y-C; Zhao, J-C; Yang, Y-L; Shen, J-Z

2009-08-01

333

RNA-mediated regulation in Gram-positive pathogens: an overview punctuated with examples from the group A Streptococcus.  

PubMed

RNA-based mechanisms of regulation represent a ubiquitous class of regulators that are associated with diverse processes including nutrient sensing, stress response, modulation of horizontal gene transfer, and virulence factor expression. While better studied in Gram-negative bacteria, the literature is replete with examples of the importance of RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms to the virulence and fitness of Gram-positives. Regulatory RNAs are classified as cis-acting, e.g. riboswitches, which modulate the transcription, translation, or stability of co-transcribed RNA, or trans-acting, e.g. small regulatory RNAs, which target separate mRNAs or proteins. The group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen from which several regulatory RNA mechanisms have been characterized. The study of RNA-mediated regulation in GAS has uncovered novel concepts with respect to how small regulatory RNAs may positively regulate target mRNA stability, and to how CRISPR RNAs are processed from longer precursors. This review provides an overview of RNA-mediated regulation in Gram-positive bacteria, and is highlighted with specific examples from GAS research. The key roles that these systems play in regulating bacterial virulence are discussed and future perspectives outlined. PMID:25091277

Miller, Eric W; Cao, Tram N; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J; Sumby, Paul

2014-10-01

334

The pathogenesis of the meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis: the unresolved questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus suis is one of the most important swine pathogens world-wide. Among the serotypes described, type 2 is the serotype most frequently associated with disease. Despite increasing research in recent years, knowledge of virulence factors and the pathogenesis of the infection remain limited. This review discusses the currently available information on S. suis serotype 2 virulence factors and the pathogenesis

Marcelo Gottschalk; Mariela Segura

2000-01-01

335

Construction and Characterization of a Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Recombinant Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is an important pathogen, responsible for diverse diseases in swine and humans. To obtain a S. suis 2 strain that can be tracked in vitro and in vivo, we constructed the Egfp-HA9801 recombinant S. suis 2 strain with egfp and spcr genes inserted via homologous recombination. To assess the effects of the egfp

Tao Chen; Qin Huang; Zhaolong Li; Wei Zhang; Chengping Lu; Huochun Yao

2012-01-01

336

Contribution of biofilm regulatory protein A of Streptococcus mutans, to systemic virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus mutans is occasionally isolated from the blood of patients with bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE), and the possibility that it could be pathogenic for those diseases has been discussed. The initial important step for the involvement of bacterial pathogens in the virulence of IE is thought to be survival in blood for an extended period. Recently, the brpA gene

Kazuhiko Nakano; Kazuyo Fujita; Kaoru Nishimura; Ryota Nomura; Takashi Ooshima

2005-01-01

337

Effect of the antimicrobial decapeptide KSL on the growth of oral pathogens and Streptococcus mutans biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental caries and periodontitis are common oral bacterial infectious diseases. Their prevention and treatment requires control of the causative pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, that exist within dental plaque. As one of the attractive future substitutes for conventional antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), both natural and synthetic, have been widely tested and used for controlling bacterial infections. In

Yi Liu; Lina Wang; Xuedong Zhou; Shen Hu; Siyu Zhang; Hongkun Wu

2011-01-01

338

Draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic fish-pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae strain.  

PubMed

Streptococcus agalactiae is a significant Gram-positive bacterial pathogen of terrestrial and aquatic animals. A subpopulation of nonhemolytic strains which appear to be pathogenic only for poikilotherms exists. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic S. agalactiae isolate recovered from a diseased fish. PMID:23105075

Delannoy, Christian M J; Zadoks, Ruth N; Lainson, Frederick A; Ferguson, Hugh W; Crumlish, Margaret; Turnbull, James F; Fontaine, Michael C

2012-11-01

339

Draft Genome Sequence of a Nonhemolytic Fish-Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Strain  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus agalactiae is a significant Gram-positive bacterial pathogen of terrestrial and aquatic animals. A subpopulation of nonhemolytic strains which appear to be pathogenic only for poikilotherms exists. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic S. agalactiae isolate recovered from a diseased fish. PMID:23105075

Zadoks, Ruth N.; Lainson, Frederick A.; Ferguson, Hugh W.; Crumlish, Margaret; Turnbull, James F.; Fontaine, Michael C.

2012-01-01

340

Streptococcus suis Bacterin and Subunit Vaccine Immunogenicities and Protective Efficacies against Serotypes 2 and 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus suis causes numerous diseases in pigs, most importantly, meningitis, arthritis, septicemia, and bronchopneumonia. One of the major problems in modern swine production is the lack of a vaccine protecting against more than one S. suis serotype. The objective of this study was to determine the protective efficacy of a serotype 2 murein-associated protein (MAP) fraction subunit vaccine in comparison

Christoph Georg Baums; Christoph Kock; Andreas Beineke; Katharina Bennecke; Ralph Goethe; Charlotte Schroder; Karl-Heinz Waldmann; Peter Valentin-Weigand

2009-01-01

341

Streptococcus iniae: An aquatic pathogen of global veterinary significance and a challenging candidate for reliable vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus iniae has become one the most serious aquatic pathogens in the last decade causing high losses in farmed marine and freshwater finfish in warmer regions. Although first identified in 1976 from a captive Amazon freshwater dolphin, from which it derives its name, disease outbreaks had most likely been occurring for several decades in marine aquaculture in Japan. S. iniae

Wendy Agnew; Andrew C. Barnes

2007-01-01

342

Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity  

E-print Network

@dent.niigata-u.ac.jp Introduction Severe community-acquired pneumonia reported to be the mosStreptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a major cause of invasive infection-related diseases

Nizet, Victor

343

Streptococcus suis Meningoencephalitis with Seizure from Raw Pork Ingestion: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background: Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is a rare but increasingly important condition. Good history taking will give clues to the diagnosis. This is the fourth case report in the United States. Case: A 52-year-old Filipino man who recently returned from a trip to the Philippines was admitted with classic symptoms of bacterial meningitis. His cerebrospinal fluid culture grew Streptococcus suis. His clinical course was complicated by seizures, hearing loss, and permanent tinnitus. Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of this emerging disease especially in patients with recent travel history to endemic areas. Early recognition and appropriate management could potentially prevent complications. PMID:25285249

Teerasukjinda, Ornusa; Yee, Melvin; Chung, Heath H

2014-01-01

344

Group B Streptococcus: global incidence and vaccine development  

PubMed Central

An ongoing public health challenge is to develop vaccines that are effective against infectious diseases that have global relevance. Vaccines against serotypes of group B Streptococcus (GBS) that are prevalent in the United States and Europe are not optimally efficacious against serotypes common to other parts of the world. New technologies and innovative approaches are being used to identify GBS antigens that overcome serotype-specificity and that could form the basis of a globally effective vaccine against this opportunistic pathogen. This Review highlights efforts towards this goal and describes a template that can be followed to develop vaccines against other bacterial pathogens. PMID:17088932

