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Sample records for streptococcus pyogenes disease

  1. Epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamagni, Theresa L; Darenberg, Jessica; Luca-Harari, Bogdan; Siljander, Tuula; Efstratiou, Androulla; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Bouvet, Anne; Creti, Roberta; Ekelund, Kim; Koliou, Maria; Reinert, Ralf René; Stathi, Angeliki; Strakova, Lenka; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Schalén, Claes; Jasir, Aftab

    2008-07-01

    The past 2 decades have brought worrying increases in severe Streptococcus pyogenes diseases globally. To investigate and compare the epidemiological patterns of these diseases within Europe, data were collected through a European Union FP-5-funded program (Strep-EURO). Prospective population-based surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection diagnosed during 2003 and 2004 was undertaken in 11 countries across Europe (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) using a standardized case definition. A total of 5,522 cases were identified across the 11 countries during this period. Rates of reported infection varied, reaching 3/100,000 population in the northern European countries. Seasonal patterns of infection showed remarkable congruence between countries. The risk of infection was highest among the elderly, and rates were higher in males than in females in most countries. Skin lesions/wounds were the most common predisposing factor, reported in 25% of cases; 21% had no predisposing factors reported. Skin and soft tissue were the most common foci of infection, with 32% of patients having cellulitis and 8% necrotizing fasciitis. The overall 7-day case fatality rate was 19%; it was 44% among patients who developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The findings from Strep-EURO confirm a high incidence of severe S. pyogenes disease in Europe. Furthermore, these results have identified targets for public health intervention, as well as raising awareness of severe S. pyogenes disease across Europe. PMID:18463210

  2. Epidemiology of Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Disease in Europe▿

    PubMed Central

    Lamagni, Theresa L.; Darenberg, Jessica; Luca-Harari, Bogdan; Siljander, Tuula; Efstratiou, Androulla; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Bouvet, Anne; Creti, Roberta; Ekelund, Kim; Koliou, Maria; Reinert, Ralf René; Stathi, Angeliki; Strakova, Lenka; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Schalén, Claes; Jasir, Aftab

    2008-01-01

    The past 2 decades have brought worrying increases in severe Streptococcus pyogenes diseases globally. To investigate and compare the epidemiological patterns of these diseases within Europe, data were collected through a European Union FP-5-funded program (Strep-EURO). Prospective population-based surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection diagnosed during 2003 and 2004 was undertaken in 11 countries across Europe (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) using a standardized case definition. A total of 5,522 cases were identified across the 11 countries during this period. Rates of reported infection varied, reaching 3/100,000 population in the northern European countries. Seasonal patterns of infection showed remarkable congruence between countries. The risk of infection was highest among the elderly, and rates were higher in males than in females in most countries. Skin lesions/wounds were the most common predisposing factor, reported in 25% of cases; 21% had no predisposing factors reported. Skin and soft tissue were the most common foci of infection, with 32% of patients having cellulitis and 8% necrotizing fasciitis. The overall 7-day case fatality rate was 19%; it was 44% among patients who developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The findings from Strep-EURO confirm a high incidence of severe S. pyogenes disease in Europe. Furthermore, these results have identified targets for public health intervention, as well as raising awareness of severe S. pyogenes disease across Europe. PMID:18463210

  3. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of severe Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Europe.

    PubMed

    Luca-Harari, Bogdan; Darenberg, Jessica; Neal, Shona; Siljander, Tuula; Strakova, Lenka; Tanna, Asha; Creti, Roberta; Ekelund, Kim; Koliou, Maria; Tassios, Panayotis T; van der Linden, Mark; Straut, Monica; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Bouvet, Anne; Efstratiou, Androulla; Schalén, Claes; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Jasir, Aftab

    2009-04-01

    In an attempt to compare the epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes infection within Europe, prospective data were collected through the Strep-EURO program. Surveillance for severe cases of S. pyogenes infection diagnosed during 2003 and 2004 was undertaken in 11 countries across Europe by using a standardized case definition and questionnaire. Patient data as well as bacterial isolates were collected and characterized by T and M/emm typing, and selected strains were analyzed for the presence of superantigen genes. Data were analyzed to compare the clinical and microbiological patterns of the infections across the participating countries. A total of 4,353 isolates were collected from 5,521 cases with severe S. pyogenes infections who were identified. A wide diversity of M/emm types (n = 104) was found among the S. pyogenes clinical isolates, but the M/emm type distribution varied broadly between participating countries. The 10 most predominant M/emm types were M/emm type 1 (M/emm1), M/emm28, M/emm3, M/emm89, M/emm87, M/emm12, M/emm4, M/emm83, M/emm81, and M/emm5, in descending order. A correlation was found between some specific disease manifestations, the age of the patients, and the emm types. Although streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis were caused by a large number of types, they were particularly associated with M/emm1 and M/emm3. The emm types included in the 26-valent vaccine under development were generally well represented in the present material; 16 of the vaccine types accounted for 69% of isolates. The Strep-EURO collaborative program has contributed to enhancement of the knowledge of the spread of invasive disease caused by S. pyogenes within Europe and encourages future surveillance by the notification of cases and the characterization of strains, which are important for vaccination strategies and other health care issues. PMID:19158266

  4. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Disease in Europe▿

    PubMed Central

    Luca-Harari, Bogdan; Darenberg, Jessica; Neal, Shona; Siljander, Tuula; Strakova, Lenka; Tanna, Asha; Creti, Roberta; Ekelund, Kim; Koliou, Maria; Tassios, Panayotis T.; van der Linden, Mark; Straut, Monica; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Bouvet, Anne; Efstratiou, Androulla; Schalén, Claes; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Jasir, Aftab

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to compare the epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes infection within Europe, prospective data were collected through the Strep-EURO program. Surveillance for severe cases of S. pyogenes infection diagnosed during 2003 and 2004 was undertaken in 11 countries across Europe by using a standardized case definition and questionnaire. Patient data as well as bacterial isolates were collected and characterized by T and M/emm typing, and selected strains were analyzed for the presence of superantigen genes. Data were analyzed to compare the clinical and microbiological patterns of the infections across the participating countries. A total of 4,353 isolates were collected from 5,521 cases with severe S. pyogenes infections who were identified. A wide diversity of M/emm types (n = 104) was found among the S. pyogenes clinical isolates, but the M/emm type distribution varied broadly between participating countries. The 10 most predominant M/emm types were M/emm type 1 (M/emm1), M/emm28, M/emm3, M/emm89, M/emm87, M/emm12, M/emm4, M/emm83, M/emm81, and M/emm5, in descending order. A correlation was found between some specific disease manifestations, the age of the patients, and the emm types. Although streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis were caused by a large number of types, they were particularly associated with M/emm1 and M/emm3. The emm types included in the 26-valent vaccine under development were generally well represented in the present material; 16 of the vaccine types accounted for 69% of isolates. The Strep-EURO collaborative program has contributed to enhancement of the knowledge of the spread of invasive disease caused by S. pyogenes within Europe and encourages future surveillance by the notification of cases and the characterization of strains, which are important for vaccination strategies and other health care issues. PMID:19158266

  5. Novel Regulatory Small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Tesorero, Rafael A.; Yu, Ning; Wright, Jordan O.; Svencionis, Juan P.; Cheng, Qiang; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that has shown complex modes of regulation of its virulence factors to cause diverse diseases. Bacterial small RNAs are regarded as novel widespread regulators of gene expression in response to environmental signals. Recent studies have revealed that several small RNAs (sRNAs) have an important role in S. pyogenes physiology and pathogenesis by regulating gene expression at the translational level. To search for new sRNAs in S. pyogenes, we performed a genomewide analysis through computational prediction followed by experimental verification. To overcome the limitation of low accuracy in computational prediction, we employed a combination of three different computational algorithms (sRNAPredict, eQRNA and RNAz). A total of 45 candidates were chosen based on the computational analysis, and their transcription was analyzed by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Northern blot. Through this process, we discovered 7 putative novel trans-acting sRNAs. Their abundance varied between different growth phases, suggesting that their expression is influenced by environmental or internal signals. Further, to screen target mRNAs of an sRNA, we employed differential RNA sequencing analysis. This study provides a significant resource for future study of small RNAs and their roles in physiology and pathogenesis of S. pyogenes. PMID:23762235

  6. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates. PMID:25843529

  7. [Neonatal Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis and sagittal sinus thrombosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Krebs, V L; Chieffi, L N; Jurfest, M E; Ceccon, R; Diniz, E M; Feferbaum, R; Takeuchi, C A; Marques-Dias, M J; Carneiro, J D; Vaz, F A

    1998-12-01

    We report a case of Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in a 18 days year-old-girl with clinical course complicated by sagittal sinus thrombosis. Some aspects of the pathogenesis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed. The world increase of serious streptococcal infections in the last 10 years, probably will become neonatal Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis more frequent in the future and it is important to be alert for the precocious diagnosis and the possible complications of that potentially lethal infection. PMID:10029890

  8. Changes in Streptococcus pyogenes causing invasive disease in Portugal: evidence for superantigen gene loss and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Friães, Ana; Lopes, Joana P; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mario

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of highly virulent and successful Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci - GAS) clones has been attributed to the exchange of virulence factors by lateral gene transfer mechanisms, which strongly contribute to genomic diversity. We characterized a collection of 191 GAS isolates recovered from normally sterile sites in Portugal during 2006-2009 and compared them to invasive isolates obtained during 2000-2005. Antimicrobial resistance rates did not change significantly between the two periods and were generally low. In 2006-2009, emm1, emm89, emm3, and emm6 represented 60% of the isolates. The chromosomally encoded superantigen (SAg) genes speG and smeZ were present in the majority (>90%) of the isolates, while speJ was found in only 45%. The phage encoded SAgs varied greatly in prevalence (2-53%). The distribution of emm types, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling (PFGE) clusters, and SAg profiles changed significantly between the periods, although there were no statistically supported changes in the prevalence of individual types. While the macrolide susceptible clone emm1-T1-ST28 remained dominant (28%), there was a significant decrease in clonal diversity as indicated by both PFGE profiling and emm typing. This was accompanied by intra-clonal divergence of SAg profiles, which was statistically confirmed for isolates representing emm1, emm28, and emm44. This diversification was associated with the loss and acquisition of SAg genes, carried by phages and of chromosomal origin. These data suggest an ongoing genomic diversification of GAS invasive isolates in Portugal that may contribute to the persistence of clones with improved fitness or virulence. PMID:23932912

  9. Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

  10. [Epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes invasive diseases in France (2007-2011)].

    PubMed

    Plainvert, C; Loubinoux, J; Bidet, P; Doloy, A; Touak, G; Dmytruk, N; Collobert, G; Bingen, E; Bouvet, A; Fouet, A; Poyart, C

    2014-11-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations. An increase of GAS invasive infections has been described since the mid 1980s. To study the French epidemiology of invasive infections (i) we characterized all GAS invasive strains received at the French National Reference Center for streptococci (CNR-Strep) between 2007 and 2011; (ii) we analyzed the epidemiological data on the corresponding strains. For each strain, emm genotype, superantigen genes and antibiotics susceptibility were determined. Among the 2 603 non redundant invasive GAS strains, 65.1 % (n=1 695) were isolated from blood culture. A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) was described in 16.4 % (n=428) of cases, mostly associated with necrotizing fasciitis (NF), pleuropulmonary or osteoarticular infections (p ≤0.001). The case fatality rate was 10.6 %. A total of 102 different emm genotypes were identified. Three emm genotypes predominated, reaching nearly 60 % of the strains: emm 1 (26.7 %), emm 28 (16.4 %), and emm 89 (12.8 %). The proportion of each emm genotype varied according to the year and the age of patients. Among those < 15 years old, the three main genotypes were emm 1 (36.8 %), emm 12 (12.9 %) and emm 4 (9.5 %). The distribution of superantigen genes (SpeA, SpeC and Ssa) was restricted to several emm genotypes. Between 2007 and 2011, the rate of macrolides resistant GAS strains decreased from 7.8 to 5.5 %. emm 1 strains are still the most common especially in most severe clinical manifestations including STSS and NF. PMID:25456682

  11. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  12. Clinical and microbial characteristics of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes disease in New Caledonia, a region in Oceania with a high incidence of acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, S; Doloy, A; Baumann, F; Roques, N; Coudene, P; Rouchon, B; Lacassin, F; Bouvet, A

    2010-02-01

    New Caledonia is an archipelago in the South Pacific with a high prevalence of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Conducted in 2006, this study aimed at characterizing clinical manifestations and microbial features of isolates obtained from invasive Streptococcus pyogenes disease. Clinical and demographic data were collected prospectively. Isolates were biotyped, T typed, emm sequenced, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Detection of the speA, speB, speC, and ssa genes was also carried out. The estimated annual incidence of invasive S. pyogenes disease in 2006 was high at 38 cases/100,000 inhabitants in New Caledonia. Invasive isolates were obtained from 90 patients with necrotizing fasciitis (41 cases), bacteremia with no identified focus (12 cases), myositis (10 cases), septic arthritis (9 cases), erysipelas (8 cases), postpartum infection (4 cases), myelitis and osteomyelitis (3 cases), severe pneumonia (2 cases), and endocarditis (1 case). The most frequent associated comorbidities were skin lesions (71%) and obesity (29%). Thirty-one different emm types were identified, and the following six accounted for 54% of the isolates: emm15 (15.5%), emm92 (12.2%), emm106 (8.9%), emm74 (6.7%), emm89 (5.6%), and emm109 (5.6%). The speA, speC, and ssa genes were expressed at different frequencies in the various emm types. The first epidemiological study of invasive S. pyogenes disease in New Caledonia highlights that emm type distribution is particular and should be taken into account in the development of an appropriate vaccine. These findings support the prevention of pyoderma and other cutaneous lesions in order to limit the development of both invasive disease and poststreptococcal sequelae in the South Pacific. PMID:19955276

  13. The Streptococcus pyogenes proteome: maps, virulence factors and vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Alexander V; Chaussee, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. A wealth of genomic information related to this pathogen has facilitated exploration of the proteome, particularly in response to environmental conditions thought to mimic various aspects of pathogenesis. Proteomic approaches are also used to identify immunoreactive proteins for vaccine development and to identify proteins that may induce autoimmunity. These studies have revealed new mechanisms involved in regulating the S. pyogenes proteome, which has opened up new avenues in the study of S. pyogenes pathogenesis. This article describes the methods used, and progress being made towards characterizing the S. pyogenes proteome, including studies seeking to identify potential vaccine candidates. PMID:21073313

  14. Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes after allograft implantation--Colorado, 2003.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    Allograft tissues are used for various orthopedic procedures (e.g., ligament reconstruction, meniscal transplantation, and spinal surgery). In 2002, approximately one million allografts were distributed for transplantation (American Association of Tissue Banks [AATB], unpublished data, 2002). Recent reports of allograft-associated infections have prompted evaluation of the processing and quality-control methods employed by tissue processors. This report describes a case of invasive disease with Streptococcus pyogenes (i.e., group A streptococcus [GAS]), after reconstructive knee surgery using contaminated allograft tissue and provides recommendations to reduce the risk for allograft-associated infections. Although allograft infections are rare, they highlight the need for improved tissue evaluation and processing standards. PMID:14654764

  15. One More Disguise in the Stealth Behavior of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Fischetti, Vincent A; Dale, James B

    2016-01-01

    The ability to hide in the animal kingdom is essential for survival; the same is true for bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes is considered one of the more successful stealth bacteria in its production of a hyaluronic acid capsule that is chemically identical to the hyaluronic acid lining human joints. It has also acquired the capacity to enter eukaryotic cells to avoid the onslaught of the host's immune defenses, as well as drugs. From this intracellular vantage point, it may remain dormant from days to weeks, only to cause disease again at a later time, perhaps causing a relapse in a drug-treated patient. We now learn that it is able to enter macrophages as well, enabling the Streptococcus to use this "Trojan horse" approach to be transported to distant sites in the body. PMID:27190219

  16. [Invasive disease due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a patient with A H1N1 influenza infection. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Guerrero S, Gonzalo; Marín S, Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial superinfection is a known complication among patients affected by viral respiratory tract infections. Streptococcus pyogenes, a major bacterial agent involved in acute tonsillopharyngitis, skin and soft tissue infections, was reported as a co-infecting microorganism during the 2009 A H1N1 influenza pandemic. We report a 65-year-old male patient who evolved with multifocal pneumonia and multiple organ failure with a fatal outcome. Influenza A H1N1 was detected by a polymerase chain reaction-based technique from a tracheal aspirate sample. S. pyogenes was identified by a rapid test from a nasopharyngeal sample and isolated afterwards from a positive blood culture. PMID:26436938

  17. Rapid emergence of emm84 among invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in Finland.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Tuula; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Vähäkuopus, Susanna; Säilä, Petrus; Jalava, Jari; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana

    2009-02-01

    From 2005 to 2007, in Finland, the incidence of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes disease increased sharply, partly due to the uncommon emm84 gene becoming more prevalent from 2006 onwards. The overall case fatality rate of infections caused by strains carrying emm84 was not significantly different than that of infections caused by other types (7% versus 10%, respectively; P = 0.50). PMID:19073871

  18. Rapid Emergence of emm84 among Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes Infections in Finland▿

    PubMed Central

    Siljander, Tuula; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Vähäkuopus, Susanna; Säilä, Petrus; Jalava, Jari; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    From 2005 to 2007, in Finland, the incidence of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes disease increased sharply, partly due to the uncommon emm84 gene becoming more prevalent from 2006 onwards. The overall case fatality rate of infections caused by strains carrying emm84 was not significantly different than that of infections caused by other types (7% versus 10%, respectively; P = 0.50). PMID:19073871

  19. [Streptococcus pyogenes and the brain: living with the enemy].

    PubMed

    Dale, R C

    Streptococcus pyogenes (or group A beta hemolytic streptococcus) is a pathogenic bacterium that can give rise to a range of invasive and autoimmune diseases, although it is more widely known as the cause of tonsillitis. It is particularly interesting to note that this germ only causes disease in humans. For many years it has been acknowledged that it can cause an autoimmune brain disease (Sydenham s chorea). Yet, the spectrum of post streptococcal brain disorders has recently been extended to include other movement disorders such as tics or dystonia. A number of systematic psychiatric studies have shown that certain emotional disorders generally accompany the movement disorder (particularly, obsessive compulsive disorder). The proposed pathogenetic mechanism is that of a neuronal dysfunction in which antibodies play a mediating role. The antibodies that are produced after the streptococcal infection cross react with neuronal proteins, and more especially so in individuals with a propensity. This represents a possible model of immunological mimicry and its potential importance with respect to certain idiopathic disorders such as Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder. PMID:12861520

  20. Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection

    PubMed Central

    Klonoski, Joshua M.; Hurtig, Heather R.; Juber, Brian A.; Schuneman, Margaret J.; Bickett, Thomas E.; Svendsen, Joshua M.; Burum, Brandon; Penfound, Thomas A.; Sereda, Grigoriy; Dale, James B.; Chaussee, Michael S.; Huber, Victor C.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The β-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-vaccinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection. PMID:25077423

  1. Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus: S. pyogenes super-infection.

    PubMed

    Klonoski, Joshua M; Hurtig, Heather R; Juber, Brian A; Schuneman, Margaret J; Bickett, Thomas E; Svendsen, Joshua M; Burum, Brandon; Penfound, Thomas A; Sereda, Grigoriy; Dale, James B; Chaussee, Michael S; Huber, Victor C

    2014-09-01

    Influenza virus infections are associated with a significant number of illnesses and deaths on an annual basis. Many of the deaths are due to complications from secondary bacterial invaders, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The β-hemolytic bacteria S. pyogenes colonizes both skin and respiratory surfaces, and frequently presents clinically as strep throat or impetigo. However, when these bacteria gain access to normally sterile sites, they can cause deadly diseases including sepsis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pneumonia. We previously developed a model of influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection, which we used to demonstrate that vaccination against influenza virus can limit deaths associated with a secondary bacterial infection, but this protection was not complete. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of a vaccine that targets the M protein of S. pyogenes to determine whether immunity toward the bacteria alone would allow the host to survive an influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection. Our data demonstrate that vaccination against the M protein induces IgG antibodies, in particular those of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and that these antibodies can interact with macrophages. Ultimately, this vaccine-induced immunity eliminated death within our influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection model, despite the fact that all M protein-vaccinated mice showed signs of illness following influenza virus inoculation. These findings identify immunity against bacteria as an important component of protection against influenza virus:bacteria super-infection. PMID:25077423

  2. Is Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant or Susceptible to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole?

    PubMed Central

    Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Baird, Robert W.; Ward, Peter; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacterials. The low thymidine concentration in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) is now regulated. We explored S. pyogenes susceptibility to SXT on various media. Using two sets of 100 clinical S. pyogenes isolates, we tested for susceptibility using SXT Etests on MHA containing defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/liter β-NAD (MHF), MHA with sheep blood (MHS), MHA alone, MHA with horse blood (MHBA), and MHA with lysed horse blood (MHLHBA). European Committee on Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints defined susceptibility (MIC, ≤1 mg/liter) and resistance (MIC, >2 mg/liter). In study 1, 99% of S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHA, MHBA, and MHLHBA, with geometric mean MICs of 0.04, 0.04, and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. In study 2, all 100 S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHF, MHS, MHA, and MHLHBA with geometric mean MICs of 0.07, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.09 mg/liter, respectively. This study confirms the in vitro susceptibility of S. pyogenes to SXT, providing support for the use of SXT for SSTIs. A clinical trial using SXT for impetigo is ongoing. PMID:23052313

  3. The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Loof, Torsten G.; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus, provides a remarkable example of the extraordinary capacity of pathogens to exploit the host hemostatic system to support microbial survival and dissemination. The coagulation cascade comprises the contact system (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), both leading to fibrin formation. During the early phase of S. pyogenes infection, the activation of the contact system eventually leads to bacterial entrapment within a fibrin clot, where S. pyogenes is immobilized and killed. However, entrapped S. pyogenes can circumvent the antimicrobial effect of the clot by sequestering host plasminogen on the bacterial cell surface that, after conversion into its active proteolytic form, plasmin, degrades the fibrin network and facilitates the liberation of S. pyogenes from the clot. Furthermore, the surface-localized fibrinolytic activity also cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, thereby enabling S. pyogenes to migrate across barriers and disseminate within the host. This review summarizes the knowledge gained during the last two decades on the role of coagulation/fibrinolysis in host defense against S. pyogenes as well as the strategies developed by this pathogen to evade and exploit these host mechanisms for its own benefit. PMID:25309880

  4. Streptococcus pyogenes bacteraemia, emm types and superantigen profiles.

    PubMed

    Rantala, S; Vähäkuopus, S; Siljander, T; Vuopio, J; Huhtala, H; Vuento, R; Syrjänen, J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the emm types and superantigen profiles of bacteraemic group A streptococcal (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) isolates and to detect possible associations between the molecular characteristics of isolates and the clinical presentations of disease. In this population-based study, 87 bacteraemic GAS isolates from adult patients in Pirkanmaa Health District (HD), Finland, during the period 1995-2004 were emm typed and genotyped for superantigen (SAg) profiles. The epidemiological and clinical data of the patients were analysed with the microbiological characterisation data. Among the 87 isolates, 18 different emm types were found. emm1, emm28 and emm81 were the three most common types, covering 52% of isolates. The prevalence of specific emm types showed high variability during the 10-year study period. We could not find any association between the emm type and clinical features of bacteraemic infection, such as underlying diseases, disease manifestations or case fatality. Of nine superantigen genes examined, speA and speC were identified in 20 and 30% of the strains, respectively. No association was found between disease manifestation and the presence of single superantigen genes. The 26-valent GAS vaccine would have covered only 62% of isolates causing invasive disease in Pirkanmaa HD during the study period. PMID:21877175

  5. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  6. Development of a multicomponent vaccine for Streptococcus pyogenes based on the antigenic targets of IVIG

    PubMed Central

    Reglinski, Mark; Lynskey, Nicola N.; Choi, Yoon Jung; Edwards, Robert J.; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives Despite over a century of research and the careful scrutiny of many promising targets, there is currently no vaccine available for the prevention of Streptococcus pyogenes infection. Through analysis of the protective, anti-streptococcal components of pooled human immunoglobulin, we previously identified ten highly conserved and invariant S. pyogenes antigens that contribute to anti-streptococcal immunity in the adult population. We sought to emulate population immunity to S. pyogenes through a process of active vaccination, using the antigens targeted by pooled human immunoglobulin. Methods Seven targets were produced recombinantly and mixed to form a multicomponent vaccine (Spy7). Vaccinated mice were challenged with S. pyogenes isolates representing four globally relevant serotypes (M1, M3, M12 and M89) using an established model of invasive disease. Results Vaccination with Spy7 stimulated the production of anti-streptococcal antibodies, and limited systemic dissemination of M1 and M3 S. pyogenes from an intramuscular infection focus. Vaccination additionally attenuated disease severity due to M1 S. pyogenes as evidenced by reduction in weight loss, and modulated cytokine release. Conclusion Spy7 vaccination successfully stimulated the generation of protective anti-streptococcal immunity in vivo. Identification of reactive antigens using pooled human immunoglobulin may represent a novel route to vaccine discovery for extracellular bacteria. PMID:26880087

  7. Survival of Streptococcus pyogenes on foods and food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Steven C; Wadhera, Rishi K; Chu, Chun-Him; DeVita, Michael D

    2006-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes septic sore throat in millions of Americans each year and may be transmitted from food handlers to food contact surfaces, foods, and consumers. This study examined the individual survival of six S. pyogenes strains on food contact surfaces (plastic and ceramic plates, plastic cups, and stainless steel utensils) held at 21 degrees C for 2 h and on tomatoes stored aerobically at 21 degrees C for 2 h and at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Survival of a cocktail of the six S. pyogenes strains was also evaluated on vacuum-packaged ready-to-eat meats and cheeses held at 21 degrees C for 8 h and at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Populations generally did not change on tomatoes, cheeses, or beef bologna; however, there were small (0.1 to 0.7 log CFU) but statistically significant decreases (P < 0.05) in average S. pyogenes populations on turkey luncheon meat and beef summer sausage stored for 8 h at 21degrees C and on beef summer sausage stored for 24 h at 5 degrees C. On food contact surfaces, average populations either decreased slightly (P > or = 0.05) or remained constant, with the exception of three strains that significantly decreased in number on ceramic plates (P < 0.05; average decreases, 0.3 log CFU). Results of this study suggest the importance of preventing the contamination of foods and food contact surfaces with S. pyogenes by infected workers. PMID:16715820

  8. Factors That Cause Trimethoprim Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent. PMID:24492367

  9. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms—formation, biology, and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Tomas; Köller, Thomas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS) is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options. PMID:25717441

  10. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomic status and structure of Streptococcus dysgalactiae have been the object of much confusion. Bacteria belonging to this species are usually referred to as Lancefield group C or group G streptococci in clinical settings in spite of the fact that these terms lack precision and prevent recognition of the exact clinical relevance of these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to develop an improved basis for delineation and identification of the individual species of the pyogenic group of streptococci in the clinical microbiology laboratory, with a special focus on S. dysgalactiae. We critically reexamined the genetic relationships of the species S. dysgalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus canis, and Streptococcus equi, which may share Lancefield group antigens, by phylogenetic reconstruction based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and 16S rRNA gene sequences and by emm typing combined with phenotypic characterization. Analysis of concatenated sequences of seven genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished robust and coherent clusters. S. dysgalactiae consists of two separate clusters consistent with the two recognized subspecies dysgalactiae and equisimilis. Both taxa share alleles with S. pyogenes in several housekeeping genes, which invalidates identification based on single-locus sequencing. S. dysgalactiae, S. canis, and S. pyogenes constitute a closely related branch within the genus Streptococcus indicative of recent descent from a common ancestor, while S. equi is highly divergent from other species of the pyogenic group streptococci. The results provide an improved basis for identification of clinically important pyogenic group streptococci and explain the overlapping spectrum of infections caused by the species associated with humans. PMID:22075580

  11. Novel Bacteriophage Lysin with Broad Lytic Activity Protects against Mixed Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Gilmer, Daniel B.; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Euler, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GrAS]) cause serious and sometimes fatal human diseases. They are among the many Gram-positive pathogens for which resistance to leading antibiotics has emerged. As a result, alternative therapies need to be developed to combat these pathogens. We have identified a novel bacteriophage lysin (PlySs2), derived from a Streptococcus suis phage, with broad lytic activity against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), Streptococcus suis, Listeria, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), S. pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis, group G streptococci (GGS), group E streptococci (GES), and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PlySs2 has an N-terminal cysteine-histidine aminopeptidase (CHAP) catalytic domain and a C-terminal SH3b binding domain. It is stable at 50°C for 30 min, 37°C for >24 h, 4°C for 15 days, and −80°C for >7 months; it maintained full activity after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. PlySs2 at 128 μg/ml in vitro reduced MRSA and S. pyogenes growth by 5 logs and 3 logs within 1 h, respectively, and exhibited a MIC of 16 μg/ml for MRSA. A single, 2-mg dose of PlySs2 protected 92% (22/24) of the mice in a bacteremia model of mixed MRSA and S. pyogenes infection. Serially increasing exposure of MRSA and S. pyogenes to PlySs2 or mupirocin resulted in no observed resistance to PlySs2 and resistance to mupirocin. To date, no other lysin has shown such notable broad lytic activity, stability, and efficacy against multiple, leading, human bacterial pathogens; as such, PlySs2 has all the characteristics to be an effective therapeutic. PMID:23571534

  12. Novel bacteriophage lysin with broad lytic activity protects against mixed infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Daniel B; Schmitz, Jonathan E; Euler, Chad W; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GrAS]) cause serious and sometimes fatal human diseases. They are among the many Gram-positive pathogens for which resistance to leading antibiotics has emerged. As a result, alternative therapies need to be developed to combat these pathogens. We have identified a novel bacteriophage lysin (PlySs2), derived from a Streptococcus suis phage, with broad lytic activity against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), Streptococcus suis, Listeria, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), S. pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis, group G streptococci (GGS), group E streptococci (GES), and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PlySs2 has an N-terminal cysteine-histidine aminopeptidase (CHAP) catalytic domain and a C-terminal SH3b binding domain. It is stable at 50 °C for 30 min, 37 °C for >24 h, 4°C for 15 days, and -80 °C for >7 months; it maintained full activity after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. PlySs2 at 128 μg/ml in vitro reduced MRSA and S. pyogenes growth by 5 logs and 3 logs within 1 h, respectively, and exhibited a MIC of 16 μg/ml for MRSA. A single, 2-mg dose of PlySs2 protected 92% (22/24) of the mice in a bacteremia model of mixed MRSA and S. pyogenes infection. Serially increasing exposure of MRSA and S. pyogenes to PlySs2 or mupirocin resulted in no observed resistance to PlySs2 and resistance to mupirocin. To date, no other lysin has shown such notable broad lytic activity, stability, and efficacy against multiple, leading, human bacterial pathogens; as such, PlySs2 has all the characteristics to be an effective therapeutic. PMID:23571534

  13. Regulation of virulence gene expression in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Bugrysheva, Julia V

    2010-01-01

    Differential mRNA stability is an important mechanism for regulation of virulence factors in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS), a serious and prevalent human pathogen. We have described 2 Classes of mRNA in GAS that are distinguishable by (1) stability in the stationary phase of growth, (2) kinetics of decay in exponential phase and (3) effect of depletion of RNases J1 and J2 and polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) on decay in exponential phase. We discuss features of the structure of an mRNA that appear to be important for determining the Class to which it belongs and present a model to explain differential mRNA decay. PMID:21037420

  14. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Disrupt the Streptococcus pyogenes ExPortal

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Luis Alberto; Caparon, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Although they possess a well-characterized ability to porate the bacterial membrane, emerging research suggests that cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) can influence pathogen behavior at levels that are sub-lethal. In this study, we investigated the interaction of polymyxin B and human neutrophil peptide (HNP-1) with the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. At sub-lethal concentrations, these CAPs preferentially targeted the ExPortal, a unique microdomain of the S. pyogenes membrane, specialized for protein secretion and processing. A consequence of this interaction was the disruption of ExPortal organization and a redistribution of ExPortal components into the peripheral membrane. Redistribution was associated with inhibition of secretion of certain toxins, including the SpeB cysteine protease and the Streptolysin O (SLO) cytolysin, but not SIC, a protein that protects S. pyogenes from CAPs. These data suggest a novel function for CAPs in targeting the ExPortal and interfering with secretion of factors required for infection and survival. This mechanism may prove valuable for the design of new types of antimicrobial agents to combat the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. PMID:22780862

  15. Molecular analysis of an outbreak of lethal postpartum sepsis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Turner, Claire E; Dryden, Matthew; Holden, Matthew T G; Davies, Frances J; Lawrenson, Richard A; Farzaneh, Leili; Bentley, Stephen D; Efstratiou, Androulla; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2013-07-01

    Sepsis is now the leading direct cause of maternal death in the United Kingdom, and Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading pathogen. We combined conventional and genomic analyses to define the duration and scale of a lethal outbreak. Two postpartum deaths caused by S. pyogenes occurred within 24 h; one was characterized by bacteremia and shock and the other by hemorrhagic pneumonia. The women gave birth within minutes of each other in the same maternity unit 2 days earlier. Seven additional infections in health care and household contacts were subsequently detected and treated. All cluster-associated S. pyogenes isolates were genotype emm1 and were initially indistinguishable from other United Kingdom emm1 isolates. Sequencing of the virulence gene sic revealed that all outbreak isolates had the same unique sic type. Genome sequencing confirmed that the cluster was caused by a unique S. pyogenes clone. Transmission between patients occurred on a single day and was associated with casual contact only. A single isolate from one patient demonstrated a sequence change in sic consistent with longer infection duration. Transmission to health care workers was traced to single clinical contacts with index cases. The last case was detected 18 days after the first case. Following enhanced surveillance, the outbreak isolate was not detected again. Mutations in bacterial regulatory genes played no detectable role in this outbreak, illustrating the intrinsic ability of emm1 S. pyogenes to spread while retaining virulence. This fast-moving outbreak highlights the potential of S. pyogenes to cause a range of diseases in the puerperium with rapid transmission, underlining the importance of immediate recognition and response by clinical infection and occupational health teams. PMID:23616448

  16. RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation. PMID:26580233

  17. RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Le Rhun, Anaïs; Beer, Yan Yan; Reimegård, Johan; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild to life-threatening infections. During the infectious process, the temporal and spatial expression of pathogenicity factors is tightly controlled by a complex network of protein and RNA regulators acting in response to various environmental signals. Here, we focus on the class of small RNA regulators (sRNAs) and present the first complete analysis of sRNA sequencing data in S. pyogenes. In the SF370 clinical isolate (M1 serotype), we identified 197 and 428 putative regulatory RNAs by visual inspection and bioinformatics screening of the sequencing data, respectively. Only 35 from the 197 candidates identified by visual screening were assigned a predicted function (T-boxes, ribosomal protein leaders, characterized riboswitches or sRNAs), indicating how little is known about sRNA regulation in S. pyogenes. By comparing our list of predicted sRNAs with previous S. pyogenes sRNA screens using bioinformatics or microarrays, 92 novel sRNAs were revealed, including antisense RNAs that are for the first time shown to be expressed in this pathogen. We experimentally validated the expression of 30 novel sRNAs and antisense RNAs. We show that the expression profile of 9 sRNAs including 2 predicted regulatory elements is affected by the endoribonucleases RNase III and/or RNase Y, highlighting the critical role of these enzymes in sRNA regulation. PMID:26580233

  18. Platelet-Dependent Neutrophil Function Is Dysregulated by M Protein from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Sinéad M; Kahn, Fredrik; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Mörgelin, Matthias; Sørensen, Ole E; Shannon, Oonagh

    2015-09-01

    Platelets are rapidly responsive sentinel cells that patrol the bloodstream and contribute to the host response to infection. Platelets have been reported to form heterotypic aggregates with leukocytes and may modulate their function. Here, we have investigated platelet-neutrophil complex formation and neutrophil function in response to distinct agonists. The endogenous platelet activator thrombin gave rise to platelet-dependent neutrophil activation, resulting in enhanced phagocytosis and bacterial killing. Streptococcus pyogenes is an important causative agent of severe infectious disease, which can manifest as sepsis and septic shock. M1 protein from S. pyogenes also mediated platelet-neutrophil complex formation; however, these neutrophils were dysfunctional and exhibited diminished chemotactic ability and bacterial killing. This reveals an important agonist-dependent neutrophil dysfunction during platelet-neutrophil complex formation and highlights the role of platelets during the immune response to streptococcal infection. PMID:26099589

  19. Acute glomerulonephritis associated with streptococcus pyogenes with concomitant spread of streptococcus constellatus in four rural families.

    PubMed

    Almroth, G; Lindell, A; Aselius, H; Sörén, L; Svensson, L; Hultman, P; Eribe, E R; Olsen, I

    2005-01-01

    We studied history, renal histopathology and microbiology of an epidemic of acute glomerulonephritis associated with throat infections and uncommon culture results in four neighbour families. A 40-year-old man (index patient) was referred to a university hospital for dialysis and kidney biopsy due to a suspected acute glomerulonephritis. An acute tonsillitis had preceded the condition. Penicillin treatment had been started four days before the discovery of renal failure. Throat swabs were positive for beta-hemolytic streptococci, group C (GCS). GCS were also found in throat cultures from his wife and two of their children. The bacteria were typed as Streptococcus constellatus. A third child had S. constellatus expressing Lancefield antigen group G. A neighbour and two of his children fell ill the following week with renal involvement. Throat swabs from both these children were positive for S. constellatus. His third child had erythema multiforme and S. constellatus in the throat while a fourth child had beta-hemolytic streptococci group A; Streptococcus pyogenes. Kidney biopsies on the index patient and his neighbour showed an acute diffuse prolipherative glomerulonephritis compatible with acute post-streptococcal nephritis and microbiological analysis of renal tissue revealed in both cases S. pyogenes and S. constellatus. The families had had much contact and had consumed unpasteurized milk from our index patient's farm. In four of seven persons in two additional neighbouring families S. constellatus was found in throat swabs during the same month while two persons carried Streptococcus anginosus expressing the Lancefield C antigen. In conclusion spread of S. constellatus coincided with the occurrence of four cases of acute glomerulonephritis. The two biopsied patients had both S. pyogenes and S. constellatus present in renal tissue. The epidemic either suggested that the outbreak of glomerulonephritis was due to S. pyogenes but coincided with the transmission and colonization of S. constellatus or that the S. constellatus strains were highly pathogenic or nephritogenic and that this organism can be transmitted in such cases. PMID:16454159

  20. Murine vaginal colonization model for investigating asymptomatic mucosal carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael E; Nielsen, Hailyn V; Hultgren, Scott J; Caparon, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    While many virulence factors promoting Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease have been described, specific streptococcal factors and host properties influencing asymptomatic mucosal carriage remain uncertain. To address the need for a refined model of prolonged S. pyogenes asymptomatic mucosal colonization, we have adapted a preestrogenized murine vaginal colonization model for S. pyogenes. In this model, derivatives of strains HSC5, SF370, JRS4, NZ131, and MEW123 established a reproducible, asymptomatic colonization of the vaginal mucosa over a period of typically 3 to 4 weeks' duration at a relatively high colonization efficiency. Prior treatment with estradiol prolonged streptococcal colonization and was associated with reduced inflammation in the colonized vaginal epithelium as well as a decreased leukocyte presence in vaginal fluid compared to the levels of inflammation and leukocyte presence in non-estradiol-treated control mice. The utility of our model for investigating S. pyogenes factors contributing to mucosal carriage was verified, as a mutant with a mutation in the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) demonstrated significant impairment in vaginal colonization. An assessment of in vivo transcriptional activity in the CcpA(-) strain for several known CcpA-regulated genes identified significantly elevated transcription of lactate oxidase (lctO) correlating with excessive generation of hydrogen peroxide to self-lethal levels. Deletion of lctO did not impair colonization, but deletion of lctO in a CcpA(-) strain prolonged carriage, exceeding even that of the wild-type strain. Thus, while LctO is not essential for vaginal colonization, its dysregulation is deleterious, highlighting the critical role of CcpA in promoting mucosal colonization. The vaginal colonization model should prove effective for future analyses of S. pyogenes mucosal colonization. PMID:23460515

  1. Murine Vaginal Colonization Model for Investigating Asymptomatic Mucosal Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael E.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    While many virulence factors promoting Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease have been described, specific streptococcal factors and host properties influencing asymptomatic mucosal carriage remain uncertain. To address the need for a refined model of prolonged S. pyogenes asymptomatic mucosal colonization, we have adapted a preestrogenized murine vaginal colonization model for S. pyogenes. In this model, derivatives of strains HSC5, SF370, JRS4, NZ131, and MEW123 established a reproducible, asymptomatic colonization of the vaginal mucosa over a period of typically 3 to 4 weeks' duration at a relatively high colonization efficiency. Prior treatment with estradiol prolonged streptococcal colonization and was associated with reduced inflammation in the colonized vaginal epithelium as well as a decreased leukocyte presence in vaginal fluid compared to the levels of inflammation and leukocyte presence in non-estradiol-treated control mice. The utility of our model for investigating S. pyogenes factors contributing to mucosal carriage was verified, as a mutant with a mutation in the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) demonstrated significant impairment in vaginal colonization. An assessment of in vivo transcriptional activity in the CcpA− strain for several known CcpA-regulated genes identified significantly elevated transcription of lactate oxidase (lctO) correlating with excessive generation of hydrogen peroxide to self-lethal levels. Deletion of lctO did not impair colonization, but deletion of lctO in a CcpA− strain prolonged carriage, exceeding even that of the wild-type strain. Thus, while LctO is not essential for vaginal colonization, its dysregulation is deleterious, highlighting the critical role of CcpA in promoting mucosal colonization. The vaginal colonization model should prove effective for future analyses of S. pyogenes mucosal colonization. PMID:23460515

  2. Detection of early gastric cancer facilitated by surveillance for a pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Tamura, Tomohiro; Ozawa, Shun-Ichiro; Matsuo, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki; Suzuki, Michihiro; Itoh, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of early gastric cancer that was detected during surveillance of a pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius, an oral microbiota. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors can result in the alteration of gastric bacterial flora by altering intragastric acidity. This can place immunocompromised patients, such as those with diabetes mellitus and the elderly, at an increased risk for disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract to be a route of bacterial transmission. In this case, the patient developed a pyogenic liver abscess. PMID:26853986

  3. Targeted Curing of All Lysogenic Bacteriophage from Streptococcus pyogenes Using a Novel Counter-selection Technique.

    PubMed

    Euler, Chad W; Juncosa, Barbara; Ryan, Patricia A; Deutsch, Douglas R; McShan, W Michael; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human commensal and a bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide variety of human diseases differing in symptoms, severity, and tissue tropism. The completed genome sequences of >37 strains of S. pyogenes, representing diverse disease-causing serotypes, have been published. The greatest genetic variation among these strains is attributed to numerous integrated prophage and prophage-like elements, encoding several virulence factors. A comparison of isogenic strains, differing in prophage content, would reveal the effects of these elements on streptococcal pathogenesis. However, curing strains of prophage is often difficult and sometimes unattainable. We have applied a novel counter-selection approach to identify rare S. pyogenes mutants spontaneously cured of select prophage. To accomplish this, we first inserted a two-gene cassette containing a gene for kanamycin resistance (KanR) and the rpsL wild-type gene, responsible for dominant streptomycin sensitivity (SmS), into a targeted prophage on the chromosome of a streptomycin resistant (SmR) mutant of S. pyogenes strain SF370. We then applied antibiotic counter-selection for the re-establishment of the KanS/SmR phenotype to select for isolates cured of targeted prophage. This methodology allowed for the precise selection of spontaneous phage loss and restoration of the natural phage attB attachment sites for all four prophage-like elements in this S. pyogenes chromosome. Overall, 15 mutants were constructed that encompassed every permutation of phage knockout as well as a mutant strain, named CEM1ΔΦ, completely cured of all bacteriophage elements (a ~10% loss of the genome); the only reported S. pyogenes strain free of prophage-like elements. We compared CEM1ΔΦ to the WT strain by analyzing differences in secreted DNase activity, as well as lytic and lysogenic potential. These mutant strains should allow for the direct examination of bacteriophage relationships within S. pyogenes and further elucidate how the presence of prophage may affect overall streptococcal survival, pathogenicity, and evolution. PMID:26756207

  4. Targeted Curing of All Lysogenic Bacteriophage from Streptococcus pyogenes Using a Novel Counter-selection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Euler, Chad W.; Juncosa, Barbara; Ryan, Patricia A.; Deutsch, Douglas R.; McShan, W. Michael; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human commensal and a bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide variety of human diseases differing in symptoms, severity, and tissue tropism. The completed genome sequences of >37 strains of S. pyogenes, representing diverse disease-causing serotypes, have been published. The greatest genetic variation among these strains is attributed to numerous integrated prophage and prophage-like elements, encoding several virulence factors. A comparison of isogenic strains, differing in prophage content, would reveal the effects of these elements on streptococcal pathogenesis. However, curing strains of prophage is often difficult and sometimes unattainable. We have applied a novel counter-selection approach to identify rare S. pyogenes mutants spontaneously cured of select prophage. To accomplish this, we first inserted a two-gene cassette containing a gene for kanamycin resistance (KanR) and the rpsL wild-type gene, responsible for dominant streptomycin sensitivity (SmS), into a targeted prophage on the chromosome of a streptomycin resistant (SmR) mutant of S. pyogenes strain SF370. We then applied antibiotic counter-selection for the re-establishment of the KanS/SmR phenotype to select for isolates cured of targeted prophage. This methodology allowed for the precise selection of spontaneous phage loss and restoration of the natural phage attB attachment sites for all four prophage-like elements in this S. pyogenes chromosome. Overall, 15 mutants were constructed that encompassed every permutation of phage knockout as well as a mutant strain, named CEM1ΔΦ, completely cured of all bacteriophage elements (a ~10% loss of the genome); the only reported S. pyogenes strain free of prophage-like elements. We compared CEM1ΔΦ to the WT strain by analyzing differences in secreted DNase activity, as well as lytic and lysogenic potential. These mutant strains should allow for the direct examination of bacteriophage relationships within S. pyogenes and further elucidate how the presence of prophage may affect overall streptococcal survival, pathogenicity, and evolution. PMID:26756207

  5. Zinc disrupts central carbon metabolism and capsule biosynthesis in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y.; Walker, Mark J.; McEwan, Alastair G.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils release free zinc to eliminate the phagocytosed bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underpinning zinc toxicity towards this human pathogen, responsible for diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo, to severe invasive infections. Using the globally-disseminated M1T1 GAS strain, we demonstrate that zinc stress impairs glucose metabolism through the inhibition of the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In the presence of zinc, a metabolic shift to the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway allows conversion of D-galactose to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate, partially bypassing impaired glycolytic enzymes to generate pyruvate. Additionally, zinc inhibition of phosphoglucomutase results in decreased capsule biosynthesis. These data indicate that zinc exerts it toxicity via mechanisms that inhibit both GAS central carbon metabolism and virulence pathways. PMID:26028191

  6. Epidemiology of necrotizing infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes at an Iowa hospital.

    PubMed

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; O'Brien, Ashley M; Wardyn, Shylo E; Smith, Tara C

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to characterize the epidemiology of necrotizing soft tissue infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (n=14) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=14) isolates collected at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. An additional 9 S. pyogenes isolates were collected from patients being treated for mild respiratory infections and served as a comparison sample in the analysis. Patient data corresponding to the isolates (n=37) were also collected in order to identify risk factors or comorbid conditions possibly correlated with necrotizing fasciitis (NF). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus among the study isolates was 35.7% (5/14), and the prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was 57% (8/14). The S. pyogenes NF (wound) isolates (n=14) belonged to 10 different emm types, none of which appeared to be associated with more severe disease when compared to the milder infection (throat) samples (n=9). Comorbid conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease were significantly associated with NF. The results indicate that there may be a high prevalence of the PVL virulence factor in NF infections and that spa type t008 may be responsible for the increasing incidence of S. aureus NF infections in Iowa. PMID:26163423

  7. Characterization of an erythromycin resistance (erm) plasmid in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Schaln, C; Gebreselassie, D; Sthl, S

    1995-01-01

    Three erythromyxin-resistant Swedish isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, representing different T-types, were studied. Two of the strains showed constitutive high-level (MIC > 200 micrograms/ml) and one showed moderate (MIC 6.4 micrograms/ml) resistance; the latter strain was sensitive to lincosamide and clindamycin, and resistance was not induced by erythromycin. In each of the strains, a plasmid with an estimated Mw of 17.6 +/- 0.9 x 10(6) was isolated in addition to smaller cryptic plasmids. The three plasmids pSE701, pSE702, and pSE703 had very similar restriction enzyme cleavage patterns. Novobiocin curing of the high-level resistance strain ER559 showed the resistance to be linked to its 17.6 x 10(6) plasmid, pSE703. Furthermore, by electroporation this rather large plasmid was reintroduced into an erythromycin-sensitive cured derivative, acquiring resistance, and the plasmid was again recovered from the transconjugant. One of the plasmids, pSE702, was shown by filter mating to be conjugative within S. pyogenes. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that the resistance determinant of the present three isolates was related to the erm gene on plasmid pAM beta 1 of Enterococcus faecalis but not to that of plasmid pE194 of Staphylococcus aureus. The copy numbers of pSE702 and pSE703, derived from the two high-level resistant strains, were 11 +/- 3 and 17 +/- 5 compared to 2 +/- 1 for pSE701, derived from the moderately resistant strain, possibly accounting for the phenotypic variation observed. The plasmids pSE702 and pAM beta 1 showed about 80% homology in DNA-DNA hybridization tests and high similarity in their restriction maps. PMID:7695892

  8. In Silico Investigation for Evaluation of the Potential of the SclA Protein in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus pyogenes is an important pathogen that is associated with a range of infections in humans, and causes common and severe invasive diseases. Currently, antimicrobial therapy is the first choice for the treatment of S. pyogenes; however, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and side effects of antibacterial drugs is increasing. Consequently, there is an increased demand for novel drug targets and vaccine design. Objectives: To develop an effective vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) , we described a novel collagen-like surface protein of S. pyogenes which is important virulence factors Materials and Methods: In this study, we focused on the SclA protein of S. pyogenes and characterized it using bioinformatic tools to introduce it as a candidate novel drug as a candidate for use in vaccine design. The secondary structure was determined and the 3D structure was modeled using SWISS-MODEL workspace. The immune epitope database analysis (IEDB) resource was used to predict regions of SclA that are likely to be recognized as epitopes. Results: The SclA protein is present on the cell surface of the cell and has interact with a common ligand by its hypervariable NH2-terminal regions. The IEDB showed that the maximum peptide length that is likely to be predicted as an epitope is of 6 amino acids, from amino acid 26 to 31, with a score of 4.791. This epitope can be considered for use in Antibody and drug design. Conclusions: Data from this study about SclA were not sufficient and further studies are needed; however, the information here suggests that SclA could be a candidate for further research on the design of drugs and vaccines against S. pyogenes infections. PMID:26495104

  9. CodY-mediated regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The production of Streptococcus pyogenes exoproteins, many of which contribute to virulence, is regulated in response to nutrient availability. CodY is a transcriptional regulator that controls gene expression in response to amino acid availability. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the expression of streptococcal exoproteins associated with deletion of the codY gene. Results We compared the secreted proteins produced by wild-type S. pyogenes to a codY mutant in the post-exponential phase of growth. We used both one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to separate exoproteins. Proteins that were significantly different in abundance upon repeated analysis were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. The production of the secreted cysteine protease SpeB, a secreted chromosomally encoded nuclease (SdaB), and a putative adhesion factor (Spy49_0549) were more abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant. In addition, hyaluronidase (HylA), CAMP factor (Cfa), a prophage encoded nuclease (Spd-3), and an uncharacterized extracellular protein (Spy49_0015) were less abundant in supernatant fluids obtained from the codY mutant strain. Enzymatic assays showed greater DNase activity in culture supernatants isolated in the post-exponential phase of growth from the codY mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. Because extracellular nucleases and proteases can influence biofilm formation, we also measured the ability of the strains to form biofilms during growth with both rich medium (Todd Hewitt yeast extract; THY) and chemically defined media (CDM). No difference was observed with rich media but with CDM the biofilms formed by the codY mutant strain had less biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that CodY alters the abundance of a select group of S. pyogenes exoproteins, including DNases, a protease, and hylauronidase, which together may alleviate starvation by promoting dissemination of the pathogen to nutrient rich environments and by hydrolysis of host macromolecules. PMID:22721528

  10. Streptococcal 5'-Nucleotidase A (S5nA), a Novel Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence Factor That Facilitates Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lisa; Khemlani, Adrina; Lorenz, Natalie; Loh, Jacelyn M S; Langley, Ries J; Proft, Thomas

    2015-12-25

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an important human pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases. Using bioinformatics analysis of the complete S. pyogenes strain SF370 genome, we have identified a novel S. pyogenes virulence factor, which we termed streptococcal 5'-nucleotidase A (S5nA). A recombinant form of S5nA hydrolyzed AMP and ADP, but not ATP, to generate the immunomodulatory molecule adenosine. Michaelis-Menten kinetics revealed a Km of 169 μm and a Vmax of 7550 nmol/mg/min for the substrate AMP. Furthermore, recombinant S5nA acted synergistically with S. pyogenes nuclease A to generate macrophage-toxic deoxyadenosine from DNA. The enzyme showed optimal activity between pH 5 and pH 6.5 and between 37 and 47 °C. Like other 5'-nucleotidases, S5nA requires divalent cations and was active in the presence of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), or Mn(2+). However, Zn(2+) inhibited the enzymatic activity. Structural modeling combined with mutational analysis revealed a highly conserved catalytic dyad as well as conserved substrate and cation-binding sites. Recombinant S5nA significantly increased the survival of the non-pathogenic bacterium Lactococcus lactis during a human whole blood killing assay in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a role as an S. pyogenes virulence factor. In conclusion, we have identified a novel S. pyogenes enzyme with 5'-nucleotidase activity and immune evasion properties. PMID:26527680

  11. Streptococcus pyogenes and re-emergence of scarlet fever as a public health problem

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samson SY; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Explosive outbreaks of infectious diseases occasionally occur without immediately obvious epidemiological or microbiological explanations. Plague, cholera and Streptococcus pyogenes infection are some of the epidemic-prone bacterial infections. Besides epidemiological and conventional microbiological methods, the next-generation gene sequencing technology permits prompt detection of genomic and transcriptomic profiles associated with invasive phenotypes. Horizontal gene transfer due to mobile genetic elements carrying virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, or mutations associated with the two component CovRS operon are important bacterial factors conferring survival advantage or invasiveness. The high incidence of scarlet fever in children less than 10 years old suggests that the lack of protective immunity is an important host factor. A high population density, overcrowded living environment and a low yearly rainfall are environmental factors contributing to outbreak development. Inappropriate antibiotic use is not only ineffective for treatment, but may actually drive an epidemic caused by drug-resistant strains and worsen patient outcomes by increasing the bacterial density at the site of infection and inducing toxin production. Surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection is important because it can complicate concurrent chickenpox and influenza. Concomitant outbreaks of these two latter infections with a highly virulent and drug-resistant S. pyogenes strain can be disastrous. PMID:26038416

  12. Streptococcus pyogenes triggers activation of the human contact system by streptokinase.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, Ramona; Rosenheinrich, Maik; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Oehmcke-Hecht, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    Severe invasive infectious diseases remain a major and life-threatening health problem. In serious cases, a systemic activation of the coagulation cascade is a critical complication that is associated with high mortality rates. We report here that streptokinase, a group A streptococcal plasminogen activator, triggers the activation of the human contact system. Activation of contact system factors at the surface of the Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 is dependent on streptokinase and plasminogen. Our results also show that secreted streptokinase is an efficient contact system activator, independent from a contact surface. This results in the processing of high-molecular-weight kininogen and the release of bradykinin, a potent vascular mediator. We further investigated whether the ability of 50 different clinical S. pyogenes isolates to activate the contact system is associated with an invasive phenotype. The data reveal that isolates from invasive infections trigger an activation of the contact system more potently than strains isolated from noninvasive infections. The present study gives new insights into the mechanisms by which S. pyogenes triggers the human contact system and stresses the function of soluble and surface located plasmin exploited as a group A streptococcal virulence factor through the action of streptokinase. PMID:25987706

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes Triggers Activation of the Human Contact System by Streptokinase

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Ramona; Rosenheinrich, Maik; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Severe invasive infectious diseases remain a major and life-threatening health problem. In serious cases, a systemic activation of the coagulation cascade is a critical complication that is associated with high mortality rates. We report here that streptokinase, a group A streptococcal plasminogen activator, triggers the activation of the human contact system. Activation of contact system factors at the surface of the Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 is dependent on streptokinase and plasminogen. Our results also show that secreted streptokinase is an efficient contact system activator, independent from a contact surface. This results in the processing of high-molecular-weight kininogen and the release of bradykinin, a potent vascular mediator. We further investigated whether the ability of 50 different clinical S. pyogenes isolates to activate the contact system is associated with an invasive phenotype. The data reveal that isolates from invasive infections trigger an activation of the contact system more potently than strains isolated from noninvasive infections. The present study gives new insights into the mechanisms by which S. pyogenes triggers the human contact system and stresses the function of soluble and surface located plasmin exploited as a group A streptococcal virulence factor through the action of streptokinase. PMID:25987706

  14. StreptInCor: a model of anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine reviewed.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Luiza; Postol, Edilberto; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; DeMarchi, Lea M F; Kalil, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes infections remain a health problem in multiple countries because of poststreptococcal sequelae, such as rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The epidemiological growth of streptococcal diseases in undeveloped and developing countries has encouraged many groups to study vaccine candidates for preventing group A streptococcus infections. We developed a vaccine epitope (StreptInCor) composed of 55 amino acid residues of the C-terminal portion of the M protein that encompasses both T and B cell protective epitopes. Using human blood samples, we showed that the StreptInCor epitope is recognized by individuals bearing different HLA class II molecules and could be considered a universal vaccine epitope. In addition, the StreptInCor molecular structure was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and a series of structural stability experiments was performed to elucidate its folding/unfolding mechanism. Using BALB-c and HLA class II transgenic mice, we evaluated the immune response over an extended period and found that StreptInCor was able to induce a robust immune response in both models. No cross-reaction was observed against cardiac proteins. The safety of the vaccine epitope was evaluated by analyzing histopathology, and no autoimmune or pathological reactions were observed in the heart or other organs. Vaccinated BALB/c mice challenged with a virulent strain of S. pyogenes had 100 % survival over 30 days. Taking all results into account, StreptInCor could be a safe and effective vaccine against streptococcus-induced disease. PMID:26000146

  15. [Multifocal inflammatory syndrome after invasive infection due to an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes].

    PubMed

    Filleron, A; Marchandin, H; Rodière, M; Jeziorski, E

    2010-09-01

    We report on a case of Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease with toxic shock syndrome due to an M1 strain producing SpeA and SmeZ superantigenic toxins. Post-streptococcal sequelae included several episodes of reactive arthritis and orchitis whose outcome was favorable with corticosteroid therapy. Invasive streptococcal infections are increasingly reported and may associate septic, toxinic, and immunological diseases. High-grade systemic inflammation may induce nonsuppurative complications and autoimmune diseases by molecular mimicry. Among them, reactive arthritis has been recognized as a separate entity from acute rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal orchitis has not been described before. Treatment should be quickly started and should be effective on the etiologic agent but also on its toxins due to the severity of the invasive infections associated with the spread of highly virulent bacterial clones and the potential development of multifocal nonsuppurative sequelae. PMID:20709506

  16. Identification of an Insertion Sequence Located in a Region Encoding Virulence Factors of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Andreas; Rasmussen, Magnus; Björck, Lars

    1998-01-01

    An insertion sequence, IS1562, was identified in a Streptococcus pyogenes strain of the clinically important M1 serotype. IS1562 is located in the mga regulon between the genes coding for the M protein and the C5a peptidase, both important virulence factors. The same or similar insertion sequences were found in most S. pyogenes strains, but the chromosomal location differed among isolates. PMID:9632622

  17. Structural characterization of the virulence factor Sda1 nuclease from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Andrea F; Krahn, Juno M; Lu, Xun; Cuneo, Matthew J; Pedersen, Lars C

    2016-05-01

    Infection by Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is a leading cause of severe invasive disease in humans, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis. GAS infections lead to nearly 163,000 annual deaths worldwide. Hypervirulent strains of S. pyogenes have evolved a plethora of virulence factors that aid in disease-by promoting bacterial adhesion to host cells, subsequent invasion of deeper tissues and blocking the immune system's attempts to eradicate the infection. Expression and secretion of the extracellular nuclease Sda1 is advantageous for promoting bacterial dissemination throughout the host organism, and evasion of the host's innate immune response. Here we present two crystal structures of Sda1, as well as biochemical studies to address key structural features and surface residues involved in DNA binding and catalysis. In the active site, Asn211 is observed to directly chelate a hydrated divalent metal ion and Arg124, on the putative substrate binding loop, likely stabilizes the transition state during phosphodiester bond cleavage. These structures provide a foundation for rational drug design of small molecule inhibitors to be used in prevention of invasive streptococcal disease. PMID:26969731

  18. Severe invasive streptococcal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Takemoto, Norihiko; Ogura, Kohei; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a group A Streptococcus (GAS), has been recognized as the causative pathogen in patients with severe invasive streptococcal infection with or without necrotizing fasciitis. In recent epidemiological studies, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has been isolated from severe invasive streptococcal infection. Complete genome sequence showed that SDSE is the closest bacterial species to GAS, with approximately 70% of genome coverage. SDSE, however, lacks several key virulence factors present in GAS, such as SPE-B, the hyaluronan synthesis operon and active superantigen against human immune cells. A key event in the ability of GAS to cause severe invasive streptococcal infection was shown to be the acquisition of novel genetic traits such as phages. Strikingly, however, during severe invasive infection, GAS destroys its own covRS two-component system, which negatively regulates many virulence factor genes, resulting in a hyper-virulent phenotype. In contrast, this phenomenon has not been observed in SDSE. The present review describes the epidemiology of severe invasive streptococcal infection and the detailed pathogenic mechanisms of GAS and SDSE, emphasizing findings from their genome sequences and analyses of gene expression. PMID:26762200

  19. Structural characterization of the virulence factor Sda1 nuclease from Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Andrea F.; Krahn, Juno M.; Lu, Xun; Cuneo, Matthew J.; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2016-01-01

    Infection by Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is a leading cause of severe invasive disease in humans, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis. GAS infections lead to nearly 163,000 annual deaths worldwide. Hypervirulent strains of S. pyogenes have evolved a plethora of virulence factors that aid in disease—by promoting bacterial adhesion to host cells, subsequent invasion of deeper tissues and blocking the immune system's attempts to eradicate the infection. Expression and secretion of the extracellular nuclease Sda1 is advantageous for promoting bacterial dissemination throughout the host organism, and evasion of the host's innate immune response. Here we present two crystal structures of Sda1, as well as biochemical studies to address key structural features and surface residues involved in DNA binding and catalysis. In the active site, Asn211 is observed to directly chelate a hydrated divalent metal ion and Arg124, on the putative substrate binding loop, likely stabilizes the transition state during phosphodiester bond cleavage. These structures provide a foundation for rational drug design of small molecule inhibitors to be used in prevention of invasive streptococcal disease. PMID:26969731

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, emm type distribution and genetic diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arêas, Glauber P; Schuab, Rôde B B; Neves, Felipe P G; Barros, Rosana R

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10) and iMLSB (4). The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81) were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7). There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area. PMID:25410998

  1. Susceptibility and emm type of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children with severe infection.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of various antimicrobial agents were measured against 12 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children with invasive infections between 2003 and 2012. The patients ranged in age from 1 day to 15 years, with patients younger than 5 years, including three neonates, accounting for a half of the patients. The disease was sepsis in four patients, skin and soft tissue infection in three patients, retropharyngeal abscess in two patients, pneumonia plus sepsis in one patient, empyema in one patient, and pyogenic arthritis in one patient. One patient with sepsis died, while cure without sequelae was achieved in all the remaining patients. When classified by type, emm1 (six strains) was the most prevalent type, followed by emm12 (two strains). The MIC90/MBC90 values were 0.015/0.015 μg/mL for penicillin G, 0.03/0.03 μg/mL for ampicillin, 0.015/0.03 μg/mL for cefotaxime, 0.03/0.03 μg/mL for ceftriaxone, 0.008/0.008 μg/mL for panipenem, 0.008/0.008 μg/mL for meropenem, and ≤0.004/≤0.004 μg/mL for doripenem, indicating the superior antimicrobial activities of carbapenem. PMID:23703641

  2. HMGB1 in severe soft tissue infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Linda; Snäll, Johanna; Sendi, Parham; Linnér, Anna; Thulin, Pontus; Linder, Adam; Treutiger, Carl-Johan; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) has been associated with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, little is known about HMGB1 in necrotizing bacterial infections. We hypothesized that the local HMGB1 response is excessive in severe soft tissue infections (STIs), which are characterized by necrosis and hyperinflammation. To explore this, tissue biopsies were collected from patients with varying severity of Streptococcus pyogenes skin and STIs, including erysipelas, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Tissue sections were immunostained for HMGB1, S. pyogenes, and inflammatory cell infiltrates and results quantified by acquired computerized image analysis (ACIA). HMGB1 expression increased in parallel to disease severity and was significantly higher in necrotizing fasciitis than in erysipelas (p = 0.0023). Confocal microscopy of sections co-stained for HMGB1 and cell markers revealed both extracellular and cytoplasmic HMGB1, the latter of which was found predominantly in macrophages. To further verify macrophages as main source of activation triggered HMGB1 release, human macrophages were infected with clinical S. pyogenes isolates. The results demonstrated infection triggered release of HMGB1. Dual staining's visualized HMGB1 in areas close to, but not overlapping, with neutrophils, indicating a potential chemotactic role. In vitro transmigration experiments showed a chemotactic effect of HMGB1 on neutrophils. The data furthermore provided in vivo support that HGMB1 may form immunostimulatory complexes with IL-1β. Taken together, the findings provide the first in vivo evidence that HMGB1 is abundant at the local site of severe bacterial STIs and its levels correlated to severity of infections; hence, indicating its potential value as a biomarker for tissue pathology. PMID:24524027

  3. Recombination between Streptococcus suis ICESsu32457 and Streptococcus agalactiae ICESa2603 yields a hybrid ICE transferable to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Marini, Emanuela; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-07-01

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome but retain the ability to undergo excision and to transfer by conjugation. Genes involved in drug resistance, virulence, or niche adaptation are often found among backbone genes as cargo DNA. We recently characterized in Streptococcus suis an ICE (ICESsu32457) carrying resistance genes [tet(O/W/32/O), tet(40), erm(B), aphA, and aadE] in the 15K unstable genetic element, which is flanked by two ∼1.3kb direct repeats. Remarkably, ∼1.3-kb sequences are conserved in ICESa2603 of Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R, which carry heavy metal resistance genes cadC/cadA and mer. In matings between S. suis 32457 (donor) and S. agalactiae 2603V/R (recipient), transconjugants were obtained. PCR experiments, PFGE, and sequence analysis of transconjugants demonstrated a tandem array between ICESsu32457 and ICESa2603. Matings between tandem array-containing S. agalactiae 2603V/R (donor) and Streptococcus pyogenes RF12 (recipient) yielded a single transconjugant containing a hybrid ICE, here named ICESa2603/ICESsu32457. The hybrid formed by recombination of the left ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESsu32457 and the ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESa2603. Interestingly, the hybrid ICE was transferable between S. pyogenes strains, thus demonstrating that it behaves as a conventional ICE. These findings suggest that both tandem arrays and hybrid ICEs may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in streptococci, creating novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25935120

  4. Production of recombinant streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes isolate and its potential for thrombolytic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Assiri, Abdullah S.; El-Gamal, Basiouny A.; Hafez, Elsayed E.; Haidara, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To produce an effective recombinant streptokinase (rSK) from pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes isolate in yeast, and evaluate its potential for thrombolytic therapy. Methods: This study was conducted from November 2012 to December 2013 at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Throat swabs collected from 45 pharyngitis patients in Asser Central Hospital, Abha, KSA were used to isolate Streptococcus pyogenes. The bacterial DNA was used for amplification of the streptokinase gene (1200 bp). The gene was cloned and in vitro transcribed in an eukaryotic expression vector that was transformed into yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168, and the rSK protein was purified and tested for its thrombolytic activity. Results: The Streptococcus pyogenes strain was isolated and its DNA nucleotide sequence revealed similarity to other Streptococcus pyogenes in the Gene bank. Sequencing of the amplified gene based on DNA nucleotide sequence revealed a SK gene closely related to other SK genes in the Gene bank. However, based on deduced amino acids sequence, the gene formed a separate cluster different from clusters formed by other examined genes, suggesting a new bacterial isolate and accordingly a new gene. The purified protein showed 82% clot lysis compared to a commercial SK (81%) at an enzyme concentration of 2000 U/ml. Conclusion: The present yeast rSK showed similar thrombolytic activity in vitro as that of a commercial SK, suggesting its potential for thrombolytic therapy and large scale production. PMID:25491213

  5. Pyogenic liver abscess secondary to disseminated streptococcus anginosus from sigmoid diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Murarka, Shishir; Pranav, Fnu; Dandavate, Varsha

    2011-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess secondary to dissemination from Sigmoid Diverticulitis is rare. Streptococcus Anginosus has been linked to abscesses but has been rarely reported from a Sigmoid Diverticulitis source. We report a case of liver abscess in which the source was confounding but eventually was traced to Sigmoid Diverticulitis on laparotomy. PMID:21572613

  6. Characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates responsible for adult meningitis in France from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Plainvert, Céline; Doloy, Alexandra; Joubrel, Caroline; Maataoui, Naouale; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Touak, Gérald; Collobert, Gislène; Fouet, Agnès; Poyart, Claire; Loubinoux, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Sixty-three cases of Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in adults were studied. Three predominant emm types were associated with meningitis: emm1 (44%), emm3 (11%), and emm6 (11%). Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and mortality rates were 40% and 38%, respectively. PMID:26846900

  7. Effect of elevated atmospheric pressure on antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Schlamm, N A

    1972-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, vancomycin, sodium cephalothin, and tetracycline, but increased susceptibility to sodium colistimethate, at a pressure of 68 atm in helium or helium-oxygen gas. Susceptibility of Streptococcus pyogenes was unchanged by pressurization. PMID:4618457

  8. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric Pressure on Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Schlamm, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, vancomycin, sodium cephalothin, and tetracycline, but increased susceptibility to sodium colistimethate, at a pressure of 68 atm in helium or helium-oxygen gas. Susceptibility of Streptococcus pyogenes was unchanged by pressurization. PMID:4618457

  9. Identification of the Streptococcus pyogenes surface antigens recognised by pooled human immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Reglinski, Mark; Gierula, Magdalena; Lynskey, Nicola N.; Edwards, Robert J.; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2015-01-01

    Immunity to common bacteria requires the generation of antibodies that promote opsonophagocytosis and neutralise toxins. Pooled human immunoglobulin is widely advocated as an adjunctive treatment for clinical Streptococcus pyogenes infection however, the protein targets of the reagent remain ill defined. Affinity purification of the anti-streptococcal antibodies present within pooled immunoglobulin resulted in the generation of an IgG preparation that promoted opsonophagocytic killing of S. pyogenes in vitro and provided passive immunity in vivo. Isolation of the streptococcal surface proteins recognised by pooled human immunoglobulin permitted identification and ranking of 94 protein antigens, ten of which were reproducibly identified across four contemporary invasive S. pyogenes serotypes (M1, M3, M12 and M89). The data provide novel insight into the action of pooled human immunoglobulin during invasive S. pyogenes infection, and demonstrate a potential route to enhance the efficacy of antibody based therapies. PMID:26508447

  10. Molecular and genomic characterization of pathogenic traits of group A Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shigeyuki; Kawabata, Shigetada; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes causes various diseases ranging from self-limiting sore throat to deadly invasive diseases. The genome size of GAS is 1.85-1.9 Mb, and genomic rearrangement has been demonstrated. GAS possesses various surface-associated substances such as hyaluronic capsule, M proteins, and fibronectin/laminin/immunoglobulin-binding proteins. These are related to the virulence and play multifaceted and mutually reflected roles in the pathogenesis of GAS infections. Invasion of GAS into epithelial cells and deeper tissues provokes immune and non-immune defense or inflammatory responses including the recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells in hosts. GAS frequently evades host defense mechanisms by using its virulence factors. Extracellular products of GAS may perturb cellular and subcellular functions and degrade tissues enzymatically, which leads to the aggravation of local and/or systemic disorders in the host. In this review, we summarize some important cellular and extracellular substances that may affect pathogenic processes during GAS infections, and the host responses to these. PMID:26666305

  11. Molecular and genomic characterization of pathogenic traits of group A Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    HAMADA, Shigeyuki; KAWABATA, Shigetada; NAKAGAWA, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes causes various diseases ranging from self-limiting sore throat to deadly invasive diseases. The genome size of GAS is 1.85–1.9 Mb, and genomic rearrangement has been demonstrated. GAS possesses various surface-associated substances such as hyaluronic capsule, M proteins, and fibronectin/laminin/immunoglobulin-binding proteins. These are related to the virulence and play multifaceted and mutually reflected roles in the pathogenesis of GAS infections. Invasion of GAS into epithelial cells and deeper tissues provokes immune and non-immune defense or inflammatory responses including the recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells in hosts. GAS frequently evades host defense mechanisms by using its virulence factors. Extracellular products of GAS may perturb cellular and subcellular functions and degrade tissues enzymatically, which leads to the aggravation of local and/or systemic disorders in the host. In this review, we summarize some important cellular and extracellular substances that may affect pathogenic processes during GAS infections, and the host responses to these. PMID:26666305

  12. Primary peritonitis by Streptococcus pyogenes. A condition as rare as it is aggressive.

    PubMed

    Abellán Morcillo, Israel; González, Antonio; Selva Cabañero, Pilar; Bernabé, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old female patient who presented to the emergency room for abdominal pain standing with impaired general status, fever of up to 38.7ºC, and somnolence. Upon arrival the patient had a heart rate of 115 bpm, hypotension (80/40 mmHg),acute respiratory distress, and both hepatic and renal failure. During her examination the patient was drowsy and had a diffusely tender abdomen with peritoneal irritation signs. Blood tests revealed 22,000 WBCs (82%N), CRP 32.4 mg/dL, total bilirubin 3.2 mg/dL, GOT 300 U/L, GPT 160 U/L, LDH 200 U/L, AP 310 U/L, 91,000 platelets, creatinine2.3 mg/dL, and PA 64%. An abdominal CT scan was performed, which revealed a minimal amount of free intraperitoneal fluid with no other findings. Given the patient's poor status an exploratory laparoscopy was carried out, which found a moderate amount of diffuse purulent exudate, particularly in interloop and lesser pelvis areas, with no additional findings. Following surgery she was transferred to the intensive care unit on wide spectrum antibiotics .Peritoneal exudate cultures from the surgical procedure revealed Streptococcus pyogenes. The patient had a favorable outcome being subsequently discharged from hospital at day 10 after the procedure. S. pyogenesis a beta hemolytic streptococcus well known as a cause of pharyngotonsillar, skin and soft tissues infection. Primary peritonitis by S.pyogenesis a rare condition with only a few isolated cases reported. PP cases by S.pyogenes predominantly involve previously healthy young women. PP diagnosis is usually retrospective, when other causes have been ruled out by surgery and culture is positive post hoc. An appropriate differential diagnosis from conditions such as gram-negative shock, staphylococcal toxic shock, meningococcal disease, viral infection, etc., is crucial. Abdominal CT may be helpful but a variable amount of free intraperitoneal fluid is usually the only finding. The surgical approach is usually laparoscopy in experienced sites. Attentive monitoring at an intensive care unit and adequate antibiotic therapy are key in association with surgery. There is no clear consensus on the antibiotics to be used for severe infection with S.pyogenes; empirical amoxicillin-clavulanic is usually the initial choice, followed after microbiological confirmation by clindamycin and a third-generation cephalosporin. PMID:26856711

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Atsuo; Okahashi, Nobuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Ooshima, Takashi; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2008-08-29

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis.

  14. Identification and characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes ABC transporter with multiple specificity for metal cations.

    PubMed

    Janulczyk, R; Pallon, J; Björck, L

    1999-11-01

    Metal ions are crucial trace elements for bacteria infecting the human host. The LraI (lipoprotein receptor-associated antigen I) transporter in Streptococcus spp. belongs to the superfamily of ABC transporters. The transporter consists of a lipoprotein, an ATP-binding protein and a hydrophobic integral membrane protein. Here, we describe a new member of the LraI family in the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. The system was identified in silico by analysis of the S. pyogenes Genome Sequencing Project. The S. pyogenes operon exhibits an atypical organization compared with equivalents in other Streptococcus spp. The presence and atypical organization of the operon was verified in a number of S. pyogenes strains of different serotypes. Transcriptional analysis of the LraI operon demonstrates a polycistronic transcription attenuated by a stable stem-loop structure, which allows the lipoprotein to be expressed in larger quantities than the other two components. The localization of the native lipoprotein at the bacterial surface was shown by proteolytic digestion of S. pyogenes bacteria and NH2-terminal sequencing of a released lipoprotein fragment. Recombinant lipoprotein was expressed as a GST fusion protein, and studies of molecular interactions with metal radioisotopes demonstrated that the protein has affinity for Zn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II). Zn(II) and Cu(II) were found to compete for the same binding site, whereas Fe(III) uses a second site. Also, proton-induced X-ray analysis of lipoprotein samples identified iron, copper and zinc. Finally, a mutant strain lacking a functional mtsABC operon was generated and showed reduced uptake of 55Fe and 65Zn compared with the wild-type strain. The operon encoding this novel ABC transporter with multiple specificity for metal cations is designated mtsABC, for metal transporter of Streptococcus. PMID:10564500

  15. Six-Month Multicenter Study on Invasive Infections Due to Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lopardo, Horacio A.; Vidal, Patricia; Sparo, Monica; Jeric, Paola; Centron, Daniela; Facklam, Richard R.; Paganini, Hugo; Pagniez, N. Gaston; Lovgren, Marguerite; Beall, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    During a 6-month period, 95 invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis were recorded from 40 centers of 16 cities in Argentina. We describe here epidemiologic data available for 55 and 19 patients, respectively, associated with invasive infections due to S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. The associated isolates and 58 additional pharyngeal isolates were genotyped and subjected to serologic and/or antibiotic susceptibility testing. Group A streptococcal emm type distribution and strain association with toxic shock appeared to differ somewhat from results found within the United States; however, serologic characterization and sof sequence typing suggested that emm types found in both countries are reflective of shared clonal types. PMID:15695683

  16. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Katherine J; Zeppa, Joseph J; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T; Xu, Stacey X; Mazzuca, Delfina M; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P Patrick; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; McCormick, John K

    2014-05-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms. PMID:24875883

  17. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis due to Group A Streptococcus following Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Alexander Michael; Adno, Alan Maurice; Marry, Jyothi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although the incidence of pregnancy-associated pyogenic sacroiliitis is low, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis of the condition is challenging due to its nonspecific clinical features. Case. A 31-year-old primigravida had an uncomplicated pregnancy and labour. Postpartum, she developed persistent fever and debilitating hip pain on ambulation. White cell count was normal (7.3 × 109/L) and C-reactive protein was elevated (468.4 mg/L). Streptococcus pyogenes was identified on vaginal swabs and blood cultures, and a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed bilateral sacroiliitis. Conclusion. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a potentially lethal cause of postpartum pain. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis even in low-risk women who present with debilitating pelvic pain in or around pregnancy, particularly when initial therapy appears unsuccessful. PMID:24396619

  18. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis due to Group A Streptococcus following Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Sik; Owen, Alexander Michael; Adno, Alan Maurice; Marry, Jyothi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although the incidence of pregnancy-associated pyogenic sacroiliitis is low, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis of the condition is challenging due to its nonspecific clinical features. Case. A 31-year-old primigravida had an uncomplicated pregnancy and labour. Postpartum, she developed persistent fever and debilitating hip pain on ambulation. White cell count was normal (7.3 × 10(9)/L) and C-reactive protein was elevated (468.4 mg/L). Streptococcus pyogenes was identified on vaginal swabs and blood cultures, and a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed bilateral sacroiliitis. Conclusion. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a potentially lethal cause of postpartum pain. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis even in low-risk women who present with debilitating pelvic pain in or around pregnancy, particularly when initial therapy appears unsuccessful. PMID:24396619

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    SciTech Connect

    Linke, Christian; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N.

    2008-02-01

    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution.

  20. Physical and genetic chromosomal map of an M type 1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Suvorov, A N; Ferretti, J J

    1996-01-01

    A physical map of the chromosome of an M type 1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes was constructed following digestion with three different restriction enzymes, SmaI, SfiI, and SgrAI, and separation and analysis of fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The genome size of this strain was estimated to be 1,920 kb. By employing Southern hybridization and PCR analysis, 36 genes were located on the map. PMID:8808951

  1. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Streptococcus pyogenes Vaccine Efficacy Using Biophotonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Faraz M.; Bateman, Colin; Turner, Claire E.; Wiles, Siouxsie; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes infection of the nasopharynx represents a key step in the pathogenic cycle of this organism and a major focus for vaccine development, requiring robust models to facilitate the screening of potentially protective antigens. One antigen that may be an important target for vaccination is the chemokine protease, SpyCEP, which is cell surface-associated and plays a role in pathogenesis. Biophotonic imaging (BPI) can non-invasively characterize the spatial location and abundance of bioluminescent bacteria in vivo. We have developed a bioluminescent derivative of a pharyngeal S. pyogenes strain by transformation of an emm75 clinical isolate with the luxABCDE operon. Evaluation of isogenic recombinant strains in vitro and in vivo confirmed that bioluminescence conferred a growth deficit that manifests as a fitness cost during infection. Notwithstanding this, bioluminescence expression permitted non-invasive longitudinal quantitation of S. pyogenes within the murine nasopharynx albeit with a detection limit corresponding to approximately 105 bacterial colony forming units (CFU) in this region. Vaccination of mice with heat killed streptococci, or with SpyCEP led to a specific IgG response in the serum. BPI demonstrated that both vaccine candidates reduced S. pyogenes bioluminescence emission over the course of nasopharyngeal infection. The work suggests the potential for BPI to be used in the non-invasive longitudinal evaluation of potential S. pyogenes vaccines. PMID:24278474

  2. Kinetics of cytokine profile in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Streptococcus pyogenes activated cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Kumar, Parveen; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Yadav, Manisha

    2016-06-01

    The infection of epithelial cells is a necessary step for Mycobacterium bovis BCG dissemination, but the mechanism of mycobacterial epithelial interactions is not completely understood. Similarly, Streptococcus pyogenes is a strictly human pathogen that favorably colonizes the skin and the pharynx. Effective cytokine secretion is essential in order to fabricate a suitable inflammatory response against an infection. In this data article, the cytokine profile in BCG and S. pyogenes activated THP-1 cell line in media after the acute phase of infection by ELISA is described. The interleukin-8 level was increased in response to both BCG and S. pyogenes, but was quite prominent after 24 h and further increased upto 72 h post infection. On the other hand, an increase in IL-6 response to S. pyogenes was observed while there was no response to BCG even after 48 h of infection. A low level of TNF-α was detected upon BCG and S. pyogenes infection. PMID:27014727

  3. Kinetics of cytokine profile in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Streptococcus pyogenes activated cells

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vivek; Kumar, Parveen; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Yadav, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    The infection of epithelial cells is a necessary step for Mycobacterium bovis BCG dissemination, but the mechanism of mycobacterial epithelial interactions is not completely understood. Similarly, Streptococcus pyogenes is a strictly human pathogen that favorably colonizes the skin and the pharynx. Effective cytokine secretion is essential in order to fabricate a suitable inflammatory response against an infection. In this data article, the cytokine profile in BCG and S. pyogenes activated THP-1 cell line in media after the acute phase of infection by ELISA is described. The interleukin-8 level was increased in response to both BCG and S. pyogenes, but was quite prominent after 24 h and further increased upto 72 h post infection. On the other hand, an increase in IL-6 response to S. pyogenes was observed while there was no response to BCG even after 48 h of infection. A low level of TNF-α was detected upon BCG and S. pyogenes infection. PMID:27014727

  4. Inactivation of the Rgg2 Transcriptional Regulator Ablates the Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Zutkis, Anastasia A.; Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Chaussee, Michael S.; Dmitriev, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes adapts to different niches encountered in the human host via the activity of numerous regulatory proteins including the Rgg family of transcriptional regulators. The S. pyogenes chromosome encodes four Rgg paralogues designated Rgg1 (RopB), Rgg2 (MutR), Rgg3, and Rgg4 (ComR). In order to understand the role of the Rgg2 protein in the regulation of metabolic and virulence-associated properties of S. pyogenes, the rgg2 gene was inactivated in the M1 serotype strain SF370. Inactivation of rgg2 increased the growth yield of S. pyogenes in THY broth, increased biofilm formation, and increased production of SIC, which is an important virulence factor that inhibits complement mediated lysis. To identify Rgg2-regulated genes, the transcriptomes of SF370 and the rgg2 mutant strains were compared in the middle-exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Rgg2 was found to control the expression of dozens of genes primarily in the exponential phase of growth, including genes associated with virulence (sse, scpA, slo, nga, mf-3), DNA transformation, and nucleotide metabolism. Inactivation of rgg2 decreased the ability of S. pyogenes to adhere to epithelial cells. In addition, the mutant strain was more sensitive to killing when incubated with human blood and avirulent in a murine bacteremia model. Finally, inoculation of mice with the avirulent rgg2 mutant of S. pyogenes SF370 conferred complete protection to mice subsequently challenged with the wild-type strain. Restoration of an intact rgg2 gene in mutant strain restored the wild-type phenotypes. Overall, the results demonstrate that Rgg2 is an important regulatory protein in S. pyogenes involved in controlling genes associated with both metabolism and virulence. PMID:25486272

  5. [Antimicrobial and rapid bactericidal activities of sitafloxacin and other agents against Streptococcus pyogenes].