Johri, Atul Kumar; Paoletti, Lawrence C.; Glaser, Philippe; Dua, Meenakshi; Sharma, Puja Kumari; Grandi, Guido; Rappuoli, Rino

2009-01-01

345

Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 from equine species.  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 was isolated from seven tracheobronchial aspirates and one pleural tap of seven adult horses and one foal. There was no direct evidence in these horses that isolation of the pneumococcus was related to a specific disease syndrome. Presenting complaints included two horses with chronic cough, two horses with decreased exercise tolerance, one horse with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage, and three horses with pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy resolved the primary clinical complaint. This is the first report of the isolation of S. pneumoniae type 3 from adult horses. PMID:6520214

Benson, C E; Sweeney, C R

1984-01-01

346

Streptococcus group C meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Group C Streptococcus (GCS) is a rare cause of bacteremia in humans. It is mostly associated with zoonological infections. Although GCS can be part of the normal oral, skin, and genitourinary fora, an infection with this pathogen can be highly virulent, causing rapid, disseminating disease. With a mortality of about 25%, the poor prognosis is linked to the severity of illness and the high level of virulence of the organism. Only a few cases of GCS meningitis have been reported. We present the first case of GCS meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis. PMID:23966796

Clarke, Mattew; Enuh, Hilary; Saverimuttu, Jessie; Nfonoyim, Jay

2013-01-01

347

Surgical Treatment of Pyogenic Spondylitis with the Use of Freeze-Dried Structural Allograft  

PubMed Central

Objective Radical debridement and reconstruction is necessary for surgical treatment of pyogenic spondylitis to control infection and to provide segmental stability. The authors identified 25 patients who underwent surgery for pyogenic spondylitis using freeze-dried structural allograft for reconstruction. This study aimed to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of a freeze-dried structural allograft during the surgical treatment of pyogenic spondylitis. Methods From January 2011 to May 2013, we retrospectively reviewed 25 surgically treated patients of pyogenic spondylitis. Surgical techniques used were anterior radical debridement and reconstruction with a freeze-dried structural allograft and instrumentation. In these 25 patients, we retrospectively examined whether the symptoms had improved and the infection was controlled after surgery by evaluating laboratory data, clinical and radiological outcomes. The average follow-up period was 15.7 months (range, 12.2-37.5 months). Results The infection resolved in all of the patients and there were no cases of recurrent infection. The mean Visual Analog Scale score was 6.92 (range, 5-10) before surgery and 1.90 (range, 0-5) at the time of the last follow-up. Preoperatively, lower extremity motor deficits related to spinal infection were noted in 10 patients, and they improved in 7 patients after surgery. Follow-up computed tomographic scans were obtained from 10 patients, and osseous union between the vertebral body and the structural allograft was achieved in 2 patients. Conclusion The freeze-dried structural allograft can be a safe and effective alternative for surgical treatment of pyogenic spondylitis, and another option for vertebral reconstruction instead of using the other materials.

Kim, Seung-Soo; Yoon, Jong-Won; Park, Hyun; Lee, Chul-Hee; Hwang, Soo-Hyun

2014-01-01

348

Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies.

Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J.

2014-01-01

349

Inflammation in Mice Ectopically Expressing Human Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA) Syndrome-associated PSTPIP1 A230T Mutant Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, and Acne Syndrome (PAPA syndrome) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by aberrant production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1. Mutations in the gene encoding proline serine threonine phosphatase-interacting protein-1 (PSTPIP1) have been linked to PAPA syndrome. PSTPIP1 is an adaptor protein that interacts with PYRIN, the protein encoded by the Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) gene whose mutations cause Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). However, the pathophysiological function of PSTPIP1 remains to be elucidated. We have generated mouse strains that either are PSTPIP1 deficient or ectopically express mutant PSTPIP1. Results from analyzing these mice suggested that PSTPIP1 is not an essential regulator of the Nlrp3, Aim2, or Nlrc4 inflammasomes. Although common features of human PAPA syndrome such as pyogenic arthritis and skin inflammation were not recapitulated in the mouse model, ectopic expression of the mutant but not the wild type PSTPIP1 in mice lead to partial embryonic lethality, growth retardation, and elevated level of circulating proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:23293022

Wang, Donghai; Hoing, Susanne; Patterson, Heide Christine; Ahmad, Umtul M.; Rathinam, Vijay A. K.; Rajewsky, Klaus; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Golenbock, Douglas T.

2013-01-01

350

Photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms in vitro.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate specific effects of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using erythrosine (ER) and Rose Bengal (RB) photosensitizers and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms. Biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth to production of biofilms, inoculated with microbial suspension (10(6) cells/mL) and incubated for 48 h. After the formation of biofilms, the effects of the photosensitizers ER and RB at a concentration of 5 ?M for 5 min and blue LED (455 ± 20 nm) for 180 s, photosensitizers alone and conjugated were evaluated. Next, the disks were placed in tubes with sterile physiological solution (0.9 % sodium chloride) and sonicated for to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were carried and aliquots seeded in brain heart infusion agar which were then incubated for 48 h. Then the numbers colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL; log10) were counted and analyzed statistically (ANOVA, Tukey test, P ? 0.05). Significant decreases in the viability of all microorganisms were observed for biofilms exposed to PDI mediated by both photosensitizers. The reductions with RB and ER were, 0.62 and 0.52 log10 CFU mL(-1) for S. mutans biofilms (p=0.001), and 0.95 and 0.88 log10 CFU mL(-1) for S. sanguinis biofilms (p=0.001), respectively. The results showed that biofilms formed in vitro by S. mutans and S. sanguinis, were sensitive to PDI using a blue LED associated with photosensitizers ER or RB, indicating its use in the control of caries and periodontal diseases. PMID:22847685

Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Costa, Anna Carolina Borges Pereira; Carreira, Claudia Moura; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2013-05-01

351

DrsG from Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis inhibits the antimicrobial peptide LL-37.  