    PubMed

    Namba, Eiko; Okumura, Ryo; Chiba, Megumi; Hoshino, Kazuki; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of sitafloxacin against Japanese clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes by broth microdilution susceptibility testing and time-kill studies to elucidate its eradication potential against S. pyogenes. One hundred and nineteen clinical isolates of S. pyogenes isolated from pharynx were tested to sitafloxacin and seven other agents in the susceptibility testing. The time-kill studies were conducted with five strains, one of which was resistant to clarithromycin, one resistant to levofloxacin and one type strain of S. pyogenes. In the time-kill studies, sitafloxacin, garenoxacin, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were assessed at static concentrations of their respective peak concentrations in plasma (C(max)) when administered as oral single doses for adult patients with S. pyogenes infections. We found the rank order of antimicrobial activity against S. pyogenes isolates was: cefcapene (MIC90, 0.015 microg/mL) > amoxicillin (0.03 microg/mL) > sitafloxacin (0.12 microg/mL) > garenoxacin (0.25 microg/mL) > levofloxacin (4 microg/mL) > minocycline (16 microg/mL). Macrolide-resistant isolates accounted for 72 (60.5%), resulting in clarithromycin and azithromycin MIC90s of > 32 and > 128 microg/mL, respectively. Sitafloxacin exhibited the most rapid bactericidal activity (> or = log reduction from the initial inoculum) within 2h against all tested strains, including even one levofloxacin-resistant strain. For garenoxacin, bactericidal activity was achieved between 2 and 6 h. Amoxicillin revealed no significant bactericidal activity up to 6 h. Clarithromycin showed no bactericidal activity and did not inhibit growth of a clarithromycin-resistant strain. These data indicate the potential usefulness of sitafloxacin for the treatment of S. pyogenes eradication. PMID:24527519

  6. Analysis of a Streptococcus pyogenes Puerperal Sepsis Cluster by Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Venturini, Carola

    2012-01-01

    Between June and November 2010, a concerning rise in the number of cases of puerperal sepsis, a postpartum pelvic bacterial infection contracted by women after childbirth, was observed in the New South Wales, Australia, hospital system. Group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) isolates PS001 to PS011 were recovered from nine patients. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and emm sequence typing revealed that GAS of emm1.40, emm75.0, emm77.0, emm89.0, and emm89.9 were each recovered from a single patient, ruling out a single source of infection. However, emm28.8 GAS were recovered from four different patients. To investigate the relatedness of these emm28 isolates, whole-genome sequencing was undertaken and the genome sequences were compared to the genome sequence of the emm28.4 reference strain, MGAS6180. A total of 186 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, for which the phylogenetic reconstruction indicated an outbreak of a polyclonal nature. While two isolates collected from different hospitals were not closely related, isolates from two puerperal sepsis patients from the same hospital were indistinguishable, suggesting patient-to-patient transmission or infection from a common source. The results of this study indicate that traditional typing protocols, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, may not be sensitive enough to allow fine epidemiological discrimination of closely related bacterial isolates. Whole-genome sequencing presents a valid alternative that allows accurate fine-scale epidemiological investigation of bacterial infectious disease. PMID:22518858

  7. Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes in the Pediatric Population in Germany during 2000-2001

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Ralf René; Lütticken, Rudolf; Bryskier, André; Al-Lahham, Adnan

    2003-01-01

    In a nationwide study in Germany covering 13 clinical microbiology laboratories, a total of 307 Streptococcus pyogenes (mainly pharyngitis) and 333 Streptococcus pneumoniae (respiratory tract infections) strains were collected from outpatients less than 16 years of age. The MICs of penicillin G, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin A, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and telithromycin were determined by the microdilution method. In S. pyogenes isolates, resistance rates were as follows: penicillin, 0%; erythromycin A, 13.7%; and levofloxacin, 0%. Telithromycin showed good activity against S. pyogenes isolates (MIC90 = 0.25 μg/ml; MIC range, 0.016 to 16 μg/ml). Three strains were found to be telithromycin-resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Erythromycin-resistant strains were characterized for the underlying resistance genotype, with 40.5% having the efflux type mef(A), 38.1% having the erm(A), and 9.5% having the erm(B) genotypes. emm typing of macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes isolates showed emm types 4 (45.2%), 77 (26.2%), and 12 (11.9%) to be predominant. In S. pneumoniae, resistance rates were as follows: penicillin intermediate, 7.5%; penicillin resistant, 0%; erythromycin A, 17.4%; and levofloxacin, 0%. Telithromycin was highly active against pneumococcal isolates (MIC90 ≤ 0.016 μg/ml; range, 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml). The overall resistance profile of streptococcal respiratory tract isolates is still favorable, but macrolide resistance is of growing concern in Germany. PMID:12543648

  8. Characterization of a virulence-associated and cell-wall-located DNase of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tadao; Minami, Masaaki; Okamoto, Akira; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Isaka, Masanori; Ohta, Michio

    2010-01-01

    We investigated culture supernatant proteins from the M1 serotype of Streptococcus pyogenes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass mapping analysis, and characterized the single protein spots. Among them, we analysed the Spy0747 protein. This protein is homologous to the SsnA protein, a cell-wall-located DNase expressed in Streptococcus suis serotype 2. We designated the Spy0747 protein as SpnA. SpnA protein was also detected in the insoluble fraction of whole-cell lysates using shotgun proteomic analysis, suggesting that SpnA is also located in the cell wall. SpnA was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase-fusion protein in Escherichia coli. We confirmed that the recombinant protein had DNase activity that was dependent on Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), like SsnA. Blood bactericidal assays and mouse infection model experiments showed that the spnA knockout strain was less virulent than the parental strain, thus suggesting that SpnA could play an important role in virulence. Using PCR, we found that the spnA gene was present in all clinical S. pyogenes strains we examined. Our results, together with a previous report identifying Spy0747 as a surface-associated protein, suggest that SpnA is an important cell-wall-located DNase that is generally produced in S. pyogenes and is involved in virulence. PMID:19850619

  9. Novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asif; Rushworth, Jo V; Wright, John D; Millner, Paul A

    2013-12-17

    Streptococcus pyogenes , also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), is a Gram positive human pathogen responsible for invasive and noninvasive human infections with a high incidence rate. Traditional detection methods involve cell culture and PCR, which are limited by long processing times or the need for high cost equipment. Impedance-based electrochemical immunosensors provide an alternative by which precise and rapid quantitative detection of the organism can help with rapid clinical decisions. To bring a biosensor for point-of-care applications to market, strict optimization of each level of construction and operation is required. In this paper, commercial screen-printed gold electrodes have been used to construct polytyramine (Ptyr)-based immunosensors. Biotin tagged whole antibodies against S. pyogenes were conjugated to Ptyr amine group via biotin-NeutrAvidin coupling. Sensors were optimized at each level of construction, particularly for Ptyr electrodeposition and antibody concentration, to optimize signal and specificity. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and on-sensor analysis (HRP conjugated enhanced chemiluminescence-based semiquantitative method) to detect Ptyr surface amine and bound antibody were performed as supporting techniques. Cumulative and single shot incubations had shown detection range of 100 to 10(5) cells per 10 ?L and 100 to 10(4) cells per 10 ?L of bacteria in PBS, respectively. Sensors were also able to specifically detect S. pyogenes in 50% (v/v) human saliva, with good selectivity and low cross-reactivity. PMID:24256123

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. Leaf Extract against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Kayser, Oliver; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf was evaluated for antibacterial activity against 47 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. The extract exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity against all the tested isolates with similar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 3.9162.5??g?mL?1) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 3.9162.5??g?mL?1) ranges. No surviving cells were detected at 16 h after treatment with 8??MIC of the extract. The extract-treated cells demonstrated no lysis and cytoplasmic leakage through the bacterial membrane. Electron micrographs further revealed that the extract did not cause any dramatic changes on the treated cells. Rhodomyrtone, an isolated compound, exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity (14 isolates), expressed very low MIC (0.391.56??g?mL?1) and MBC (0.39-1.56??g?mL?1) values. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract and rhodomyrtone displayed promising antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes. PMID:22973404

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. Leaf Extract against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Kayser, Oliver; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf was evaluated for antibacterial activity against 47 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. The extract exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity against all the tested isolates with similar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 3.91-62.5??g?mL(-1)) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 3.91-62.5??g?mL(-1)) ranges. No surviving cells were detected at 16 h after treatment with 8??MIC of the extract. The extract-treated cells demonstrated no lysis and cytoplasmic leakage through the bacterial membrane. Electron micrographs further revealed that the extract did not cause any dramatic changes on the treated cells. Rhodomyrtone, an isolated compound, exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity (14 isolates), expressed very low MIC (0.39-1.56??g?mL(-1)) and MBC (0.39-1.56??g?mL(-1)) values. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract and rhodomyrtone displayed promising antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes. PMID:22973404

  12. Cation Reversal of Inhibition of Growth by Valinomycin in Streptococcus pyogenes and Clostridium sporogenes1

    PubMed Central

    Seshachalam, Dutta; Frahm, David H.; Ferraro, Frank M.

    1973-01-01

    Study of the antimicrobial spectrum of valinomycin revealed that, in addition to the gram-positive bacteria reported in literature, Streptococcus pyogenes and Clostridium sporogenes are also susceptible to this antibiotic. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotic for S. pyogenes grown aerobically and anaerobically did not differ markedly, negating the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation is involved in the mechanism of action of this antibiotic. This conclusion is further strengthened by the inhibition of growth of C. sporogenes, an obligate anaerobe. In a medium with a low K+ concentration, the MIC for S. pyogenes was 0.02 μg/ml, the lowest ever recorded for this antibiotic. The inhibition of growth of S. pyogenes and C. sporogenes was readily reversed by addition of K+ to the medium, indicating a compensation for net efflux of K+ from the cells when the transmembrane potential reached equilibrium. In contrast to these bacteria, Bacillus subtilis was less susceptible to the antibiotic when the potassium concentration of the medium was low. The addition of potassium in the presence of valinomycin increased the inhibition of growth, which appears to result from dissipation of metabolic energy as in the mitochondrial system. PMID:4208280

  13. Mucosal Vaccine Made from Live, Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Protects Mice against Pharyngeal Infection with Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Mannam, Praveen; Jones, Kevin F.; Geller, Bruce L.

    2004-01-01

    A novel vaccine (LL-CRR) made from live, nonpathogenic Lactococcus lactis that expresses the conserved C-repeat region (CRR) of M protein from Streptococcus pyogenes serotype 6 was tested in mice. Nasally vaccinated mice produced CRR-specific salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum IgG. Subcutaneously vaccinated mice produced CRR-specific serum IgG but not salivary IgA. A combined regimen produced responses similar to the salivary IgA of nasally vaccinated mice and serum IgG of subcutaneously vaccinated mice. Mice vaccinated nasally or with the combined regimen were significantly protected against pharyngeal infection following a nasal challenge with S. pyogenes M serotype 14. Mice vaccinated subcutaneously were not protected against pharyngeal infection. Mice in all three LL-CRR vaccination groups were significantly protected against the lethal effects of S. pyogenes. Only 1 of 77 challenged mice that were vaccinated with LL-CRR died, whereas 60 of 118 challenged mice that were vaccinated with a control strain or phosphate-buffered saline died. In conclusion, mucosal vaccination with LL-CRR produced CRR-specific salivary IgA and serum IgG, prevented pharyngeal infection with S. pyogenes, and promoted survival. PMID:15155651

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes in an area where acute pharyngotonsillitis is endemic.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, L; Levy, D; Ferroni, A; Gehanno, P; Berche, P

    1997-01-01

    During an open clinical trial in an area where streptococcal infections are hyperendemic, we studied the genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates collected from patients and from healthy carriers living in close contact with them. The clonal diversity of isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with three restriction enzymes (SmaI, ApaI, and SacII). The pharynx of each patient and healthy carrier was colonized by a single clone, suggesting the clonal nature of streptococcal colonization in individuals. Among 52 isolates obtained from patients with acute pharyngotonsillitis, we found 14 genetically unrelated clones, showing the genetic diversity of S. pyogenes. However, two clones belonging to the M1 and M12 serotypes represented about 70% of isolates in carriers and patients. Pharyngeal colonization in cured patients was monitored for 3 to 4 months. After the initial elimination of S. pyogenes following antibiotic therapy, the rate of recolonization was high by day 30 (about 20%) and was also at that level between days 90 and 120; this was similar to the carriage rate in family contacts. Thus, cured patients can be recontaminated by unrelated clones, suggesting that colonization of healthy carriers might be a potential source of spread and redistribution of S. pyogenes isolates. PMID:9230392

  15. Synergy and Mode of Action of Ceftazidime plus Quercetin or Luteolin on Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, Supatcharee; Thumanu, Kanjana; Hengpratom, Tanaporn; Eumkeb, Griangsak

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The recommended therapy has been often failure through the interfering of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB). The present study was to investigate antibacterial activity, synergy, and modes of action of luteolin and quercetin using alone and plus ceftazidime against S. pyogenes. The MICs of ceftazidime, luteolin, and quercetin against all S. pyogenes were 0.50, 128, and 128 µg mL−1, respectively. A synergistic effect was exhibited on luteolin and quercetin plus ceftazidime against these strains at fractional inhibitory concentration indices 0.37 and 0.27, respectively, and was confirmed by the viable count. These combinations increased cytoplasmic membrane (CM) permeability, caused irregular cell shape, peptidoglycan, and CM damage, and decreased nucleic acid but increased proteins in bacterial cells. Enzyme assay demonstrated that these flavonoids had an inhibitory activity against β-lactamase. In summary, this study provides evidence that the inhibitory mode of action of luteolin and quercetin may be mediated via three mechanisms: (1) inhibiting of peptidoglycan synthesis, (2) increasing CM permeability, and (3) decreasing nucleic acid but increasing the protein contents of bacterial cells. So, luteolin and quercetin propose the high potential to develop adjunct to ceftazidime for the treatment of coexistence of the BLPB and S. pyogenes infections. PMID:26576195

  16. Innate Immune Response to Streptococcus pyogenes Depends on the Combined Activation of TLR13 and TLR2

    PubMed Central

    Fieber, Christina; Janos, Marton; Koestler, Tina; Gratz, Nina; Li, Xiao-Dong; Castiglia, Virginia; Aberle, Marion; Sauert, Martina; Wegner, Mareike; Alexopoulou, Lena; Kirschning, Carsten J.; Chen, Zhijian J.; von Haeseler, Arndt; Kovarik, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune recognition of the major human-specific Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes is not understood. Here we show that mice employ Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2- and TLR13-mediated recognition of S. pyogenes. These TLR pathways are non-redundant in the in vivo context of animal infection, but are largely redundant in vitro, as only inactivation of both of them abolishes inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages and dendritic cells infected with S. pyogenes. Mechanistically, S. pyogenes is initially recognized in a phagocytosis-independent manner by TLR2 and subsequently by TLR13 upon internalization. We show that the TLR13 response is specifically triggered by S. pyogenes rRNA and that Tlr13−/− cells respond to S. pyogenes infection solely by engagement of TLR2. TLR13 is absent from humans and, remarkably, we find no equivalent route for S. pyogenes RNA recognition in human macrophages. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TLR13 occurs in all kingdoms but only in few mammals, including mice and rats, which are naturally resistant against S. pyogenes. Our study establishes that the dissimilar expression of TLR13 in mice and humans has functional consequences for recognition of S. pyogenes in these organisms. PMID:25756897

  17. Innate immune response to Streptococcus pyogenes depends on the combined activation of TLR13 and TLR2.

    PubMed

    Fieber, Christina; Janos, Marton; Koestler, Tina; Gratz, Nina; Li, Xiao-Dong; Castiglia, Virginia; Aberle, Marion; Sauert, Martina; Wegner, Mareike; Alexopoulou, Lena; Kirschning, Carsten J; Chen, Zhijian J; von Haeseler, Arndt; Kovarik, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune recognition of the major human-specific Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes is not understood. Here we show that mice employ Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2- and TLR13-mediated recognition of S. pyogenes. These TLR pathways are non-redundant in the in vivo context of animal infection, but are largely redundant in vitro, as only inactivation of both of them abolishes inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages and dendritic cells infected with S. pyogenes. Mechanistically, S. pyogenes is initially recognized in a phagocytosis-independent manner by TLR2 and subsequently by TLR13 upon internalization. We show that the TLR13 response is specifically triggered by S. pyogenes rRNA and that Tlr13-/- cells respond to S. pyogenes infection solely by engagement of TLR2. TLR13 is absent from humans and, remarkably, we find no equivalent route for S. pyogenes RNA recognition in human macrophages. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TLR13 occurs in all kingdoms but only in few mammals, including mice and rats, which are naturally resistant against S. pyogenes. Our study establishes that the dissimilar expression of TLR13 in mice and humans has functional consequences for recognition of S. pyogenes in these organisms. PMID:25756897

  18. Platelet Activation by Streptococcus pyogenes Leads to Entrapment in Platelet Aggregates, from Which Bacteria Subsequently Escape

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Lisbeth; Baumgarten, Maria; Mrgelin, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activation and aggregation have been reported to occur in response to a number of Gram-positive pathogens. Here, we show that platelet aggregates induced by Streptococcus pyogenes were unstable and that viable bacteria escaped from the aggregates over time. This was not due to differential activation in response to the bacteria compared with physiological activators. All the bacterial isolates induced significant platelet activation, including integrin activation and alpha and dense-granule release, at levels equivalent to those induced by potent physiological platelet activators that induced stable aggregates. The ability to escape the aggregates and to resist the antibacterial effects of platelets was dependent on active protein synthesis by the bacteria within the aggregate. We conclude that S. pyogenes bacteria can temporarily cover themselves with activated platelets, and we propose that this may facilitate survival of the bacteria in the presence of platelets. PMID:25069984

  19. The Cryptic Competence Pathway in Streptococcus pyogenes Is Controlled by a Peptide Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Morrison, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important means of bacterial evolution that is facilitated by transduction, conjugation, and natural genetic transformation. Transformation occurs after bacterial cells enter a state of competence, where naked DNA is acquired from the extracellular environment. Induction of the competent state relies on signals that activate master regulators, causing the expression of genes involved in DNA uptake, processing, and recombination. All streptococcal species contain the master regulator SigX and SigX-dependent effector genes required for natural genetic transformation; however, not all streptococcal species have been shown to be naturally competent. We recently demonstrated that competence development in Streptococcus mutans requires the type II ComRS quorum-sensing circuit, comprising an Rgg transcriptional activator and a novel peptide pheromone (L. Mashburn-Warren, D. A. Morrison, and M. J. Federle, Mol. Microbiol. 78:589–606, 2010). The type II ComRS system is shared by the pyogenic, mutans, and bovis streptococci, including the clinically relevant pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we describe the activation of sigX by a small-peptide pheromone and an Rgg regulator of the type II ComRS class. We confirm previous reports that SigX is functional and able to activate sigX-dependent gene expression within the competence regulon, and that SigX stability is influenced by the cytoplasmic protease ClpP. Genomic analyses of available S. pyogenes genomes revealed the presence of intact genes within the competence regulon. While this is the first report to show natural induction of sigX, S. pyogenes remained nontransformable under laboratory conditions. Using radiolabeled DNA, we demonstrate that transformation is blocked at the stage of DNA uptake. PMID:22730123

  20. Intracellular Streptococcus pyogenes in Human Macrophages Display an Altered Gene Expression Profile

    PubMed Central

    Hertzén, Erika; Johansson, Linda; Kansal, Rita; Hecht, Alexander; Dahesh, Samira; Janos, Marton; Nizet, Victor; Kotb, Malak; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an important human pathogen, which has recently gained recognition as an intracellular microorganism during the course of severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis. Although the surface anchored M protein has been identified as a pivotal factor affecting phagosomal maturation and S. pyogenes survival within macrophages, the overall transcriptional profile required for the pathogen to adapt and persist intracellularly is as of yet unknown. To address this, the gene expression profile of S. pyogenes within human macrophages was determined and compared to that of extracellular bacteria using customized microarrays and real-time qRT-PCR. In order to model the early phase of infection involving adaptation to the intracellular compartment, samples were collected 2h post-infection. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 145 streptococcal genes was significantly altered in the intracellular environment. The majority of differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolic and energy-dependent processes. Key up-regulated genes in early phase intracellular bacteria were ihk and irr, encoding a two-component gene regulatory system (TCS). Comparison of gene expression of selected genes at 2h and 6h post-infection revealed a dramatic shift in response regulators over time with a down-regulation of ihk/irr genes concurring with an up-regulation of the covR/S TCS. In re-infection assays, intracellular bacteria from the 6h time point exhibited significantly greater survival within macrophages than did bacteria collected at the 2h time point. An isogenic S. pyogenes mutant deficient in ihk/irr displayed significantly reduced bacterial counts when compared to wild-type bacteria following infection of macrophages. The findings illustrate how gene expression of S. pyogenes during the intracellular life cycle is fine-tuned by temporal expression of specific two-component systems. PMID:22511985

  1. The structure of pyogenecin immunity protein, a novel bacteriocin-like immunity protein from streptococcus pyogenes.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Coggill, P.; Bateman, A.; Finn, R.; Cymborowski, M.; Otwinowski, Z.; Minor, W.; Volkart, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst.; Univ. of Virginia; UT Southwestern Medical Center

    2009-12-17

    Many Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce anti-bacterial peptides and small proteins called bacteriocins, which enable them to compete against other bacteria in the environment. These peptides fall structurally into three different classes, I, II, III, with class IIa being pediocin-like single entities and class IIb being two-peptide bacteriocins. Self-protective cognate immunity proteins are usually co-transcribed with these toxins. Several examples of cognates for IIa have already been solved structurally. Streptococcus pyogenes, closely related to LAB, is one of the most common human pathogens, so knowledge of how it competes against other LAB species is likely to prove invaluable. We have solved the crystal structure of the gene-product of locus Spy-2152 from S. pyogenes, (PDB: 2fu2), and found it to comprise an anti-parallel four-helix bundle that is structurally similar to other bacteriocin immunity proteins. Sequence analyses indicate this protein to be a possible immunity protein protective against class IIa or IIb bacteriocins. However, given that S. pyogenes appears to lack any IIa pediocin-like proteins but does possess class IIb bacteriocins, we suggest this protein confers immunity to IIb-like peptides. Combined structural, genomic and proteomic analyses have allowed the identification and in silico characterization of a new putative immunity protein from S. pyogenes, possibly the first structure of an immunity protein protective against potential class IIb two-peptide bacteriocins. We have named the two pairs of putative bacteriocins found in S. pyogenes pyogenecin 1, 2, 3 and 4.

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum reduces Streptococcus pyogenes virulence by modulating the IL-17, IL-23 and Toll-like receptor 2/4 expressions in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonietta; Losacco, Antonio; Carratelli, Caterina Romano; Domenico, Marina Di; Bevilacqua, Nazario

    2013-10-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a common colonizer of the mucosal layers in the mouth, nose, and pharynx but it is also a major Gram-positive human pathogen that causes infections ranging from pharyngitis to severe systemic diseases. The lactobacilli colonize the oral tracts and are known to protect against colonization by many pathogens. Epithelial cells participate in the innate host defense by expressing a variety of proinflammatory cytokines and TLRs in the interaction with microorganisms. The potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated for its capacity to influence the innate immune response of HEp-2 and A549 epithelial cells to S. pyogenes infection. In both epithelial cell types, pre-treatment with L. plantarum showed inhibition of S. pyogenes growth and a greater decrease in IL-17 and IL-23 levels compared to the control. Pre-treatment with the anti-TLR2/4 antibody abolished the inhibitory effects of L. plantarum on IL-17 and IL-23 production following S. pyogenes infection, indicating that L. plantarum downregulates TLR2/4-dependent IL-17 and IL-23 production. Overall, our findings suggest that in epithelial cell cultures with S. pyogenes, cytokine responses are modulated by the presence of L. plantarum through the induction of TLR2/TLR4. PMID:23892030

  3. [T serotypes distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pyogenes in children with pharyngotonsillitis in Asahikawa].

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Between June 2006 and April 2007, I measured T serotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 367 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children with pharyngotonsillitis in Asahikawa. Prevalent serotypes were 12 (33.8%), 1 (22.9%), and 28 (12.5%). The MIC90s of beta-lactams were 0.008 microg/ml in penicillin G, cefcapene, cefditoren, cefteram, cefdinir and faropenem, and 0.015 microg/ml in amoxicillin. Of 367 isolates, macrolide-resistant (erythromycin > 0.5 micro/ml) strains account for 42 (11.4%). PMID:19288853

  4. Comparative growth, cross stress resistance, transcriptomics of Streptococcus pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity and normal gravity

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV–Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growth of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity. Morphological analysis by Bio-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bio-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) did not reveal much difference between normal and low shear modeled microgravity grown S. pyogenes. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, hygromycin, rifampicin indicates that the bacterium is resistant to hygromycin. Further S. pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity was found to be more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin as compared with normal gravity grown S. pyogenes. The bacteria were tested for the acid, osmotic, temperature and oxidative cross stress resistances. The gene expression of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity analyzed by microarray revealed upregulation of 26 genes and down regulation of 22 genes by a fold change of 1.5. PMID:26858535

  5. Comparative growth, cross stress resistance, transcriptomics of Streptococcus pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity and normal gravity.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Im, Chanki; Lee, Yang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly found on pharynx, mouth and rarely on skin, lower gastrointestinal tract. It is a potential pathogen causing tonsillitis, pneumonia, endocarditis. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of low shear modeled microgravity on growth, morphology, antibiotic resistance, cross-stress resistance to various stresses and alteration in gene expression of S. pyogenes. The growth analysis performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy indicated decrease in growth of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity. Morphological analysis by Bio-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bio-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) did not reveal much difference between normal and low shear modeled microgravity grown S. pyogenes. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, hygromycin, rifampicin indicates that the bacterium is resistant to hygromycin. Further S. pyogenes cultured under low shear modeled microgravity was found to be more sensitive to ampicillin and rifampicin as compared with normal gravity grown S. pyogenes. The bacteria were tested for the acid, osmotic, temperature and oxidative cross stress resistances. The gene expression of S. pyogenes under low shear modeled microgravity analyzed by microarray revealed upregulation of 26 genes and down regulation of 22 genes by a fold change of 1.5. PMID:26858535

  6. Overexpression and Enzymatic Assessment of Antigenic Fragments of Hyaluronidase Recombinant Protein From Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sadoogh Abbasian, Shabnam; Ghaznavi Rad, Ehsanollah; Akbari, Neda; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; pakzad, Iraj; Abtahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of hyaluronan polymers to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. This enzyme is a dimer of identical subunits. Hyaluronidase has different pharmaceutical and medical applications. Previously, we produced a recombinant hyaluronidase antigenic fragment of Streptococcus pyogenes. Objectives: This study aimed to improve the protein production and purity of hyaluronidase recombinant protein from S. pyogenes. In addition, the enzymatic activity of this protein was investigated. Materials and Methods: The expression of hyaluronidase antigenic fragments was optimized using IPTG concentration, time of induction, temperature, culture, and absorbance of 0.6-0.8-1 at 600 nm. Afterwards, the expressed proteins were purified and the enzymatic activity was assessed by turbid metric method. Results: Data indicated that maximum protein is produced in OD = 0.8, 0.5 mM Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), 37ºC, NB 1.5x, without glucose, incubated for overnight. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein was similar to the commercial form of hyaluronidase. Conclusions: The results showed that an antigenic fragment of the recombinant hyaluronidase protein from S. pyogenes has a considerable enzymatic activity. It can be suggested to use it for medical purposes. In addition, applications of bioinformatics software would facilitate the production of a smaller protein with same antigenic properties and enzymatic activity. PMID:25789122

  7. Streptococcus pyogenes Arginine and Citrulline Catabolism Promotes Infection and Modulates Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Zachary T.; Watson, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    A bacterium's ability to acquire nutrients from its host during infection is an essential component of pathogenesis. For the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, catabolism of the amino acid arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway supplements energy production and provides protection against acid stress in vitro. Its expression is enhanced in murine models of infection, suggesting an important role in vivo. To gain insight into the function of the ADI pathway in pathogenesis, the virulence of mutants defective in each of its enzymes was examined. Mutants unable to use arginine (ΔArcA) or citrulline (ΔArcB) were attenuated for carriage in a murine model of asymptomatic mucosal colonization. However, in a murine model of inflammatory infection of cutaneous tissue, the ΔArcA mutant was attenuated but the ΔArcB mutant was hyperattenuated, revealing an unexpected tissue-specific role for citrulline metabolism in pathogenesis. When mice defective for the arginine-dependent production of nitric oxide (iNOS−/−) were infected with the ΔArcA mutant, cutaneous virulence was rescued, demonstrating that the ability of S. pyogenes to utilize arginine was dispensable in the absence of nitric oxide-mediated innate immunity. This work demonstrates the importance of arginine and citrulline catabolism and suggests a novel mechanism of virulence by which S. pyogenes uses its metabolism to modulate innate immunity through depletion of an essential host nutrient. PMID:24144727

  8. Streptococcus pyogenes Pneumonia in Adults: Clinical Presentation and Molecular Characterization of Isolates 2006-2015

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Esther; Montes, Milagrosa; Vicente, Diego; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the preantibiotic era Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of severe pneumonia but currently, except for postinfluenza complications, it is not considered a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Aim and Material and Methods This study aimed to identify current clinical episodes of S. pyogenes pneumonia, its relationship with influenza virus circulation and the genotypes of the involved isolates during a decade in a Southern European region (Gipuzkoa, northern Spain). Molecular analysis of isolates included emm, multilocus-sequence typing, and superantigen profile determination. Results Forty episodes were detected (annual incidence 1.1 x 100,000 inhabitants, range 0.29–2.29). Thirty-seven episodes were community-acquired, 21 involved an invasive infection and 10 developed STSS. The associated mortality rate was 20%, with half of the patients dying within 24 hours after admission. Influenza coinfection was confirmed in four patients and suspected in another. The 52.5% of episodes occurred outside the influenza seasonal epidemic. The 67.5% of affected persons were elderly individuals and adults with severe comorbidities, although 13 patients had no comorbidities, 2 of them had a fatal outcome. Eleven clones were identified, the most prevalent being emm1/ST28 (43.6%) causing the most severe cases. Conclusions S. pyogenes pneumonia had a continuous presence frequently unrelated to influenza infection, being rapidly fatal even in previously healthy individuals. PMID:27027618

  9. The structural characterization of a prophage-encoded extracellular DNase from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Korczynska, Justyna E; Turkenburg, Johan P; Taylor, Edward J

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenic bacterium Group A Streptococcus pyogenes produces several extracellular DNases that have been shown to facilitate invasive infection by evading the human host immune system. DNases degrade the chromatin in neutrophil extracellular traps, enabling the bacterium to evade neutrophil capture. Spd1 is a type I, nonspecific ββα/metal-dependent nuclease from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is encoded by the SF370.1 prophage and is likely to be expressed as a result of prophage induction. We present here the X-ray structure of this DNase in the wild-type and Asn145Ala mutant form. Through structural and sequence alignments as well as mutagenesis studies, we have identified the key residues His121, Asn145 and Glu164, which are crucial for Spd1 nucleolytic activity and shown the active site constellation. Our wild-type structure alludes to the possibility of a catalytically blocked dimeric form of the protein. We have investigated the multimeric nature of Spd1 using size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALLS) in the presence and absence of the divalent metal ion Mg(2+), which suggests that Spd1 exists in a monomeric form in solution. PMID:21948797

  10. The structural characterization of a prophage-encoded extracellular DNase from Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Korczynska, Justyna E.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Taylor, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenic bacterium Group A Streptococcus pyogenes produces several extracellular DNases that have been shown to facilitate invasive infection by evading the human host immune system. DNases degrade the chromatin in neutrophil extracellular traps, enabling the bacterium to evade neutrophil capture. Spd1 is a type I, nonspecific ββα/metal-dependent nuclease from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is encoded by the SF370.1 prophage and is likely to be expressed as a result of prophage induction. We present here the X-ray structure of this DNase in the wild-type and Asn145Ala mutant form. Through structural and sequence alignments as well as mutagenesis studies, we have identified the key residues His121, Asn145 and Glu164, which are crucial for Spd1 nucleolytic activity and shown the active site constellation. Our wild-type structure alludes to the possibility of a catalytically blocked dimeric form of the protein. We have investigated the multimeric nature of Spd1 using size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALLS) in the presence and absence of the divalent metal ion Mg2+, which suggests that Spd1 exists in a monomeric form in solution. PMID:21948797

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS)

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Kristin M.; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.; Dawid, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%. PMID:26988046

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Jacob, Kristin M; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J; Dawid, Suzanne R; Watson, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%. PMID:26988046

  13. Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis following a Streptococcus pyogenes Toxic Shock Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Roussy, Jean-François; Allard, Catherine; St-Germain, Guy; Pépin, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection and the gastrointestinal form is the rarest. Rhizopus sp. is the most frequent pathogen and infection occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients. We describe the first case of intestinal mucormycosis occurring after a Streptococcus pyogenes toxic shock syndrome in a previously healthy patient caused by Rhizopus microsporus var. azygosporus. PMID:22900216

  14. Frequency of Spontaneous Resistance to Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 in Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Min, Sharon; Ingraham, Karen; Huang, Jianzhong; McCloskey, Lynn; Rilling, Sarah; Windau, Anne; Pizzollo, Jason; Butler, Deborah; Aubart, Kelly; Miller, Linda A; Zalacain, Magdalena; Holmes, David J; O'Dwyer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is compromising the successful treatment of serious microbial infections. GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor, shows good in vitro antibacterial activity and has demonstrated safety and efficacy in human proof-of-concept clinical studies. In vitro studies were performed to determine the frequency of resistance (FoR) to this antimicrobial agent in major pathogens that cause respiratory tract and skin infections. Resistance to GSK1322322 occurred at high frequency through loss-of-function mutations in the formyl-methionyl transferase (FMT) protein in Staphylococcus aureus (4/4 strains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (4/4 strains) and via missense mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae (6/21 strains), but the mutations were associated with severe in vitro and/or in vivo fitness costs. The overall FoR to GSK1322322 was very low in Haemophilus influenzae, with only one PDF mutant being identified in one of four strains. No target-based mutants were identified from S. pyogenes, and only one or no PDF mutants were isolated in three of the four S. aureus strains studied. In S. pneumoniae, PDF mutants were isolated from only six of 21 strains tested; an additional 10 strains did not yield colonies on GSK1322322-containing plates. Most of the PDF mutants characterized from those three organisms (35/37 mutants) carried mutations in residues at or in close proximity to one of three highly conserved motifs that are part of the active site of the PDF protein, with 30 of the 35 mutations occurring at position V71 (using the S. pneumoniae numbering system). PMID:26014938

  15. Frequency of Spontaneous Resistance to Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 in Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ingraham, Karen; Huang, Jianzhong; McCloskey, Lynn; Rilling, Sarah; Windau, Anne; Pizzollo, Jason; Butler, Deborah; Aubart, Kelly; Miller, Linda A.; Zalacain, Magdalena; Holmes, David J.; O'Dwyer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is compromising the successful treatment of serious microbial infections. GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor, shows good in vitro antibacterial activity and has demonstrated safety and efficacy in human proof-of-concept clinical studies. In vitro studies were performed to determine the frequency of resistance (FoR) to this antimicrobial agent in major pathogens that cause respiratory tract and skin infections. Resistance to GSK1322322 occurred at high frequency through loss-of-function mutations in the formyl-methionyl transferase (FMT) protein in Staphylococcus aureus (4/4 strains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (4/4 strains) and via missense mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae (6/21 strains), but the mutations were associated with severe in vitro and/or in vivo fitness costs. The overall FoR to GSK1322322 was very low in Haemophilus influenzae, with only one PDF mutant being identified in one of four strains. No target-based mutants were identified from S. pyogenes, and only one or no PDF mutants were isolated in three of the four S. aureus strains studied. In S. pneumoniae, PDF mutants were isolated from only six of 21 strains tested; an additional 10 strains did not yield colonies on GSK1322322-containing plates. Most of the PDF mutants characterized from those three organisms (35/37 mutants) carried mutations in residues at or in close proximity to one of three highly conserved motifs that are part of the active site of the PDF protein, with 30 of the 35 mutations occurring at position V71 (using the S. pneumoniae numbering system). PMID:26014938

  16. Carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children in Pokhara, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Gokhale, Shishir; Sharma, Annavarapu Laxminarasimha; Gupta, Umesh; Gaur, Abhishek; Gowda, Supram; Raut, Shristi; Thapa, Sangeeta; Khadka, Rupendra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children. Methods Specimen from posterior pharyngeal wall and tonsils were collected on calcium alginate coated swabs from 102 participants. Processing of specimen and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by standard procedures. Results Potential pathogens isolated in our study were S. pneumoniae (14.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.7%), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (3.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes (3.9%) and Haemophilus influenzae (1.9%). Important findings in antibiogram include high resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin (73%) and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin (23%). Conclusions Pharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae among school children was found high and there is need of introduction of pneumococcal vaccines among children. Despite expected universal vaccination, pharyngeal colonization by Corynebacterium diphtheriae is possible and there is possibility of transmission.

  17. Streptococcus pyogenes in the throat: a study in a small population, 1962-1975.

    PubMed Central

    Hope-Simpson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general practice population of around 6700 was kept under clinical and laboratory surveillance from 1962 to 1975. Illnesses totalled 18703 in three morbidity classes: sore throat (Throats) 4451, acute febrile respiratory diseases (FRD) 4934, acute non-febrile respiratory diseases (Non-FRD) 9318. Specimens were examined for beta-haemolytic streptococci (BHS) from 37.1% of these illnesses: from Throats 33.3%, from FRD 67.8%, from Non-FRD 22.6%, and 515 specimens were collected from a miscellaneous ("Other') class consisting of healthy persons and ailments that could not have had a streptococcal component. Strains of BHS were isolated from 7448 specimens as follows: group A (Streptococcus pyogenes) 353, group C 36, group G 15, other groups 274. Group A strains were isolated from specimens at the following rates: Throats 16.7%, FRD 2.4%, Non-FRD 0.9%. Other 1.4%. The last two classes reflect the carrier rate in the general community, which must be deducted to obtain the streptococcal morbidity in the other classes. Carriers thus accounted for 6% of the strains isolated from the Throats class and for 42% of those from FRD illnesses. No consistent seasonal trend of prevalence was detected. Long-term fluctuations in prevalence over several years affected all groups and most group A serotypes. Serotyping was performed on 304 strains from 1963 to 1975. The commonest types found were T-types 4 and 12 and M-type 12. Immunity against re-infection by identical strains appeared to be fairly strong and also against heterotypic strains that shared a T-antigen, but little protection was conferred against re-infection by group A strains with no shared M- or T- antigen. R-28 antigen is considered here as a marker epidemiologically equivalent to an M-antigen. Epidemicity, as measured by a simple estimate of aggregation, appeared to be low and there were differences between and within serotypes. The infecting organism appeared to linger in the pharynx, sometimes for several months, after a streptococcal illness. PMID:7019317

  18. Streptococcus pyogenes Malate Degradation Pathway Links pH Regulation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Paluscio, Elyse

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to infect different niches within its human host most likely relies on its ability to utilize alternative carbon sources. In examining this question, we discovered that all sequenced S. pyogenes strains possess the genes for the malic enzyme (ME) pathway, which allows malate to be used as a supplemental carbon source for growth. ME is comprised of four genes in two adjacent operons, with the regulatory two-component MaeKR required for expression of genes encoding a malate permease (maeP) and malic enzyme (maeE). Analysis of transcription indicated that expression of maeP and maeE is induced by both malate and low pH, and induction in response to both cues is dependent on the MaeK sensor kinase. Furthermore, both maePE and maeKR are repressed by glucose, which occurs via a CcpA-independent mechanism. Additionally, malate utilization requires the PTS transporter EI enzyme (PtsI), as a PtsI– mutant fails to express the ME genes and is unable to utilize malate. Virulence of selected ME mutants was assessed in a murine model of soft tissue infection. MaeP–, MaeK–, and MaeR– mutants were attenuated for virulence, whereas a MaeE– mutant showed enhanced virulence compared to that of the wild type. Taken together, these data show that ME contributes to S. pyogenes' carbon source repertory, that malate utilization is a highly regulated process, and that a single regulator controls ME expression in response to diverse signals. Furthermore, malate uptake and utilization contribute to the adaptive pH response, and ME can influence the outcome of infection. PMID:25583521

  19. Scrum kidney: epidemic pyoderma caused by a nephritogenic Streptococcus pyogenes in a rugby team.

    PubMed

    Ludlam, H; Cookson, B

    1986-08-01

    In December, 1984, an outbreak of pyoderma affected five scrum players in the St Thomas' Hospital rugby team. The causative organism, Streptococcus pyogenes, was acquired during a match against a team experiencing an outbreak of impetigo, and was transmitted to two front row players of another team a week later, and to two girlfriends of affected St Thomas' players a month later. The strain was M-type 49, tetracycline-resistant, and virulent. It caused salpingitis in a girlfriend and acute glomerulonephritis in one rugby player. No case of subclinical glomerulonephritis was detected in eight patients with pyoderma. Screening of the St Thomas' Hospital team revealed four further cases of non-streptococcal skin infection, with evidence for contemporaneous spread of Staphylococcus aureus. Teams should not field players with sepsis, and it may be advisable to apply a skin antiseptic to traumatised skin after the match. PMID:2874337

  20. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric Pressure on Penicillin Binding by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes1

    PubMed Central

    Schlamm, N. A.; Daily, O. P.

    1973-01-01

    A gas pressure of 68 atm, elicited by helium-oxygen gas mixtures, reduced the susceptibility to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Streptococcus pyogenes. The elevated pressure also caused a reduction in the binding of 14C-penicillin to S. aureus, but not to S. pyogenes. When these studies were extended to glycine incorporation, it was shown that, even without penicillin, pressurization reduced glycine incorporation into the cell wall of S. aureus. Incorporation into other cellular components was not altered by pressurization. Cells grown in a pressurized environment were slightly more susceptible than those grown at 1 atm to rapid change in osmotic pressure. In the presence of penicillin, glycine incorporation into the cell wall was reduced to the same low level at 68 atm and at 1 atm. These results suggest that pressurization renders S. aureus less susceptible to penicillin because it reduces the enzymatic activity of the binding component on the cell, a penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase. PMID:4597711

  1. Effect of elevated atmospheric pressure on penicillin binding by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Schlamm, N A; Daily, O P

    1973-02-01

    A gas pressure of 68 atm, elicited by helium-oxygen gas mixtures, reduced the susceptibility to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Streptococcus pyogenes. The elevated pressure also caused a reduction in the binding of (14)C-penicillin to S. aureus, but not to S. pyogenes. When these studies were extended to glycine incorporation, it was shown that, even without penicillin, pressurization reduced glycine incorporation into the cell wall of S. aureus. Incorporation into other cellular components was not altered by pressurization. Cells grown in a pressurized environment were slightly more susceptible than those grown at 1 atm to rapid change in osmotic pressure. In the presence of penicillin, glycine incorporation into the cell wall was reduced to the same low level at 68 atm and at 1 atm. These results suggest that pressurization renders S. aureus less susceptible to penicillin because it reduces the enzymatic activity of the binding component on the cell, a penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase. PMID:4597711

  2. An improved SELEX technique for selection of DNA aptamers binding to M-type 11 of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Hamula, Camille L A; Peng, Hanyong; Wang, Zhixin; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X Chris

    2016-03-15

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a clinically important pathogen consisting of various serotypes determined by different M proteins expressed on the cell surface. The M type is therefore a useful marker to monitor the spread of invasive S. pyogenes in a population. Serotyping and nucleic acid amplification/sequencing methods for the identification of M types are laborious, inconsistent, and usually confined to reference laboratories. The primary objective of this work is to develop a technique that enables generation of aptamers binding to specific M-types of S. pyogenes. We describe here an in vitro technique that directly used live bacterial cells and the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) strategy. Live S. pyogenes cells were incubated with DNA libraries consisting of 40-nucleotides randomized sequences. Those sequences that bound to the cells were separated, amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), purified using gel electrophoresis, and served as the input DNA pool for the next round of SELEX selection. A specially designed forward primer containing extended polyA20/5Sp9 facilitated gel electrophoresis purification of ssDNA after PCR amplification. A counter-selection step using non-target cells was introduced to improve selectivity. DNA libraries of different starting sequence diversity (10(16) and 10(14)) were compared. Aptamer pools from each round of selection were tested for their binding to the target and non-target cells using flow cytometry. Selected aptamer pools were then cloned and sequenced. Individual aptamer sequences were screened on the basis of their binding to the 10 M-types that were used as targets. Aptamer pools obtained from SELEX rounds 5-8 showed high affinity to the target S. pyogenes cells. Tests against non-target Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species demonstrated selectivity of these aptamers for binding to S. pyogenes. Several aptamer sequences were found to bind preferentially to the M11 M-type of S. pyogenes. Estimated binding dissociation constants (Kd) were in the low nanomolar range for the M11 specific sequences; for example, sequence E-CA20 had a Kd of 7±1nM. These affinities are comparable to those of a monoclonal antibody. The improved bacterial cell-SELEX technique is successful in generating aptamers selective for S. pyogenes and some of its M-types. These aptamers are potentially useful for detecting S. pyogenes, achieving binding profiles of the various M-types, and developing new M-typing technologies for non-specialized laboratories or point-of-care testing. PMID:26678795

  3. Functional and Structural Properties of a Novel Protein and Virulence Factor (Protein sHIP) in Streptococcus pyogenes *

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewska, Magdalena; Happonen, Lotta; Kahn, Fredrik; Varjosalo, Markku; Malmström, Lars; Rosenberger, George; Karlsson, Christofer; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Pozdnyakova, Irina; Frick, Inga-Maria; Björck, Lars; Streicher, Werner; Malmström, Johan; Wikström, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant bacterial pathogen in the human population. The importance of virulence factors for the survival and colonization of S. pyogenes is well established, and many of these factors are exposed to the extracellular environment, enabling bacterial interactions with the host. In the present study, we quantitatively analyzed and compared S. pyogenes proteins in the growth medium of a strain that is virulent to mice with a non-virulent strain. Particularly, one of these proteins was present at significantly higher levels in stationary growth medium from the virulent strain. We determined the three-dimensional structure of the protein that showed a unique tetrameric organization composed of four helix-loop-helix motifs. Affinity pull-down mass spectrometry analysis in human plasma demonstrated that the protein interacts with histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), and the name sHIP (streptococcal histidine-rich glycoprotein-interacting protein) is therefore proposed. HRG has antibacterial activity, and when challenged by HRG, sHIP was found to rescue S. pyogenes bacteria. This and the finding that patients with invasive S. pyogenes infection respond with antibody production against sHIP suggest a role for the protein in S. pyogenes pathogenesis. PMID:24825900

  4. Molecular modeling on streptolysin-O of multidrug resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and computer aided screening and in vitro assay for novel herbal inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Narayan, Naik Sowmyalaxmi; Aggimath, Tejaswini S; Nagaraj, Sushmitha; Reddy, Monika S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a notorious pathogenic bacterium which causes various human diseases ranging from localized infections to life threatening invasive diseases. Streptolysin-O (SLO), pore-forming thiol-activated cytolysin, is the major virulent factor for streptococcal infections. Present therapies against streptococcal infections are limited as most of the strains have developed multi-drug resistance to present generation of drugs. Hence, there is a need for alternative therapeutic substances. Structure based virtual screening is a novel platform to select lead molecules with better pharmacokinetic properties. The 3D structure of SLO (not available in native form), essential for such studies, was computationally generated and this homology model was used as probable drug target. Based on literature survey, several phytoligands from 25 medicinal plants were selected. Out of these, leads from 11 plants showed better pharmacokinetic properties. The best lead molecules were screened based on computer aided drug likeness and pharmacokinetic predictions. The inhibitory properties of selected herbal leads against SLO were studied by molecular docking. An in vitro assay was further carried out and variations observed were found to be significant (p<0.05). Antibiotic sensitivity testing was also performed with the clinical strain of Streptococcus pyogenes with conventional drugs. The clinical strain showed multi-drug resistance to conventional drugs. Our study revealed that numerous phytoligands have better inhibitory properties towards the toxin. We noticed that incorporation of selected herbal extracts in blood agar medium showed significant reduction in hemolysis (MIC 300μl/plate), indicating inhibition of SLO. Furthermore, the butanol extracts of selected herbal preparation based on computer aided screening showed significant inhibitory properties at 250 mcg/disc concentration. We also noticed that selected herbal formulations have better antimicrobial properties at MIC range of 300- 400μl. Hence, our study suggests that these herbal extracts have better inhibitory properties against the toxin as well as drug resistant Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:24694051

  5. Rapid identification of the animal pathogens Streptococcus uberis and Arcanobacterium pyogenes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Werckenthin, Christiane; Gey, Annerose; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Poppert, Sven

    2012-05-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been reported to be an easy and rapid identification method for many human pathogens, but applications for common veterinary pathogens are lacking. Gene probes for FISH of the animal pathogens Streptococcus uberis and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were designed to provide probes for a specific identification of these bacteria from cultures. Specific FISH probes for these species have so far not been published. Both probes recognized all isolates of the target species correctly. With the S. uberis probe SUB 196 no false-positive results were obtained for reference strains as well as for clinical isolates. Probe APYO 183 for A. pyogenes produced false-positive reactions with so far rarely described Arcanobacterium species from animals at standard hybridization conditions. In order to avoid any incorrect classifications of microorganisms as A. pyogenes, two non-labelled competitor probes were designed and successfully evaluated. PMID:22033042

  6. Essential Genes in the Core Genome of the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Le Breton, Yoann; Belew, Ashton T.; Valdes, Kayla M.; Islam, Emrul; Curry, Patrick; Tettelin, Hervé; Shirtliff, Mark E.; El-Sayed, Najib M.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) remains a major public health burden worldwide, infecting over 750 million people leading to over 500,000 deaths annually. GAS pathogenesis is complex, involving genetically distinct GAS strains and multiple infection sites. To overcome fastidious genetic manipulations and accelerate pathogenesis investigations in GAS, we developed a mariner-based system (Krmit) for en masse monitoring of complex mutant pools by transposon sequencing (Tn-seq). Highly saturated transposant libraries (Krmit insertions in ca. every 25 nucleotides) were generated in two distinct GAS clinical isolates, a serotype M1T1 invasive strain 5448 and a nephritogenic serotype M49 strain NZ131, and analyzed using a Bayesian statistical model to predict GAS essential genes, identifying sets of 227 and 241 of those genes in 5448 and NZ131, respectively. A large proportion of GAS essential genes corresponded to key cellular processes and metabolic pathways, and 177 were found conserved within the GAS core genome established from 20 available GAS genomes. Selected essential genes were validated using conditional-expression mutants. Finally, comparison to previous essentiality analyses in S. sanguinis and S. pneumoniae revealed significant overlaps, providing valuable insights for the development of new antimicrobials to treat infections by GAS and other pathogenic streptococci. PMID:25996237

  7. PepO, a CovRS-controlled endopeptidase, disrupts Streptococcus pyogenes quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Reid V; Chang, Jennifer C; Federle, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a human-restricted pathogen with a capacity to both colonize asymptomatically and cause illnesses ranging from pharyngitis to necrotizing fasciitis. An understanding of how and when GAS switches between genetic programs governing these different lifestyles has remained an enduring mystery and likely requires carefully tuned environmental sensors to activate and silence genetic schemes when appropriate. Herein, we describe the relationship between the Control of Virulence (CovRS, CsrRS) two-component system and the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing pathway. We demonstrate that responses of CovRS to the stress signals Mg(2+) and a fragment of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 result in modulated activity of pheromone signaling of the Rgg2/3 pathway through a means of proteolysis of SHP peptide pheromones. This degradation is mediated by the cytoplasmic endopeptidase PepO, which is the first identified enzymatic silencer of an RRNPP-type quorum-sensing pathway. These results suggest that under conditions in which the virulence potential of GAS is elevated (i.e. enhanced virulence gene expression), cellular responses mediated by the Rgg2/3 pathway are abrogated and allow individuals to escape from group behavior. These results also indicate that Rgg2/3 signaling is instead functional during non-virulent GAS lifestyles. PMID:26418177

  8. Zn2+ Uptake in Streptococcus pyogenes: Characterization of adcA and lmb Null Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Tedde, Vittorio; Rosini, Roberto; Galeotti, Cesira L.

    2016-01-01

    An effective regulation of metal ion homeostasis is essential for the growth of microorganisms in any environment and in pathogenic bacteria is strongly associated with their ability to invade and colonise their hosts. To gain a better insight into zinc acquisition in Group A Streptococcus (GAS) we characterized null deletion mutants of the adcA and lmb genes of Streptococcus pyogenes strain MGAS5005 encoding the orthologues of AdcA and AdcAII, the two surface lipoproteins with partly redundant roles in zinc homeostasis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Null adcA and lmb mutants were analysed for their capability to grow in zinc-depleted conditions and were found to be more susceptible to zinc starvation, a phenotype that could be rescued by the addition of Zn2+ ions to the growth medium. Expression of AdcA, Lmb and HtpA, the polyhistidine triad protein encoded by the gene adjacent to lmb, during growth under conditions of limited zinc availability was examined by Western blot analysis in wild type and null mutant strains. In the wild type strain, AdcA was always present with little variation in expression levels between conditions of excess or limited zinc availability. In contrast, Lmb and HtpA were expressed at detectable levels only during growth in the presence of low zinc concentrations or in the null adcA mutant, when expression of lmb is required to compensate for the lack of adcA expression. In the latter case, Lmb and HtpA were overexpressed by several fold, thus indicating that also in GAS AdcA is a zinc-specific importer and, although it shares this function with Lmb, the two substrate-binding proteins do not show fully overlapping roles in zinc homeostasis. PMID:27031880

  9. Intranasal vaccination with streptococcal fibronectin binding protein Sfb1 fails to prevent growth and dissemination of Streptococcus pyogenes in a murine skin infection model.

    PubMed

    McArthur, J; Medina, E; Mueller, A; Chin, J; Currie, B J; Sriprakash, K S; Talay, S R; Chhatwal, G S; Walker, M J

    2004-12-01

    Fibronectin binding protein F1 (Sfb1) of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is a well-characterized adhesin that has been shown to induce protection in mice against a lethal intranasal GAS challenge after intranasal immunization with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as adjuvant. With a murine skin infection model, we have shown that Sfb1/CTB vaccination neither elicits opsonizing antibodies nor prevents systemic bacterial growth and dissemination to internal organs after a subcutaneous GAS challenge. These results indicate that an Sfb1-based vaccine should be complemented with additional protective antigens in order to be used in areas such as the tropical north of Australia, where the skin is the primary route of entry for invasive streptococcal diseases. PMID:15557665

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes emm28 Clinical Isolate M28PF1, Responsible for a Puerperal Fever

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Magalie; De Jode, Mathieu; Plainvert, Céline; Weckel, Antonin; Hua, Anna; Château, Alice; Glaser, Philippe; Poyart, Claire

    2015-01-01

    We report the sequence of the Streptococcus pyogenes emm28 strain M28PF1, isolated from a patient with postpartum endometritis. The M28 protein is smaller than that of MGAS6180 (NC_007296.1). Furthermore, the 1,896,976-bp-long chromosome presents, compared to that of MGAS6180, an inversion between the two comX genes. PMID:26184934

  11. Adherence of streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to fibronectin-coated and uncoated epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, S N; Beachey, E H; Simpson, W A

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between the variability in the fibronectin (Fn) content on human buccal epithelial cells and the capacity of the cells to bind gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes) or gram-negative (Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria was investigated. Adhesion experiments performed with mixtures of epithelial cells and mixed suspensions of either S. pyogenes and E. coli or S. pyogenes and P. aeruginosa exhibited three major populations of buccal cells: one of these was able to bind S. pyogenes (gram positive) but neither of the gram-negative bacteria; a second population was able to bind the gram-negative but not the gram-positive bacteria; and a third was able to bind various numbers of both types of organisms. Further adhesion experiments performed with a mixture of epithelial cells and a mixed suspension of S. pyrogens, E. coli, and fluoresceinconjugated methacrylate beads coated with immune immunoglobulin G directed against Fn revealed that the epithelial cells recognizing the gram-positive bacteria were rich in Fn, whereas those recognizing the gram-negative organisms were poor in Fn. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that cells of S. pyogenes bound to epithelial cells coated with Fn, whereas cells of E. coli bound to epithelial cells lacking Fn. These results suggest that Fn on the surfaces of epithelial cells may modulate the ecology of the human oropharyngeal cavity, especially with respect to the colonization of these surfaces by pathogenic gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria. Images PMID:6411621

  12. Antagonistic Rgg Regulators Mediate Quorum Sensing via Competitive DNA Binding in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    LaSarre, Breah; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have established the fact that multiple members of the Rgg family of transcriptional regulators serve as key components of quorum sensing (QS) pathways that utilize peptides as intercellular signaling molecules. We previously described a novel QS system in Streptococcus pyogenes which utilizes two Rgg-family regulators (Rgg2 and Rgg3) that respond to neighboring signaling peptides (SHP2 and SHP3) to control gene expression and biofilm formation. We have shown that Rgg2 is a transcriptional activator of target genes, whereas Rgg3 represses expression of these genes, and that SHPs function to activate the QS system. The mechanisms by which Rgg proteins regulate both QS-dependent and QS-independent processes remain poorly defined; thus, we sought to further elucidate how Rgg2 and Rgg3 mediate gene regulation. Here we provide evidence that S. pyogenes employs a unique mechanism of direct competition between the antagonistic, peptide-responsive proteins Rgg2 and Rgg3 for binding at target promoters. The highly conserved, shared binding sites for Rgg2 and Rgg3 are located proximal to the −35 nucleotide in the target promoters, and the direct competition between the two regulators results in concentration-dependent, exclusive occupation of the target promoters that can be skewed in favor of Rgg2 in vitro by the presence of SHP. These results suggest that exclusionary binding of target promoters by Rgg3 may prevent Rgg2 binding under SHP-limiting conditions, thereby preventing premature induction of the quorum sensing circuit. PMID:23188510

  13. Molecular characterization of macrolide resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from pharyngitis patients in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Opavski, Natasa; Gajic, Ina; Borek, Anna L; Obszańska, Katarzyna; Stanojevic, Maja; Lazarevic, Ivana; Ranin, Lazar; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Mijac, Vera

    2015-07-01

    A steady increase in macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes, group A streptococci (GAS) was reported in Serbia during 2004-2009 (9.9%). However, there are no data on the molecular epidemiology of pharyngeal macrolide resistance GAS (MRGAS) isolates. Therefore, the aims of this first nationwide study were to examine the prevalence of macrolide resistance in Serbian GAS and to determine their resistance phenotypes, genotypes and clonal relationships. Overall 3893 non-duplicate pharyngeal S. pyogenes isolates from outpatients with GAS infection were collected throughout country during 2008 and 2009. Among 486 macrolide resistant pharyngeal isolates collected, 103 were further characterized. Macrolide resistance phenotypes and genotypes were determined by double-disk diffusion test and PCR, respectively. Strain relatedness was determined by emm typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), phage profiling (PP) and virulence factor profiling (VFP). Overall, macrolide resistance among GAS isolates in Serbia was 12.5%. M phenotype was the most common (71.8%), followed by iMLS (18.4%) and cMLS (9.7%). Three clonal complexes--emm75/mefA/ST49, emm12/mefA/ST36 and emm77/ermA/tetO/ST63 comprised over 90% of the tested strains. Although MLVA, PP and VFP distinguished 10, 20 and 12 different patterns, respectively, cluster analysis disclosed only small differences between strains which belonged to the same emm/ST type. Our data indicate dominance of three major internationally widely disseminated macrolide resistant clones and a high genetic homogeneity among the Serbian MRGAS population. Continued surveillance of macrolide resistance and clonal composition in MRGAS in Serbia in future is necessary to determine stability of MRGAS clones and to guide therapy strategies. PMID:25976381

  14. Superantigenicity of helper T-cell mitogen (SPM-2) isolated from culture supernatants of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Rikiishi, H; Okamoto, S; Sugawara, S; Tamura, K; Liu, Z X; Kumagai, K

    1997-01-01

    A superantigen (Streptococcus pyogenes mitogen-2; SPM-2) that stimulates human helper T cells bearing unique types of variable domains of T-cell receptor beta-chain (TCR V beta) was isolated from the culture supernatant of S. pyogenes strain T12. The active molecule isolated by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose chromatography and isoelectric focusing was a protein with a molecular weight (MW) of 29,000 and isoelectric point (pl) of 6.0. This new superantigen was found to activate preferentially V beta 4+, 7+, and 8+ T cells, whereas recombinant streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and C activated V beta 12+ and V beta 2+ T cells, respectively, as determined by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. This proliferative response was significantly inhibited by anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody, and required paraformaldehyde-fixed antigen-presenting cells (APC), indicating that this action is dependent on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules without processing. Analysis of the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the molecule failed to find any identical or significantly homologous proteins. We have previously reported that cytoplasmic membrane-associated protein (CAP), a streptococcal superantigen isolated from the cell membranes of S. pyogenes T12 strain, stimulated mainly V beta 8+ T cells. Both SPM-2 and CAP preferentially stimulated helper T cells, and rabbit antiserum against SPM-2 completely neutralized the T-cell-stimulating activities of CAP, suggesting that SPM-2 and CAP belong to a family of streptococcal mitogenic proteins. The SPM-2 activity with stimulation of V beta 8+ T cells was detected extensively in the culture fluids of group A streptococci, but not in those of other streptococcal species, including groups B and D streptococci, and most of the activities detected were completely inhibited by anti-SPM-2 serum. These results indicate that SPM-2 may be a newly discovered superantigen molecule, which can be commonly synthesized by group A streptococci. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9301530

  15. [Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. The spectrum from Kimura disease to atypical pyogenic granuloma].

    PubMed

    Wustrow, A; Mahrle, G

    1987-04-15

    A patient showed the "atypical pyogenic granuloma" of the head in combination with atopic dermatitis and proceeding pyogenic granuloma of the back. The diagnostic aspects of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) including Kimura's disease, subcutaneous ALHE, and atypical pyogenic granuloma are discussed. PMID:3111112

  16. Transcription of the Streptococcus pyogenes Hyaluronic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis Operon Is Regulated by Previously Unknown Upstream Elements

    PubMed Central

    Falaleeva, Marina; Zurek, Oliwia W.; Watkins, Robert L.; Reed, Robert W.; Ali, Hadeel; Sumby, Paul; Voyich, Jovanka M.

    2014-01-01

    The important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) produces a hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule that plays critical roles in immune evasion. Previous studies showed that the hasABC operon encoding the capsule biosynthesis enzymes is under the control of a single promoter, P1, which is negatively regulated by the two-component regulatory system CovR/S. In this work, we characterize the sequence upstream of P1 and identify a novel regulatory region controlling transcription of the capsule biosynthesis operon in the M1 serotype strain MGAS2221. This region consists of a promoter, P2, which initiates transcription of a novel small RNA, HasS, an intrinsic transcriptional terminator that inefficiently terminates HasS, permitting read-through transcription of hasABC, and a putative promoter which lies upstream of P2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and transcriptional reporter data identified CovR as a negative regulator of P2. We found that the P1 and P2 promoters are completely repressed by CovR, and capsule expression is regulated by the putative promoter upstream of P2. Deletion of hasS or of the terminator eliminates CovR-binding sequences, relieving repression and increasing read-through, hasA transcription, and capsule production. Sequence analysis of 44 GAS genomes revealed a high level of polymorphism in the HasS sequence region. Most of the HasS variations were located in the terminator sequences, suggesting that this region is under strong selective pressure. We discovered that the terminator deletion mutant is highly resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing and is significantly more virulent in a mouse model of GAS invasive disease than the wild-type strain. Together, these results are consistent with the naturally occurring mutations in this region modulating GAS virulence. PMID:25287924

  17. Distinct Time-Resolved Roles for Two Catabolite-Sensing Pathways during Streptococcus pyogenes Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Kietzman, Colin C.; Caparon, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Many Gram-positive pathogens link the expression of virulence genes to the presence of carbon source substrates using overlapping pathways for global control of carbon catabolite regulation. However, how these pathways are integrated to control the behavior of the transcriptome in time- and compartment-specific patterns is typically not well understood. In the present study, global transcriptome profiling was used to determine the extent to which glucose alters gene expression in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) and the contributions of the CcpA and LacD.1 catabolite control pathways to the regulation of this response in vitro. This analysis revealed that the expression of as many as 15% of the genes examined was regulated and that CcpA and LacD.1 together contribute to the regulation of 60% of this subset. However, numerous patterns were observed, including both CcpA- and LacD.1-specific and independent regulation, coregulation, and regulation of genes by these pathways independently of glucose. In addition, CcpA and LacD.1 had antagonistic effects on most coregulated genes. To resolve the roles of these regulators during infection, the expression of selected transcripts representative of different regulatory patterns was examined in a murine model of soft tissue infection. This revealed distinct patterns of misregulation with respect to time in CcpA? versus LacD.1? mutants. Taken together, these data support an important role for carbohydrate in the regulation of the transcriptome in tissue and suggest that the CcpA and LacD.1 pathways are organized to function at different times during the course of an infection. PMID:21098101

  18. Biochemical and biological activity of arginine deiminase from Streptococcus pyogenes M22.

    PubMed

    Starikova, Eleonora A; Sokolov, Alexey V; Vlasenko, Anna Yu; Burova, Larisa A; Freidlin, Irina S; Vasilyev, Vadim B

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is an important gram-positive extracellular bacterial pathogen responsible for a number of suppurative infections. This micro-organism has developed complex virulence mechanisms to avoid the host's defenses. We have previously reported that SDSC from GAS type M22 causes endothelial-cell dysfunction, and inhibits cell adhesion, migration, metabolism, and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting cell viability. This work aimed to isolate and characterize a component from GAS type M22 supernatant that suppresses the proliferation of endothelial cells (EA.hy926). In the process of isolating a protein possessing antiproliferative activity we identified arginine deiminase (AD). Further study showed that this enzyme is most active at pH 6.8. Calculating Km and Vmax gave the values of 0.67 mmol·L(-1) and 42 s(-1), respectively. A distinctive feature of AD purified from GAS type M22 is that its optimum activity and the maximal rate of the catalytic process is close to neutral pH by comparison with enzymes from other micro-organisms. AD from GAS type M22 suppressed the proliferative activity of endothelial cells in a dose-dependent mode. At the same time, in the presence of AD, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase increased. When l-Arg was added at increasing concentrations to the culture medium containing AD (3 μg·mL(-1)), the enzyme's capacity to inhibit cell proliferation became partially depressed. The proportion of cells in phases S/G2 increased concomitantly, although the cells did not fully recover their proliferation activity. This suggests that AD from GAS type M22 has potential for the suppression of excessive cell proliferation. PMID:26695833

  19. Involvement of T6 Pili in Biofilm Formation by Serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Keiji Richard; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Terao, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) Streptococcus pyogenes is known to cause self-limiting purulent infections in humans. The role of GAS pili in host cell adhesion and biofilm formation is likely fundamental in early colonization. Pilus genes are found in the FCT (fibronectin-binding protein, collagen-binding protein, and trypsin-resistant antigen) genomic region, which has been classified into nine subtypes based on the diversity of gene content and nucleotide sequence. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that FCT type 1 strains, including serotype M6, produce large amounts of monospecies biofilm in vitro. We examined the direct involvement of pili in biofilm formation by serotype M6 clinical isolates. In the majority of tested strains, deletion of the tee6 gene encoding pilus shaft protein T6 compromised the ability to form biofilm on an abiotic surface. Deletion of the fctX and srtB genes, which encode pilus ancillary protein and class C pilus-associated sortase, respectively, also decreased biofilm formation by a representative strain. Unexpectedly, these mutant strains showed increased bacterial aggregation compared with that of the wild-type strain. When the entire FCT type 1 pilus region was ectopically expressed in serotype M1 strain SF370, biofilm formation was promoted and autoaggregation was inhibited. These findings indicate that assembled FCT type 1 pili contribute to biofilm formation and also function as attenuators of bacterial aggregation. Taken together, our results show the potential role of FCT type 1 pili in the pathogenesis of GAS infections. PMID:22155780

  20. Leukotriene B4 enhances innate immune defense against the puerperal sepsis agent Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Elyara M.; Mason, Katie L.; Rogers, Lisa M.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Faccioli, Lucia H.; Aronoff, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Puerperal sepsis is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a major etiologic agent of severe postpartum sepsis yet little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. Tissue macrophages provide innate defense against GAS and their actions are highly regulated. The intracellular second messenger cAMP can negatively regulate macrophage actions against GAS. Because leukotriene (LT) B4 has been shown to suppress intracellular cAMP in macrophages, we hypothesized that it could enhance innate defenses against GAS. We assessed the capacity of LTB4 to modulate anti-streptococcal actions of human macrophages, including placental and decidual macrophages and used a novel intrauterine infection model of GAS in mice lacking the 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) enzyme to determine the role of endogenous LTs in host defense against this pathogen. Animals lacking 5LO were significantly more vulnerable to intrauterine GAS infection than wild-type mice and showed enhanced dissemination of bacteria out of the uterus and a more robust inflammatory response compared to wild-type mice. Additionally, LTB4 reduced intracellular cAMP levels via the BLT1 receptor and was a potent stimulant of macrophage phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase-dependent intracellular killing of GAS. Importantly, interference was observed between the macrophage immunomodulatory actions of LTB4 and the cAMP-inducing lipid prostaglandin E2, suggesting that interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds may be important in vivo. This work underscores the potential for pharmacological targeting of lipid mediator signaling cascades in the treatment of invasive GAS infections. PMID:23325886

  1. Co-Infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: Is Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Underdiagnosed?

    PubMed Central

    Raczniak, Gregory A.; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H.; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S.; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. PMID:25331804

  2. Structural studies of Streptococcus pyogenes streptolysin O provide insights into the early steps of membrane penetration.

    PubMed

    Feil, Susanne C; Ascher, David B; Kuiper, Michael J; Tweten, Rodney K; Parker, Michael W

    2014-02-20

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are a large family of bacterial toxins that exhibit a dependence on the presence of membrane cholesterol in forming large pores in cell membranes. Significant changes in the three-dimensional structure of these toxins are necessary to convert the soluble monomeric protein into a membrane pore. We have determined the crystal structure of the archetypical member of the CDC family, streptolysin O (SLO), a virulence factor from Streptococcus pyogenes. The overall fold is similar to previously reported CDC structures, although the C-terminal domain is in a different orientation with respect to the rest of the molecule. Surprisingly, a signature stretch of CDC sequence called the undecapeptide motif, a key region involved in membrane recognition, adopts a very different structure in SLO to that of the well-characterized CDC perfringolysin O (PFO), although the sequences in this region are identical. An analysis reveals that, in PFO, there are complementary interactions between the motif and the rest of domain 4 that are lost in SLO. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the loss of a salt bridge in SLO and a cation-pi interaction are determining factors in the extended conformation of the motif, which in turn appears to result in a greater flexibility of the neighboring L1 loop that houses a cholesterol-sensing motif. These differences may explain the differing abilities of SLO and PFO to efficiently penetrate target cell membranes in the first step of toxin insertion into the membrane. PMID:24316049

  3. The Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes Releases Lipoproteins as Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Garibaldi, Manuela; Aprea, Susanna; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Doro, Francesco; Becherelli, Marco; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tani, Chiara; Tavarini, Simona; Mora, Marirosa; Teti, Giuseppe; D'Oro, Ugo; Nuti, Sandra; Soriani, Marco; Margarit, Immaculada; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido; Norais, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are attractive vaccine candidates because they represent a major class of cell surface-exposed proteins in many bacteria and are considered as potential pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by Toll-like receptors with built-in adjuvanticity. Although Gram-negative lipoproteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about Gram-positive lipoproteins. We isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes a large amount of lipoproteins organized in vesicles. These vesicles were obtained by weakening the bacterial cell wall with a sublethal concentration of penicillin. Lipid and proteomic analysis of the vesicles revealed that they were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol and almost exclusively composed of lipoproteins. In association with lipoproteins, a few hypothetical proteins, penicillin-binding proteins, and several members of the ExPortal, a membrane microdomain responsible for the maturation of secreted proteins, were identified. The typical lipidic moiety was apparently not necessary for lipoprotein insertion in the vesicle bilayer because they were also recovered from the isogenic diacylglyceryl transferase deletion mutant. The vesicles were not able to activate specific Toll-like receptor 2, indicating that lipoproteins organized in these vesicular structures do not act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In light of these findings, we propose to name these new structures Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles. PMID:26018414

  4. Structural Model for Covalent Adhesion of the Streptococcus pyogenes Pilus through a Thioester Bond*

    PubMed Central

    Linke-Winnebeck, Christian; Paterson, Neil G.; Young, Paul G.; Middleditch, Martin J.; Greenwood, David R.; Witte, Gregor; Baker, Edward N.

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes produces pili that are essential for adhesion to host surface receptors. Cpa, the adhesin at the pilus tip, was recently shown to have a thioester-containing domain. The thioester bond is believed to be important in adhesion, implying a mechanism of covalent attachment analogous to that used by human complement factors. Here, we have characterized a second active thioester-containing domain on Cpa, the N-terminal domain of Cpa (CpaN). Expression of CpaN in Escherichia coli gave covalently linked dimers. These were shown by x-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry to comprise two CpaN molecules cross-linked by the polyamine spermidine following reaction with the thioester bonds. This cross-linked CpaN dimer provides a model for the covalent attachment of Cpa to target receptors and thus the streptococcal pilus to host cells. Similar thioester domains were identified in cell wall proteins of other Gram-positive pathogens, suggesting that thioester domains are more widely used and provide a mechanism of adhesion by covalent bonding to target molecules on host cells that mimics that used by the human complement system to eliminate pathogens. PMID:24220033

  5. Structural Studies of Streptococcus pyogenes Streptolysin O Provide Insights into the Early Steps of Membrane Penetration

    PubMed Central

    Feil, Susanne C.; Ascher, David B.; Kuiper, Michael J.; Tweten, Rodney K.; Parker, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are a large family of bacterial toxins that exhibit a dependence on the presence of membrane cholesterol in forming large pores in cell membranes. Significant changes in the three-dimensional structure of these toxins are necessary to convert the soluble monomeric protein into a membrane pore. We have determined the crystal structure of the archetypical member of the CDC family, streptolysin O (SLO), a virulence factor from Streptococcus pyogenes. The overall fold is similar to previously reported CDC structures, although the C-terminal domain is in a different orientation with respect to the rest of the molecule. Surprisingly, a signature stretch of CDC sequence called the undecapeptide motif, a key region involved in membrane recognition, adopts a very different structure in SLO to that of the well-characterized CDC perfringolysin O (PFO), although the sequences in this region are identical. An analysis reveals that, in PFO, there are complementary interactions between the motif and the rest of domain 4 that are lost in SLO. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the loss of a salt bridge in SLO and a cation–pi interaction are determining factors in the extended conformation of the motif, which in turn appears to result in a greater flexibility of the neighboring L1 loop that houses a cholesterol-sensing motif. These differences may explain the differing abilities of SLO and PFO to efficiently penetrate target cell membranes in the first step of toxin insertion into the membrane. PMID:24316049

  6. Inducer expulsion in Streptococcus pyogenes: properties and mechanism of the efflux reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sutrina, S.L.; Reizer, J.; Saier, M.H Jr.

    1988-04-01

    Expulsion of preaccumulated methyl-..beta..-D-thiogalactoside-phosphate (TMG-P) from Streptococcus pyogenes is a two-step process comprising intracellular dephosphorylation of TMG-P followed by rapid efflux of the intracellularly formed free galactoside. The present study identifies the mechanism and the order and characterizes the temperature dependency of the efflux step. Unidirectional efflux of the intracellularly formed (/sup 14/C)TMG was only slightly affected when measured in the presence of unlabeled TMG (25 to 400 mM) in the extracellular medium. In contrast, pronounced inhibition of net efflux was observed in the presence of relatively low concentrations (1 to 16 mM) of extracellular (/sup 14/C)TMG. Since net efflux was nearly arrested when the external concentration of (/sup 14/C)TMG approached the intracellular concentration of this sugar, we propose that a facilitated diffusion mechanism is responsible for efflux and equilibration of TMG between the intracellular and extracellular milieus. The exit reaction was markedly dependent upon temperature, exhibited a high energy of activation (23 kcal (ca. 96 kJ) per mol), and followed first-order kinetics, indicating that the permease mediating this efflux was not saturated under the conditions of expulsion employed.

  7. Preparation and characterization of monomers to tetramers of a collagen-like domain from Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yong Y; Stoichevska, Violet; Howell, Linda; Madsen, Soren; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Dumsday, Geoff J; Ramshaw, John AM

    2014-01-01

    The collagen like domain Scl2 from Streptococcus pyogenes has been proposed as a potential biomedical material. It is non-cytotoxic and non-immunogenic and can be prepared in good yield in fermentation. The Scl2 collagen domain is about a quarter of the length, 234 residues, of the main collagen type, mammalian type I collagen (1014 residues) that is currently used in biomedical devices. In the present study we have made constructs comprising 1 to 4 copies of the Scl2 collagen domain, plus these same constructs with a CysCys sequence at the C-terminal, analogous to that found in mammalian type III collagens. The yields of these constructs were examined from 2 L fermentation studies. The yields of both series declined with increasing size. Circular dichroism showed that the addition of further collagen domains did not lead to a change in the melting temperature compared to the monomer domain. Addition of the CysCys sequence led to a small additional stabilization of about 2-3°C for the monomer construct when the folding (V) domain was present. PMID:25482084

  8. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2.

    PubMed

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Karaman, Isa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-09-30

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L(-1) HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g(-1). The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L(-1). Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples. PMID:19386416

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes resistant to macrolides but sensitive to clindamycin: a common resistance pattern mediated by an efflux system.

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, J; Tait-Kamradt, A; Wondrack, L

    1996-01-01

    Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Finland, Australia, and the United Kingdom and, more recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes strains from the United States were shown to have an unusual resistance pattern to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B antibiotics. This pattern, referred to as M resistance, consists of susceptibility to clindamycin and streptogramin B antibiotics but resistance to 14- and 15-membered macrolides. An evaluation of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotypes among our streptococcal strains collected from 1993 to 1995 suggested that this unusual resistance pattern is not rare. Eighty-five percent (n = 66) of the S. pneumoniae and 75% (n = 28) of the S. pyogenes strains in our collection had an M phenotype. The mechanism of M resistance was not mediated by target modification, as isolated ribosomes from a pneumococcal strain bearing the M phenotype were fully sensitive to erythromycin. Further, the presence of an erm methylase was excluded with primers specific for an erm consensus sequence. However, results of studies that determined the uptake and incorporation of radiolabeled erythromycin into cells were consistent with the presence of a macrolide efflux determinant. The putative efflux determinant in streptococci seems to be distinct from the multicomponent macrolide efflux system in coagulase-negative staphylococci. The recognition of the prevalence of the M phenotype in streptococci has implications for sensitivity testing and may have an impact on the choice of antibiotic therapy in clinical practice. PMID:8843287

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of type A streptococcal exotoxin: kinetics and regulation during growth of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, C W; Ferretti, J J

    1981-01-01

    We describe the detection and quantitation of type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This sensitive and specific technique detected microgram amounts of type A exotoxin and was useful for studying the kinetics and regulation of type A exotoxin production during the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes NY5. Maximum production of type A exotoxin was observed during the mid-log phase of growth, similar to the production of other streptococcal extracellular products. When S. pyogenes NY5 was grown at 42 degrees C, decreases in both growth and type A exotoxin production were observed. The results obtained when we studied the influence of nutrient additives and metal ions on the production of type A exotoxin led to the conclusion that none of these factors significantly affected type A exotoxin synthesis and that regulation was constitutive. Images PMID:7026447

  11. Structure and Interactions of a Dimeric Variant of sHIP, a Novel Virulence Determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Carl; Wisniewska, Magdalena; Frick, Inga-Maria; Streicher, Werner; Björck, Lars; Malmström, Johan; Wikström, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is one of the most significant bacterial pathogens in the human population mostly causing superficial and uncomplicated infections (pharyngitis and impetigo) but also invasive and life-threatening disease. We have previously identified a virulence determinant, protein sHIP, which is secreted at higher levels by an invasive compared to a non-invasive strain of S. pyogenes. The present work presents a further characterization of the structural and functional properties of this bacterial protein. Biophysical and structural studies have shown that protein sHIP forms stable tetramers both in the crystal and in solution. The tetramers are composed of four helix-loop-helix motifs with the loop regions connecting the helices displaying a high degree of flexibility. Owing to interactions at the tetramer interface, the observed tetramer can be described as a dimer of dimers. We identified three residues at the tetramer interface (Leu84, Leu88, Tyr95), which due to largely non-polar side-chains, could be important determinants for protein oligomerization. Based on these observations, we produced a sHIP variant in which these residues were mutated to alanines. Biophysical experiments clearly indicated that the sHIP mutant appear only as dimers in solution confirming the importance of the interfacial residues for protein oligomerisation. Furthermore, we could show that the sHIP mutant interacts with intact histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) and the histidine-rich repeats in HRG, and inhibits their antibacterial activity to the same or even higher extent as compared to the wild type protein sHIP. We determined the crystal structure of the sHIP mutant, which, as a result of the high quality of the data, allowed us to improve the existing structural model of the protein. Finally, by employing NMR spectroscopy in solution, we generated a model for the complex between the sHIP mutant and an HRG-derived heparin-binding peptide, providing further molecular details into the interactions involving protein sHIP. PMID:26903974

  12. CcpA and LacD.1 Affect Temporal Regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence Genes ?

    PubMed Central

    Kietzman, Colin C.; Caparon, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Production of H2O2 follows a growth phase-dependent pattern that mimics that of many virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes. To gain greater insight into mechanisms coupling virulence factor expression to growth phase, we investigated the molecular basis for H2O2 generation and its regulation. Deletion of the gene encoding lactate oxidase (lctO) or culture in the presence of glucose eliminated H2O2 production, implicating carbohydrate regulation of lctO as a key element of growth phase control. In examining known carbohydrate-responsive regulators, deletion of the gene encoding CcpA but not that encoding LacD.1 resulted in both derepression and an uncoupling of lctO transcription from its growth phase pattern. Expanding this analysis to additional virulence factors demonstrated both negative (cfa, encoding CAMP factor) and positive (speB, encoding a cysteine protease) regulation by CcpA and that CcpA mutants were highly cytotoxic for cultured macrophages. This latter property resulted from enhanced transcription of the streptolysin S biogenesis operon. Examination of CcpA-promoter interactions using a DNA pull-down assay mimicking physiological conditions showed direct binding to the promoters of lctO and speB but not those of sagA. CcpA but not LacD.1 mutants were attenuated in a murine model of soft-tissue infection, and analysis of gene expression in infected tissue indicated that CcpA mutants had altered expression of lctO, cfa, and speB but not the indirectly regulated sagA gene. Taken together, these data show that CcpA regulates virulence genes via at least three distinct mechanisms and that disruption of growth phase regulation alters transcriptional patterns in infected tissues. PMID:19841076

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes Polymyxin B-Resistant Mutants Display Enhanced ExPortal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Port, Gary C.; Vega, Luis A.; Nylander, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    The ExPortal protein secretion organelle in Streptococcus pyogenes is an anionic phospholipid-containing membrane microdomain enriched in Sec translocons and postsecretion protein biogenesis factors. Polymyxin B binds to and disrupts ExPortal integrity, resulting in defective secretion of several toxins. To gain insight into factors that influence ExPortal organization, a genetic screen was conducted to select for spontaneous polymyxin B-resistant mutants displaying enhanced ExPortal integrity. Whole-genome resequencing of 25 resistant mutants revealed from one to four mutations per mutant genome clustered primarily within a core set of 10 gene groups. Construction of mutants with individual deletions or insertions demonstrated that 7 core genes confer resistance and enhanced ExPortal integrity through loss of function, while 3 were likely due to gain of function and/or combinatorial effects. Core resistance genes include a transcriptional regulator of lipid biosynthesis, several genes involved in nutrient acquisition, and a variety of genes involved in stress responses. Two members of the latter class also function as novel regulators of the secreted SpeB cysteine protease. Analysis of the most frequently isolated mutation, a single nucleotide deletion in a track of 9 consecutive adenine residues in pstS, encoding a component of a high-affinity Pi transporter, suggests that this sequence functions as a molecular switch to facilitate stress adaptation. Together, these data suggest the existence of a membrane stress response that promotes enhanced ExPortal integrity and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24794568

  14. Growth Phase-Dependent Modulation of Rgg Binding Specificity in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Dmitriev, Alexander; McShan, W. Michael; Dunman, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes Rgg is a transcriptional regulator that interacts with the cofactor LacD.1 to control growth phase-dependent expression of genes, including speB, which encodes a secreted cysteine protease. LacD.1 is thought to interact with Rgg when glycolytic intermediates are abundant in a manner that prevents Rgg-mediated activation of speB expression via binding to the promoter region. When the intermediates diminish, LacD.1 dissociates from Rgg and binds to the speB promoter to activate expression. The purpose of this study was to determine if Rgg bound to chromatin during the exponential phase of growth and, if so, to identify the binding sites. Rgg bound to 62 chromosomal sites, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarrays. Thirty-eight were within noncoding DNA, including sites upstream of the genes encoding the M protein (M49), serum opacity factor (SOF), fibronectin-binding protein (SfbX49), and a prophage-encoded superantigen, SpeH. Each of these sites contained a promoter that was regulated by Rgg, as determined with transcriptional fusion assays. Purified Rgg also bound to the promoter regions of emm49, sof, and sfbX49 in vitro. Results obtained with a lacD.1 mutant showed that both LacD.1 and Rgg were necessary for the repression of emm49, sof, sfbX49, and speH expression. Overall, the results indicated that the DNA binding specificity of Rgg is responsive to environmental changes in a LacD.1-dependent manner and that Rgg and LacD.1 directly control virulence gene expression in the exponential phase of growth. PMID:22636768