PubMed

SIC and DRS are related proteins present in only 4 of the >200 Streptococcus pyogenes emm types. These proteins inhibit complement-mediated lysis and/or the activity of certain antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). A gene encoding a homologue of these proteins, herein called DrsG, has been identified in the related bacterium Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Here we show that geographically dispersed isolates representing 14 of 50 emm types examined possess variants of drsG. However, not all isolates within the drsG-positive emm types possess the gene. Sequence comparisons also revealed a high degree of conservation in different S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis emm types. To examine the biological activity of DrsG, recombinant versions of two major DrsG variants, DrsGS and DrsGL, were expressed and purified. Western blot analysis using antisera raised to these proteins demonstrated both variants to be expressed and secreted into culture supernatants. Unlike SIC, but similar to DRS, DrsG does not inhibit complement-mediated lysis. However, like both SIC and DRS, DrsG is a ligand of the cathelicidin LL-37 and is inhibitory to its bactericidal activity in in vitro assays. Conservation of prolines in the C-terminal region also suggests that these residues are important in the biology of this family of proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the activity of an AMP-inhibitory protein in S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and suggests that inhibition of AMP activity is the primary function of this family of proteins. The acquisition of the complement-inhibitory activity of SIC may reflect its continuing evolution. PMID:24664506

Smyth, Danielle; Cameron, Ainslie; Davies, Mark R; McNeilly, Celia; Hafner, Louise; Sriprakash, Kadaba S; McMillan, David J

2014-06-01

352

Structure-Informed Design of an Enzymatically Inactive Vaccine Component for Group A Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes ~700 million human infections/year, resulting in >500,000 deaths. There is no commercial GAS vaccine available. The GAS surface protein arginine deiminase (ADI) protects mice against a lethal challenge. ADI is an enzyme that converts arginine to citrulline and ammonia. Administration of a GAS vaccine preparation containing wild-type ADI, a protein with inherent enzymatic activity, may present a safety risk. In an approach intended to maximize the vaccine safety of GAS ADI, X-ray crystallography and structural immunogenic epitope mapping were used to inform vaccine design. This study aimed to knock out ADI enzyme activity without disrupting the three-dimensional structure or the recognition of immunogenic epitopes. We determined the crystal structure of ADI at 2.5 Å resolution and used it to select a number of amino acid residues for mutagenesis to alanine (D166, E220, H275, D277, and C401). Each mutant protein displayed abrogated activity, and three of the mutant proteins (those with the D166A, H275A, and D277A mutations) possessed a secondary structure and oligomerization state equivalent to those of the wild type, produced high-titer antisera, and avoided disruption of B-cell epitopes of ADI. In addition, antisera raised against the D166A and D277A mutant proteins bound to the GAS cell surface. The inactivated D166A and D277A mutant ADIs are ideal for inclusion in a GAS vaccine preparation. There is no human ortholog of ADI, and we confirm that despite limited structural similarity in the active-site region to human peptidyl ADI 4 (PAD4), ADI does not functionally mimic PAD4 and antiserum raised against GAS ADI does not recognize human PAD4. PMID:23919999

Henningham, Anna; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Langer, Karla; Casey, Lachlan W.; Jovcevski, Blagojce; Chhatwal, G. Singh; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Batzloff, Michael R.; Kobe, Bostjan; Walker, Mark J.

2013-01-01

353

Comparison between Streptococcus macedonicus and Streptococcus waius strains and reclassification of Streptococcus waius (Flint et al. 1999) as Streptococcus macedonicus (Tsakalidou et al. 1998)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of dairy streptococci, Streptococcus waius and Streptococcus macedonicus, were originally characterized by 16S-23S intergenic spacer sequence analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting, PFGE analysis and DNA-DNA reassociation experiments. All genetic data suggested that S. waius strains belong to the previously described species S. macedonicus. Likewise, the phenotypic characterization showed that strains of S. macedonicus and S. waius were

P. L. Manachini; S. H. Flint; L. J. H. Ward; W. Kelly; M. G. Fortina; C. Parini; Diego Mora

2002-01-01

354

Acid Production by Human Strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid production by washed suspensions of human strains of Streptococcus mutans (n = 18) and Streptococcus sobrinus (n = 12) was measured. The strains were isolated from infants and adolescents with varying caries experience. Some of these strains and two laboratory strains (1 S. mutans and 1 S. sobrinus) had been tested in an earlier study for their cariogenicity in

B. Köhler; D. Birkhed; S. Olsson

1995-01-01

355

Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.  

PubMed

Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient. PMID:24974898

Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

2014-08-01

356

The Other Group G Streptococcus: Increased Detection of Streptococcus canis Ulcer Infections in Dog Owners  

Microsoft Academic Search

-Hemolytic Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus canis cannot be distinguished when only Lancefield typing is performed. Phenotypic testing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified S. canis associated with ulcer infections in dog owners. Because S. canis may be incorrectly identified (published biochemical descriptions are inconsistent), there may be an underestimation of the true number of infections. Identification of

Maggie M. Lam; Jill E. Clarridge; E. J. Young; Sally Mizuki

357

Specific inhibitions of annonaceous acetogenins on class II 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (class II HMGR) could serve as a potential target to discover drugs fighting against the invasive diseases originated from Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the major causes of bacterial disease in human. However, no strongly effective inhibitors of class II HMGR have been found so far. In the present study, for the first time, four annonaceous acetogenins

Lingling Feng; Li Zhou; Yao Sun; Jie Gui; Xiaofeng Wang; Ping Wu; Jian Wan; Yanliang Ren; Shengxiang Qiu; Xiaoyi Wei; Jun Li

2011-01-01

358

Comparative evaluation of virulence and pathology of Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 9 in experimentally infected growers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus (S.) suis is an invasive porcine pathogen causing meningitis, septicemia, arthritis and other diseases. Studies on pathogenesis as well as vaccine trials have focused on serotype 2 strains, which are worldwide the most prevalent among invasive isolates. However, in Europe serotype 9 strains also contribute substantially to S. suis-associated invasive diseases of piglets. The objective of this study was

Andreas Beineke; Katharina Bennecke; Christina Neis; Charlotte Schröder; Karl-Heinz Waldmann; Wolfgang Baumgärtner; Peter Valentin-Weigand; Christoph Georg Baums

2008-01-01

359

Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... the vagina and rectum. GBS is not a sexually transmitted disease . Also, although the names are similar, GBS is ... cord. Preterm: Born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Sexually Transmitted Disease: A disease that is spread by sexual contact, ...

360

Ascending cholangitis as a cause of pyogenic liver abscesses complicated by a gastric submucosal abscess and fistula.  

PubMed

Ruptures of nonamebic (pyogenic) liver abscesses into the thorax and peritoneum are very uncommon; but, hepatoduodenal and hepatocolonic fistulas are ever more rare. We report a case where ascending cholangitis was associated with pyogenic liver abscess formation and a gastric fistula. Drainage into the stomach was demonstrated by gastroduodenal endoscopy for gastric bleeding. After fistula formation, we could successfully treat the inflammation caused by infection of Citrobacter freundii and Candida albicans with intravenous infusion of both antibiotic and antifungal agents. PMID:10777197

Yamada, T; Murakami, K; Tsuchida, K; Ohara, H; Nakazawa, T; Sano, H; Ando, H; Hashimoto, T; Nomura, T; Yokoyama, Y; Itoh, M

2000-04-01

361

Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Share Compartir Group A Streptococcus (group A strep, GAS) bacteria can live in a person's nose and ...