  15. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  16. Protective Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Streptococci against Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilm Formation and Epithelial Cell Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Tomas; Riani, Catur; Koczan, Dirk; Standar, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) encounter many streptococcal species of the physiological microbial biome when entering the upper respiratory tract of humans, leading to the question how GAS interact with these bacteria in order to establish themselves at this anatomic site and initiate infection. Here we show that S. oralis and S. salivarius in direct contact assays inhibit growth of GAS in a strain-specific manner and that S. salivarius, most likely via bacteriocin secretion, also exerts this effect in transwell experiments. Utilizing scanning electron microscopy documentation, we identified the tested strains as potent biofilm producers except for GAS M49. In mixed-species biofilms, S. salivarius dominated the GAS strains, while S. oralis acted as initial colonizer, building the bottom layer in mixed biofilms and thereby allowing even GAS M49 to form substantial biofilms on top. With the exception of S. oralis, artificial saliva reduced single-species biofilms and allowed GAS to dominate in mixed biofilms, although the overall two-layer structure was unchanged. When covered by S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms, epithelial cells were protected from GAS adherence, internalization, and cytotoxic effects. Apparently, these species can have probiotic effects. The use of Affymetrix array technology to assess HEp-2 cell transcription levels revealed modest changes after exposure to S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms which could explain some of the protective effects against GAS attack. In summary, our study revealed a protection effect of respiratory tract bacteria against an important airway pathogen and allowed a first in vitro insight into local environmental processes after GAS enter the respiratory tract. PMID:23241973

  17. Crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes EndoS, an immunomodulatory endoglycosidase specific for human IgG antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Trastoy, Beatriz; Lomino, Joseph V.; Pierce, Brian G.; Carter, Lester G.; Günther, Sebastian; Giddens, John P.; Snyder, Greg A.; Weiss, Thomas M.; Weng, Zhiping; Wang, Lai-Xi; Sundberg, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    To evade host immune mechanisms, many bacteria secrete immunomodulatory enzymes. Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common human pathogens, secretes a large endoglycosidase, EndoS, which removes carbohydrates in a highly specific manner from IgG antibodies. This modification renders antibodies incapable of eliciting host effector functions through either complement or Fc γ receptors, providing the bacteria with a survival advantage. On account of this antibody-specific modifying activity, EndoS is being developed as a promising injectable therapeutic for autoimmune diseases that rely on autoantibodies. Additionally, EndoS is a key enzyme used in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogenously glycosylated antibodies with tailored Fc γ receptor-mediated effector functions. Despite the tremendous utility of this enzyme, the molecular basis of EndoS specificity for, and processing of, IgG antibodies has remained poorly understood. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of EndoS and provide a model of its encounter complex with its substrate, the IgG1 Fc domain. We show that EndoS is composed of five distinct protein domains, including glycosidase, leucine-rich repeat, hybrid Ig, carbohydrate binding module, and three-helix bundle domains, arranged in a distinctive V-shaped conformation. Our data suggest that the substrate enters the concave interior of the enzyme structure, is held in place by the carbohydrate binding module, and that concerted conformational changes in both enzyme and substrate are required for subsequent antibody deglycosylation. The EndoS structure presented here provides a framework from which novel endoglycosidases could be engineered for additional clinical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24753590

  18. Trading Capsule for Increased Cytotoxin Production: Contribution to Virulence of a Newly Emerged Clade of emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Luchang; Olsen, Randall J.; Nasser, Waleed; de la Riva Morales, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strains of emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes have become one of the major causes of invasive infections worldwide in the last 10years. We recently sequenced the genome of 1,125 emm89 strains and identified three major phylogenetic groups, designated clade 1, clade 2, and the epidemic clade 3. Epidemic clade 3 strains, which now cause the great majority of infections, have two distinct genetic features compared to clade 1 and clade 2 strains. First, all clade 3 organisms have a variant 3 nga promoter region pattern, which is associated with increased production of secreted cytolytic toxins SPN (S.pyogenes NADase) and SLO (streptolysin O). Second, all clade 3 strains lack the hasABC locus mediating hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis, whereas this locus is intact in clade 1 and clade 2 strains. We constructed isogenic mutant strains that produce different levels of SPN and SLO toxins and capsule (none, low, or high). Here we report that emm89 strains with elevated toxin production are significantly more virulent than low-toxin producers. Importantly, we also show that capsule production is dispensable for virulence in strains that already produce high levels of SPN and SLO. Our results provide new understanding about the molecular mechanisms contributing to the rapid emergence and molecular pathogenesis of epidemic clade 3 emm89 S.pyogenes. PMID:26443457

  19. The cell envelope-associated protein, LytR, regulates the cysteine protease SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Minami, Masaaki; Ichikawa, Mariko; Ohta, Michio; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2012-05-01

    The LytR family of cell envelope-associated transcriptional attenuators in bacteria has been brought into focus of scientific interest on the expression of various virulence factors, as well as bacterial cell envelope maintenance. However, this protein of Streptococcus pyogenes has been only described as cell surface-associated protein, and its function is completely unknown. We created lytR mutant strains from two independent S. pyogenes strains to analyze the function of LytR. The protease assay in culture supernatant showed that lytR mutant had the higher cysteine protease activity than wild-type. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and western blotting analysis revealed that the amount of cysteine protease, SpeB in lytR mutant was more compared with that in wild-type. The level of speB mRNA in lytR mutant also increased compared with that of wild-type. The membrane integrity and potential in lytR mutant also were decreased compared with that of wild-type. Murine infection model showed that less survival was detected in mice inoculated with lytR mutant than that with wild-type, and the size of wound lesion of mice with lytR mutant was larger than that with wild-type. Our data suggest that the lytR regulates the expression of SpeB in S. pyogenes with relation to membrane integrity. PMID:22515297

  20. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a tool for differentiation of invasive and noninvasive Streptococcus pyogenes isolates

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Hercules; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Carvalho, Maria G; Pavlopoulos, Antonis; Teixeira, Lucia M; Satten, Glen A; Barr, John R

    2008-01-01

    A novel mass spectral fingerprinting and proteomics approach using MALDI-TOF MS was applied to detect and identify protein biomarkers of group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains. Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 700294 genome strain was compared with eight GAS clinical isolates to explore the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to differentiate isolates. Reference strains of other bacterial species were also analyzed and compared with the GAS isolates. MALDI preparations were optimized by varying solvents, matrices, plating techniques, and mass ranges for S. pyogenes ATCC 700294. Spectral variability was tested. A subset of common, characteristic, and reproducible biomarkers in the range of 2000–14 000 Da were detected, and they appeared to be independent of the culture media. Statistical analysis confirmed method reproducibility. Random Forest analysis of all selected GAS isolates revealed differences among most of them, and summed spectra were used for hierarchical cluster analysis. Specific biomarkers were found for each strain, and invasive GAS isolates could be differentiated. GAS isolates from cases of necrotizing fasciitis were clustered together and were distinct from isolates associated with noninvasive infections, despite their sharing the same emm type. Almost 30% of the biomarkers detected were tentatively identified as ribosomal proteins. PMID:18537829

  1. Integration of Genomic and Other Epidemiologic Data to Investigate and Control a Cross-Institutional Outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Chalker, Victoria J; Smith, Alyson; Al-Shahib, Ali; Botchway, Stella; Macdonald, Emily; Daniel, Roger; Phillips, Sarah; Platt, Steven; Doumith, Michel; Tewolde, Rediat; Coelho, Juliana; Jolley, Keith A; Underwood, Anthony; McCarthy, Noel D

    2016-06-01

    Single-strain outbreaks of Streptococcus pyogenes infections are common and often go undetected. In 2013, two clusters of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infection were identified in independent but closely located care homes in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. Investigation included visits to each home, chart review, staff survey, microbiologic sampling, and genome sequencing. S. pyogenes emm type 1.0, the most common circulating type nationally, was identified from all cases yielding GAS isolates. A tailored whole-genome reference population comprising epidemiologically relevant contemporaneous isolates and published isolates was assembled. Data were analyzed independently using whole-genome multilocus sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses. Six isolates from staff and residents of the homes formed a single cluster that was separated from the reference population by both analytical approaches. No further cases occurred after mass chemoprophylaxis and enhanced infection control. Our findings demonstrate the ability of 2 independent analytical approaches to enable robust conclusions from nonstandardized whole-genome analysis to support public health practice. PMID:27192043

  2. Fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes: sequence of the binding domain involved in adherence of streptococci to epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Talay, S R; Valentin-Weigand, P; Jerlstrm, P G; Timmis, K N; Chhatwal, G S

    1992-01-01

    The sequence of the fibronectin-binding domain of the fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes (Sfb protein) was determined, and its role in streptococcal adherence was investigated by use of an Sfb fusion protein in adherence studies. A 1-kb DNA fragment coding for the binding domain of Sfb protein was cloned into the expression vector pEX31 to produce an Sfb fusion protein consisting of the N-terminal part of MS2 polymerase and a C-terminal fragment of the streptococcal protein. Induction of the vector promoter resulted in hyperexpression of fibronectin-binding fusion protein in the cytoplasm of the recombinant Escherichia coli cells. Sequence determination of the cloned 1-kb fragment revealed an in-frame reading frame for a 268-amino-acid peptide composed of a 37-amino-acid sequence which is completely repeated three times and incompletely repeated a fourth time. Cloning of one repeat into pEX31 resulted in expression of small fusion peptides that show fibronectin-binding activity, indicating that one repeat contains at least one binding domain. Each repeat exhibits two charged domains and shows high homology with the 38-amino-acid D3 repeat of the fibronectin-binding protein of Staphylococcus aureus. Sequence comparison with other streptococcal ligand-binding surface proteins, including M protein, failed to reveal significant homology, which suggests that Sfb protein represents a novel type of functional protein in S. pyogenes. The Sfb fusion protein isolated from the cytoplasm of recombinant cells was purified by fast protein liquid chromatography. It showed a strong competitive inhibition of fibronectin binding to S. pyogenes and of the adherence of bacteria to cultured epithelial cells. In contrast, purified streptococcal lipoteichoic acid showed only a weak inhibition of fibronectin binding and streptococcal adherence. These results demonstrate that Sfb protein is directly involved in the fibronectin-mediated adherence of S. pyogenes to epithelial cells. Images PMID:1386839

  3. Insidious manifestation of pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius and Micrococcus luteus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Antreas; Xenophontos, Eleni; Karatsi, Alexandra; Petrides, Christos; Kleridou, Maro; Zintilis, Chrysostomos

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscesses are caused by various microorganisms and usually present with fever, abdominal pain, leukocytosis and liver enzyme abnormalities. This case presents the insidious manifestation of a pyogenic liver abscess in a 34-year-old immunocompetent male, where classical manifestations of a liver abscess were absent. The microorganisms cultured from the abscess belonged to oral cavity's and gastrointestinal tract's normal flora. PMID:26770811

  4. Insidious manifestation of pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius and Micrococcus luteus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Antreas; Xenophontos, Eleni; Karatsi, Alexandra; Petrides, Christos; Kleridou, Maro; Zintilis, Chrysostomos

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscesses are caused by various microorganisms and usually present with fever, abdominal pain, leukocytosis and liver enzyme abnormalities. This case presents the insidious manifestation of a pyogenic liver abscess in a 34-year-old immunocompetent male, where classical manifestations of a liver abscess were absent. The microorganisms cultured from the abscess belonged to oral cavity's and gastrointestinal tract's normal flora. PMID:26770811

  5. In Vivo Expression of Streptococcus pyogenes Immunogenic Proteins during Tibial Foreign Body Infection

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Jeffrey A.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes a number of diseases with a wide range of severities. While all known strains of GAS are still sensitive to penicillin, there have been reports of antibiotic treatment failure in as many as 20% to 40% of cases. Biofilm formation has been implicated as a possible cause for these failures. A biofilm is a microbially derived, sessile community where cells grow attached to a surface or as a bacterial conglomerate and surrounded by a complex extracellular matrix. While the ability of group A streptococcus to form biofilms in the laboratory has been shown, there is a lack of understanding of the role of GAS biofilms during an infection. We hypothesized that during infections, GAS exhibits a biofilm phenotype, complete with unique protein expression. To test this hypothesis, a rabbit model of GAS osteomyelitis was developed. A rabbit was inoculated with GAS using an infected indwelling device. Following the infection, blood and tissue samples were collected. Histological samples of the infected tibia were prepared, and the formation of a biofilm in vivo was visualized using peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) and confocal microscopy. In addition, Western blotting with convalescent rabbit serum detected cell wall proteins expressed in vitro under biofilm and planktonic growth conditions. Immunogenic proteins were then identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). These identities, along with the in vivo results, support the hypothesis that GAS forms biofilms during an infection. This unique phenotype should be taken into consideration when designing a vaccine or any other treatment for group A streptococcus infections. PMID:25001603

  6. Disease Manifestations and Pathogenic Mechanisms of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Timothy C.; McArthur, Jason D.; Cole, Jason N.; Gillen, Christine M.; Henningham, Anna; Sriprakash, K. S.; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L.; Nizet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Genomic and molecular analyses have now characterized a large number of GAS virulence determinants, many of which exhibit overlap and redundancy in the processes of adhesion and colonization, innate immune resistance, and the capacity to facilitate tissue barrier degradation and spread within the human host. This improved understanding of the contribution of individual virulence determinants to the disease process has led to the formulation of models of GAS disease progression, which may lead to better treatment and intervention strategies. While GAS remains sensitive to all penicillins and cephalosporins, rising resistance to other antibiotics used in disease treatment is an increasing worldwide concern. Several GAS vaccine formulations that elicit protective immunity in animal models have shown promise in nonhuman primate and early-stage human trials. The development of a safe and efficacious commercial human vaccine for the prophylaxis of GAS disease remains a high priority. PMID:24696436

  7. The NADase-Negative Variant of the Streptococcus pyogenes Toxin NAD+ Glycohydrolase Induces JNK1-Mediated Programmed Cellular Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sukantha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virulence factors are often multifunctional and contribute to pathogenesis through synergistic mechanisms. For the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, two factors that act synergistically are the S. pyogenes NAD+ glycohydrolase (SPN) and streptolysin O (SLO). Through distinct mechanisms, SLO forms pores in host cell membranes and translocates SPN into the host cell cytosol. Two natural variants of SPN exist, one that exhibits NADase activity and one that lacks this function, and both versions are translocated and act in concert with SLO to cause an accelerated death response in epithelial cells. While NADase+ SPN is known to trigger a metabolic form of necrosis through the depletion of NAD+, the mechanism by which NADase− SPN induces cell death was unknown. In the studies described here, we examined the pathway of NADase− cell death through analysis of activation patterns of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). S. pyogenes infection resulted in activation of members of three MAPK subfamilies (p38, ERK, and JNK). However, only JNK was activated in an SLO-specific manner. NADase− SPN induced necrosis in HeLa epithelial cells associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, activation of NF-κB, and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of JNK protected cells from NADase−-SPN-mediated necrosis, suggesting that NADase− SPN triggers a form of programmed necrosis dependent on JNK signaling. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SPN acts with SLO to elicit necrosis through two different mechanisms depending on its NADase activity, i.e., metabolic (NADase+) or programmed (NADase−), leading to distinct inflammatory profiles. PMID:26838722

  8. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersen, Peter; Dietrich, Jes

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved among different GAS strains, upregulated in host-pathogen interaction studies, and predicted to be extracellular or associated with the surface of the bacteria. The antigens were tested for both antibody recognition and T cell responses in human adults and children. The antigenicity of a selected group of antigens was further validated using a high-density peptide array technology that also identified the linear epitopes. Based on immunological recognition, four targets were selected and tested for protective capabilities in an experimental GAS infection model in mice. Shown for the first time, three of these targets (spy0469, spy1228 and spy1801) conferred significant protection whereas one (spy1643) did not. PMID:26911649

  9. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersen, Peter; Dietrich, Jes

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved among different GAS strains, upregulated in host-pathogen interaction studies, and predicted to be extracellular or associated with the surface of the bacteria. The antigens were tested for both antibody recognition and T cell responses in human adults and children. The antigenicity of a selected group of antigens was further validated using a high-density peptide array technology that also identified the linear epitopes. Based on immunological recognition, four targets were selected and tested for protective capabilities in an experimental GAS infection model in mice. Shown for the first time, three of these targets (spy0469, spy1228 and spy1801) conferred significant protection whereas one (spy1643) did not. PMID:26911649

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from Streptococcus pyogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Min-Je; Lee, Won-Ho; Nam, Ki-hyun; Rhee, Kyeong-hee; Lee, Ki-Seog; Kim, Eunice EunKyung; Yu, Myung-Hee; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2005-04-01

    The tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from the pathogenic bacteria S. pyogenes has been overexpressed and crystallized. The tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase from the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (spTAD) has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} ion at 295 K using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. Flash-cooled crystals of spTAD diffracted to 2.0 Å using 30%(v/v) glycerol as a cryoprotectant. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belongs to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 81.042, c = 81.270 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one subunit of spTAD, with a corresponding crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 3.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 62.7%.

  11. Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis: characterization of strains by multilocus enzyme genotype, M and T protein serotype, and pyrogenic exotoxin gene probing.

    PubMed Central

    Musser, J M; Gray, B M; Schlievert, P M; Pichichero, M E

    1992-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, serological characterization of M and T proteins, and probing for pyrogenic exotoxin A and C genes were used to investigate the bacteriologic epidemiology of strains of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered primarily from patients with recurrent pharyngitis. A total of 164 strains recovered from individuals living in nine states of the United States was analyzed. Two-thirds of the patients in our sample were infected with the homologous strain following antibiotic therapy and presumably represented treatment failures, whereas the other one-third of the patients were infected with a heterologous strain after therapy and probably represented reinfections. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was as efficacious in strain discrimination as serologic typing techniques were and, in addition, successfully characterized all organisms that were serologically nontypeable. Two clones of S. pyogenes responsible for most of the episodes of toxic shock-like syndrome in the United States are geographically widespread, but they vary by locality in the frequency of their occurrence. Compared with a sample of strains cultured from patients whose pharyngeal infections were eliminated by antimicrobial therapy, these two clones were statistically overrepresented among organisms that cause recurrent pharyngitis. PMID:1551976

  12. Activities of a New Fluoroketolide, HMR 3787, and Its (Des)-Fluor Derivative RU 64399 Compared to Those of Telithromycin, Erythromycin A, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and Clindamycin against Macrolide-Susceptible or -Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Kensuke; Davies, Todd A.; Ednie, Lois M.; Bryskier, Andre; Palavecino, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Activities of HMR 3787 and RU 64399 were compared to those of three macrolides, telithromycin, and clindamycin against 175 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 121 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates. HMR3787 and telithromycin were the most active compounds tested against pneumococci. Telithromycin and RU 64399 were equally active against macrolide-susceptible (MICs, 0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml) and -resistant S. pyogenes isolates, but HMR 3787 had lower MICs for ermB strains. PMID:11600391

  13. Effects of the ERES Pathogenicity Region Regulator Ralp3 on Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M49 Virulence Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Siemens, Nikolai; Fiedler, Tomas; Normann, Jana; Klein, Johannes; Münch, Richard; Patenge, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is a highly virulent Gram-positive bacterium. For successful infection, GAS expresses many virulence factors, which are clustered together with transcriptional regulators in distinct genomic regions. Ralp3 is a central regulator of the ERES region. In this study, we investigated the role of Ralp3 in GAS M49 pathogenesis. The inactivation of Ralp3 resulted in reduced attachment to and internalization into human keratinocytes. The Δralp3 mutant failed to survive in human blood and serum, and the hyaluronic acid capsule was slightly decreased. In addition, the mutant showed a lower binding capacity to human plasminogen, and the SpeB activity was significantly decreased. Complementation of the Δralp3 mutant restored the wild-type phenotype. The transcriptome and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the serotype M49 GAS strain and its isogenic Δralp3 mutant identified 16 genes as upregulated, and 43 genes were found to be downregulated. Among the downregulated genes, there were open reading frames encoding proteins involved in metabolism (e.g., both lac operons and the fru operon), genes encoding lantibiotics (e.g., the putative salivaricin operon), and ORFs encoding virulence factors (such as the whole Mga core regulon and further genes under Mga control). In summary, the ERES region regulator Ralp3 is an important serotype-specific transcriptional regulator for virulence and metabolic control. PMID:22544273

  14. Non-instrumental immunoassay based on coloured polyacrolein latex: application to group-specific polysaccharide of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I S; Lukin, Y V; Avdeev, D N; Kulshin, V A

    1995-05-01

    Non-instrumental immunoassay methods based on immunofiltration and microtiter particle agglutination (MPA) techniques have been developed using coloured polyacrolein latex. These methods have been applied to the quantification of the group-specific polysaccharide, A-PS, of S.pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) and compared to the standard ELISA tests. The assay with the ability to detect the lowest concentration of antigen was MPA; as little as 0.05 ng A-PS/ml or 10(4) cells/ml could be detected in 1.5 h. In comparison to ELISA test the sensitivity of MPA was 10 times higher and the procedure of the assay was much more simple. The sensitivity of the immunofiltration assay using both enzyme and latex markers was shown to be the same (50 ng A-PS/ml) and the duration of the assay 3-5 min. No cross-reactions of latex conjugates with non A Streptococcus cell lysates have been observed. The developed methods are easy to perform and require neither sophisticated equipment nor specially trained personal. PMID:7629278

  15. Structural and functional analysis of RopB: a major virulence regulator in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Makthal, Nishanth; Gavagan, Maire; Do, Hackwon; Olsen, Randall J; Musser, James M; Kumaraswami, Muthiah

    2016-03-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an exclusive human pathogen that causes significant disease burden. Global regulator RopB of GAS controls the expression of several major virulence factors including secreted protease SpeB during high cell density. However, the molecular mechanism for RopB-dependent speB expression remains unclear. To understand the mechanism of transcription activation by RopB, we determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of RopB. RopB-CTD has the TPR motif, a signature motif involved in protein-peptide interactions and shares significant structural homology with the quorum sensing RRNPP family regulators. Characterization of the high cell density-specific cell-free growth medium demonstrated the presence of a low molecular weight proteinaceous secreted factor that upregulates RopB-dependent speB expression. Together, these results suggest that RopB and its cognate peptide signals constitute an intercellular signalling machinery that controls the virulence gene expression in concert with population density. Structure-guided mutational analyses of RopB dimer interface demonstrated that single alanine substitutions at this critical interface significantly altered RopB-dependent speB expression and attenuated GAS virulence. Results presented here suggested that a properly aligned RopB dimer interface is important for GAS pathogenesis and highlighted the dimerization interactions as a plausible therapeutic target for the development of novel antimicrobials. PMID:26714274

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of emm28 Type Streptococcus pyogenes MEW123, a Streptomycin-Resistant Derivative of a Clinical Throat Isolate Suitable for Investigation of Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Kristin M.; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.; Dawid, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes type emm28 strain MEW123, a streptomycin-resistant derivative of a pediatric throat isolate. The genome length is 1,878,699 bp, with 38.29% G+C% content. The genome sequence adds value to this virulent emm28 representative strain and will aid in the investigation of streptococcal pathogenesis. PMID:26988051

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of emm28 Type Streptococcus pyogenes MEW123, a Streptomycin-Resistant Derivative of a Clinical Throat Isolate Suitable for Investigation of Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Kristin M; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J; Dawid, Suzanne R; Watson, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes type emm28 strain MEW123, a streptomycin-resistant derivative of a pediatric throat isolate. The genome length is 1,878,699 bp, with 38.29% G+C% content. The genome sequence adds value to this virulent emm28 representative strain and will aid in the investigation of streptococcal pathogenesis. PMID:26988051

  18. Full-Length Genome Sequence of Type M/emm83 Group A Streptococcus pyogenes Strain STAB1101, Isolated from Clustered Cases in Brittany

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Nicolas; Vincent, Pascal; Auger, Gabriel; Cariou, Marie-Estelle; Moullec, Séverine; Lagente, Vincent; Ygout, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Here, we announce the complete annotated genome sequence of a Streptococcus pyogenes M/emm83 strain, STAB1101, isolated from clustered cases in homeless persons in Brittany (France). The genome is composed of 1,709,790 bp, with a G+C content of 38.4% and 1,550 identified coding sequences (CDS), and it harbors a Tn916-like transposon. PMID:25614568

  19. Full-Length Genome Sequence of Type M/emm83 Group A Streptococcus pyogenes Strain STAB1101, Isolated from Clustered Cases in Brittany.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Nicolas; Vincent, Pascal; Auger, Gabriel; Cariou, Marie-Estelle; Moullec, Séverine; Lagente, Vincent; Ygout, Jean-François; Kayal, Samer; Faili, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Here, we announce the complete annotated genome sequence of a Streptococcus pyogenes M/emm83 strain, STAB1101, isolated from clustered cases in homeless persons in Brittany (France). The genome is composed of 1,709,790 bp, with a G+C content of 38.4% and 1,550 identified coding sequences (CDS), and it harbors a Tn916-like transposon. PMID:25614568

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Noninvasive Streptococcus pyogenes M/emm28 Strain STAB10015, Isolated from a Child with Perianal Dermatitis in French Brittany.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Barboza, Suzane; Meygret, Alexandra; Vincent, Pascal; Moullec, Séverine; Soriano, Nicolas; Lagente, Vincent; Minet, Jacques; Kayal, Samer; Faili, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a noninvasive strain of Streptococcus pyogenes M/emm28, isolated from perianal dermatitis in a child. The genome is composed of 1,950,454 bp, with a G+C content of 38.2%, and it has 1,925 identified coding sequences and harbors two intact prophages and a new integrating conjugative element (ICE). PMID:26184948

  1. Virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes strains from women in peri-labor with invasive infections.

    PubMed

    Golińska, E; van der Linden, M; Więcek, G; Mikołajczyk, D; Machul, A; Samet, A; Piórkowska, A; Dorycka, M; Heczko, P B; Strus, M

    2016-05-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections constitute an important epidemiological problem. Many cases occur in women during the postnatal period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of the genes responsible for production of iron-chelating protein (perR) and superantigens (speA, speB, speC, speF, speG, speH, speI, speJ, speK, speL, speM, smeZ, and ssa) in S. pyogenes strains isolated from invasive infections in women after delivery. Furthermore, this study sought to verify whether S. pyogenes strains show special phenotypic and genotypic (sla, spy1325) characteristics that may play a decisive role in adherence to the genital tract epithelium. Moreover, the emm-types and antibiotic susceptibility were determined. We tested 30 invasive S. pyogenes strains isolated from postpartum invasive infection and 37 GAS control strains isolated from the genital tracts of asymptomatic multiparous women. The majority of the tested strains were shown to express two types of emm genes (1 and 28), though emm -12, -28, -75 and -89 were uniquely expressed in the group of strains isolated from invasive infections. A significantly higher prevalence of perR in the strains from puerperal fever was shown. Significant differences were also found between the two groups with respect to the incidence of the genes related to adherence; GAS strains originating from women with sepsis/puerperal fever showed presence of these genes less frequently than those of the control group. Although differences in frequencies of the gene coding for various superantigens were noted between the compared groups of GAS strains, they were not significant. PMID:26873375

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates in Germany during 2003-2013

    PubMed Central

    Imöhl, Matthias; van der Linden, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study of invasive S. pyogenes infections was conducted in Germany. Invasive isolates (n = 1,281) were obtained between 2003 and 2013. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. Tetracycline showed the highest rate of resistant or intermediate resistant isolates with 9.8%, followed by macrolides (4.0%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (1.9%), levofloxacin (1.3%), chloramphenicol (0.9%) and clindamycin (0.7%). The most prominent trends were the appearance of levofloxacin non-susceptible isolates since 2011, and an increase of SXT non-susceptibility since 2012. PMID:26340445

  3. [Fc-receptor proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes and pathogenesis of post-infection complications].

    PubMed

    Totolian, A A; Burova, L A

    2014-01-01

    Phenomenon and mechanism of non-immune binding of immunoglobulins G and A by various emm-genotypes of group A streptococcus and in particular M-family proteins--main factors of pathogenicity of this causative agent of widespread human diseases are examined. The role of these receptor proteins in pathogenesis of post-streptococcal damage of kidneys (glomerules) and heart (myocarditis) are proved. Results of long-term studies that confirm hypothesis of initiating function of Fc-receptor M proteins in genesis of immune inflammation in organ tissues that precede development of glomerulonephritis and myocarditis are provided. According to the basic position, Fc-binding of an immunoglobulin by M proteins initiates production of anti-IgG, immune complexes of various composition and complement activation, deposition of those in tissues results in lymphocyte infiltration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Literature data on the role of Fc-binding proteins in genesis of IgA-nephropathies and rheumatoid factor is also examined. An important role of other factors of the microbe is discussed such as cross-reacting antigens, erythrogenic toxin B, system of streptokinase-plasmin receptor or endostreptosin in post-streptococcal processes in kidneys. Their participation in the process must be mediated by an inflammation reaction in the tissue that is initiated by interaction of immunoglobulins with Fc-binding proteins of the microbe. A novel approach to understanding the nature of this pathology allowed to establish the ability of Fc-fragments of immunoglobulin G to suppress the development of the process. PMID:25286515

  4. Evolution of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes over 14 years in an area of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Raffaela; Morandi, Matteo; Zanchi, Alessandra; Tordini, Giacinta; Pozzi, Gianni; De Luca, Andrea; Montagnani, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated temporal fluctuations in macrolide resistance rates, analysing genetic determinants of resistance and clonal evolution in a population of 2744 S. pyogenes isolates collected in the period 2000-2013. The total resistance rate to erythromycin of the isolates was 17.9 %. A maximum of erythromycin resistance emerged in 2000 (38.6 %), followed by a significant decrease to 5.2 % in 2012 (P < 0.0001). Molecular analysis revealed the presence and co-presence of known genetic resistance determinants mefA, mefE, ermTR and ermB, in line with phenotypes. PFGE analysis identified genetically related groups in 2000 and 2007-2008, mainly the MLS and M phenotypes, respectively. The most prevalent emm types among a representative subset of resistant isolates were emm2, emm75 and emm77. All emm2 and 88.2 % of the strains harbouring the emm75 gene were only recorded in M-phenotype strains, whilst all emm77-positive strains had the inducible MLS phenotype. The analysed susceptible isolates showed several emm types partially shared with resistant ones. Our results suggest that changes in bacterial population clonality, rather than horizontal transfer of resistance determinants, plays a major epidemiological role in S. pyogenes. Continuous monitoring of microbiological epidemiology seems to be crucial for correct and effective management of streptococcal infections. PMID:26224594

  5. A Highly Active and Negatively Charged Streptococcus pyogenes Lysin with a Rare d-Alanyl-l-Alanine Endopeptidase Activity Protects Mice against Streptococcal Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Lood, Rolf; Raz, Assaf; Molina, Henrik; Euler, Chad W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage endolysins have shown great efficacy in killing Gram-positive bacteria. PlyC, a group C streptococcal phage lysin, represents the most efficient lysin characterized to date, with a remarkably high specificity against different streptococcal species, including the important pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. However, PlyC is a unique lysin, in terms of both its high activity and structure (two distinct subunits). We sought to discover and characterize a phage lysin active against S. pyogenes with an endolysin architecture distinct from that of PlyC to determine if it relies on the same mechanism of action as PlyC. In this study, we identified and characterized an endolysin, termed PlyPy (phage lysin from S. pyogenes), from a prophage infecting S. pyogenes. By in silico analysis, PlyPy was found to have a molecular mass of 27.8 kDa and a pI of 4.16. It was active against a majority of group A streptococci and displayed high levels of activity as well as binding specificity against group B and C streptococci, while it was less efficient against other streptococcal species. PlyPy showed the highest activity at neutral pH in the presence of calcium and NaCl. Surprisingly, its activity was not affected by the presence of the group A-specific carbohydrate, while the activity of PlyC was partly inhibited. Additionally, PlyPy was active in vivo and could rescue mice from systemic bacteremia. Finally, we developed a novel method to determine the peptidoglycan bond cleaved by lysins and concluded that PlyPy exhibits a rare d-alanyl-l-alanine endopeptidase activity. PlyPy thus represents the first lysin characterized from Streptococcus pyogenes and has a mechanism of action distinct from that of PlyC. PMID:24637688

  6. Clindamycin resistant emm33 Streptococcus pyogenes emerged among invasive infections in Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, 2012 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Pesola, A K; Sihvonen, R; Lindholm, L; Pätäri-Sampo, A

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, blood, skin and soft tissue infections caused by clindamycin resistant Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) appeared to be increasing in the Helsinki metropolitan area. We compared monthly percentages of clindamycin resistant isolates in the area between 2012 and 2013, with those in 2010 and 2011. Resistance frequency in terms of patient age was also studied. We reviewed the medical records of bacteraemic cases in 2012 and 2013 and linked the data to emm types. To inform on the emm distribution among GAS isolated from skin and soft tissue infections during the epidemic, GAS isolates of one month (March 2013) were emm typed. For GAS blood, skin, and soft tissue isolates taken together, the proportions of clindamycin resistant isolates were significantly higher in 2012 and 2013 (23% and 17%, respectively) compared with the two previous years (3%, p<0,001). The erythromycin resistance percentages were almost equal to clindamycin (22% and 17%) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Clindamycin resistance was most frequent in GAS isolates of 40 to 60 year-old patients (148/417; 36%). Among clindamycin resistant isolates, 12 of 14 blood isolates from 2012 to 2013, and 11 of 13 skin and soft tissue isolates from March 2013, were emm33. Emm33 GAS bacteraemia was associated with clindamycin and erythromycin resistance (odds ratio (OR): 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-25.3). Infection focus was mainly the skin; either cellulitis (7/12) or necrotising fasciitis (3/12). All emm33 GAS isolates harboured the ermTR resistance gene with constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramines B (MLS(B)) phenotype. Emm33 GAS was responsible for the higher proportion of clindamycin resistance in skin, soft tissue, and blood isolates locally in 2012 and 2013. PMID:25990232

  7. Dynamin inhibition interferes with inflammasome activation and cytokine gene expression in Streptococcus pyogenes-infected human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Latvala, S; Mäkelä, S M; Miettinen, M; Charpentier, E; Julkunen, I

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we have analysed the ability of Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A streptococcus (GAS)] to activate the NACHT-domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and PYD-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome complex in human monocyte-derived macrophages and the molecules and signalling pathways involved in GAS-induced inflammatory responses. We focused upon analysing the impact of dynamin-dependent endocytosis and the role of major streptococcal virulence factors streptolysin O (SLO) and streptolysin S (SLS) in the immune responses induced by GAS. These virulence factors are involved in immune evasion by forming pores in host cell membranes, and aid the bacteria to escape from the endosome-lysosome pathway. We analysed cytokine gene expression in human primary macrophages after stimulation with live or inactivated wild-type GAS as well as with live SLO and SLS defective bacteria. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-10 cytokines were produced after bacterial stimulation in a dose-dependent manner and no differences in cytokine levels were seen between live, inactivated or mutant bacteria. These data suggest that streptolysins or other secreted bacterial products are not required for the inflammatory responses induced by GAS. Our data indicate that inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis in macrophages attenuates the induction of IL-1β, TNF-α, interferon (IFN)-β and CXCL-10 mRNAs. We also observed that pro-IL-1β protein was expressed and efficiently cleaved into mature-IL-1β via inflammasome activation after bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that multiple signalling pathways are involved in GAS-stimulated inflammatory responses in human macrophages. PMID:25079511

  8. Case report: Co-infection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Streptococcus pyogenes: is fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever underdiagnosed?

    PubMed

    Raczniak, Gregory A; Kato, Cecilia; Chung, Ida H; Austin, Amy; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Weis, Erica; Levy, Craig; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria S; Mitchell, Audrey; Bjork, Adam; Regan, Joanna J

    2014-12-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is challenging to diagnose and rapidly fatal if not treated. We describe a decedent who was co-infected with group A β-hemolytic streptococcus and R. rickettsii. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be underreported because they present as difficult to diagnose co-infections. PMID:25331804

  9. Emergence of scarlet fever Streptococcus pyogenes emm12 clones in Hong Kong is associated with toxin acquisition and multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark R; Holden, Matthew T; Coupland, Paul; Chen, Jonathan H K; Venturini, Carola; Barnett, Timothy C; Zakour, Nouri L Ben; Tse, Herman; Dougan, Gordon; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Walker, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    A scarlet fever outbreak began in mainland China and Hong Kong in 2011 (refs. 1-6). Macrolide- and tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes emm12 isolates represent the majority of clinical cases. Recently, we identified two mobile genetic elements that were closely associated with emm12 outbreak isolates: the integrative and conjugative element ICE-emm12, encoding genes for tetracycline and macrolide resistance, and prophage ΦHKU.vir, encoding the superantigens SSA and SpeC, as well as the DNase Spd1 (ref. 4). Here we sequenced the genomes of 141 emm12 isolates, including 132 isolated in Hong Kong between 2005 and 2011. We found that the introduction of several ICE-emm12 variants, ΦHKU.vir and a new prophage, ΦHKU.ssa, occurred in three distinct emm12 lineages late in the twentieth century. Acquisition of ssa and transposable elements encoding multidrug resistance genes triggered the expansion of scarlet fever-associated emm12 lineages in Hong Kong. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant ssa-harboring scarlet fever strains should prompt heightened surveillance within China and abroad for the dissemination of these mobile genetic elements. PMID:25401300

  10. Streptococcus pyogenes Sortase Mutants Are Highly Susceptible to Killing by Host Factors Due to Aberrant Envelope Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Assaf; Tanasescu, Ana-Maria; Zhao, Anna M.; Serrano, Anna; Alston, Tricia; Sol, Asaf; Bachrach, Gilad; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall anchored virulence factors are critical for infection and colonization of the host by Gram-positive bacteria. Such proteins have an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal sorting signal, composed of an LPXTG motif, a hydrophobic stretch, and a few positively charged amino acids. The sorting signal halts translocation across the membrane, allowing sortase to cleave the LPXTG motif, leading to surface anchoring. Deletion of sortase prevents the anchoring of virulence factors to the wall; the effects on bacterial physiology however, have not been thoroughly characterized. Here we show that deletion of Streptococcus pyogenes sortase A leads to accumulation of sorting intermediates, particularly at the septum, altering cellular morphology and physiology, and compromising membrane integrity. Such cells are highly sensitive to cathelicidin, and are rapidly killed in blood and plasma. These phenomena are not a loss-of-function effect caused by the absence of anchored surface proteins, but specifically result from the accumulation of sorting intermediates. Reduction in the level of sorting intermediates leads to a return of the sortase mutant to normal morphology, while expression of M protein with an altered LPXTG motif in wild type cells leads to toxicity in the host environment, similar to that observed in the sortase mutant. These unanticipated effects suggest that inhibition of sortase by small-molecule inhibitors could similarly lead to the rapid elimination of pathogens from an infected host, making such inhibitors much better anti-bacterial agents than previously believed. PMID:26484774

  11. TLR8 Senses Bacterial RNA in Human Monocytes and Plays a Nonredundant Role for Recognition of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Pelka, Karin; Latz, Eicke; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2015-08-01

    Microbial nucleic acids constitute an important group of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that efficiently trigger innate immune activation. In mice, TLR13 has recently been identified to sense a highly conserved region within bacterial 23S rRNA. However, TLR13 is not expressed in humans, and the identity of its human homolog remains elusive. Moreover, the contribution of bacterial RNA to the induction of innate immune responses against entire bacteria is still insufficiently defined. In the current study, we show that human monocytes respond to bacterial RNA with secretion of IL-6, TNF, and IFN-β, which is critically dependent on lysosomal maturation. Using small interfering RNA and overexpression, we unambiguously identify TLR8 as receptor for bacterial RNA in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. We further demonstrate that the sequence motif sensed by TLR8 is clearly distinct from that recognized by TLR13. Moreover, TLR8-dependent detection of bacterial RNA was critical for triggering monocyte activation in response to infection with Streptococcus pyogenes. Bacterial RNA within streptococci was also a dominant stimulus for murine immune cells, highlighting the physiological relevance of RNA sensing in defense of infections. PMID:26101323

  12. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of SpyCEP, a candidate antigen for a vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Abate, Francesca; Malito, Enrico; Falugi, Fabiana; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Bottomley, Matthew James

    2013-10-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus; GAS) is an important human pathogen against which an effective vaccine does not yet exist. The S. pyogenes protein SpyCEP (S. pyogenes cell-envelope proteinase) is a surface-exposed subtilisin-like serine protease of 1647 amino acids. In addition to its auto-protease activity, SpyCEP is capable of cleaving interleukin 8 and related chemokines, contributing to GAS immune-evasion strategies. SpyCEP is immunogenic and confers protection in animal models of GAS infections. In order to structurally characterize this promising vaccine candidate, several SpyCEP protein-expression constructs were designed, cloned, produced in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography and subjected to crystallization trials. Crystals of a selenomethionyl form of a near-full-length SpyCEP ectodomain were obtained. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=139.2, b=120.4, c=104.3 Å, β=111°. PMID:24100558

  13. Potential antibiotic and anti-infective effects of rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. on Streptococcus pyogenes as revealed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Hesseling-Meinders, Anne; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Kayser, Oliver

    2011-08-15

    Rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaf extract has a strong antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Our previous studies indicated that the bactericidal activity of rhodomyrtone might involve intracellular targets. In the present studies we followed a proteomics approach to investigate the mode of action of rhodomyrtone on S. pyogenes. For this purpose, S. pyogenes was cultivated in the presence of 0.39 ?g/ml rhodomyrtone, which corresponds to 50% of the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results show that the amounts of various enzymes associated with important metabolic pathways were strongly affected, which is consistent with the growth-inhibiting effect of rhodomyrtone. Additionally, cells of S. pyogenes grown in the presence of rhodomyrtone produced reduced amounts of known virulence factors, such as the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the CAMP factor, and the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C. Taken together, these findings indicate that rhodomyrtone has both antimicrobial and anti-infective activities, which make it an interesting candidate drug. PMID:21439802

  14. [Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes in primary school children: M-protein types, pyrogenic toxin genes, and investigation of the clonal relationships between the isolates].

    PubMed

    Otlu, Barış; Karakurt, Cemşit; Bayındır, Yaşar; Kayabaş, Üner; Yakupoğulları, Yusuf; Gözükara Bağ, Harika

    2015-07-01

    M-protein and pyrogenic toxins are the most important virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes, and they play significant role in the pathophysiology of acute rheumatoid fever and scarlet fever, respectively. In this study, the pharyngeal carriage of S.pyogenes of the primary school children, clonal relationship of the strains, M-protein types, and the presence of pyrogenic toxin genes were aimed to be investigated. A total of 668 throat cultures obtained from children (age range: 6-16 years) in two primary schools in our region, were included in the study. The clonal relationships of the isolated group A streptococci (GAS) strains were investigated by DiversiLab assay (BioMérieux, France), and the clonal relatedness was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. M-protein (emm) typing was performed by DNA sequencing as suggested by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The genes encoding pyrogenic toxins, speA and speC, were investigated by an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. S.pyogenes was isolated from 134 (20.05%) of the throat samples. The GAS carriage rate of the students aged ≥10 was statistically higher than those 7-9 years age group (%22 vs %16.4, p<0.05). The M protein gene could be characterized only among 123 isolates by DNA sequencing, and 20 different emm types were detected. The most frequent emm type was emm1 (n=38, 30.9%) followed by emm12 (n=18, 14.6%), emm89 (n=10, 8.1%), emm118 (n=9, 7.3%), and emm4 (n=7, 5.7%). Pyrogenic toxin genes were found in 25 (18.6%) of the isolates, including speA in 11 isolates (8.2%) and speC in 12 isolates (8.9%) and both genes were detected in 2 isolates (1.5%). Sixty-two different Rep (Repetitive extragenic palindromic)-PCR profiles were detected in 134 S.pyogenes isolates by DiversiLab method. Thirteen different clusters were formed by a total of clonally related 36 isolates revealing a strain clustering ratio of 26.9%. Clonal relationship of all isolates in the same cluster was confirmed by PFGE method. In this study, relatively high percentage of GAS carriage was observed among primary school children in our region. The coverage rate of the 30-valent vaccine was determined to be over 90% with respect to M-protein types. Since the pyrogenic toxin-encoding genes were found in one fifth of the isolates from the studied subjects, we concluded that the carrier population may also have high risk for scarlet fever. We also concluded that, the clonal relationship ratio determined among the isolates may be a risk in school transmission of GAS. PMID:26313273

  15. Conserved DegP Protease in Gram-Positive Bacteria Is Essential for Thermal and Oxidative Tolerance and Full Virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. Hal; Bolken, Tove' C.; Jones, Kevin F.; Zeller, Gloria O.; Hruby, Dennis E.

    2001-01-01

    The DegP protease, a multifunctional chaperone and protease, has been shown to be essential for virulence in gram-negative pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Brucella abortus, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The function of DegP in pathogenesis appears to be the degradation of damaged proteins that accumulate as a result of the initial host response to infection, which includes the release of reactive oxygen intermediates. Additionally, the DegP protease plays a major role in monitoring and maintaining the Escherichia coli periplasm and influences E. coli pilus biogenesis. We report here the identification of highly homologous enzymes in Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the phenotype of an insertionally inactivated degP allele in S. pyogenes is similar to that reported for E. coli, with temperature sensitivity for growth and enhanced sensitivity to reactive oxygen intermediates. Virulence studies in a mouse model of streptococcal infection indicate that a functional DegP protease is required for full virulence. These results suggest DegP as an attractive broad-spectrum target for future anti-infective drug development. PMID:11500427

  16. Conserved DegP protease in gram-positive bacteria is essential for thermal and oxidative tolerance and full virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Jones, C H; Bolken, T C; Jones, K F; Zeller, G O; Hruby, D E

    2001-09-01

    The DegP protease, a multifunctional chaperone and protease, has been shown to be essential for virulence in gram-negative pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Brucella abortus, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The function of DegP in pathogenesis appears to be the degradation of damaged proteins that accumulate as a result of the initial host response to infection, which includes the release of reactive oxygen intermediates. Additionally, the DegP protease plays a major role in monitoring and maintaining the Escherichia coli periplasm and influences E. coli pilus biogenesis. We report here the identification of highly homologous enzymes in Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the phenotype of an insertionally inactivated degP allele in S. pyogenes is similar to that reported for E. coli, with temperature sensitivity for growth and enhanced sensitivity to reactive oxygen intermediates. Virulence studies in a mouse model of streptococcal infection indicate that a functional DegP protease is required for full virulence. These results suggest DegP as an attractive broad-spectrum target for future anti-infective drug development. PMID:11500427

  17. Streptococcus pyogenes antigen I/II-family polypeptide AspA shows differential ligand-binding properties and mediates biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Sarah E; Wright, Christopher J; Nobbs, Angela H; Brittan, Jane L; Franklin, Linda; Strömberg, Nicklas; Kadioglu, Aras; Jepson, Mark A; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2011-01-01

    The streptococcal antigen I/II (AgI/II)-family polypeptides are cell wall-anchored adhesins expressed by most indigenous oral streptococci. Proteins sharing 30–40% overall amino acid sequence similarities with AgI/II-family proteins are also expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes. The S. pyogenes M28_Spy1325 polypeptide (designated AspA) displays an AgI/II primary structure, with alanine-rich (A) and proline-rich (P) repeats flanking a V region that is projected distal from the cell. In this study it is shown that AspA from serotype M28 S. pyogenes, when expressed on surrogate host Lactococcus lactis, confers binding to immobilized salivary agglutinin gp-340. This binding was blocked by antibodies to the AspA-VP region. In contrast, the N-terminal region of AspA was deficient in binding fluid-phase gp-340, and L. lactis cells expressing AspA were not agglutinated by gp-340. Deletion of the aspA gene from two different M28 strains of S. pyogenes abrogated their abilities to form biofilms on saliva-coated surfaces. In each mutant strain, biofilm formation was restored by trans complementation of the aspA deletion. In addition, expression of AspA protein on the surface of L. lactis conferred biofilm-forming ability. Taken collectively, the results provide evidence that AspA is a biofilm-associated adhesin that may function in host colonization by S. pyogenes. PMID:21736640

  18. Differences between Macrolide-Resistant and -Susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes: Importance of Clonal Properties in Addition to Antibiotic Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Costa, C.; Friães, A.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2012-01-01

    A steady decline in macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) in Portugal was reported during 1999 to 2006. This was accompanied by alterations in the prevalence of macrolide resistance phenotypes and in the clonal composition of the population. In order to test whether changes in the macrolide-resistant population reflected the same changing patterns of the overall population, we characterized both macrolide-susceptible and -resistant GAS associated with a diagnosis of tonsillo-pharyngitis recovered in the period from 2000 to 2005 in Portugal. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling was the best predictor of emm type and the only typing method that could discriminate clones associated with macrolide resistance and susceptibility within each emm type. Six PFGE clusters were significantly associated with macrolide susceptibility: T3-emm3-ST406, T4-emm4-ST39, T1-emm1-ST28, T6-emm6-ST382, B3264-emm89-ST101/ST408, and T2-emm2-ST55. Four PFGE clusters were associated with macrolide resistance: T4-emm4-ST39, T28-emm28-ST52, T12-emm22-ST46, and T1-emm1-ST28. We found no evidence for frequent ongoing horizontal transfer of macrolide resistance determinants. The diversity of the macrolide-resistant population was lower than that of susceptible isolates. The differences found between the two populations suggest that the macrolide-resistant population of GAS has its own dynamics, independent of the behavior of the susceptible population. PMID:22908153

  19. Differences between macrolide-resistant and -susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes: importance of clonal properties in addition to antibiotic consumption.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, C; Friães, A; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J

    2012-11-01

    A steady decline in macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) in Portugal was reported during 1999 to 2006. This was accompanied by alterations in the prevalence of macrolide resistance phenotypes and in the clonal composition of the population. In order to test whether changes in the macrolide-resistant population reflected the same changing patterns of the overall population, we characterized both macrolide-susceptible and -resistant GAS associated with a diagnosis of tonsillo-pharyngitis recovered in the period from 2000 to 2005 in Portugal. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling was the best predictor of emm type and the only typing method that could discriminate clones associated with macrolide resistance and susceptibility within each emm type. Six PFGE clusters were significantly associated with macrolide susceptibility: T3-emm3-ST406, T4-emm4-ST39, T1-emm1-ST28, T6-emm6-ST382, B3264-emm89-ST101/ST408, and T2-emm2-ST55. Four PFGE clusters were associated with macrolide resistance: T4-emm4-ST39, T28-emm28-ST52, T12-emm22-ST46, and T1-emm1-ST28. We found no evidence for frequent ongoing horizontal transfer of macrolide resistance determinants. The diversity of the macrolide-resistant population was lower than that of susceptible isolates. The differences found between the two populations suggest that the macrolide-resistant population of GAS has its own dynamics, independent of the behavior of the susceptible population. PMID:22908153

  20. Arginine deprivation by arginine deiminase of Streptococcus pyogenes controls primary glioblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Tomas; Strauss, Madlen; Hering, Silvio; Redanz, Ulrike; William, Doreen; Rosche, Yvonne; Classen, Carl Friedrich; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Linnebacher, Michael; Maletzki, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Arginine auxotrophy constitutes a weak point of several tumors, among them glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Hence, those tumors are supposed to be sensitive for arginine-depleting substances, such as arginine deiminase (ADI). Here we elucidated the sensitivity of patient-individual GBM cell lines toward Streptococcus pyogenes-derived ADI. To improve therapy, ADI was combined with currently established and pre-clinical cytostatic drugs. Additionally, effectiveness of local ADI therapy was determined in xenopatients. Half of the GBM cell lines tested responded well toward ADI monotherapy. In those cell lines, viability decreased significantly (up to 50 %). Responding cell lines were subjected to combination therapy experiments to test if any additive or even synergistic effects may be achieved. Such promising results were obtained in 2/3 cases. In cell lines HROG02, HROG05 and HROG10, ADI and Palomid 529 combinations were most effective yielding more than 70 % killing after 2 rounds of treatment. Comparable boosted antitumoral effects were observed after adding chloroquine to ADI (>60% killing). Apoptosis, as well as cell cycle dysregulation were found to play a minor role. In some, but clearly not all cases, (epi-) genetic silencing of arginine synthesis pathway genes (argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and argininosuccinate lyase) explained obtained results. In vivo, ADI as well as the combination of ADI and SAHA efficiently controlled HROG05 xenograft growth, whereas adding Palomid 529 to ADI did not further increase the strong antitumoral effect of ADI. The cumulative in vitro and in vivo results proved ADI as a very promising candidate therapeutic, especially for development of adjuvant GBM combination treatments. PMID:25774632

  1. Unique Genomic Arrangements in an Invasive Serotype M23 Strain of Streptococcus pyogenes Identify Genes That Induce Hypervirulence

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yunjuan; Liang, Zhong; Booyjzsen, Claire; Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Li, Yang; Lee, Shaun W.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Song, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF−) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ΦM23ND.1 to ΦM23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank of each phage insertion, suggesting that the phages were integrated by horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analyses revealed unique large-scale genomic rearrangements that result in genomic rearrangements that differ from those of previously sequenced GAS strains. These rearrangements resulted in an imbalanced genomic architecture and translocations of chromosomal virulence genes. The covS sensor in M23ND was identified as a pseudogene, resulting in the attenuation of speB function and increased expression of the genes for the chromosomal virulence factors multiple-gene activator (mga), M protein (emm23), C5a peptidase (scpA), fibronectin-binding proteins (sfbI and fbp54), streptolysin O (slo), hyaluronic acid capsule (hasA), streptokinase (ska), and DNases (spd and spd3), which were verified by PCR. These genes are responsible for facilitating host epithelial cell binding and and/or immune evasion, thus further contributing to the virulence of M23ND. In conclusion, strain M23ND has become highly pathogenic as the result of a combination of multiple genetic factors, particularly gene composition and mutations, prophage integrations, unique genomic rearrangements, and regulated expression of critical virulence factors. PMID:25225265

  2. Unique genomic arrangements in an invasive serotype M23 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes identify genes that induce hypervirulence.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yunjuan; Liang, Zhong; Booyjzsen, Claire; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Li, Yang; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Song, Hui; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-12-01

    The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF(-)) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ΦM23ND.1 to ΦM23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank of each phage insertion, suggesting that the phages were integrated by horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analyses revealed unique large-scale genomic rearrangements that result in genomic rearrangements that differ from those of previously sequenced GAS strains. These rearrangements resulted in an imbalanced genomic architecture and translocations of chromosomal virulence genes. The covS sensor in M23ND was identified as a pseudogene, resulting in the attenuation of speB function and increased expression of the genes for the chromosomal virulence factors multiple-gene activator (mga), M protein (emm23), C5a peptidase (scpA), fibronectin-binding proteins (sfbI and fbp54), streptolysin O (slo), hyaluronic acid capsule (hasA), streptokinase (ska), and DNases (spd and spd3), which were verified by PCR. These genes are responsible for facilitating host epithelial cell binding and and/or immune evasion, thus further contributing to the virulence of M23ND. In conclusion, strain M23ND has become highly pathogenic as the result of a combination of multiple genetic factors, particularly gene composition and mutations, prophage integrations, unique genomic rearrangements, and regulated expression of critical virulence factors. PMID:25225265

  3. Pyrogenicity and Cytokine-Inducing Properties of Streptococcus pyogenes Superantigens: Comparative Study of Streptococcal Mitogenic Exotoxin Z and Pyrogenic Exotoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Alouf, Heide; Proft, Thomas; Zollner, Thomas M.; Gerlach, Dieter; Champagne, Eric; Desreumaux, Pierre; Fitting, Catherine; Geoffroy-Fauvet, Christiane; Alouf, Joseph E.; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (SMEZ), a superantigen derived from Streptococcus pyogenes, provoked expansion of human lymphocytes expressing the Vβ 2, 4, 7 and 8 motifs of T-cell receptor. SMEZ was pyrogenic in rabbits and stimulated the expression of the T-cell activation markers CD69 and cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen. A variety of cytokines was released by human mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with SMEZ, which was 10-fold more active than streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A. Th2-derived cytokines were elicited only by superantigens and not by streptococcal cells. PMID:11349089

  4. Copper Tolerance and Characterization of a Copper-Responsive Operon, copYAZ, in an M1T1 Clinical Strain of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Lily D.; Fang, Zhong; Holder, Robert C.; Reid, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with Streptococcus pyogenes is associated with a breadth of clinical manifestations ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe necrotizing fasciitis. Elevated levels of intracellular copper are highly toxic to this bacterium, and thus, the microbe must tightly regulate the level of this metal ion by one or more mechanisms, which have, to date, not been clearly defined. In this study, we have identified two virulence mechanisms by which S. pyogenes protects itself against copper toxicity. We defined a set of putative genes, copY (for a regulator), copA (for a P1-type ATPase), and copZ (for a copper chaperone), whose expression is regulated by copper. Our results indicate that these genes are highly conserved among a range of clinical S. pyogenes isolates. The copY, copA, and copZ genes are induced by copper and are transcribed as a single unit. Heterologous expression assays revealed that S. pyogenes CopA can confer copper tolerance in a copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutant by preventing the accumulation of toxic levels of copper, a finding that is consistent with a role for CopA in copper export. Evaluation of the effect of copper stress on S. pyogenes in a planktonic or biofilm state revealed that biofilms may aid in protection during initial exposure to copper. However, copper stress appears to prevent the shift from the planktonic to the biofilm state. Therefore, our results indicate that S. pyogenes may use several virulence mechanisms, including altered gene expression and a transition to and from planktonic and biofilm states, to promote survival during copper stress. IMPORTANCE Bacterial pathogens encounter multiple stressors at the host-pathogen interface. This study evaluates a virulence mechanism(s) utilized by S. pyogenes to combat copper at sites of infection. A better understanding of pathogen tolerance to stressors such as copper is necessary to determine how host-pathogen interactions impact bacterial survival during infections. These insights may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets that can be used to address antibiotic resistance. PMID:26013489

  5. Identification of novel growth phase- and media-dependent small non-coding RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes M49 using intergenic tiling arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have attracted attention as a new class of gene regulators in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Genome-wide screening methods have been successfully applied in Gram-negative bacteria to identify sRNA regulators. Many sRNAs are well characterized, including their target mRNAs and mode of action. In comparison, little is known about sRNAs in Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we identified novel sRNAs in the exclusively human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes M49 (Group A Streptococcus, GAS M49), employing a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. GAS is an important pathogen that causes diseases ranging from mild superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes of the naso-pharynx, to severe toxic and invasive diseases. Results We identified 55 putative sRNAs in GAS M49 that were expressed during growth. Of these, 42 were novel. Some of the newly-identified sRNAs belonged to one of the common non-coding RNA families described in the Rfam database. Comparison of the results of our screen with the outcome of two recently published bioinformatics tools showed a low level of overlap between putative sRNA genes. Previously, 40 potential sRNAs have been reported to be expressed in a GAS M1T1 serotype, as detected by a whole genome intergenic tiling array approach. Our screen detected 12 putative sRNA genes that were expressed in both strains. Twenty sRNA candidates appeared to be regulated in a medium-dependent fashion, while eight sRNA genes were regulated throughout growth in chemically defined medium. Expression of candidate genes was verified by reverse transcriptase-qPCR. For a subset of sRNAs, the transcriptional start was determined by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR) analysis. Conclusions In accord with the results of previous studies, we found little overlap between different screening methods, which underlines the fact that a comprehensive analysis of sRNAs expressed by a given organism requires the complementary use of different methods and the investigation of several environmental conditions. Despite a high conservation of sRNA genes within streptococci, the expression of sRNAs appears to be strain specific. PMID:23062031

  6. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with tonsil colonisation by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Viciani, Elisa; Montagnani, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Tordini, Giacinta; Maccari, Silvia; Morandi, Matteo; Faenzi, Elisa; Biagini, Cesare; Romano, Antonio; Salerni, Lorenzo; Finco, Oretta; Lazzi, Stefano; Ruggiero, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Manetti, Andrea G. O.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of pathogenic bacteria in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has yet to be elucidated. We investigated the possible role of group A streptococcus (GAS) in OSAS pathogenesis. In 40 tonsillectomized patients affected by OSAS and 80 healthy controls, significant (p < 0.0001) association of GAS with paediatric OSAS was found. Supernatant from streptolysin O (SLO)-producing GAS induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in tonsil mononuclear cells (TMCs). CysLTs-treated TMCs showed significant (p < 0.05) proliferation of CD4+ T, CD19+ and CD19+CD27+CD38+ B lymphocytes. We discovered a SLO-dependent activation of CysLTs production through a pathway involving TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and p38 MAP Kinase. In conclusion, we hypothesise that GAS may contribute to paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia through CysLTs production induced by SLO, and this might explain its association with OSAS. PMID:26860261

  7. Myosin Cross-reactive Antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes M49 Encodes a Fatty Acid Double Bond Hydratase That Plays a Role in Oleic Acid Detoxification and Bacterial Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Anton; Liavonchanka, Alena; Kamneva, Olga; Fiedler, Tomas; Goebel, Cornelia; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Feussner, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    The myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein family is highly conserved among different bacterial species ranging from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria. Besides their ubiquitous occurrence, knowledge about the biochemical and physiological function of MCRA proteins is scarce. Here, we show that MCRA protein from Streptococcus pyogenes M49 is a FAD enzyme, which acts as hydratase on (9Z)- and (12Z)-double bonds of C-16, C-18 non-esterified fatty acids. Products are 10-hydroxy and 10,13-dihydroxy fatty acids. Kinetic analysis suggests that FAD rather stabilizes the active conformation of the enzyme and is not directly involved in catalysis. Analysis of S. pyogenes M49 grown in the presence of either oleic or linoleic acid showed that 10-hydroxy and 10,13-dihydroxy derivatives were the only products. No further metabolism of these hydroxy fatty acids was detected. Deletion of the hydratase gene caused a 2-fold decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration against oleic acid but increased survival of the mutant strain in whole blood. Adherence and internalization properties to human keratinocytes were reduced in comparison with the wild type. Based on these results, we conclude that the previously identified MCRA protein can be classified as a FAD-containing double bond hydratase, within the carbon-oxygen lyase family, that plays a role in virulence of at least S. pyogenes M49. PMID:20145247

  8. Surface Export of GAPDH/SDH, a Glycolytic Enzyme, Is Essential for Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hong; Agarwal, Shivangi; Agarwal, Shivani; Pancholi, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcal surface dehydrogenase (SDH) (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]) is an anchorless major multifunctional surface protein in group A Streptococcus (GAS) with the ability to bind important mammalian proteins, including plasmin(ogen). Although several biological properties of SDH are suggestive of its possible role in GAS virulence, its direct role in GAS pathogenesis has not been ascertained because it is essential for GAS survival. Thus, it has remained enigmatic as to how and why SDH/GAPDH is exported onto the bacterial surface. The present investigation highlights why SDH is exported onto the GAS surface. Differential microarray-based genome-wide transcript abundance analysis was carried out using a specific mutant, which was created by inserting a hydrophobic tail at the C-terminal end of SDH (M1-SDHHBtail) and thus preventing its exportation onto the GAS surface. This analysis revealed downregulation of the majority of genes involved in GAS virulence and genes belonging to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and upregulation of those related to lipid metabolism. The complete attenuation of this mutant for virulence in the mouse model and the decreased and increased virulence of the wild-type and mutant strains postcomplementation with SDHHBtail and SDH, respectively, indicated that the SDH surface export indeed regulates GAS virulence. M1-SDHHBtail also displayed unaltered growth patterns, increased intracellular ATP concentration and Hpr double phosphorylation, and significantly reduced pH tolerance, streptolysin S, and SpeB activities. These phenotypic and physiological changes observed in the mutant despite the unaltered expression levels of established transcriptional regulators further highlight the fact that SDH interfaces with many regulators and its surface exportation is essential for GAS virulence. PMID:21628503

  9. Resistance to Erythromycin and Telithromycin in Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates Obtained between 1999 and 2002 from Greek Children with Tonsillopharyngitis: Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grivea, Ioanna N.; Al-Lahham, Adnan; Katopodis, George D.; Syrogiannopoulos, George A.; Reinert, Ralf René

    2006-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the prevalence of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes has significantly increased in several European countries. Between January 1999 and December 2002, 1,577 isolates of S. pyogenes were recovered from children with tonsillopharyngitis living in various areas of Western Greece. Erythromycin resistance was observed in 379 (24%) of the 1,577 isolates. All erythromycin-resistant strains along with 153 randomly selected erythromycin-susceptible S. pyogenes isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance phenotypes, and genotypes. Representative isolates underwent emm gene sequence typing. Isolates with reduced susceptibility to telithromycin (MIC, ≥2 μg/ml) were studied for multilocus sequence type, L22, L4, and 23S rRNA mutations. Of the total 379 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 193 (50.9%) harbored the mef(A) gene, 163 (43%) erm(A), 1 (0.3%) mef(A) plus erm(A), and 22 (5.8%) the erm(B) gene. Among the erythromycin-susceptible isolates, emm 1 (25%), emm 2 (12.5%), and emm 77 (12.5%) predominated. Furthermore, among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, emm 4 (30.6%), emm 28 (22.2%), and emm 77 (12.5%) prevailed. Resistance to telithromycin was observed in 22 (5.8%) of the erythromycin-resistant isolates. Sixteen (72.7%) of the 22 isolates appeared to be clonally related, since all of them belonged to emm type 28 and multilocus sequence type 52. One of the well-known mutations (T2166C) in 23S rRNA, as well as a new one (T2136C), was detected in erythromycin- and telithromycin-resistant isolates. High incidence of macrolide resistance and clonal spread of telithromycin resistance were the characteristics of the Greek S. pyogenes isolates obtained from 1999 to 2002. PMID:16377695

  10. Application of an enzyme-labeled antigen method for visualizing plasma cells producing antibodies against Strep A, a carbohydrate antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes, in recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Onouchi, Takanori; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Inada, Ken-ichi; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Naito, Kensei; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the main causative pathogen of recurrent tonsillitis. Histologically, lesions of recurrent tonsillitis contain numerous plasma cells. Strep A is an antigenic carbohydrate molecule on the cell wall of S. pyogenes. As expected, plasma cells in subjects with recurrent tonsillitis secrete antibodies against Strep A. The enzyme-labeled antigen method is a novel histochemical technique that visualizes specific antibody-producing cells in tissue sections by employing a biotin-labeled antigen as a probe. The purpose of the present study was to visualize plasma cells producing antibodies reactive with Strep A in recurrent tonsillitis. Firstly, the lymph nodes of rats immunized with boiled S. pyogenes were paraformaldehyde-fixed and specific plasma cells localized in frozen sections with biotinylated Strep A. Secondly, an enzyme-labeled antigen method was used on human tonsil surgically removed from 12 patients with recurrent tonsillitis. S. pyogenes genomes were PCR-detected in all 12 specimens. The emm genotypes belonged to emm12 in nine specimens and emm1 in three. Plasma cells producing anti-Strep A antibodies were demonstrated in prefixed frozen sections of rat lymph nodes, 8/12 human specimens from patients with recurrent tonsillitis but not in two control tonsils. In human tonsils, Strep A-reactive plasma cells were observed within the reticular squamous mucosa and just below the mucosa, and the specific antibodies belonged to either IgA or IgG classes. Our technique is effective in visualizing immunocytes producing specific antibodies against the bacterial carbohydrate antigen, and is thus a novel histochemical tool for analyzing immune reactions in infectious disorders. PMID:25403787

  11. Streptococcus pyogenes Employs Strain-dependent Mechanisms of C3b Inactivation to Inhibit Phagocytosis and Killing of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Glinton, Kristofor; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2016-04-22

    Evasion of complement-mediated opsonophagocytosis enables group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) to establish infection. Different strain-dependent mechanisms are employed by the host to accomplish this goal. In general, GAS inhibits the amplification of the complement cascade on its cell surface by facilitating the degradation of C3b, an opsonin, to an inactive product, inactivated C3b (iC3b), in a step catalyzed by factor I (FI) and its cofactor, factor H (FH), with or without the participation of human host plasmin (hPm). GAS recruits FH to its cell surface via FH receptors, which are transcriptionally controlled by the two-component cluster of virulence responder-sensor system. The manner in which FI-FH and hPm function together on GAS cells is unknown. Using GAS strain AP53, which strongly binds host human plasminogen/plasmin (hPg/hPm) directly via an hPg/hPm surface receptor (PAM), we show that both FI-FH and hPm sequentially cleave C3b. Whereas FI-FH proteolytically cleaves C3b into iC3b, PAM-bound hPm catalyzes cleavage of iC3b into multiple smaller peptides. Unlike AP53, GAS strain M23ND weakly binds FH and recruits hPg/hPm to its cell surface indirectly via fibrinogen bound to M-protein, M23. In this case, FH-FI cleaves C3b into iC3b, with negligible degradation of iC3b by hPm that is bound to fibrinogen on the cells. AP53 and M23ND display similar resistance to human neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis, which results in a corresponding high lethality in mice after injection of these cells. These results suggest that GAS utilizes diverse mechanisms to degrade C3b and thus to protect bacterial cells from the complement response of the host. PMID:26945067

  12. Epidemiological Study of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes From Korea and Japan by emm Genotyping and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takashi; Arai, Kazuaki; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Koh, Eun-Ha; Yoshida, Haruno; Yano, Hisakazu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background We determined the epidemiological characteristics of erythromycin (EM)-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS) strains isolated from Korea and Japan, using emm genotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Methods Clinical isolates of GAS had been collected from 1992 to 2012 in Korea and from 2004 to 2009 in Japan. EM resistance was determined by the microdilution method, and resistance genotypes were assessed by PCR. The emm genotyping and MLST were performed by DNA sequencing. Results The emm genotypes and sequence types (STs) were concordant in 143 (85.1%) of 168 EM-resistant GAS strains from Korea. ST36/emm12 (35.1%), ST52/emm28 (22.6%), and ST49/emm75 (16.1%) were the most common types. Most of the ST36 (93.9%) and ST52 (95.8%) strains harbored erm(B), whereas strains ST49, ST42, and ST15 contained mef(A). The concordance between emm genotypes and STs was 41 (93.2%) among 44 EM-resistant GAS strains from Japan. ST36/emm12 (34.1%), ST49/emm75 (18.2%), and ST28/emm1 (15.9%) were the major types. ST36 isolates harbored either erm(B) (56.3%) or mef(A) (37.5%), whereas isolates ST28, ST49, and ST38 carried only mef(A). The proportion of erm(B) and mef(A) was 66.1% and 33.3% in Korea and 22.7% and 68.2% in Japan, respectively. Conclusions The common STs in Korea and Japan were ST36 and ST49, whereas ST52 was present only in Korea and ST28 only in Japan. Genotype erm(B) was predominant in Korea, whereas mef(A) was frequent in Japan. There were differences between Korea and Japan regarding the frequencies of emm genotypes, STs, and EM resistance genes among the EM-resistant GAS. PMID:26522753

  13. Comparative analysis of emm types, superantigen gene profiles and antibiotic resistance genes among Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from ocular infections, pharyngitis and asymptomatic children in south India.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Kannan; Thenmozhi, Ramalingam; Prajna, Lalitha; Dhananjeyan, Gopal; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2013-10-01

    Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is responsible for a wide array of infections and incidence is high in developing countries like India. Although distribution of emm types of S. pyogenes in India has been described, its association with the virulence genes and ocular isolates is less concentrated. In the present study emm type surveillance as well as its association with toxin gene profile was analyzed. Ocular infected cases such as lacrimal abscess, corneal ulcers, mucocoele showed the presence of 20 S. pyogenes isolates. For noninvasive isolates, we screened 370 pharyngitis cases and 400 asymptomatic school children and recovered 33 pharyngitis and 14 carrier isolates respectively. 14 Emm type distributions were observed in ocular isolates, 11 emm types each in pharyngitis and asymptomatic carrier isolates. The two dominant emm types, emm49 and emm63 were accounted for 33% of the total S. pyogenes isolates. Among ocular isolates, slo, smeZ, speB and speG were found in >50% of isolates, in pharyngitis smeZ (48%), speB (45%) and speG (42%) genes were found to be prevalent. Alarmingly, carrier isolates showed more prevalence to virulence genes than the ocular and pharyngitis isolates with speF (79%), speB, speG (64%), slo and sil (64%). Among the three groups, pharyngitis isolates harbored more prtF1 (33%) and prtF2 (94%) than the asymptomatic carriers (28% and 71%) and the ocular isolates (45% and 40%). 450bp Size band in prtF1 and 350bp size band in prtF2 showed dominance. Among the three groups tested, the distribution of ermB and mefA was high in pharyngitis isolates (30%) where 10 isolates showed the presence of both genes. None of the isolates showed the presence of ermA and tetO genes. Dendrogram generated based on the virulence and antibiotic resistance gene profiles revealed that except one cluster, all other clusters showed some correlation with ocular, pharyngitis and asymptomatic carrier isolates, irrespective of their emm types. PMID:23851012

  14. Virulence Gene Pool Detected in Bovine Group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae Isolates by Use of a Group A S. pyogenes Virulence Microarray ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rato, Márcia G.; Nerlich, Andreas; Bergmann, René; Bexiga, Ricardo; Nunes, Sandro F.; Vilela, Cristina L.; Santos-Sanches, Ilda; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    2011-01-01

    A custom-designed microarray containing 220 virulence genes of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) was used to test group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (GCS) field strains causing bovine mastitis and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (GCS/GGS) isolates from human infections, with the latter being used for comparative purposes, for the presence of virulence genes. All bovine and all human isolates carried a fraction of the 220 genes (23% and 39%, respectively). The virulence genes encoding streptolysin S, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the plasminogen-binding M-like protein PAM, and the collagen-like protein SclB were detected in the majority of both bovine and human isolates (94 to 100%). Virulence factors, usually carried by human beta-hemolytic streptococcal pathogens, such as streptokinase, laminin-binding protein, and the C5a peptidase precursor, were detected in all human isolates but not in bovine isolates. Additionally, GAS bacteriophage-associated virulence genes encoding superantigens, DNase, and/or streptodornase were detected in bovine isolates (72%) but not in the human isolates. Determinants located in non-bacteriophage-related mobile elements, such as the gene encoding R28, were detected in all bovine and human isolates. Several virulence genes, including genes of bacteriophage origin, were shown to be expressed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of superantigen gene sequences revealed a high level (>98%) of identity among genes of bovine GCS, of the horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and of the human pathogen GAS. Our findings indicate that alpha-hemolytic bovine GCS, an important mastitis pathogen and considered to be a nonhuman pathogen, carries important virulence factors responsible for virulence and pathogenesis in humans. PMID:21525223

  15. Dynamics of uterine infections with Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis and Trueperella pyogenes in post-partum dairy cows and their association with clinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Wagener, K; Grunert, T; Prunner, I; Ehling-Schulz, M; Drillich, M

    2014-12-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the uterine microbiota of dairy cows are poorly understood although it is becoming increasingly evident that they play a crucial role in the development of metritis and endometritis. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the bovine microbiota of 40 cows on the day of calving and days 3, 9, 15, and 21 after parturition, and to investigate the associations of selected species with clinical endometritis (CE). Trueperella pyogenes (43.5%), Escherichia coli (21.5%), Bacillus spp. (21.0%) and Streptococcus uberis (18.5%) were the most frequently isolated microbes. Analyses of different sampling time points revealed that the presence of S. uberis on day 3 increased the risk of subsequent T. pyogenes infection on day 9 (odds ratio [OR] = 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-22.6). T. pyogenes infection (OR = 36.0, 95% CI = 3.8-343.2) and retained fetal membranes (RFM) (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 1.4-112.7) were significant risk factors for CE. Cows with S. uberis on day 3 tended to have greater odds of CE than S. uberis-negative cows (OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 0.9-55.6). Chemometric analysis revealed significant differences in the metabolic profile of S. uberis strains isolated from cows with different vaginal discharge scores. This is the first study showing the association of specific S. uberis subtypes with the uterine health status of post-partum dairy cows. The study demonstrates that uterine clearance is a highly dynamic process, during which time bacteria show distinct patterns of progression, and provides information about interactions between bacterial species involved in the occurrence of CE. PMID:25439441

  16. Substitution of cysteine 192 in a highly conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease (interleukin 1beta convertase) alters proteolytic activity and ablates zymogen processing.

    PubMed Central

    Musser, J M; Stockbauer, K; Kapur, V; Rudgers, G W

    1996-01-01

    Virtually all strains of the human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes express a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease. The protein is made as an inactive zymogen of 40,000 Da and undergoes autocatalytic truncation to result in a 28,000-Da active protease. Numerous independent lines of investigation suggest that this enzyme participates in one or more phases of host-parasite interaction, such as inflammation and soft tissue invasion. Replacement of the single cysteine residue (C-192) with serine (C192S mutation) resulted in loss of detectable proteolytic activity against bovine casein, human fibronectin, and the low-molecular-weight synthetic substrate 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin. The C192S mutant molecule does not undergo autocatalytic processing of zymogen to mature form. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that C-192 participates in active-site formation and enzyme catalysis. PMID:8675287

  17. Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., Eleutherine americana Merr. and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. as antibiofilm producing and antiquorum sensing in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2008-08-01

    Biofilm formation has been demonstrated as a potentially important mechanism contributing to antibiotic treatment failure on Streptococcus pyogenes. It could play a significant role in recurrent and chronic infections. Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., Eleutherine americana Merr. and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. have been previously reported from our laboratory as effective agents against S. pyogenes. Therefore, in the present study, we observed the effect of these plants on biofilm formation. The bacterial biofilms were quantified by safranin staining and absorbance at 492 nm. The results clearly demonstrated that all subinhibitory concentrations [1/32-1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)] of E. americana (7.81-125 microg mL(-1)) and R. tomentosa (0.24-7.81 microg mL(-1)) extracts significantly prevented biofilm formation while 1/2MIC (7.81 microg mL(-1)) of B. pandurata extract produced this effect. The issue of antiquorum sensing of this pathogenic bacterium has been further explored. A correlation between antiquorum-sensing and antibiofilm-producing activities was demonstrated. Strong inhibition on quorum sensing was displayed with the extract of R. tomentosa. Eleutherine americana extract showed partial inhibition, while B. pandurata did not show this activity. By contrast, an assay of microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon revealed no changes in the cell-surface hydrophobicity of the treated organisms. Active organisms with the ability to inhibit quorum sensing and biofilm formation are worth studying as they may provide complimentary medicine for biofilm-associated infections. PMID:18631184

  18. Toward New Therapeutics for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Propargyl-Linked Antifolates Are Potent Inhibitors of MRSA and Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Scocchera, Eric W.; Martin, Brooke D.; Swain III, P. Whitney; Alverson, Jeremy B.; Priestley, Nigel D.; Anderson, Amy C.; Wright, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    Hospital- and community-acquired, complicated skin and soft tissue infections, often attributed to Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, present a significant health burden that is associated with increased health care costs and mortality. As these two species are difficult to discern on diagnosis and are associated with differential profiles of drug resistance, the development of an efficacious antibacterial agent that targets both organisms is a high priority. Herein we describe a structure-based drug development effort that has produced highly potent inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from both species. Optimized propargyl-linked antifolates containing a key pyridyl substituent display antibacterial activity against both methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. pyogenes at MIC values below 0.1 µg/mL and minimal cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Further evaluation against a panel of clinical isolates shows good efficacy against a range of important phenotypes such as hospital- and community-acquired strains as well as strains resistant to vancomycin. PMID:22347365

  19. In vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against streptococcus pyogenes isolated from different regions of Khyber Pakhtun Khwa Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Bakht, Jehan; Bacha, Nafees; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the antibiotic resistance of S. pyogenes of 600 isolates collected from different body parts including throat and sputum were analyzed for their antimicrobial susceptibility to 5 antibiotics using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Based on different identification tests including, gram staining, beta hemolysis, catalase test and bacitracin sensitivity test, a total of 138 isolates were confirmed as S. pyogenes. The prevalence of S. pyogenes was 80% in sore throat and 29% in sputum samples. These isolates were further tested for antibiotics resistance using disk diffusion method. Out of 138 isolates, 49.27% isolates showed resistance towards cefixime, 28.98% towards cefotaxime and 17.39% towards ciprofloxacin, 17.39% towards ampicillin, 17.39% towards erythromycin, 15.94% towards streptomycin, 0.724% isolates towards chloromphenicol and 0% towards penicillin. Among the resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, 60.71% showed resistance towards cefixime, 57.14% towards ciprofloxacin, 57.14% towards streptomycin, 50% towards erythromycin and 25% towards cefotaxime. PMID:26826819

  20. Differential endometrial cell sensitivity to a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin links Trueperella pyogenes to uterine disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Amos, Matthew R; Healey, Gareth D; Goldstone, Robert J; Mahan, Suman M; Düvel, Anna; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Sandra, Olivier; Zieger, Peter; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle; Smith, David G E; Sheldon, Iain Martin

    2014-03-01

    Purulent disease of the uterus develops in 40% of dairy cows after parturition, when the epithelium of the endometrium is disrupted to expose the underlying stroma to bacteria. The severity of endometrial pathology is associated with isolation of Trueperella pyogenes. In the present study, T. pyogenes alone caused uterine disease when infused into the uterus of cattle where the endometrial epithelium was disrupted. The bacterium secretes a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin (PLO), and the plo gene was identical and the plo gene promoter was highly similar amongst 12 clinical isolates of T. pyogenes. Bacteria-free filtrates of the T. pyogenes cultures caused hemolysis and endometrial cytolysis, and PLO was the main cytolytic agent, because addition of anti-PLO antibody prevented cytolysis. Similarly, a plo-deletion T. pyogenes mutant did not cause hemolysis or endometrial cytolysis. Endometrial stromal cells were notably more sensitive to PLO-mediated cytolysis than epithelial or immune cells. Stromal cells also contained more cholesterol than epithelial cells, and reducing stromal cell cholesterol content using cyclodextrins protected against PLO. Although T. pyogenes or plo-deletion T. pyogenes stimulated accumulation of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8, from endometrium, PLO did not stimulate inflammatory responses by endometrial or hematopoietic cells, or in vitro organ cultures of endometrium. The marked sensitivity of stromal cells to PLO-mediated cytolysis provides an explanation for how T. pyogenes acts as an opportunistic pathogen to cause pathology of the endometrium once the protective epithelium is lost after parturition. PMID:24478394

  1. The Histone-Like Protein Hlp Is Essential for Growth of Streptococcus pyogenes: Comparison of Genetic Approaches To Study Essential Genes▿†

    PubMed Central

    Bugrysheva, Julia V.; Froehlich, Barbara J.; Freiberg, Jeffrey A.; Scott, June R.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of possible targets for vaccine and drug development requires an understanding of the physiology of bacterial pathogens, for which the ability to manipulate expression of essential genes is critical. For Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus [GAS]), an important human pathogen, the lack of genetic tools for such studies has seriously hampered research. To address this problem, we characterized variants of the inducible Ptet cassette, in both sense and antisense contexts, as tools to regulate transcription from GAS genes. We found that although the three-operator Ptet construct [Ptet(O)3] had low uninduced expression, its induction level was low, while the two-operator construct [Ptet(O)2] was inducible to a high level but showed significant constitutive expression. Use of Ptet(O)3 in the chromosome allowed us to demonstrate previously that RNases J1 and J2 are required for growth of GAS. Here we report that the uninduced level from the chromosomally inserted Ptet(O)2 construct was too high for us to observe differential growth. For the highly expressed histone-like protein (Hlp) of GAS, neither chromosomal insertion of Ptet(O)2 or Ptet(O)3 nor their use on a high-copy-number plasmid to produce antisense RNA specific to hlp resulted in adequate differential expression. However, by replacing the ribosome binding site of hlp with an engineered riboswitch to control translation of Hlp, we demonstrated for the first time that this protein is essential for GAS growth. PMID:21531823

  2. Streptococcal necrotising fasciitis from diverse strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in tropical northern Australia: case series and comparison with the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hassell, Marilyn; Fagan, Peter; Carson, Phillip; Currie, Bart J

    2004-01-01

    Background Since the mid-1980's there has been a worldwide resurgence of severe disease from group A streptococcus (GAS), with clonal clusters implicated in Europe and the United States. However GAS associated sepsis and rheumatic fever have always remained at high levels in many less developed countries. In this context we aimed to study GAS necrotising fasciitis (NF) in a region where there are high background rates of GAS carriage and disease. Methods We describe the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features of 14 consecutive cases of GAS NF treated over a seven year period from tropical northern Australia. Results Incidence rates of GAS NF in the Aboriginal population were up to five times those previously published from other countries. Clinical features were similar to those described elsewhere, with 7/14 (50%) bacteremic and 9/14 (64%) having associated streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. 11/14 (79%) had underlying chronic illnesses, including all four fatalities (29% mortality overall). Important laboratory differences from other series were that leukocytosis was absent in 9/14 (64%) but all had substantial lymphopenia. Sequence typing of the 14 NF-associated GAS isolates showed no clonality, with only one emm type 1 and two emm type 3 strains. Conclusions While NF clusters can occur from a single emergent GAS clone, this was not evident in our tropical region, where high rates of NF parallel high overall rates of GAS infection from a wide diversity of strains. The specific virulence factors of GAS strains which do cause NF and the basis of the inadequate host response in those patients who develop NF on infection with these GAS require further elucidation. PMID:15601476

  3. CovRS-Regulated Transcriptome Analysis of a Hypervirulent M23 Strain of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes Provides New Insights into Virulence Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yun-Juan; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Shaun W.; Ploplis, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The two-component control of virulence (Cov) regulator (R)-sensor (S) (CovRS) regulates the virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]). Inactivation of CovS during infection switches the pathogenicity of GAS to a more invasive form by regulating transcription of diverse virulence genes via CovR. However, the manner in which CovRS controls virulence through expression of extended gene families has not been fully determined. In the current study, the CovS-regulated gene expression profiles of a hypervirulent emm23 GAS strain (M23ND/CovS negative [M23ND/CovS−]) and a noninvasive isogenic strain (M23ND/CovS+), under different growth conditions, were investigated. RNA sequencing identified altered expression of ∼349 genes (18% of the chromosome). The data demonstrated that M23ND/CovS− achieved hypervirulence by allowing enhanced expression of genes responsible for antiphagocytosis (e.g., hasABC), by abrogating expression of toxin genes (e.g., speB), and by compromising gene products with dispensable functions (e.g., sfb1). Among these genes, several (e.g., parE and parC) were not previously reported to be regulated by CovRS. Furthermore, the study revealed that CovS also modulated the expression of a broad spectrum of metabolic genes that maximized nutrient utilization and energy metabolism during growth and dissemination, where the bacteria encounter large variations in available nutrients, thus restructuring metabolism of GAS for adaption to diverse growth environments. From constructing a genome-scale metabolic model, we identified 16 nonredundant metabolic gene modules that constitute unique nutrient sources. These genes were proposed to be essential for pathogen growth and are likely associated with GAS virulence. The genome-wide prediction of genes associated with virulence identifies new candidate genes that potentially contribute to GAS virulence. IMPORTANCE The CovRS system modulates transcription of ∼18% of the genes in the Streptococcus pyogenes genome. Mutations that inactivate CovR or CovS enhance the virulence of this bacterium. We determined complete transcriptomes of a naturally CovS-inactivated invasive deep tissue isolate of an emm23 strain of S. pyogenes (M23ND) and its complemented avirulent variant (CovS+). We identified diverse virulence genes whose altered expression revealed a genetic switching of a nonvirulent form of M23ND to a highly virulent strain. Furthermore, we also systematically uncovered for the first time the comparative levels of expression of a broad spectrum of metabolic genes, which reflected different metabolic needs of the bacterium as it invaded deeper tissue of the human host. PMID:26216843

  4. Elimination of Chromosomal Island SpyCIM1 from Streptococcus pyogenes Strain SF370 Reverses the Mutator Phenotype and Alters Global Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Scott V.; Rahman, Maliha; McCullor, Kimberly A.; King, Catherine J.; Fischetti, Vincent A.; McShan, W. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes chromosomal island M1 (SpyCIM1) integrates by site-specific recombination into the 5’ end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL in strain SF370SmR, blocking transcription of it and the downstream operon genes. During exponential growth, SpyCIM1 excises from the chromosome and replicates as an episome, restoring mutL transcription. This process is reversed in stationary phase with SpyCIM1 re-integrating into mutL, returning the cells to a mutator phenotype. Here we show that elimination of SpyCIM1 relieves this mutator phenotype. The downstream MMR operon genes, multidrug efflux pump lmrP, Holliday junction resolution helicase ruvA, and DNA base excision repair glycosylase tag, are also restored to constitutive expression by elimination of SpyCIM1. The presence of SpyCIM1 alters global transcription patterns in SF370SmR. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) demonstrated that loss of SpyCIM1 in the SpyCIM1 deletion mutant, CEM1Δ4, impacted the expression of over 100 genes involved in virulence and metabolism both in early exponential phase, when the SpyCIM1 is episomal, as well as at the onset of stationary phase, when SpyCIM1 has reintegrated into mutL. Among these changes, the up-regulation of the genes for the antiphagocytic M protein (emm1), streptolysin O (slo), capsule operon (hasABC), and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (speB), are particularly notable. The expression pattern of the MMR operon confirmed our earlier observations that these genes are transcribed in early exponential phase but silenced as stationary phase is approached. Thus, the direct role of SpyCIM1 in causing the mutator phenotype is confirmed, and further, its influence upon the biology of S. pyogenes was found to impact multiple genes in addition to the MMR operon, which is a novel function for a mobile genetic element. We suggest that such chromosomal islands are a remarkable evolutionary adaptation to promote the survival of its S. pyogenes host cell in changing environments. PMID:26701803

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes c-di-AMP Phosphodiesterase, GdpP, Influences SpeB Processing and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyu Hong; Kang, Song Ok

    2013-01-01

    Small cyclic nucleotide derivatives are employed as second messengers by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes to regulate diverse cellular processes responding to various signals. In bacteria, c-di-AMP has been discovered most recently, and some Gram-positive pathogens including S. pyogenes use this cyclic nucleotide derivative as a second messenger instead of c-di-GMP, a well-studied important bacterial second messenger. GdpP, c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase, is responsible for degrading c-di-AMP inside cells, and the cellular role of GdpP in S. pyogenes has not been examined yet. To test the cellular role of GdpP, we created a strain with a nonpolar inframe deletion of the gdpP gene, and examined the properties of the strain including virulence. From this study, we demonstrated that GdpP influences the biogenesis of SpeB, the major secreted cysteine protease, at a post-translational level, susceptibility to the beta lactam antibiotic ampicillin, and is necessary for full virulence in a murine subcutaneous infection model. PMID:23869242

  6. Long-term antibody memory induced by synthetic peptide vaccination is protective against Streptococcus pyogenes infection and is independent of memory T cell help.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manisha; Wykes, Michelle N; Hartas, Jon; Good, Michael F; Batzloff, Michael R

    2013-03-15

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) is a leading human pathogen associated with a diverse array of mucosal and systemic infections. Vaccination with J8, a conserved region synthetic peptide derived from the M-protein of GAS and containing only 12 aa from GAS, when conjugated to diphtheria toxoid, has been shown to protect mice against a lethal GAS challenge. Protection has been previously shown to be Ab-mediated. J8 does not contain a dominant GAS-specific T cell epitope. The current study examined long-term Ab memory and dissected the role of B and T cells. Our results demonstrated that vaccination generates specific memory B cells (MBC) and long-lasting Ab responses. The MBC response can be activated following boost with Ag or limiting numbers of whole bacteria. We further show that these memory responses protect against systemic infection with GAS. T cell help is required for activation of MBC but can be provided by naive T cells responding directly to GAS at the time of infection. Thus, individuals whose T cells do not recognize the short synthetic peptide in the vaccine will be able to generate a protective and rapid memory Ab response at the time of infection. These studies significantly strengthen previous findings, which showed that protection by the J8-diphtheria toxoid vaccine is Ab-mediated and suggest that in vaccine design for other organisms the source of T cell help for Ab responses need not be limited to sequences from the organism itself. PMID:23401589

  7. New tetracycline resistance determinants coding for ribosomal protection in streptococci and nucleotide sequence of tet(T) isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes A498.