362

Initial presentations and final outcomes of primary pyogenic liver abscess: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Although pyogenic liver abscess (PPLA) fatalities are decreasing owing to early diagnosis and effective treatments, PPLA-associated complications still exist. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristic features of initial presentations and final outcomes of PPLA caused by different pathogens. Methods This retrospective study collected and analyzed information regarding initial presentations and final outcomes in patients diagnosed with PPLA at admitted at Changhua Christian Hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2010. Results During the study period, we analyzed the records of a total of 134 patients with documented PPLA. There were no significant causative pathogen-related differences in symptoms at initial presentation. Compared with the survivor group, patients in the mortality group were characterized by male gender (p?disease to determine the risk of mortality for each patient with PPLA. In order to prevent complications and reduce mortality, more attention must be paid to high-risk PPLA patients. PMID:25066384

2014-01-01

363

Identification of Trueperella pyogenes Isolated from Bovine Mastitis by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to identify Trueperella (T.) pyogenes isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to 57 isolates obtained from 55 cows in a period from 2009 to 2012. Prior to FT-IR spectroscopy these isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic properties, also including the determination of seven potential virulence factor encoding genes. The FT-IR analysis revealed a reliable identification of all 57 isolates as T. pyogenes and a clear separation of this species from the other species of genus Trueperella and from species of genus Arcanobacterium and Actinomyces. The results showed that all 57 isolates were assigned to the correct species indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy could also be efficiently used for identification of this bacterial pathogen. PMID:25133407

Nagib, Samy; Rau, Jorg; Sammra, Osama; Lammler, Christoph; Schlez, Karen; Zschock, Michael; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Klein, Guenter; Abdulmawjood, Amir

2014-01-01

364

Pyogenic granuloma of unusual size with alveolar resorption in a 75-year-old patient  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma is an overzealously proliferative non-neoplastic lesion of connective tissue origin, found commonly in oral cavity and is secondary to chronic low grade local irritation, poor oral hygiene, and hormonal disturbances. The term is misnomer because a lesion is unrelated to infection. It is characterized by excessive and exuberant tissue repair response with varied inflammatory component. Since it is a benign lesion, choice of treatment is surgical excision with removal of underlying cause if any. This article aims at presenting a case of pyogenic granuloma in an extremely old patient which is unusual as it attained a very large size and also has caused mild resorption of underlying alveolar bone of mandible. PMID:23251065

Shaikh, Shoyeb; Singh, Gaurav; Singh, Anil; Gaur, Amit

2012-01-01

365

Foot infections associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes in free-living fallow deer (Dama dama).  

PubMed

We describe foot infection associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes in three adult male free-living fallow deer (Dama dama) from Sueve Regional Hunting Reserve (Principality of Asturias, Spain). Affected fallow deer were culled in November 1997 and 1998 during the hunting season. Necropsy, radiography, and microbiologic analysis were carried out for each animal. Unilateral swelling of one extremity at the coronary band was observed in all three cases. Areas of bone loss, severe periosteal reaction, and soft tissue swelling were seen on radiography. Lead fragments were observed in one fallow deer. Seven bacterial species were isolated, but only Arcanobacterium pyogenes was routinely found. Weather conditions in the area (mild temperatures and high humidity), the land (alternating pasture land and rock), the animal population density (both fallow deer and domestic herds of cows, horses, sheep, and goats, live side by side in the same areas), and hunting activities could be related to the frequency of these infections. PMID:15465736

Lavín, Santiago; Ruiz-Bascarán, María; Marco, Ignasi; Abarca, María Lourdes; Crespo, Maria Jesus; Franch, Jordi

2004-07-01

366

Streptococcus salivarius urease: genetic and biochemical characterization and expression in a dental plaque streptococcus.  

PubMed

The hydrolysis of urea by urease enzyme of oral bacteria is believed to have a major impact on oral microbial ecology and to be intimately involved in oral health and diseases. To begin to understand the biochemistry and genetics of oral ureolysis, a study of the urease of Streptococcus salivarius, a highly ureolytic organism which is present in large numbers on the soft tissues of the oral cavity, has been initiated. By using as a probe a 0.6-kpb internal fragment of the S. salivarius 57.I ureC gene, two clones from subgenomic libraries of S. salivarius 57.I in an Escherichia coli plasmid vector were identified. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of one partial and six complete open reading frames which were most homologous to ureIAB-CEFGD of other ureolytic bacteria. Plasmid clones were generated to construct a complete gene cluster and used to transform E. coli and Streptococcus gordonii DL1, a nonureolytic, dental plaque microorganism. The recombinant organisms expressed high levels of urease activity when the growth medium was supplemented with NiCl2. The urease enzyme was purified from E. coli, and its biochemical properties were compared with those of the urease produced by S. salivarius and those of the urease produced by S. gordonii carrying the plasmid-borne ure genes. In all cases, the enzyme had a Km of 3.5 to 4.1 mM, a pH optimum near 7.0, and a temperature optimum near 60 degrees C. S. gordonii carrying the urease genes was then demonstrated to have a significant capacity to temper glycolytic acidification in vitro in the presence of concentrations of urea commonly found in the oral cavity. The ability to genetically engineer plaque bacteria that can modulate environmental pH through ureolysis will open the way to using recombinant ureolytic organisms to test hypotheses regarding the role of oral ureolysis in dental caries, calculus formation, and periodontal diseases. Such recombinant organisms may eventually prove useful for controlling dental caries by replacement therapy. PMID:8550211

Chen, Y Y; Clancy, K A; Burne, R A

1996-02-01

367

Delayed Infrarenal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm Treated by Endovascular Stent Graft in Pyogenic Spondylitis  

PubMed Central

A 61-year-old male patient with pyogenic spondylodiscitis and epidural and psoas abscesses underwent posterior decompression, debridement, and instrumented fusion, followed by anterior debridement and reconstruction. Sudden onset flank pain was diagnosed 7 weeks postoperatively and was determined to be a pseudoaneurysm located at the aorta inferior to the renal artery and superior to the aortic bifurcation area. An endovascular stent graft was applied to successfully treat the pseudoaneurysm. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and infection status was stabilized. PMID:24353853

Shin, Jae-Hyuk; Hwang, Dae-Hyun; Pang, Chae-Hyun; Wang, Shaobai; Kim, In-Sung; Ahn, Jung-Tae; Kim, Young-Woo

2013-01-01

368

Psoas Abscess as a Complication of Pyogenic Sacroiliitis: Report of a Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psoas abscess is, either primary or secondary, a rare entity for a general surgeon. Images by ultrasonography and computed\\u000a tomography (CT) can help a general surgeon to make an accurate diagnosis when encountering the patient complaining of unilateral\\u000a lower abdominal deep pain with fever. A case of pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle as a result of sacroiliitis in

Semih Gorgulu; Mahmut Komurcu; Emir Silit; Izzet Kocak

2002-01-01

369

Biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Summary Biofilm?grown bacteria are refractory to antimicrobial agents and show an increased capacity to evade the host immune system. In recent years, studies have begun on biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, using a variety of in vitro model systems. The bacterial cells in these biofilms are held together by an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, proteins and, possibly, polysaccharide(s). Although neither the precise nature of these proteins nor the composition of the putative polysaccharide(s) is clear, it is known that choline?binding proteins are required for successful biofilm formation. Further, many genes appear to be involved, although the role of each appears to vary when biofilms are produced in batch or continuous culture. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures need to be developed to fight S.?pneumoniae biofilm formation. However, much care needs to be taken when choosing strains for such studies because different S.?pneumoniae isolates can show remarkable genomic differences. Multispecies and in vivo biofilm models must also be developed to provide a more complete understanding of biofilm formation and maintenance. PMID:21906265

Domenech, Mirian; Garcia, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

2012-01-01

370

Streptococcus crista sp. nov. a Viridans Streptococcus with Tufted Fibrils, Isolated from the Human Oral Cavity and Throat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied strains of an unusual streptococcus that superficially resembles Streptococcus sanguis but has fibrils that are arranged in lateral tufts. These strains were originally isolated from human throats and oral cavities and have been referred to previously as \\

P. HANDLEY; A. COYKENDALL; D. BEIGHTON; J. M. HARDIE; R. A. WHILEY

1991-01-01

371

Early abortion in cattle induced by experimental intrauterine infection with pure cultures of Actinomyces pyogenes.  

PubMed

Actinomyces pyogenes from a case of endometritis was used to study the effects of infection of the bovine embryo between days 27 and 41 of pregnancy. From 10(9) to 10(10) washed organisms were introduced into the uterine lumen of four pregnant cows. Two pregnant cows were inoculated with sterile saline and four pregnant cows were treated with cloprostenol. Embryonic death and abortion followed 29 to 144 hours after the inoculation of the live bacteria. The aborted embryos were macerated or clearly degenerating and yielded profuse pure cultures of A pyogenes. Abortion was accompanied by a sustained increase in uterine tone, opening of the cervix, presence of vaginal pus and a vulval discharge and the persistence of the corpus luteum for at least eight days after abortion. Intrauterine inoculation with saline did not affect pregnancy, but embryonic death, abortion and regression of the corpus luteum occurred 66 to 72 hours after the treatment with cloprostenol. The results suggest that A pyogenes is a primary pathogen and is capable of causing embryonic death and abortion. PMID:1897106

Semambo, D K; Ayliffe, T R; Boyd, J S; Taylor, D J

1991-07-01

372

Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean?±?SD, 26.9?±?12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n?=?46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface. PMID:23668608

Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

2013-05-01

373

Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and the phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (from 9 to 44, average?±?SD, 26.9?±?12.6 years old) in the primate research institutes, Kyoto University, were enrolled in this research, and their brushing bacterial samples were collected. As the results, streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n?=?46) were identified as thirteen species by the 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of the mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). The mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), which species had been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans, was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%), however, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous human or monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans of the mutans streptococci possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface. PMID:23534488

Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

2013-03-28

374

Functional amyloid formation by Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Dental caries is a common infectious disease associated with acidogenic and aciduric bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. Organisms that cause cavities form recalcitrant biofilms, generate acids from dietary sugars and tolerate acid end products. It has recently been recognized that micro-organisms can produce functional amyloids that are integral to biofilm development. We now show that the S. mutans cell-surface-localized adhesin P1 (antigen I/II, PAc) is an amyloid-forming protein. This conclusion is based on the defining properties of amyloids, including binding by the amyloidophilic dyes Congo red (CR) and Thioflavin T (ThT), visualization of amyloid fibres by transmission electron microscopy and the green birefringent properties of CR-stained protein aggregates when viewed under cross-polarized light. We provide evidence that amyloid is present in human dental plaque and is produced by both laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S. mutans. We provide further evidence that amyloid formation is not limited to P1, since bacterial colonies without this adhesin demonstrate residual green birefringence. However, S. mutans lacking sortase, the transpeptidase enzyme that mediates the covalent linkage of its substrates to the cell-wall peptidoglycan, including P1 and five other proteins, is not birefringent when stained with CR and does not form biofilms. Biofilm formation is inhibited when S. mutans is cultured in the presence of known inhibitors of amyloid fibrillization, including CR, Thioflavin S and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which also inhibited ThT uptake by S. mutans extracellular proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that S. mutans is an amyloid-forming organism and suggest that amyloidogenesis contributes to biofilm formation by this oral microbe. PMID:23082034

Oli, M. W.; Otoo, H. N.; Crowley, P. J.; Heim, K. P.; Nascimento, M. M.; Ramsook, C. B.; Lipke, P. N.

2012-01-01

375

Naturally Occurring Disseminated Group B Streptococcus Infections in Postnatal Rats  

PubMed Central

Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae, GBS) is a gram-positive commensal and occasional opportunistic pathogen of the human vaginal, respiratory, and intestinal tracts that can cause sepsis, pneumonia, or meningitis in human neonates, infants, and immunosuppressed persons. We report here on a spontaneous outbreak of postnatal GBS-associated disease in rats. Ten of 26 (38.5%) 21- to 24-d-old rat pups died or were euthanized due to a moribund state in a colony of rats transgenic for the human diphtheria toxin receptor on a Munich–Wistar–Frömter genetic background. Four pups had intralesional coccoid bacteria in various organs without accompanying inflammation. GBS was isolated from the liver of 2 of these pups and from skin abscesses in 3 littermates. A connection with the transgene could not be established. A treatment protocol was evaluated in the remaining breeding female rats. GBS is a potentially clinically significant spontaneous infection in various populations of research rats, with some features that resemble late-onset postnatal GBS infection in human infants. PMID:23561938

Shuster, Katherine A; Hish, Gerald A; Selles, Lindsi A; Chowdhury, Mahboob A; Wiggins, Roger C; Dysko, Robert C; Bergin, Ingrid L

2013-01-01

376

Influence of Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from bovine puerperal uteri on phenotypic and functional properties of neutrophils.  