    PubMed Central

    Clermont, D; Chesneau, O; De Cespédès, G; Horaud, T

    1997-01-01

    An approach based on PCR has been developed to identify new members of the tet gene family in streptococci resistant to tetracycline and minocycline. Degenerate primers, corresponding to portions of the conserved domains of the proteins Tet(M), Tet(O), TeTB(P), Tet(Q), and Tet(S), all specifying the tetracycline-minocycline resistance phenotype, were used to selectively amplify DNA fragments within the coding sequences. Nine streptococcal strains which do not carry the genes tet(M), tet(O), tetB(P), tet(Q), or tet(S) were investigated. Four of them gave no detectable PCR products. The five remaining strains each yielded a PCR product of 1.1 kbp. DNA hybridization experiments showed that these putative Tet determinants fell into four new hybridization classes, of which one, Tet T, was further analyzed. The gene tet(T) was isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes A498, and the nucleotide sequence that was necessary and sufficient for the expression of tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli was determined. The deduced Tet(T) protein consists of 651 amino acids. The protein most closely related to Tet(T) was Tet(Q), which has 49% identical amino acid residues. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Tet T represents a novel branching order among the Tet determinants so far described. PMID:8980765

  8. Antibacterial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) from healthy carriers and tonsillitis patients and association with antibacterial sale in the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Marita D; Gaini, Shahin; Gislason, Hannes; Kristinsson, Karl G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), and correlate the findings with the sales of erythromycin and tetracycline. General practitioners in the Faroe Islands were recruited to send oropharyngeal swabs. From an ongoing pneumococcal study, nasopharyngeal swabs were sampled from healthy children 0-7 years of age. Erythromycin susceptibility data from Iceland were obtained from the reference laboratory at the Landspitali University Hospital. Susceptibility testing in the Faroe Islands and Iceland was performed according to CLSI methods and criteria. The resistance rate to erythromycin and tetracycline found in patients in the Faroe Islands in 2009/2010 was 6% and 30% respectively. Tetracycline resistance in patients declined significantly from 2009 to 2010 (37-10%, p-value = 0.006 < 0.05) and differed significantly between age groups (p-value = 0.03 < 0.05). In Iceland, there was a peak in erythromycin resistance in 2008 (44%) and a substantial decrease in 2009 (5%). Although the prevalence of erythromycin and tetracycline resistance in the Faroe Islands and Iceland may be associated with antimicrobial use, sudden changes can occur with the introduction of new resistant clones. PMID:26833774

  9. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    SciTech Connect

    González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W.

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  10. In Vitro Activity of the New Ketolide Telithromycin Compared with Those of Macrolides against Streptococcus pyogenes: Influences of Resistance Mechanisms and Methodological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bemer-Melchior, Pascale; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Tassin, Sandrine; Bryskier, Andre; Schito, Gian Carlo; Drugeon, Henri-B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 80 susceptible to macrolides and 27 resistant to erythromycin A (MIC >0.5 μg/ml), were examined. The erythromycin A-lincomycin double-disk test assigned 7 resistant strains to the M-phenotype, 8 to the inducible macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance (iMLSB) phenotype, and 12 to the constitutive MLSB resistance (cMLSB) phenotype. MICs of erythromycin A, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, and clindamycin were determined by a broth microdilution method. MICs of telithromycin were determined by three different methods (broth microdilution, agar dilution, and E-test methods) in an ambient air atmosphere and in a 5 to 6% CO2 atmosphere. Erythromycin A resistance genes were investigated by PCR in the 27 erythromycin A-resistant isolates. MICs of erythromycin A and clindamycin showed six groups of resistant strains, groups A to F. iMLSB strains (A, B, and D groups) are characterized by two distinct patterns of resistance correlated with genotypic results. A- and B-group strains were moderately resistant to 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides and highly susceptible to telithromycin. All A- and B-group isolates harbored erm TR gene, D-group strains, highly resistant to macrolides and intermediately resistant to telithromycin (MICs, 1 to 16 μg/ml), were all characterized by having the ermB gene. All M-phenotype isolates (C group), resistant to 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides and susceptible to clindamycin and telithromycin, harbored the mefA gene. All cMLSB strains (E and F groups) with high level of resistance to macrolides, lincosamide, and telithromycin had the ermB gene. The effect of 5 to 6% CO2 was remarkable on resistant strains, by increasing MICs of telithromycin from 1 to 6 twofold dilutions against D-E- and F-group isolates. PMID:11036012

  11. Extracellular Cysteine Protease Produced by Streptococcus pyogenes Participates in the Pathogenesis of Invasive Skin Infection and Dissemination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lukomski, Slawomir; Montgomery, Charles A.; Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Geske, Robert S.; Barrish, James P.; Adams, Gerald J.; Musser, James M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of an extracellular cysteine protease encoded by the speB gene in group A Streptococcus (GAS) skin infection was studied with a mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with a wild-type GAS serotype M3 strain or a cysteine protease-inactivated isogenic derivative grown to stationary phase. The mortality rate of mice injected with the M3 speB mutant strain was significantly decreased (P < 0.0008) compared to that of animals injected with the wild-type parental organism. The abscesses formed in animals infected with the cysteine protease mutant strain were significantly smaller (P < 0.0001) than those caused by the wild-type organism and slowly regressed over 3 to 4 weeks. In striking contrast, infection with the wild-type GAS isolate generated necrotic lesions, and in some animals the GAS disseminated widely from the injection site and produced extensive cutaneous damage. All of these animals developed bacteremia and died. GAS dissemination was accompanied by severe tissue and blood vessel necrosis. Cysteine protease expression in the infected tissue was identified by immunogold electron microscopy. These data demonstrate that cysteine protease expression contributes to soft tissue pathology, including necrosis, and is required for efficient systemic dissemination of the organism from the initial site of skin inoculation. PMID:10085018

  12. Complement factor H allotype 402H is associated with increased C3b opsonization and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Haapasalo, Karita; Jarva, Hanna; Siljander, Tuula; Tewodros, Wezenet; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Jokiranta, T Sakari

    2008-11-01

    The main virulence factor of group A streptococcus (GAS), M protein, binds plasma complement regulators factor H (FH) and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1) leading to decreased opsonization. The M protein binding site on FH is within domain 7 in which also the age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated polymorphism Y402H is located. We studied if FH allotypes 402H and 402Y have different binding affinities to GAS. Plasma-derived FH allotype 402H and its recombinant fragment FH5-7(402H) showed decreased binding to several GAS strains. Growth of GAS in human blood taken from FH(402H) homozygous individuals was decreased when compared with blood taken from FH(402Y) homozygous individuals. The effect of the allotype 402H can be explained by combining the previous M protein mutagenesis data and the recently published crystal structure of FH6-8. In conclusion the data indicate that the AMD-associated allotype 402H leads to diminished binding of FH to GAS and increased opsonophagocytosis of the bacteria in blood. These results suggest that the homozygous presence of the allele 402H could be associated with decreased risk for severe GAS infections offering an explanation for the high frequency of the allele despite its association with visual impairment. PMID:18627465

  13. Adhesin competence repressor (AdcR) from Streptococcus pyogenes controls adaptive responses to zinc limitation and contributes to virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; Makthal, Nishanth; Flores, Anthony R.; Olsen, Randall J.; Musser, James M.; Kumaraswami, Muthiah

    2015-01-01

    Altering zinc bioavailability to bacterial pathogens is a key component of host innate immunity. Thus, the ability to sense and adapt to the alterations in zinc concentrations is critical for bacterial survival and pathogenesis. To understand the adaptive responses of group A Streptococcus (GAS) to zinc limitation and its regulation by AdcR, we characterized gene regulation by AdcR. AdcR regulates the expression of 70 genes involved in zinc acquisition and virulence. Zinc-bound AdcR interacts with operator sequences in the negatively regulated promoters and mediates differential regulation of target genes in response to zinc deficiency. Genes involved in zinc mobilization and conservation are derepressed during mild zinc deficiency, whereas the energy-dependent zinc importers are upregulated during severe zinc deficiency. Further, we demonstrated that transcription activation by AdcR occurs by direct binding to the promoter. However, the repression and activation by AdcR is mediated by its interactions with two distinct operator sequences. Finally, mutational analysis of the metal ligands of AdcR caused impaired DNA binding and attenuated virulence, indicating that zinc sensing by AdcR is critical for GAS pathogenesis. Together, we demonstrate that AdcR regulates GAS adaptive responses to zinc limitation and identify molecular components required for GAS survival during zinc deficiency. PMID:25510500

  14. Use of flow cytometry for the adhesion analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes mutant strains to epithelial cells: investigation of the possible role of surface pullulanase and cysteine protease, and the transcriptional regulator Rgg

    PubMed Central

    Hytönen, Jukka; Haataja, Sauli; Finne, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry based adherence assay is a potentially powerful but little used method in the study of bacterial binding to host structures. We have previously characterized a glycoprotein-binding activity in Streptococcus pyogenes called 'strepadhesin' binding to thyroglobulin, submaxillar mucin, fetuin and asialofetuin. We have identified surface-associated pullulanase (PulA) and cysteine protease (SpeB) as carriers of strepadhesin activity. In the present paper, we investigated the use of flow cytometry as a method to study the binding of Rgg, SpeB and PulA knock-out strains to cultured human epithelial cells. Results Streptococcal mutants were readily labelled with CFDA-SE and their binding to epithelial cells could be effectively studied by flow cytometry. A strain deficient in Rgg expression showed increased binding to the analyzed epithelial cell lines of various origin. Inactivation of SpeB had no effect on the adhesion, while PulA knock-out strains displayed decreased binding to the cell lines. Conclusion These results suggest that the flow cytometric assay is a valuable tool in the analysis of S. pyogenes adherence to host cells. It appears to be an efficient and sensitive tool for the characterization of interactions between the bacteria and the host at the molecular level. The results also suggest a role for Rgg regulated surface molecules, like PulA, in the adhesion of S. pyogenes to host cells. PMID:16504124

  15. Streptococcus pyogenes emm Types and Clusters during a 7-Year Period (2007 to 2013) in Pharyngeal and Nonpharyngeal Pediatric Isolates.

    PubMed

    Koutouzi, F; Tsakris, A; Chatzichristou, P; Koutouzis, E; Daikos, G L; Kirikou, E; Petropoulou, N; Syriopoulou, V; Michos, A

    2015-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance of emm types has important implications, as it can provide baseline information for possible implementation of vaccination. A total of 1,349 GAS pediatric isolates were collected during a 7-year period (2007 to 2013); emm typing was completed for 1,282 pharyngeal (84%) or nonpharyngeal (16%) isolates, and emm clusters and temporal changes were analyzed. Thirty-five different emm types, including 14 subtypes, were identified. The most prevalent emm types identified were 1 (16.7%), 12 (13.6%), 77 (10.9%), 4 (10.8%), 28 (10.4%), 6 (6.8%), 3 (6.6%), and 89 (6.6%), accounting for 82.3% of total isolates. Rheumatogenic emm types comprised 16.3% of total isolates. The emm types 12, 4, and 77 were more prevalent among pharyngeal isolates, and the emm types 1, 89, 6, 75, and 11 were more prevalent among nonpharyngeal isolates. The emm types identified belonged to 13 emm clusters, and the 8 most prevalent clusters comprised 97% of all isolates. There were statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of emm types 12, 4, 5, and 61 and increases in the prevalence of emm types 89, 75, and 11, compared with the period 2001 to 2006. The proposed 30-valent GAS vaccine, which is currently in preclinical studies, encompasses 97.2% of the emm types detected in our study and 97.4% of the erythromycin-resistant strains. In addition, it includes 93.3% of the emm types involved in bacteremia. A much greater diversity of GAS emm types was identified in our area than described previously. Seasonal fluctuations and the introduction of new emm types were observed. Continuous surveillance of emm types is needed in order to evaluate the possible benefits of an M protein-based GAS vaccine. PMID:25878351

  16. Streptococcus pyogenes emm Types and Clusters during a 7-Year Period (2007 to 2013) in Pharyngeal and Nonpharyngeal Pediatric Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Koutouzi, F.; Tsakris, A.; Chatzichristou, P.; Koutouzis, E.; Daikos, G. L.; Kirikou, E.; Petropoulou, N.; Syriopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance of emm types has important implications, as it can provide baseline information for possible implementation of vaccination. A total of 1,349 GAS pediatric isolates were collected during a 7-year period (2007 to 2013); emm typing was completed for 1,282 pharyngeal (84%) or nonpharyngeal (16%) isolates, and emm clusters and temporal changes were analyzed. Thirty-five different emm types, including 14 subtypes, were identified. The most prevalent emm types identified were 1 (16.7%), 12 (13.6%), 77 (10.9%), 4 (10.8%), 28 (10.4%), 6 (6.8%), 3 (6.6%), and 89 (6.6%), accounting for 82.3% of total isolates. Rheumatogenic emm types comprised 16.3% of total isolates. The emm types 12, 4, and 77 were more prevalent among pharyngeal isolates, and the emm types 1, 89, 6, 75, and 11 were more prevalent among nonpharyngeal isolates. The emm types identified belonged to 13 emm clusters, and the 8 most prevalent clusters comprised 97% of all isolates. There were statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of emm types 12, 4, 5, and 61 and increases in the prevalence of emm types 89, 75, and 11, compared with the period 2001 to 2006. The proposed 30-valent GAS vaccine, which is currently in preclinical studies, encompasses 97.2% of the emm types detected in our study and 97.4% of the erythromycin-resistant strains. In addition, it includes 93.3% of the emm types involved in bacteremia. A much greater diversity of GAS emm types was identified in our area than described previously. Seasonal fluctuations and the introduction of new emm types were observed. Continuous surveillance of emm types is needed in order to evaluate the possible benefits of an M protein-based GAS vaccine. PMID:25878351

  17. [Disappearance of Streptococcus pyogenes macrolide resistance in an area of northeastern Italy: a possible link with rational long-acting macrolide consumption].

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Rita; Avolio, Manuela; Stano, Paola; Modolo, Maria Luisa; Camporese, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have shown a correlation between higher consumption of long-acting macrolides and the development of resistance of S. pyogenes but, to our knowledge, no studies have reported the disappearance of S. pyogenes macrolide resistance. We evaluated the possible relationship between the rational use of long-acting macrolide consumption and the disappearance of S. pyogenes erythromycin resistance in an area of northeastern Italy, the district of Pordenone (approximately 300,000 inhabitants). The emerging use of new long-acting macrolides, especially since 1993, has caused a great increase in total macrolide consumption (expressed as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day; DDDs), followed by a steady increase in the percentage of S. pyogenes resistant to erythromycin (from 4% in 1994 to 56.3% in 2000). Subsequently, from 2000 to 2007, the maintenance of steady-high DDDs of clarithromycin but low DDDs of azithromycin resulted in a sharp decrease in the percentage of S. pyogenes resistance to erythromycin (from 33.3% in 2001 to 0.2% in 2008). Disappearance of S. pyogenes erythromycin resistance in the last few years, compared with data of long-acting macrolide consumption from 2000 to 2007, suggests that S. pyogenes resistance to erythromycin is more likely associated with the specific type of compound used rather than with total consumption of long-acting macrolides. PMID:19602920

  18. [THE DIAGNOSTIC APPROACHES TO VERIFICATION OF STREPTOCOCCUS INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS].

    PubMed

    Kim, M A; Labushkina, A V; Simovanian, E N; Kharseeva, G G

    2015-11-01

    The Rostovskii state medical university of Minzdrav of Russia, 344022 Rostov-on-Don, Russia The analysis is applied concerning significance of laboratory techniques of verification of streptococcus infection (bacteriological analysis, detection of anti-streptolysin O in pair serums) in 148 patients with infectious mononucleosis aged from 3 to 15 years. The content of anti-streptolysin O exceeded standard in 41 ± 4.8% of patients with concomitant in acute period and in 49.5 ± 4.9% during period of re-convalescence. This data differed from analogous indicator in patients with negative result of examination on streptococcus infection independently of period of disease (9.3 ± 2.8%). The exceeding of standard of anti-streptolysin O was detected more frequently (t ≥ 2, P ≥ 95%) in patients with isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes (56.9 ± 5.8%) than in patients with Streptococcus viridans (31.2 ± 6.5%). The concentration of anti-streptolysin 0 in patients with concomitant streptococcus infection varied within limits 200-1800 IE/ml. The minimal level of anti-streptolysin O (C = 200 IE/mI) was detected independently of type of isolated Streptococcus and period of disease. The high levels of anti-streptolysin O were observed exclusively in patients with isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes. In blood serum ofpatient with concomitant streptococcus infection (Streptococcus pyogenes + Streptococcus viridans) increasing of level of anti-streptolysin O was detected in dynamics of diseases from minimal (C = 200 IE/ ml) to moderately high (200 < C < 400 IE/mI). It is demonstrated that to identify streptococcus infection in patients with infectious mononucleosis the anamnesis data is to be considered. The complex bacteriological and serological examination ofpatients is to be implemented This is necessary for early detection ofpatients with streptococcus infection and decreasing risk of formation of streptococcus carrier state. PMID:26999869

  19. Epethelial Presence of Trueperella pyogenes Predicts Site-Level Presence of Cranial Abscess Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Belser, Emily H.; Cohen, Bradley S.; Keeler, Shamus P.; Killmaster, Charles H.; Bowers, John W.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial/intracranial abscess disease is an emerging source of significant mortality for male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of cranial/intracranial abscess disease are associated with infection by the opportunistic pathogen Trueperella pyogenes although the relationship between the prevalence of the bacteria and occurrence of disease is speculative. We examined 5,612 hunter-harvested deer from 29 sites across all physiographic provinces in Georgia for evidence of cranial abscess disease and sampled the forehead, lingual, and nasal surfaces from 692 deer. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine presence of T. pyogenes from these samples. We found T. pyogenes prevalence at a site was a predictor for the occurrence of cranial abscess disease. Prevalence of T. pyogenes did not differ between samples from the nose or tongue although prevalence along the forehead was greater for males than females (p = 0.04), particularly at sites with high occurrence of this disease. Socio-sexual behaviors, bacterial prevalence, or physiological characteristics may predispose male deer to intracranial/cranial abscess disease. Determination of factors that affect T. pyogenes prevalence among sites may help explain the occurrence of this disease among populations. PMID:25803047

  20. Antibody levels and in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to Streptococcus pyogenes erythrogenic toxin A and mitogen of patients with rheumatic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, G M; Yousof, A M; Behbehani, K; Majeed, H A; Sakkalah, S; Souan, K; Jarrad, I; Geoffroy, C; Alouf, J E

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to a streptococcal mitogen and erythrogenic toxin A of children with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). Antibody levels to the streptococcal products were also analyzed in the sera of those with ARF or chronic rheumatic heart disease as well as in the sera of children with streptococcal pharyngitis or poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Our results demonstrated that the individuals had depressed lymphoproliferative responses during the active stage of rheumatic fever. The depressed responses were not found either to be induced by time-sensitive mitogen-specific suppressor cells or to be related to a dose-response phenomenon. On the other hand, antibody levels to the extracellular mitogens were significantly elevated in the sera of children with ARF compared with the levels in the rest of the groups. The hyperresponsiveness noted among children with ARF was found to be at a quantitative level and was not due to recognition of more epitopes, as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting). The profile of immune responsiveness in children with ARF to the streptococcal extracellular mitogens is discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of disease. Images PMID:1774298

  1. Highly Effective Renaturation of a Streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes DT7 as Inclusion Bodies Overexpressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Sy Le Thanh; Quyen, Dinh Thi; Vu, Hong Diep

    2014-01-01

    The streptokinase (SK) is emerging as an important thrombolytic therapy agent in the treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. We reported highly effective renaturation of a SK from S. pyogeness DT7 overexpressed in E. coli, purification, and biochemical characterization. A gene coding for the SK was cloned from S. pyogeness DT7. Because accumulation of active SK is toxic to the host cells, we have expressed it in the form of inclusion bodies. The mature protein was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 DE3/pESK under the control of the strong promoter tac induced by IPTG with a level of 60% of the total cell proteins. The activity of the rSK, renatured in phosphate buffer supplemented with Triton X-100 and glycerol, was covered with up to 41 folds of its initial activity. The purified of protein was identified with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry through four peptide fragments, which showed 100% identification to the corresponding peptides of the putative SK from GenBank. Due to overexpression and highly effective renaturation of large amounts of inclusion bodies, the recombinant E. coli BL21 DE3/pESK system could be potentially applied for large-scale production of SK used in the therapy of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24883307

  2. Lactobacilli Reduce Cell Cytotoxicity Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes by Producing Lactic Acid That Degrades the Toxic Component Lipoteichoic Acid▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Maudsdotter, Lisa; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacilli are known to prevent colonization by many pathogens; nevertheless, the mechanisms of their protective effect are largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the role of lactobacilli during infection of epithelial cells with group A streptococci (GAS). GAS cause a variety of illnesses ranging from noninvasive disease to more severe invasive infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Invasion of deeper tissues is facilitated by GAS-induced apoptosis and cell death. We found that lactobacilli inhibit GAS-induced host cell cytotoxicity and shedding of the complement regulator CD46. Further, survival assays demonstrated that lactic acid secreted by lactobacilli is highly bactericidal toward GAS. In addition, lactic acid treatment of GAS, but not heat killing, prior to infection abolishes the cytotoxic effects against human cells. Since lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of GAS is heat resistant and cytotoxic, we explored the effects of lactic acid on LTA. By applying such an approach, we demonstrate that lactic acid reduces epithelial cell damage caused by GAS by degrading both secreted and cell-bound LTA. Taken together, our experiments reveal a mechanism by which lactobacilli prevent pathogen-induced host cell damage. PMID:21245448

  3. Virulence Gene Regulation by CvfA, a Putative RNase: the CvfA-Enolase Complex in Streptococcus pyogenes Links Nutritional Stress, Growth-Phase Control, and Virulence Gene Expression?

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Song Ok; Caparon, Michael G.; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a multiple-auxotrophic human pathogen, regulates virulence gene expression according to nutritional availability during various stages in the infection process or in different infection sites. We discovered that CvfA influenced the expression of virulence genes according to growth phase and nutritional status. The influence of CvfA in C medium, rich in peptides and poor in carbohydrates, was most pronounced at the stationary phase. Under these conditions, up to 30% of the transcriptome exhibited altered expression; the levels of expression of multiple virulence genes were altered, including the genes encoding streptokinase, CAMP factor, streptolysin O, M protein (more abundant in the CvfA? mutant), SpeB, mitogenic factor, and streptolysin S (less abundant). The increase of carbohydrates or peptides in media restored the levels of expression of the virulence genes in the CvfA? mutant to wild-type levels (emm, ska, and cfa by carbohydrates; speB by peptides). Even though the regulation of gene expression dependent on nutritional stress is commonly linked to the stringent response, the levels of ppGpp were not altered by deletion of cvfA. Instead, CvfA interacted with enolase, implying that CvfA, a putative RNase, controls the transcript decay rates of virulence factors or their regulators according to nutritional status. The virulence of CvfA? mutants was highly attenuated in murine models, indicating that CvfA-mediated gene regulation is necessary for the pathogenesis of S. pyogenes. Taken together, the CvfA-enolase complex in S. pyogenes is involved in the regulation of virulence gene expression by controlling RNA degradation according to nutritional stress. PMID:20385762

  4. Nucleotide sequence of conjugative prophage Φ1207.3 (formerly Tn1207.3) carrying the mef(A)/msr(D) genes for efflux resistance to macrolides in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Francesco; Santagati, Maria; Santoro, Francesco; Oggioni, Marco R; Stefani, Stefania; Pozzi, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Genetic element Φ1207.3 (formerly Tn1207.3) is a prophage of Streptococcus pyogenes which carries the macrolide efflux resistance genes mef(A)/msr(D) and is capable of conjugal transfer among streptococci. Complete nucleotide sequence showed that Φ1207.3 is 52,491 bp in length and contained 58 open reading frames (ORFs). A manual homology-based annotation with functional prediction of the hypothetical gene product was possible only for 34 out of 58 ORFs. Φ1207.3 codes for two different C-methylation systems, several phage structural genes, a lysis cassette (composed by a holin and a peptidoglycan hydrolase), and three site-specific resolvases of the serine recombinase family. PMID:25538698

  5. A novel double-tryptophan peptide pheromone is conserved in mutans and pyogenic Streptococci and Controls Competence in Streptococcus mutans via an Rgg regulator

    PubMed Central

    Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Morrison, Donald A.; Federle, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary All streptococcal genomes encode the alternative sigma factor SigX and 21 SigX-dependent proteins required for genetic transformation, yet no pyogenic streptococci are known to develop competence. Resolving this paradox may depend on understanding the regulation of sigX. We report the identification of a regulatory circuit linked to the sigX genes of both mutans and pyogenic streptococci that uses a novel small, double-tryptophan-containing competence-inducing peptide (CIP) pheromone. In both groups, the CIP gene, which we designate comS, and sigX have identical, noncanonical promoters consisting of 9-bp inverted repeats separated from a −10 hexamer by 19 bp. comS is adjacent to a gene encoding a putative transcription factor of the Rgg family and is regulated by its product, which we designate ComR. Deletion of comR or comS in S. mutans abolished transformability, as did deletion of the oligopeptide permease subunit oppD, suggesting that CIP is imported. Providing S. mutans with synthetic fragments of CIP revealed that seven C-terminal residues, including the WW motif, cause robust induction of both sigX and the competent state. We propose that this circuit is the proximal regulator of sigX in S. mutans, and we infer that it controls competence in a parallel way in all pyogenic streptococci. PMID:20969646

  6. Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldana, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Horstmann, Nicola; Thompson, Erika; Flores, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non–S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. mitis strains were more likely to have moderate or severe clinical disease (e.g., VGS shock syndrome). Combined with the sequence data, whole-genome analyses showed that S. mitis strains may more precisely be considered as >2 species. Furthermore, we found that multiple S. mitis strains induced disease in neutropenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. Our data define the prominent clinical effect of the group of organisms currently classified as S. mitis and lay the groundwork for increased understanding of this understudied pathogen. PMID:24750901

  7. Streptococcus mitis strains causing severe clinical disease in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shelburne, Samuel A; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldana, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Horstmann, Nicola; Thompson, Erika; Flores, Anthony R

    2014-05-01

    The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non-S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. mitis strains were more likely to have moderate or severe clinical disease (e.g., VGS shock syndrome). Combined with the sequence data, whole-genome analyses showed that S. mitis strains may more precisely be considered as >2 species. Furthermore, we found that multiple S. mitis strains induced disease in neutropenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. Our data define the prominent clinical effect of the group of organisms currently classified as S. mitis and lay the groundwork for increased understanding of this understudied pathogen. PMID:24750901

  8. Horizontal gene transfer and recombination in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

    PubMed Central

    McNeilly, Celia L.; McMillan, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a human pathogen that colonizes the skin or throat, and causes a range of diseases from relatively benign pharyngitis to potentially fatal invasive diseases. While not as virulent as the close relative Streptococcus pyogenes the two share a number of virulence factors and are known to coexist in a human host. Both pre- and post-genomic studies have revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination occurs between these two organisms and plays a major role in shaping the population structure of SDSE. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HGT and recombination in the evolution of SDSE. PMID:25566202

  9. Pyogenic sacroiliitis

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, G.; Kabins, S.A.

    1980-07-01

    Seven definite and three probable cases of pyogenic sacroiliitis are presented and compared to 72 cases found in the English literature. Patients may present with a subacute localized or an acute systemic illness. Six of our patients were parenteral drug abusers. Sacroiliac uptake of gallium 67 citrate and/or technetium 99m pyrophosphate suggested the diagnosis which was confirmed by fluoroscopically controlled joint aspiration when blood cultures were sterile. Gram-negative organisms, group B streptococci and a Staphylococcus were isolated. Antibiotic treatment for four to six weeks was uniformly successful. Surgery should be reserved for abscess or sequestrum formation, neither of which were encountered in this series.

  10. Health care associated hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: a severe and potentially preventable infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Pigrau, Carlos; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Moretó, Laura; Pellise, Ferran; Larrosa, Maria-Nieves; Puig, Mireia; Almirante, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Although hematogenous pyogenic spinal infections have been related to hemodialysis (HD), catheter-related sepsis, and sporadically, to other nosocomial infections or procedures, in most recent studies and reviews the impact of nosocomial infection as a risk factor for vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is not well established. The aim of our study was to describe the risk factors, infectious source, etiology, clinical features, therapy, and outcome of health care associated VO (HCAVO), and compare them with community-acquired VO (CAVO) cases.A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with hematogenous VO was conducted in our third-level hospital between 1987 and 2011. HCAVO was defined as onset of symptoms after 1 month of hospitalization or within 6 months after hospital discharge, or ambulatory manipulations in the 6 months before the diagnosis.Over the 25-year study period, among 163 hematogenous pyogenic VO, 41 (25%) were health care associated, a percentage that increased from 15% (9/61) in the 1987-1999 period to 31% (32/102) in the 2000-2011 period (P < 0.01). The presumed source of infection was an intravenous catheter in 14 (34%), cutaneous foci in 8 (20%), urinary tract in 7 (17%), gastrointestinal in 3 (7%), other foci in 3 (7%), and unknown in 6 (15%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism (14 cases, 34%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in 6 (15%), and Enterobacteriaceae in 6 (15%) cases.Compared with CAVO cases, patients with HCAVO were older (mean 66.0 SD 13.0 years vs 60.5 SD 15.5 years), had more underlying conditions (73% vs 50%, P < 0.05), neoplasm/immunosuppression (39% vs 7%, P < 0.005), chronic renal failure (19% vs 4%, P < 0.001), a known source of infection (85% vs 54% P < 0.05), Candida spp (7% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or CoNS infections (15% vs 2%, P < 0.05), higher mortality (15% vs 6%, P = 0.069), and a higher relapse rate in survivors (9% vs 1%, P < 0.05).Presently, in our setting, one-third of hematogenous pyogenic VO infections are health care associated, and a third of these are potentially preventable catheter-related infections. Compared with CAVO, in health care associated hematogenous VO, mortality and relapse rates are higher; hence, further prevention measures should be assessed. PMID:25621677

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G.; Täuber, Martin G.; Leib, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Lucy J; Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G; Täuber, Martin G; Leib, Stephen L

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniaebacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R; Pettigrew, Melinda M; Hakansson, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo. In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of pneumococcal biofilm formation and dispersion will elucidate novel avenues to interfere with the spread of antibiotic resistance and vaccine escape, as well as novel strategies to target the mechanisms involved in induction of pneumococcal disease. PMID:25629011

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo. In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of pneumococcal biofilm formation and dispersion will elucidate novel avenues to interfere with the spread of antibiotic resistance and vaccine escape, as well as novel strategies to target the mechanisms involved in induction of pneumococcal disease. PMID:25629011

  15. StreptInCor: A Candidate Vaccine Epitope against S. pyogenes Infections Induces Protection in Outbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Postol, Edilberto; Alencar, Raquel; Higa, Fabio T.; Freschi de Barros, Samar; Demarchi, Lea M. F.; Kalil, Jorge; Guilherme, Luiza

    2013-01-01

    Infection with Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) can result in several diseases, particularly in children. S. pyogenes M protein is the major virulence factor, and certain regions of its N-terminus can trigger autoimmune sequelae such as rheumatic fever in susceptible individuals with untreated group A streptococcal pharyngitis. In a previous study, we utilized a large panel of human peripheral blood cells to define the C-terminal protective epitope StreptInCor (medical identity), which does not induce autoimmune reactions. We recently confirmed the results in HLA-transgenic mice. In the present study, we extended the experimental assays to outbred animals (Swiss mice). Herein, we demonstrate high titers of StreptInCor-specific antibodies, as well as appropriate T-cell immune responses. No cross-reaction to cardiac myosin was detected. Additionally, immunized Swiss mice exhibited 87% survival one month after challenge with S. pyogenes. In conclusion, the data presented herein reinforce previous results in humans and animals and further emphasize that StreptInCor could be an effective and safe vaccine for the prevention of S. pyogenes infections. PMID:23593359

  16. [Pyogenic sacroiliitis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Chimura, T; Banzai, M; Yamakawa, M; Sato, S; Satou, S

    2001-09-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is an extremely rare disease in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, and especially for the cases discovered and treated during pregnancy, only five cases can be found in literature. We experienced one case of the disease in which the patient needed urgent hospitalization due to dysbasia caused by fever and pain at the left hip at the 27th week of her pregnancy. The patient was a 31-year-old primipara presenting typical clinical symptoms of pyogenic sacroiliitis along with evidence of severe infection as represented by fever of 39.7 degrees C and CRP of 12.6 mg/dl. She showed a good response to meropenem (MEPM) at 1 g twice a day for 8 days and then at 0.5 g twice a day for 2 days, followed by faropenem (FRPM) at 200 mg three times a day for 12 days, which successfully improved her subjective and objective findings as well as her laboratory test values, resulting in a complete cure. The definitive diagnosis of the disease in the patient was made on the basis of MRI findings, but no pathogen was identified. The patient was found to have marginal placenta previa as a complication, but she had an uneventful trans-vaginal delivery at the 37th week of her pregnancy and left hospital after both she and her baby showed favorable post-delivery progress. The case reported here is the first case of pyogenic sacroiliitis that has ever been discovered and treated during pregnancy in Japan. PMID:11729713

  17. Respiratory diseases among U.S. military personnel: countering emerging threats.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, G. C.; Callahan, J. D.; Hawksworth, A. W.; Fisher, C. A.; Gaydos, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and review the impact of the diseases they cause, past efforts to control these diseases in U.S. military personnel, as well as current treatment and surveillance strategies, limitations in diagnostic testing, and vaccine needs. PMID:10341174

  18. Relevance of spontaneous fabT mutations to a streptococcal toxic shock syndrome to non-streptococcal toxic shock syndrome transition in the novel-type Streptococcus pyogenes isolates that lost a salRK.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Okada, Ryo; Matsumoto, Masakado; Hata, Nanako; Matsui, Hideyuki; Zhang, Yan; Isaka, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a causative agent of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Mutations in covR/S or rgg, negative regulators, can reportedly modulate the severity of infection in this pathogen. Recently, we showed that the regions encoding the SalR-SalK, a two-component regulatory system, were deleted in some emm 1-type isolates (named as 'novel-type'). In this study, the two novel 'STSS' isolates 10-85stss and 11-171stss were more virulent than the two novel 'non-STSS' isolates 11O-2non and 11T-3non when examined using a mouse model of invasive infection. Genome-sequencing experiments using the three strains 10-85stss , 11-171stss , and 11O-2non detected only one single nucleotide polymorphism that causes a non-synonymous mutation in fabT encoding a transcriptional regulator in strain 11O-2non . Loss of fabT reduced the high level of virulence observed in the STSS isolates to that in the non-STSS isolates, and introduction of an intact fabT compensated the lower virulence of 11O-2non , suggesting that the mutation in fabT, but not in covR/S or rgg, is involved in the differential virulence among the novel-type clinical isolates. This type of non-synonymous fabT mutation was also identified in 12 non-STSS isolates (including 11O-2non and 11T-3non ), and most of those 12 isolates showed impaired FabT function. PMID:26861052

  19. Spontaneous fistulisation and drainage of a pyogenic liver abscess into the stomach in an adult patient with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shariful; Hosein, Devin; Bheem, Vinoo; Harnarayan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous endoluminal drainage of a pyogenic liver abscess is a rare phenomenon. Similarly, there are only a few cases in the English literature describing hepatic abscesses as an unusual complication of sickle cell anaemia. Having these two phenomena occurring in the same patient is truly a rarity. We describe a case of a 45-year-old man with homozygous sickle cell anaemia who presented to our institution with a pyogenic liver abscess. He had spontaneous drainage of the abscess after spontaneous fistulisation, with the stomach obviating the need for percutaneous drainage. PMID:26976835

  20. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from diseased Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,716 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes for antigen disco...