PubMed

When cows develop endometritis after birth, Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes are usually the most prominent bacteria present in bovine uterine lochial secretions. A. pyogenes alone is rarely found in the course of a disturbed puerperium. This was confirmed in this study, since average and high-grade uterine contaminations were always associated with the presence of both bacteria. The contamination grade was positively correlated with uterine polymorphonuclear granulocyte (PMN) numbers and negatively correlated with blood PMN numbers. Whether E. coli and A. pyogenes affect the phenotype and function of bovine PMN in a similar or differential way was subject to in vitro studies. PMN were tested in the presence of washed bacterial fragments or culture supernatants taken as a source for soluble and/or secreted bacterial products. Fragments and soluble products differed only quantitatively in their effects on PMN. Usually, long-time exposure (24h) of PMN to fragments induced the strongest effects. Accelerated death of granulocytes was only moderately induced by both E. coli and A. pyogenes products. Both E. coli and A. pyogenes products induced the enhanced expression of a membrane molecule detected by mAb IL-A110 and of CD11b. Expression of other surface structures remained largely unchanged (MHC class I, CD11c). Functional parameters of PMN (phagocytosis; generation of reactive oxygen species, ROS; antibody-independent cellular cytotoxicity, AICC) generally declined after pre-incubation for 24h with products of E. coli or A. pyogenes. Interestingly, soluble products of A. pyogenes stimulated the phagocytosis of PMN. However, co-incubation with E. coli products abrogated this stimulatory effect. The results supply evidence for similar modes of action of the gram-negative E. coli and the gram-positive A. pyogenes on bovine PMN. Alterations in PMN function and phenotype are mainly triggered by direct contact between bacterial fragments and PMN. Inhibition experiments with polymyxin B demonstrated that E. coli-mediated effects were not solely due to the action of lipopolysaccharide. The dominant functional depression of neutrophils by E. coli products strengthens the suggestion that the earlier appearance of E. coli in the uterus may support the co-infection of this organ by A. pyogenes at later times. PMID:11267794

Zerbe, H; Ossadnik, C; Leibold, W; Schuberth, H J

2001-04-19

377

Trueperella pyogenes as cause of a facial abscess in a grey slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus nordicus)--a case report.  

PubMed

In the present study a Trueperella (T.) pyogenes strain isolated from an abscess on the left side of the face of a six year old grey slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus nordicus) could successfully be identified phenotypically, by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and genotypically using T. pyogenes superoxide dismutase A encoding gene sodA and T. pyogenes 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region specific oligonucleotide primers. The T. pyogenes strain could additionally be characterized by PCR-mediated amplification of several known and putative virulence factor encoding genes which revealed the presence of the genes plo encoding pyolysin, nanH encoding neuraminidase NanH and the genes fimA, fimC, fimE encoding the fimbrial subunits FimA, FimC and FimE but not the genes cbpA and nanP encoding collagen-binding protein CbpA and neuraminidase NanP, respectively. The present data give the first information about properties of T. pyogenes isolated from a monkey. PMID:23045803

Eisenberg, Tobias; Nagib, Samy; Hijazin, Muaz; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Timke, Markus; Kostrzewa, Markus; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Schauerte, Nicole; Geiger, Christina; Kaim, Ute; Zschöck, Michael

2012-01-01

378

Hemorrhage in the Wall of Pyogenic Brain Abscess on Susceptibility Weighted MR Sequence: A Report of 3 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose. In pyogenic brain abscess, hemorrhage in the walls is considered exceptional. Recently, hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic abscess have been demonstrated on susceptibility weighted imaging with 3T MRI. Here, we report hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic brain abscess on susceptibility weighted imaging with 1.5T MRI. Method. MRI of brain was done using 1.5T MRI with diffusion weighted sequence, susceptibility weighted sequence, and other standard sequences in 3 consecutive cases of pyogenic brain abscess. Stereotactic biopsy and cultures were obtained in 2 cases. One case was treated empirically with antibiotics. Results. Susceptibility sequence demonstrated hemorrhage in the wall of brain abscess in all three cases. All three cases also demonstrated restricted diffusion on diffusion weighted imaging. Conclusion. Susceptibility weighted imaging can demonstrate hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic brain abscess on 1.5T MRI. Presence of hemorrhage in the walls of ring enhancing lesions should not automatically lead to a diagnosis of tumor.

Agarwal, Amit K.; Sabat, Shyamsunder B.; Nguyen, Dan T.

2014-01-01

379

Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.  

PubMed

Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8?% and 93.1?% similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase ? subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7?% similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0?% and 82.9?% similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5?% similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T)?=?JCM 19287(T)?=?DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T)?=?JCM 19288(T)?=?DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. PMID:24994777

Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

2014-09-01

380

9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

381

Streptococcus constellatus and Prevotella bivia penile abscess.  

PubMed

Streptococcus constellatus (S. constellatus) is known to cause abscesses in the oral, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts, frequently in association with anaerobic bacteria. We report a rare case of S. constellatus and Prevotella bivia (P. bivia) causing a penile abscess, which was successfully treated with surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment. PMID:17982605

Nalmas, Sandhya; Bishburg, Eliahu; Chan, Trini

2007-01-01

382

Autoinflammatory pustular neutrophilic diseases.  

PubMed

This article provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biological insights. Monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes are discussed, including deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, deficiency of the interleukin 36 receptor antagonist, CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis, and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne. How these new genetic advancements may inform how previously described pustular diseases are viewed, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype, is also discussed. PMID:23827244

Naik, Haley B; Cowen, Edward W

2013-07-01

383

Subtractive Hybridization Identifies a Novel Predicted Protein Mediating Epithelial Cell Invasion by Virulent Serotype III Group B Streptococcus agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group B Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria (group B streptococci (GBS)) are the most common cause of serious bacterial infection in newborn infants. The majority of serotype III-related cases of neonatal disease are caused by a genetically related subgroup of bacteria, restriction fragment digest pattern (RDP) type III-3, suggesting that these strains possess unique genes contributing to virulence. We used genomic subtractive

Elisabeth E. Adderson; Shinji Takahashi; Yan Wang; Jianling Armstrong; Dylan V. Miller; John F. Bohnsack

2003-01-01

384

A Case of Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis Caused by Campylobacter fetus for Which Early Diagnosis by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Was Difficult  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this case report was to report a rare case of pyogenic spondylodiscitis caused by Campylobacter fetus. A 37-year-old male presented with fever and low back pain. By lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), no abnormal finding was observed at the first presentation. However, low back pain was aggravated, and fever did not improve. Thus, lumbar MRI was repeated on the 26 day after the onset of symptoms, showing abnormal signals at vertebrae and disc spaces, and pyogenic spondylitis was diagnosed. The possibility of pyogenic spondylodiscitis should be taken into account if a patient presents with low back pain and fever, and areas of low signal intensity on a T1-weighted MRI should be carefully examined. When initial MRI does not reveal abnormal findings, repeated MRI after one or two weeks or, more favorably, immediate gadolinium enhancement MRI, are important for patients who have persistent low back pain and fever. PMID:23275811

Tanaka, Atsushi; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Shimizu, Masayuki; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

385

Dynamics of Streptococcus mutans Transcriptome in Response to Starch and Sucrose during Biofilm Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of sucrose and starch in the presence of surface-adsorbed salivary ?-amylase and bacterial glucosyltransferases increase the formation of a structurally and metabolically distinctive biofilm by Streptococcus mutans. This host-pathogen-diet interaction may modulate the formation of pathogenic biofilms related to dental caries disease. We conducted a comprehensive study to further investigate the influence of the dietary carbohydrates on S.

Marlise I. Klein; Lena Debaz; Senyo Agidi; Herbert Lee; Gary Xie; Amy H.-M. Lin; Bruce R. Hamaker; José A. Lemos; Hyun Koo; Frank R. Deleo

2010-01-01

386

Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most significant causes of bacterial disease in humans. Here we report the 2,038,615-bp genomic sequence of the gram-positive bacterium S. pneumoniae R6. Because the R6 strain is avirulent and, more importantly, because it is readily transformed with DNA from homologous species and many heterologous species, it is the principal platform for investigation of the biology of this important pathogen. It is also used as a primary vehicle for genomics-based development of antibiotics for gram-positive bacteria. In our analysis of the genome, we identified a large number of new uncharacterized genes predicted to encode proteins that either reside on the surface of the cell or are secreted. Among those proteins there may be new targets for vaccine and antibiotic development. PMID:11544234

Hoskins, JoAnn; Alborn, William E.; Arnold, Jeffrey; Blaszczak, Larry C.; Burgett, Stanley; DeHoff, Bradley S.; Estrem, Shawn T.; Fritz, Lori; Fu, Dong-Jing; Fuller, Wendy; Geringer, Chad; Gilmour, Raymond; Glass, Jennifer S.; Khoja, Hamid; Kraft, Angelika R.; Lagace, Robert E.; LeBlanc, Donald J.; Lee, Linda N.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Lu, Jin; Matsushima, Patti; McAhren, Scott M.; McHenney, Margaret; McLeaster, Kevin; Mundy, Christopher W.; Nicas, Thalia I.; Norris, Franklin H.; O'Gara, MaryJeanne; Peery, Robert B.; Robertson, Gregory T.; Rockey, Pamela; Sun, Pei-Ming; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Yang, Yong; Young-Bellido, Michelle; Zhao, Genshi; Zook, Christopher A.; Baltz, Richard H.; Jaskunas, S. Richard; Rosteck, Paul R.; Skatrud, Paul L.; Glass, John I.

2001-01-01

387

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Compressive Bone Graft with Allograft and Autograft in the Pyogenic Discitis  

PubMed Central

Study Design This is a retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the advantages and effects of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using allograft and posterior instrumentation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis, which are resistant to antibiotics. Overview of Literature To present preliminary results of PLIF using a compressive bone graft with allograft and pedicle screw fixation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis. Methods Fifteen patients who had lumbar pyogenic discitis were treated by posterior approach from May 2004 to July 2008. The mean follow-up duration was 27.2 ± 18.68 months. The standing radiographs of the lumbar spine and clinical results were compared and analyzed in order to assess the bony union, the changes in the distance between the two vertebral bodies and the changes in the lordotic angle formed between the fused bodies immediately after surgery and at the final follow-up. Results Fifteen solid unions at an average of 15.2 ± 3.5 weeks after operation. The mean preoperative lordotic angle of the affected segments was 14.3 ± 15.1°, compared to 20.3 ± 12.3° after surgery and 19.8 ± 15.2° at last follow-up. For the functional result according to the Kirkaldy-Willis criteria, the outcome was excellent in 9, good in 5, fair in 1, and there were no poor cases. The average visual analogue scale score was decreased from 7.4 before surgery to 3.4 at 2 weeks postoperative. Conclusions The main advantage in the procedure of PLIF using compressive bone graft with allograft and post instrumentation is early ambulation. We believe that this is another good procedure for patients with poor general condition because a further autograft bone harvest is not required. PMID:22439083

An, Ki Chan; Kim, Tae Hyoung; Kim, Jin Suck; Park, Dae Hyoun; Kim, Jeon Gyo; Sung, Tae Woo

2012-01-01

388

Percutaneous Drainage Combined with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Pyogenic Spondylitis with Iliopsoas Abscess  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes in patients with pyogenic spondylitis accompanied by iliopsoas abscess who were treated by percutaneous drainage combined with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. Overview of Literature To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of the use of percutaneous drainage combined with HBO therapy for the treatment of this condition. Methods Twenty-three patients (13 men, 10 women; mean age, 69.0 years; range, 45-85 years) were treated with percutaneous drainage combined with HBO therapy in addition to commonly used conservative therapy. Mean follow-up duration was 27.7 months (range, 12-48 months). Clinical outcomes and imaging examinations were retrospectively investigated. Results Symptoms such as low back pain, radicular pain, and hip pain resolved in all patients immediately after treatment. Mean time from the start of treatment to the return of C-reactive protein levels to normal or baseline values recorded before the onset of spondylitis was 28.3 days (range, 8-56 days). In the final set of follow-up radiographic studies, all patients were free from progressive destructive changes. Follow-up magnetic resonance images or computed tomography with contrast enhancement confirmed the disappearance or near-total resolution of the iliopsoas abscess cavity with healing of the pyogenic spondylitis in all 23 patients. No recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusions The present study suggests that patients with pyogenic spondylitis accompanied by iliopsoas abscess can be cured without a prolonged period of therapy or recurrence using this treatment. PMID:24967038

Koga, Hiroaki; Komiya, Setsuro

2014-01-01

389

MOLECULAR MODELING OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE  

E-print Network

* Serotypes 6A and 19A : · many cases of disease · antibiotic resistance · otitis media. Efficacy in children · meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis ... · annual global mortality 1 000 000 for children

Kuttel, Michelle

390

Pyogenic liver abscess caused by Salmonella Enteritidis: A rare case report.  

PubMed

Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the most important serovars transmitted from animals to humans and a serovar most commonly reported worldwide. Infection with Enteritidis is mainly limited to the intestinal tract, but under certain circumstances may cross the mucosal barrier to disseminate and get established as some localized infectious focus. Although cited as one of the very uncommon causes, Enteritidis may involve the liver and evolve into an overt abscess. Pyogenic liver abscess by a gas forming organism like Enteritidis usually follow a serious fulminant course and associated morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high unless immediate therapeutic interventions are initiated. PMID:25308026

Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Shweta; Madan, Preeti; Duggal, Nandini

2014-01-01

391

A middle-aged lady with a pyogenic liver abscess caused by Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

The pyogenic liver abscess caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a rare, but rapidly fatal infection. It is usually associated with malignancy and immunosuppression. We report the case of 50-year-old lady with the secondary liver metastases from rectal cancer presented with fever and epigastric pain. The identification of Gram-positive bacilli septicaemia, the presence of gas-forming liver abscess and massive intravascular hemolysis should lead to the suspicion of C. perfringens infection. Here we review twenty cases published since 1990 and their clinical features are discussed. The importance of ”an aggressive treatment policy” with multidisciplinary team approach is emphasized. PMID:22993668

Law, Siu-Tong; Lee, Ming Kai

2012-01-01

392

A Maternal Vaccine against Group B Streptococcus: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates. Though there have been tremendous advances in prevention of invasive neonatal GBS disease through prophylactic antibiotic treatment of pregnant women, the incidence of neonatal disease has not changed significantly over the past several years. Vaccination of pregnant women is an important strategy that has the potential to improve further on existing protocols. In this review, we explore the history of the design of maternal GBS vaccines. We also discuss how recent applications of genomics and immunology to vaccine design promise to further enhance our ability to develop more effective vaccines against this important disease. PMID:23973342

Chen, Vincent L.; Avci, Fikri Y.; Kasper, Dennis L.

2013-01-01

393

Streptolysin O and NAD-Glycohydrolase Prevent Phagolysosome Acidification and Promote Group A Streptococcus Survival in Macrophages  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is an ongoing threat to human health as the agent of streptococcal pharyngitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and life-threatening conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In animal models of infection, macrophages have been shown to contribute to host defense against GAS infection. However, as GAS can resist killing by macrophages in vitro and induce macrophage cell death, it has been suggested that GAS intracellular survival in macrophages may enable persistent infection. Using isogenic mutants, we now show that the GAS pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO) and its cotoxin NAD-glycohydrolase (NADase) mediate GAS intracellular survival and cytotoxicity for macrophages. Unexpectedly, the two toxins did not inhibit fusion of GAS-containing phagosomes with lysosomes but rather prevented phagolysosome acidification. SLO served two essential functions, poration of the phagolysosomal membrane and translocation of NADase into the macrophage cytosol, both of which were necessary for maximal GAS intracellular survival. Whereas NADase delivery to epithelial cells is mediated by SLO secreted from GAS bound to the cell surface, in macrophages, the source of SLO and NADase is GAS contained within phagolysosomes. We found that transfer of NADase from the phagolysosome to the macrophage cytosol occurs not by simple diffusion through SLO pores but rather by a specific translocation mechanism that requires the N-terminal translocation domain of NADase. These results illuminate the mechanisms through which SLO and NADase enable GAS to defeat macrophage-mediated killing and provide new insight into the virulence of a major human pathogen. PMID:25227466

Bastiat-Sempe, Benedicte; Love, John F.; Lomayesva, Natalie

2014-01-01

394

Selective adsorption of heterophile polyglycerophosphate antigen from antigen extracts of Streptococcus mutans and other gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Hot saline extracts of Streptococcus mutans have been shown to contain antigenic substances which occasionally react nonspecifically with some antisera against whole cells of various serological groups and types of streptococci. Chromatography of the extract of S. mutans strain MT703 (serotype e) on a diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 column gave two principal antigens. One antigen was eluted without adsorption to the resin and was identified as the serotype-specific polysaccharide. The other antigen, which contained a large quantity of phosphorus, was absorbed to and released from the resin by gradient elution. It was reactive against the antisera specific for polyglycerophosphate (PGP) from group A Streptococcus pyogenes and/or S. mutans strain Ingbritt (type c). The PGP antigen was further purified by gel filtration with Sephadex G-75. Two peaks, PGP-1, and PGP-2, were obtained. Each possessed the same antigenic specificity to anti-PGP serum as shown by immunodiffusion. Chemical analyses revealed that the molar ratio of phosphorus to glycerol in both was about 1:1, although the protein content between the two was significantly different. PGP antigen was found to be widely distributed in hot saline extracts from various gram-positive bacteria, with a few exceptions. However, all gram-negative bacteria examined were free of PGP. The PGP in the hot saline extracts of various gram-positive bacteria possessed an essentially identical antigenic specificity. The addition of diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-25 resin to hot saline extracts successfully removed the cross-reacting PGP antigen. After adsorption of the extract from S. mutans, the supernatant contained only type-specific polysaccharide antigen, except type b, in which both type b-specific polysaccharide and PGP antigens were absorbed with the resin. This simple procedure should be useful for the removal of the PGP-type teichoic acid from antigen extracts of bacteria that contain uncharged polysaccharides. Images PMID:825468

Hamada, S; Tai, S; Slade, H D

1976-01-01

395

SecA Localization and SecA-Dependent Secretion Occurs at New Division Septa in Group B Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

Exported proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), which include proteins localized to the bacterial surface or secreted into the extracellular environment, are key players for commensal and pathogenic interactions in the mammalian host. These proteins are transported across the cytoplasmic membrane via the general SecA secretory pathway and those containing the so-called LPXTG sorting motif are covalently attached to the peptidoglycan by sortase A. How SecA, sortase A, and LPXTG proteins are spatially distributed in GBS is not known. In the close relative Streptococcus pyogenes, it was shown that presence of the YSIRKG/S motif (literally YSIRKX3Gx2S) in the signal peptide (SP) constitutes the targeting information for secretion at the septum. Here, using conventional and deconvolution immunofluorescence analyses, we have studied in GBS strain NEM316 the localization of SecA, SrtA, and the secreted protein Bsp whose signal peptide contains a canonical YSIRKG/S motif (YSLRKykfGlaS). Replacing the SP of Bsp with four other SPs containing or not the YSIRKG/S motif did not alter the localized secretion of Bsp at the equatorial ring. Our results indicate that secretion and cell wall-anchoring machineries are localized at the division septum. Cell wall- anchored proteins displayed polar (PilB, Gbs0791), punctuate (CspA) or uniform distribution (Alp2) on the bacterial surface. De novo secretion of Gbs0791 following trypsin treatment indicates that it is secreted at the septum, then redistributed along the lateral sides, and finally accumulated to the poles. We conclude that the ±YSIRK SP rule driving compartimentalized secretion is not true in S. agalactiae. PMID:23762438

Brega, Sara; Caliot, Elise; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

2013-01-01

396

Two Group A Streptococcal Peptide Pheromones Act through Opposing Rgg Regulators to Control Biofilm Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against

Jennifer C. Chang; Breah LaSarre; Juan C. Jimenez; Chaitanya Aggarwal; Michael J. Federle

2011-01-01

397

21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs...Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus...

2010-04-01

398

21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs...Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus...

2011-04-01

399

21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs...Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus...

2013-04-01

400

21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs...Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus...

2012-04-01