  1. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Andrea L.; Huber, Victor C.; Chaussee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  2. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Andrea L; Huber, Victor C; Chaussee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  3. Pyogenic psoas abscess: analysis of 27 cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, M F; Lau, Y J; Hu, B S; Shi, Z Y; Lin, Y H

    1999-12-01

    From 1993 to 1998, 29 pyogenic psoas abscesses occurring in 27 patients were seen in Taichung Veterans General Hospital. Their age range was 25 to 85 years. Diabetes mellitus was the leading underlying disease. Fever and pain in the flank area, back and hip were the usual manifestations. The duration of symptoms prior to the diagnosis ranged from 3 days to 6 months. Most abscesses were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) images and proven by abscess cultures, which were divided into primary and secondary types. Eighteen of 29 abscesses were regarded as primary. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen in the primary abscesses, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, viridans streptococci, S. epidermidis, and Salmonella spp.. In the secondary abscess category, E. coli was the leading organism in this series, followed by S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, viridans streptococci and Candida albicans. The associated conditions included epidural abscess, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, perirenal abscess, pulmonary tuberculosis, empyema, hydronephrosis and trauma history. The initial empiric therapy comprised mostly of cefazolin or oxacillin with or without an aminoglycoside. Thirteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage, while six received surgical debridement, including two with a recurrent abscess. One patient had both drainage and debridement. Others received medical treatment only. Two of the patients with primary abscess died in spite of percutaneous drainage. Therefore, open drainage, besides appropriate antibiotic treatment, is still required to control complex abscesses with sepsis. PMID:10650491

  4. Diagnosis of pyogenic pelvic inflammatory diseases by 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Rachinsky, I; Boguslavsky, L; Goldstein, D; Golan, H; Pak, I; Katz, M; Lantsberg, S

    2000-12-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is one of the major health problems of women of child-bearing age. Among the most serious complications of PID is the formation of a tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Early diagnosis of this condition may prevent serious surgical complications such as peritonitis and sepsis, which may be fatal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of TOA. Twenty women with high clinical suspicion of TOA underwent 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy. The labelling of leucocytes with 99mTc-HMPAO was performed according to a standard protocol. Scans were obtained at 1, 3 and 24 h following the injection of the labelled leucocytes. In eight cases the early and/or late scan was positive, in 11 cases it was negative, and in one case of ovarian cyst torsion, confirmed by laparoscopy, it showed slight uptake in the capsule of the cyst (false-positive). The sensitivity of 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy was 100%, specificity 91.6%, positive predictive value 89%, negative predictive value 100% and overall accuracy 95%. It is concluded that leucocyte scintigraphy is a non-invasive, safe, physiological and accurate procedure for the diagnosis of TOA. The 24-h scan is crucial, since in some cases the abscess was not clearly visualized on the early scan. Leucocyte scintigraphy may reduce the need for CT, diagnostic laparoscopy and unnecessary invasive surgical procedures. PMID:11189939

  5. Association between virulence factors of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes and uterine diseases of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2012-05-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between bacterial species-specific virulence factors (VFs) present in the uterus at 3 different stages of lactation (1-3, 8-10, and 34-36 days in milk (DIM)) and the incidence of metritis and clinical endometritis in dairy cows. The following VF genes were investigated: plo (pyolysin), cbpA (collagen-binding protein), and fimA (fimbriae expression) which are Arcanobacterium pyogenes specific; fimH (a type 1 pilus component), Escherichia coli specific; and lktA (leukotoxin), Fusobacterium necrophorum specific. Uterine swabs were collected from 111 postpartum dairy cows. PCR was used to detect the presence of plo, cbpA, fimA, fimH, and lktA genes. A. pyogenes cbpA was detected in only 5 samples and therefore was not subjected to further analysis. E. coli (fimH) was significantly associated with metritis and endometritis when detected at 1-3 DIM; F. necrophorum (lktA) was significantly associated with metritis when detected at 1-3 and 8-12 DIM and with endometritis when detected at 34-36 DIM; and A. pyogenes (fimA and plo) was associated with metritis (fimA) when detected at 1-3 DIM and endometritis (fimA and plo) when detected at 8-10 and 34-36 DIM. PMID:22186615

  6. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  7. Disseminated emm Type 12 Group A Streptococcus and Review of Invasive Disease.

    PubMed

    Heeke, Arielle L; Blumberg, Henry M; Perry, Jason M; Weiss, David S; Crispell, Emily K; Satola, Sarah W; Salinas, Jorge L

    2015-11-01

    The authors present a case of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) in a previously healthy 63-year-old male complicated by trans-esophageal echocardiogram negative endocarditis, septic arthritis, and multiple cerebral septic emboli. Despite antibiotics and drainage of his largest brain abscess, the patient expired. This case highlights the potential mortality from invasive GAS disease. Included is a review of current literature regarding invasive GAS that addresses its presentation, prevalence, virulence and treatment. PMID:25723882

  8. Actinomyces pyogenes bacteraemia in a patient with carcinoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Barnham, M

    1988-11-01

    A patient with carcinoma of the colon adherent to the pelvis developed Actinomyces pyogenes bacteraemia after uterine curettage but recovered with antibiotic treatment. This organism is a Gram-positive cocco-bacillus, beta-haemolytic when growing on blood agar and reactive with Lancefield group G antiserum. These features could easily lead to its misidentification as a streptococcus. Reports of human infection with A. pyogenes are summarised. PMID:3216133

  9. Genomic Evidence for the Evolution of Streptococcus equi: Host Restriction, Increased Virulence, and Genetic Exchange with Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; Steward, Karen F.; Webb, Katy; Ainslie, Fern; Jourdan, Thibaud; Bason, Nathalie C.; Holroyd, Nancy E.; Mungall, Karen; Quail, Michael A.; Sanders, Mandy; Simmonds, Mark; Willey, David; Brooks, Karen; Aanensen, David M.; Spratt, Brian G.; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Kehoe, Michael; Chanter, Neil; Bentley, Stephen D.; Robinson, Carl; Maskell, Duncan J.; Parkhill, Julian; Waller, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The continued evolution of bacterial pathogens has major implications for both human and animal disease, but the exchange of genetic material between host-restricted pathogens is rarely considered. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is a host-restricted pathogen of horses that has evolved from the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus). These pathogens share approximately 80% genome sequence identity with the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We sequenced and compared the genomes of S. equi 4047 and S. zooepidemicus H70 and screened S. equi and S. zooepidemicus strains from around the world to uncover evidence of the genetic events that have shaped the evolution of the S. equi genome and led to its emergence as a host-restricted pathogen. Our analysis provides evidence of functional loss due to mutation and deletion, coupled with pathogenic specialization through the acquisition of bacteriophage encoding a phospholipase A2 toxin, and four superantigens, and an integrative conjugative element carrying a novel iron acquisition system with similarity to the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia pestis. We also highlight that S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes share a common phage pool that enhances cross-species pathogen evolution. We conclude that the complex interplay of functional loss, pathogenic specialization, and genetic exchange between S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes continues to influence the evolution of these important streptococci. PMID:19325880

  10. Genomic signatures of human and animal disease in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Lucy A.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Wang, Jinhong; Peters, Sarah E.; Corander, Jukka; Jombart, Thibaut; Baig, Abiyad; Howell, Kate J.; Vehkala, Minna; Välimäki, Niko; Harris, David; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Campbell, James; Schultsz, Constance; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D.; Langford, Paul R.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Wren, Brendan W.; Farrar, Jeremy; Baker, Stephen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Holden, Matthew T.G.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Maglennon, Gareth A.; Matthews, Dominic; Cuccui, Jon; Terra, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis causes disease in pigs worldwide and is increasingly implicated in zoonotic disease in East and South-East Asia. To understand the genetic basis of disease in S. suis, we study the genomes of 375 isolates with detailed clinical phenotypes from pigs and humans from the United Kingdom and Vietnam. Here, we show that isolates associated with disease contain substantially fewer genes than non-clinical isolates, but are more likely to encode virulence factors. Human disease isolates are limited to a single-virulent population, originating in the 1920, s when pig production was intensified, but no consistent genomic differences between pig and human isolates are observed. There is little geographical clustering of different S. suis subpopulations, and the bacterium undergoes high rates of recombination, implying that an increase in virulence anywhere in the world could have a global impact over a short timescale. PMID:25824154

  11. Nonoutbreak Surveillance of Group A Streptococci Causing Invasive Disease in Portugal Identified Internationally Disseminated Clones among Members of a Genetically Heterogeneous Population▿

    PubMed Central

    Friães, A.; Ramirez, M.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2007-01-01

    The typing of 160 invasive Streptococcus pyogenes isolates confirmed the importance of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing for defining clones. The results identified an extremely diverse population and highlighted the importance of both internationally disseminated and local clones not previously associated with invasive disease. PMID:17460058

  12. Genetic Relationships Deduced from emm and Multilocus Sequence Typing of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. canis Recovered from Isolates Collected in the United States ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Yusra; Gertz, Robert E.; Li, Zhongya; Sakota, Varja; Broyles, Laura N.; Van Beneden, Chris; Facklam, Richard; Shewmaker, P. Lynn; Reingold, Arthur; Farley, Monica M.; Beall, Bernard W.

    2009-01-01

    Beta-hemolytic group C and G streptococci cause a considerable invasive disease burden and sometimes cause disease outbreaks. Little is known about the critical epidemiologic parameter of genetic relatedness between isolates. We determined the emm types of 334 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, and attempted emm typing of 5 Streptococcus canis isolates from a recent population-based surveillance for invasive isolates. Thirty-four emm types were observed, including one from S. canis. We formulated multilocus sequence typing (MLST) primers with six of the seven loci corresponding to the Streptococcus pyogenes MLST scheme. We performed MLST with 65 of the 334 surveillance isolates (61 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, 4 S. canis isolates) to represent each emm type identified, including 2 to 3 isolates for each of the 25 redundantly represented emm types. Forty-one MLST sequence types (STs) were observed. Isolates within 16 redundantly represented S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis emm types shared identical or nearly identical STs, demonstrating concordance between the emm type and genetic relatedness. However, seven STs were each represented by two to four different emm types, and 7 of the 10 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis eBURST groups represented up to six different emm types. Thus, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates were similar to S. pyogenes isolates, in that strains of the same emm type were often highly related, but they differed from S. pyogenes, in that S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains with identical or closely similar STs often exhibited multiple unrelated emm types. The phylogenetic relationships between S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. pyogenes alleles revealed a history of interspecies recombination, with either species often serving as genetic donors. The four S. canis isolates shared highly homologous alleles but were unrelated clones without evidence of past recombination with S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis or S. pyogenes. PMID:19386831

  13. Laboratory detection of group B Streptococcus for prevention of perinatal disease.

    PubMed

    Picard, F J; Bergeron, M G

    2004-09-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae emerged in the 1970s as the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Today, GBS remains one of the leading causes of sepsis and meningitis in newborns despite important prevention efforts, including the issuance of recommendations for prevention of perinatal GBS disease by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1996/1997. The gastrointestinal tract is the natural human reservoir for GBS and is the likely source of vaginal colonization. GBS disease in newborns usually results from ascending spread of GBS into the amniotic fluid, which leads to neonatal colonization and to invasive disease in some infants. This review analyzes the various laboratory methods available for the detection of GBS from clinical samples collected from pregnant women and will discuss their impact in the prevention of neonatal GBS infections and in the rationalization of antibiotic use. The recent commercial availability of a rapid and highly sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay suitable for the specific detection of GBS from vagino-rectal samples obtained from pregnant women during delivery, which is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, provides improvements in the accuracy and rapidity of GBS colonization screening compared to the standard culture-based method using the recommended selective enrichment broth. PMID:15258832

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Trueperella pyogenes, Isolated from the Infected Uterus of a Postpartum Cow with Metritis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Robert J.; Amos, Matt; Talbot, Richard; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Sandra, Olivier; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Trueperella pyogenes is a common commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen associated with chronic purulent disease, particularly in ruminants. We report here the genome sequence of a T. pyogenes isolate from a severe case of bovine metritis. This is the first full record of a T. pyogenes genome. PMID:24762932

  15. Safety and efficacy of vaccination against streptococcus pneumonia in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Elkayam, Ori; Ablin, Jacob; Caspi, Dan

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination against streptococcus pneumonia is currently recommended for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Safety and efficacy issues of vaccination in patients suffering from rheumatic diseases are still unresolved. This review summarizes the studies performed on the safety and immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with RA and SLE, with special emphasis on the effect of immunosuppressive drugs on the efficacy of the vaccine. Several trials have shown that the vaccine does not induce clinical exacerbation of RA and that it does induce an adequate humoral response, albeit one lower than that in healthy controls. PMID:17412304

  16. Neonatal group B streptococcus disease in developing countries: are we ready to deploy a vaccine?

    PubMed

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Delair, Shirley F; Obaro, Stephen K

    2015-11-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) disease is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis in developed countries and has high case fatality rates. In developing countries, however, the burden of GBS is less clear; this is due to a lack of studies using optimal diagnostic, clinical and laboratory techniques and is complicated by the wide availability of non-prescription antibiotics to the general population and in peripartum patients. There is an urgent need for prospective, population-based surveillance to provide an accurate assessment of neonatal GBS disease burden in developing countries, which remains largely unrecognized, and consequently obscures the potential relevance of GBS vaccination in these populations. Preliminary data on GBS vaccines are promising as a preventive tool for neonatal GBS infection, more so than any other currently available public health initiative. However, how do we assess the true impact of a GBS vaccine without accurate surveillance data on the real burden of disease? PMID:26289974

  17. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis in Children: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Ghedira Besbes, L.; Haddad, S.; Abid, A.; Ben Meriem, Ch.; Gueddiche, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is rare and accounts for approximately 1-2% of osteoarticular infections in children. Considerable delay between presentation and diagnosis is recognized. Two cases of pyogenic sacroiliitis are described. The first case is a 28-month-old girl presented with acute onset of fever, pain in the left hip, and limpness. Computed tomography (CT), bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis showed characteristic findings of infectious sacroiliitis, and blood cultures were negatives. The second case is a 13-year-old girl presented with acute onset of fever, pain in the right hip, and buttock, with inability to walk. The diagnosis of pyogenic sacroiliitis was confirmed by bone scans, and CT of the pelvis and blood cultures have identified Proteus mirabilis. The two children recovered fully after 6 weeks of antimicrobial therapy. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is an uncommon disease in children. The key to successful management is early diagnosis in which CT, bone scans, and MRI findings play a crucial role. If the diagnosis is established promptly, most patients can be managed successfully with antimicrobial therapy. PMID:22829838

  18. Evaluation of Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Dental Caries in Children with Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Behjatolmolook; Abolfathi, Ghazale; Mahmoudi, Eftekhar; Mohammadzadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. In the presence of certain systemic diseases, oral microflora may aggravate the condition of the disease. Microbial population in the oral cavity especially with heart disease can increase the risk of bacterial endocarditis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of oral Streptococcus mutansand the rate of caries in children suffering from heart disease. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional research, 66 children with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy children were selected. Children were orally examined and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was recorded for each subject. Saliva samples were taken from all subjects, and cultured on a special laboratory media and another specific media for S. mutans (sorbitoll +manitol). Bacterial counts were recorded, and for statistical analysis, chi square, Pearson’s, and Exact Fisher tests were performed using SPSS 16 software. Results. The rate of S. mutans in children with congenital heart disease was significantly higher than the rates in childrenwith acquired heart disease and healthy control subjects. The mean DMFT in children with acquired heart disease who tookpenicillin as prophylaxis monthly was significantly lower than the other groups. Conclusion. The results revealed lower oral bacteria counts and comparatively lower caries rates in children with heart diseases, probably because of an effect of the regular prophylactic antibiotic regimen. PMID:26236437

  19. Agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine: Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, J I; Desrosiers, R

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These organisms are early colonizers and, for that reason, are difficult to control by management procedures such as segregated early weaning. Vaccination, serodiagnostic testing, and even serotyping are complicated by the presence of multiple serotypes, cross-reactive antigens, and the absence of clear markers for virulence. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management of the causative agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:10369563

  20. [Late-onset Group B Streptococcus disease in twins delivered by caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Escolano Serrano, S; Ruiz Alcántara, I; Alfonso Diego, J; González Muñoz, A; Gastaldo Simeón, E

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal pathogen of the gut microflora with a well-established role in the aetiology of early and late onset GBS infections in the newborn. The incidence of early onset infections by vertical transmission has been drastically reduced in recent decades with the use of intravenous intrapartum prophylaxis. Progress in risk factor detection and prophylaxis of late-onset infection has however remained static. The ongoing modifications and improvements of the guidelines regarding prophylaxis, risk factors and prevention of the early-onset GBS disease have not addressed late-onset GBS infection in detail. The following cases illustrate the presence of grey areas in current guidelines and in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of late-onset disease. PMID:24588958

  1. Pyogenic liver abscess: uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Sotto Mayor, Joana; Robalo, Maria Margarida; Pacheco, Ana Paula; Esperança, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess is a rare entity, but it is fatal when untreated. With a peak incidence in the fifth decade of life, its early recognition and intervention are key to successful treatment and better prognosis of patients. In recent years, its approach has been enhanced by the use of percutaneous drainage, improved imaging techniques and a better microbiological characterisation, allowing for a more appropriate use of antibiotics. Clinical manifestations are variable and depend on the size of the abscess, the condition of the patient, associated diseases and possible complications. Among the most common symptoms that stand out are the pain in the upper quadrants of the abdomen, high fever, nausea and vomiting. The authors present the case of a patient who developed an atrial flutter as the initial presentation of a hepatic abscess that imagiologically mimicked a hepatic tumour. PMID:27170608

  2. Streptococcus suis infection: an emerging/reemerging challenge of bacterial infectious diseases?

    PubMed

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-05-15

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  3. Clonal distribution of Streptococcus suis isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Bárbara; Ruiz, Álvaro; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of 29 Chilean field strains of Streptococcus suis recovered between 2007 and 2011 from pigs with clinical signs at different farms were studied. Serotyping with use of the coagglutination test revealed that all but 1 strain belonged to serotype 6; the remaining strain was serotype 22. All the serotype-6 strains were suilysin (hemolysin)-negative; in addition, they were found to be genotypically homogeneous by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and sensitive to ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results indicate that, in contrast to what is generally observed in other countries, a single clone of S. suis was isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile. PMID:26424917

  4. Recurrent systemic infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae do not aggravate the course of experimental neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Sandra; Goos, Miriam; Rollwagen, Lena; Baake, Daniel; Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Esselmann, Hermann; Wiltfang, Jens; Mollenhauer, Brit; Schliebs, Reinhard; Gerber, Joachim; Nau, Roland

    2010-04-01

    Neurological symptoms of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's dementia (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often worsen during infections. We assessed the disease-modulating effects of recurrent systemic infections with the most frequent respiratory pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, on the course of AD, PD, and ALS in mouse models of these neurodegenerative diseases [transgenic Tg2576 mice, (Thy1)-[A30P]alpha SYN mice, and Tg(SOD1-G93A) mice]. Mice were repeatedly challenged intraperitoneally with live S. pneumoniae type 3 and treated with ceftriaxone for 3 days. Infection caused an increase of interleukin-6 concentrations in brain homogenates. The clinical status of (Thy1)-[A30P]alpha SYN mice and Tg(SOD1-G93A) mice was monitored by repeated assessment with a clinical score. Motor performance was controlled by the tightrope test and the rotarod test. In Tg2576 mice, spatial memory and learning deficits were assessed in the Morris water maze. In none of the three mouse models onset or course of the disease as evaluated by the clinical tests was affected by the recurrent systemic infections performed. Levels of alpha-synuclein in brains of (Thy1)-[A30P]alpha SYN mice did not differ between infected animals and control animals. Plaque sizes and concentrations of A beta 1-40 and A beta 1-42 were not significantly different in brains of infected and uninfected Tg2576 mice. In conclusion, onset and course of disease in mouse models of three common neurodegenerative disorders were not influenced by repeated systemic infections with S. pneumoniae, indicating that the effect of moderately severe acute infections on the course of neurodegenerative diseases may be less pronounced than suspected. PMID:19859962

  5. Multiple Subungual Pyogenic Granulomas Following Levothyroxine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Keles, Musa Kemal; Yosma, Engin; Aydogdu, Ilhami Oguzhan; Simsek, Tekin; Park, Tae Hwan

    2015-09-01

    Pyogenic granulomas are benign vascular lesions that can result from a large number of etiological factors. Drugs are one etiological factor involved in pyogenic granuloma development. In this study we present our experience of multiple pyogenic granulomas following levothyroxine administration suggesting that levothyroxine hormone replacement therapy might play an important role in the formation of pyogenic granuloma. We also reviewed the literatures regarding drug-induced pyogenic granulomas. PMID:26355986

  6. Pneumolysin Expression by Streptococcus pneumoniae Protects Colonized Mice from Influenza Virus-induced Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Amaya I.; Strauman, Maura C.; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Williams, Katie L.; Osborne, Lisa C.; Shen, Hao; Liu, Qin; Garlick, David; Artis, David; Hensley, Scott E.; Caton, Andrew J.; Weiser, Jeffrey N.; Erikson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The response to influenza virus (IAV) infection and severity of disease is highly variable in humans. We hypothesized that one factor contributing to this variability is the presence of specific respiratory tract (RT) microbes. One such microbe is Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) that is carried asymptomatically in the RT of many humans. In a mouse co-infection model we found that in contrast to secondary bacterial infection that exacerbates disease, Sp colonization 10 days prior to IAV protects from virus-induced morbidity and lung pathology. Using mutant Sp strains, we identified a critical role for the bacterial virulence factor pneumolysin (PLY) in mediating this protection. Colonization with the PLY-sufficient Sp strain induces expression of the immune-suppressive enzyme arginase 1 in alveolar macrophages (aMø) and correlates with attenuated recruitment and function of pulmonary inflammatory cells. Our study demonstrates a novel role for PLY in Sp-mediated protection by maintaining aMø as "gatekeepers" against virus-induced immunopathology. PMID:24999050

  7. Pneumolysin expression by streptococcus pneumoniae protects colonized mice from influenza virus-induced disease.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Amaya I; Strauman, Maura C; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Williams, Katie L; Osborne, Lisa C; Shen, Hao; Liu, Qin; Garlick, David; Artis, David; Hensley, Scott E; Caton, Andrew J; Weiser, Jeffrey N; Erikson, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The response to influenza virus (IAV) infection and severity of disease is highly variable in humans. We hypothesized that one factor contributing to this variability is the presence of specific respiratory tract (RT) microbes. One such microbe is Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) that is carried asymptomatically in the RT of many humans. In a mouse co-infection model we found that in contrast to secondary bacterial infection that exacerbates disease, Sp colonization 10 days prior to IAV protects from virus-induced morbidity and lung pathology. Using mutant Sp strains, we identified a critical role for the bacterial virulence factor pneumolysin (PLY) in mediating this protection. Colonization with the PLY-sufficient Sp strain induces expression of the immune-suppressive enzyme arginase 1 in alveolar macrophages (aMø) and correlates with attenuated recruitment and function of pulmonary inflammatory cells. Our study demonstrates a novel role for PLY in Sp-mediated protection by maintaining aMø as "gatekeepers" against virus-induced immunopathology. PMID:24999050

  8. Evidence of lateral gene transfer among strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in weanling horses with respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Velineni, Sridhar; Breathnach, Cormac C; Timoney, John F

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Sz) is a tonsillar commensal of healthy horses but with potential to opportunistically invade the lower respiratory tract. Sz is genetically variable and recombinogenic based on analysis of gene sequences including szp, szm and MLST data. Although a variety of serovars of the protective SzP are commonly harbored in the tonsils of the same horse, lower respiratory infections usually involve a single clone. Nevertheless, isolation of specific clones from epizootics of respiratory disease has been recently reported in horses and dogs in N. America, Europe and Asia. In this report, we provide evidence suggestive of lateral gene exchange and recombination between strains of Sz from cases of respiratory disease secondary to experimental equine herpes 1 virus infection in an isolated group of weanling horses and ponies. Nasal swabs of 13 of 18 weanlings with respiratory disease yielded mucoid colonies of Sz following culture. Comparison of arcC, nrdE, proS, spi, tdk, tpi and yqiL of these Sz revealed 3 Clades. Clade-1 (ST-212) and 2 (ST-24) were composed of 7 and 3 isolates, respectively. ST-24 and 212 differed in all 7 housekeeping as well as szp and szm alleles. Two isolates of Clade-1 were assigned to ST-308, a single locus variant of ST-212 that contained the proS-16 allele sequenced in ST-24. One isolate of ST-308 contained szm-2, the same allele sequenced in Clade 2 isolates; the other was positive for the szp-N2HV2 allele of Clade 2. These observations are consistent with gene transfer between Sz in the natural host and may explain formation of novel clones that invade the lower respiratory tract or cause epizootics of respiratory disease in dogs and horses. PMID:24263112

  9. Identification of a Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III Subtype 4 Clone in Association with Adult Invasive Disease in Hong Kong▿

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Margaret; Cheuk, Edmund S. C.; Tsui, Michelle H. Y.; Kong, Fanrong; Leung, T. N.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae serotype III isolates revealed a subtype 4 clone that has an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and possesses a C-α protein, IS1381, and a novel sequence type (ST), ST 283, by multilocus sequence tagging. This clone was significantly associated with diseases caused by invasive strains from nonpregnant adults (P ≤ 0.01, chi-square test) and was not present in the genital tracts of pregnant mothers. PMID:17005749

  10. Neonatal Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection May Aggravate Adulthood Allergic Airways Disease in Association with IL-17A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Jiang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Lijia; Wang, Qinghong; Luo, Zhengxiu; Liu, Enmei; Fu, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that some bacteria colonization or infections in early-life increased the risk for subsequent asthma development. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which early-life bacterial infection increases this risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neonatal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection on the development of adulthood asthma, and to explore the possible mechanism. A non-lethal S. pneumoniae lung infection was established by intranasal inoculation of neonatal (1-week-old) female mice with D39. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin in adulthood to induce allergic airways disease (AAD). Twenty-four hours later, the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected to assess AAD. Neonatal S. pneumoniae infection exacerbated adulthood hallmark features of AAD, with enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness and increased neutrophil recruitment into the airways, increased Th17 cells and interleukin (IL)-17A productions. Depletion of IL-17A by i.p. injection of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduced neutrophil recruitment into the airways, alleviated airway inflammation and decreased airway hyperresponsiveness. Furthermore, IL-17A depletion partially restored levels of inteferon-?, but had no effect on the release of IL-5 or IL-13. Our data suggest that neonatal S. pneumoniae infection may promote the development of adulthood asthma in association with increased IL-17A production. PMID:25816135

  11. IL-22 Defect During Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection Triggers Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pichavant, Muriel; Sharan, Riti; Le Rouzic, Olivier; Olivier, Cécile; Hennegrave, Florence; Rémy, Gaëlle; Pérez-Cruz, Magdiel; Koné, Bachirou; Gosset, Pierre; Just, Nicolas; Gosset, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is linked to episodes of exacerbations caused by bacterial infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our objective was to identify during COPD, factors of susceptibility to bacterial infections among cytokine network and their role in COPD exacerbations. S. pneumoniae was used to sub-lethally challenge mice chronically exposed to air or cigarette smoke (CS) and to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from non-smokers, smokers and COPD patients. The immune response and the cytokine production were evaluated. Delayed clearance of the bacteria and stronger lung inflammation observed in infected CS-exposed mice were associated with an altered production of IL-17 and IL-22 by innate immune cells. This defect was related to a reduced production of IL-1β and IL-23 by antigen presenting cells. Importantly, supplementation with recombinant IL-22 restored bacterial clearance in CS-exposed mice and limited lung alteration. In contrast with non-smokers, blood NK and NKT cells from COPD patients failed to increase IL-17 and IL-22 levels in response to S. pneumoniae, in association with a defect in IL-1β and IL-23 secretion. This study identified IL-17 and IL-22 as susceptibility factors in COPD exacerbation. Therefore targeting such cytokines could represent a potent strategy to control COPD exacerbation. PMID:26870795

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection in naturally occurring equine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Newton, J R; Laxton, R; Wood, J L N; Chanter, N

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to characterise the molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection among isolates collected sequentially from recently weaned, pasture maintained Welsh mountain ponies with naturally occurring respiratory disease. Weekly nasopharyngeal and tracheal lavage samplings over a 10-week period were conducted in 29 ponies. Two PCR typing methods based on characterisation of the M-protein hypervariable (HV) region and the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer were then applied to isolates of S. zooepidemicus recovered from nasopharyngeal swab and tracheal wash samples. S. zooepidemicus infection was highly prevalent during the study, being isolated from 94% of tracheal washes and 88% of nasopharyngeal swabs. Among 39 different S. zooepidemicus types isolated, more were isolated from the trachea (n=33) than the nasopharynx (n=27). There was evidence from temporal patterns of infection for clonal succession over time by the more prevalent S. zooepidemicus types. Novel S. zooepidemicus types were identified, including previously untyped HV regions and intra-strain multiples of both the HV region and intergenic spacer types. PMID:17433734

  13. Interaction of Streptococcus agalactiae and Cellular Innate Immunity in Colonization and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Landwehr-Kenzel, Sybille; Henneke, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is highly adapted to humans, where it is a normal constituent of the intestinal and vaginal flora. Yet, GBS has highly invasive potential and causes excessive inflammation, sepsis, and death at the beginning of life, in the elderly and in diabetic patients. Thus, GBS is a model pathobiont that thrives in the healthy host, but has not lost its potential virulence during coevolution with mankind. It remains incompletely understood how the innate immune system contains GBS in the natural niches, the intestinal and genital tracts, and which molecular events underlie breakdown of mucocutaneous resistance. Newborn infants between days 7 and 90 of life are at risk of a particularly striking sepsis manifestation (late-onset disease), where the transition from colonization to invasion and dissemination, and thus from health to severe sepsis is typically fulminant and not predictable. The great majority of late-onset sepsis cases are caused by one clone, GBS ST17, which expresses HvgA as a signature virulence factor and adhesin. In mice, HvgA promotes the crossing of both the mucosal and the blood–brain barrier. Expression levels of HvgA and other GBS virulence factors, such as pili and toxins, are regulated by the upstream two-component control system CovR/S. This in turn is modulated by acidic epithelial pH, high glucose levels, and during the passage through the mouse intestine. After invasion, GBS has the ability to subvert innate immunity by mechanisms like glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-dependent induction of IL-10 and β-protein binding to the inhibitory phagocyte receptors sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 5 and 14. On the host side, sensing of GBS nucleic acids and lipopeptides by both Toll-like receptors and the inflammasome appears to be critical for host resistance against GBS. Yet, comprehensive models on the interplay between GBS and human immune cells at the colonizing site are just emerging. PMID:25400631

  14. Interaction of Streptococcus agalactiae and Cellular Innate Immunity in Colonization and Disease.

    PubMed

    Landwehr-Kenzel, Sybille; Henneke, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is highly adapted to humans, where it is a normal constituent of the intestinal and vaginal flora. Yet, GBS has highly invasive potential and causes excessive inflammation, sepsis, and death at the beginning of life, in the elderly and in diabetic patients. Thus, GBS is a model pathobiont that thrives in the healthy host, but has not lost its potential virulence during coevolution with mankind. It remains incompletely understood how the innate immune system contains GBS in the natural niches, the intestinal and genital tracts, and which molecular events underlie breakdown of mucocutaneous resistance. Newborn infants between days 7 and 90 of life are at risk of a particularly striking sepsis manifestation (late-onset disease), where the transition from colonization to invasion and dissemination, and thus from health to severe sepsis is typically fulminant and not predictable. The great majority of late-onset sepsis cases are caused by one clone, GBS ST17, which expresses HvgA as a signature virulence factor and adhesin. In mice, HvgA promotes the crossing of both the mucosal and the blood-brain barrier. Expression levels of HvgA and other GBS virulence factors, such as pili and toxins, are regulated by the upstream two-component control system CovR/S. This in turn is modulated by acidic epithelial pH, high glucose levels, and during the passage through the mouse intestine. After invasion, GBS has the ability to subvert innate immunity by mechanisms like glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-dependent induction of IL-10 and β-protein binding to the inhibitory phagocyte receptors sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 5 and 14. On the host side, sensing of GBS nucleic acids and lipopeptides by both Toll-like receptors and the inflammasome appears to be critical for host resistance against GBS. Yet, comprehensive models on the interplay between GBS and human immune cells at the colonizing site are just emerging. PMID:25400631

  15. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection.

    PubMed

    Rantala, S

    2014-08-01

    The importance of group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) as a significant pathogen has recently been better recognized. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease can range in severity from milder skin and soft-tissue conditions such as wound infection, erysipelas, and cellulitis, to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, thus sharing the clinical picture with S. pyogenes. The most common clinical manifestation of bacteremia is cellulitis. An increase in the incidence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia has been recognized. Invasive forms of this infection are most commonly found in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities and skin breakdown. The case fatality in bacteremia has been reported to be 15-18%. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and emm types of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia are summarized. PMID:24682845

  16. Arcanobacterium pyogenes endocarditis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chesdachai, Supavit; Larbcharoensub, Noppadol; Chansoon, Tharintorn; Chalermsanyakorn, Panas; Santanirand, Pitak; Chotiprasitsakul, Darunee; Ratanakorn, Disya; Boonbaichaiyapruck, Sarana

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old man with Arcanobacterium pyogenes endocarditis. The patient presented with dyspnea and asymmetrical progressive quadriparesis. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mobile vegetations on both leaflets of his mitral valve measuring 0.5 x 3 cm, thickening of the mitral valve with severe mitral regurgitation due to dehiscence of the papillary muscle to the posterior mitral leaflet. He also had aortic sclerosis with a vegetation measuring 0.5 x 1 cm causing aortic valve dehiscence and free flow aortic regurgitation. An initial hemoculture grew out pleomorphic, gram-positive, non-motile, anaerobic to microaerophilic bacilli. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made using modified Duke criteria. He was treated with intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin. Four days after admission, he developed acute respiratory failure and succumbed to the disease. A pre-mortem hemoculture and post-mortem heart valve culture grew Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Septic thromboemboli involving the brain, kidneys, lungs and spleen were documented. The patient also had ischemic vasculopathy with focal spinal arteriolitis and bilateral demyelination of the cervical corticospinal tracts. There are three published reports of human A. pyogenes endocarditis in the literature. Neurological involvement with ischemic spinal vasculopathy and demyelination has not been reported. We report the first autopsy proven case of A. pyogenes infective endocarditis with ischemic spinal vasculopathy. We review the clinicopathologic features of systemic A. pyogenes infection. PMID:24964663

  17. Properties and antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis in China.

    PubMed

    Alkasir, Rashad; Wang, Jianfang; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Szenci, Ottó; Bajcsy, Árpád Csaba; Han, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Trueperella (T.) pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative diseases in domestic animals. In this work, the properties, pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity of T. pyogenes isolates from bovine mastitis were studied. Both pyolysin (plo) and collagen-binding protein (cbp) virulence factor genes were detected by PCR in all T. pyogenes isolates (n = 50). Using the tissue culture plate method, 90% of T. pyogenes isolates were able to form biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobials against T. pyogenes isolates were determined. High susceptibility was observed to rifampin (96%), ampicillin (94%), ciprofloxacin (94%), and penicillin (92%), while low susceptibility was found to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10%) and bacitracin (2%). The intracellular assay revealed that T. pyogenes isolates had different cytopathogenic effects on cells. The high percentage (28.6%) of T. pyogenes isolates suggests that this bacterium is an important contributor to mastitis. Moreover, the high occurrence of multidrug resistance, biofilm production, intracellular survival, and the temporal dynamics of T. pyogenes interactions are key factors for a better understanding of how immunity acts on infections with these bacteria and how they evade immune surveillance, thus highlighting the need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine. PMID:26919137

  18. Antimicrobial Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cariogenic Bacteria Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, and Periodontal Diseases Actinomyces naeslundii and Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Baca-Castañón, Magda Lorena; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam Angélica; Alcázar-Pizaña, Andrea Guadalupe; Grondin, Yohann; Coronado-Mendoza, Anahí; Sánchez-Najera, Rosa Isela; Cárdenas-Estrada, Eloy; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos Eduardo; Escamilla-García, Erandi

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well known for their beneficial effects on human health in the intestine and immune system; however, there are few studies on the impact they can generate in oral health. The aim of this study was to test and compare in vitro antimicrobial activity of L. reuteri on pathogenic bacteria involved in the formation of dental caries: S. mutans, S. gordonii, and periodontal disease: A. naeslundii and T. forsythia. Also, we determined the growth kinetics of each bacterium involved in this study. Before determining the antimicrobial action of L. reuteri on cariogenic bacteria and periodontal disease, the behavior and cell development time of each pathogenic bacterium were studied. Once the conditions for good cell growth of each of selected pathogens were established according to their metabolic requirements, maximum exponential growth was determined, this being the reference point for analyzing the development or inhibition by LAB using the Kirby Bauer method. Chlorhexidine 0.12% was positive control. L. reuteri was shown to have an inhibitory effect against S. mutans, followed by T. forsythia and S. gordonii, and a less significant effect against A. naeslundii. Regarding the effect shown by L. reuteri on the two major pathogens, we consider its potential use as a possible functional food in the prevention or treatment of oral diseases. PMID:25422124

  19. Genome Anatomy of Streptococcus parasanguinis Strain C1A, Isolated from a Patient with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Reveals Unusual Genomic Features

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kim Tien; Pang, Yong Kek; Chong, Teik Min; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus parasanguinis causes invasive diseases. However, the mechanism by which it causes disease remains unclear. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of S. parasanguinis C1A, isolated from a patient diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several genes that might be associated with pathogenesis are also described. PMID:26021924

  20. Direct Host Plasminogen Binding to Bacterial Surface M-protein in Pattern D Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes Is Required for Activation by Its Natural Coinherited SK2b Protein.

    PubMed

    Chandrahas, Vishwanatha; Glinton, Kristofor; Liang, Zhong; Donahue, Deborah L; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2015-07-24

    Streptokinase (SK), secreted by Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a single-chain ∼47-kDa protein containing three consecutive primary sequence regions that comprise its α, β, and γ modules. Phylogenetic analyses of the variable β-domain sequences from different GAS strains suggest that SKs can be arranged into two clusters, SK1 and SK2, with a subdivision of SK2 into SK2a and SK2b. SK2b is secreted by skin-tropic Pattern D M-protein strains that also express plasminogen (human Pg (hPg)) binding Group A streptococcal M-protein (PAM) as its major cell surface M-protein. SK2a-expressing strains are associated with nasopharynx tropicity, and many of these strains express human fibrinogen (hFg) binding Pattern A-C M-proteins, e.g. M1. PAM interacts with hPg directly, whereas M1 binds to hPg indirectly via M1-bound hFg. Subsequently, SK is secreted by GAS and activates hPg to plasmin (hPm), thus generating a proteolytic surface on GAS that enhances its dissemination. Due to these different modes of hPg/hPm recognition by GAS, full characterizations of the mechanisms of activation of hPg by SK2a and SK2b and their roles in GAS virulence are important topics. To more fully examine these subjects, isogenic chimeric SK- and M-protein-containing GAS strains were generated, and the virulence of these chimeric strains were analyzed in mice. We show that SK and M-protein alterations influenced the virulence of GAS and were associated with the different natures of hPg activation and hPm binding. These studies demonstrate that GAS virulence can be explained by disparate hPg activation by SK2a and SK2b coupled with the coinherited M-proteins of these strains. PMID:26070561

  1. Serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with invasive diseases in Turkey: 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Gürler, Nezahat; Öksüz, Lütfiye; Aydemir, Sohret; Ozkan, Sengul; Yuksekkaya, Serife; Keser Emiroglu, Melike; Gültekin, Meral; Yaman, Akgün; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Yanık, Keramettin; Karli, Arzu; Ozcinar, Hatice; Aydin, Faruk; Bayramoglu, Gulcin; Zer, Yasemin; Gulay, Zeynep; Gayyurhan, Efgan Dogan; Gül, Mustafa; Özakın, Cüneyt; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin; Perçin, Duygu; Akpolat, Nezahat; Ozturk, Candan; Camcıoğlu, Yıldız; Karadağ Öncel, Eda; Çelik, Melda; Şanal, Laser; Uslu, Hakan

    2016-02-01

    Successful vaccination policies for protection from invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) dependent on determination of the exact serotype distribution in each country. We aimed to identify serotypes of pneumococcal strains causing IPD in children in Turkey and emphasize the change in the serotypes before and after vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was included and PCV-13 was newly changed in Turkish National Immunization Program. Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated at 22 different hospitals of Turkey, which provide healthcare services to approximately 65% of the Turkish population. Of the 335 diagnosed cases with S. pneumoniae over the whole period of 2008-2014, the most common vaccine serotypes were 19F (15.8%), 6B (5.9%), 14 (5.9%), and 3 (5.9%). During the first 5 y of age, which is the target population for vaccination, the potential serotype coverage ranged from 57.5 % to 36.8%, from 65.0% to 44.7%, and from 77.4% to 60.5% for PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 in 2008-2014, respectively. The ratio of non-vaccine serotypes was 27.2% in 2008-2010 whereas was 37.6% in 2011-2014 (p=0.045). S. penumoniae serotypes was less non-susceptible to penicillin as compared to our previous results (33.7 vs 16.5 %, p=0.001). The reduction of those serotype coverage in years may be attributed to increasing vaccinated children in Turkey and the increasing non-vaccine serotype may be explained by serotype replacement. Our ongoing IPD surveillance is a significant source of information for the decision-making processes on pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:26325175

  2. Interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in paediatric patients suffering from an underlying chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Carla; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Terranova, Leonardo; Ierardi, Valentina; Gambino, Monia; Principi, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in school-age children and adolescents suffering from an underlying chronic disease. To increase our knowledge in this regard, an oropharyngeal swab was obtained from school-age children and adolescents suffering from asthma (n = 423), cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 212) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) (n = 296). S. pneumoniae detection and serotyping were performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and S. aureus detection was performed using the RIDAGENE MRSA system. Among asthmatic, CF and DM1 patients, both pathogens were identified in 65/423 (15.4%), 21/212 (9.9%) and 62/296 (20.9%) children, respectively; S. pneumoniae alone was identified in 127/434 (30.0%), 21/212 (9.9%) and 86/296 (29.1%), respectively; S. aureus alone was identified in 58/434 (13.7%), 78/212 (36.8%) and 49/296 (16.6%), respectively. S. pneumoniae colonisation rates were higher in younger children and declined with age, whereas the frequency of S. aureus colonisation was quite similar in the different age groups. Among asthmatic and CF patients aged 6-9 years, S. aureus carriage was significantly higher in children who were positive for S. pneumoniae (P <0.05). No significant association emerged between S. aureus carriage and carriage of S. pneumoniae serotypes included in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). This study shows for the first time that school-age children and adolescents with asthma, CF and DM1 are frequently colonised by S. pneumoniae and S. aureus and that no negative relationship seems to exist between these pathogens. Moreover, the supposed protection offered by PCV administration against S. aureus colonisation was not demonstrated. PMID:26395386

  3. Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Stk Is Required for Virulence, Stress Response, and Penicillin Tolerance in Streptococcus pyogenes▿

    PubMed Central

    Bugrysheva, Julia; Froehlich, Barbara J.; Freiberg, Jeffrey A.; Scott, June R.

    2011-01-01

    Genes encoding one or more Ser/Thr protein kinases have been identified recently in many bacteria, including one (stk) in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]). We report that in GAS, stk is required to produce disease in a murine myositis model of infection. Using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) studies, we found that Stk activates genes for virulence factors, osmoregulation, metabolism of α-glucans, and fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as genes affecting cell wall synthesis. Confirming these transcription studies, we determined that the stk deletion mutant is more sensitive to osmotic stress and to penicillin than the wild type. We discuss several possible Stk phosphorylation targets that might explain Stk regulation of expression of specific operons and the possible role of Stk in resuscitation from quiescence. PMID:21788381

  4. Review on the association of Group B Streptococcus capsular antibody and protection against invasive disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Ziyaad; Kwatra, Gaurav; Izu, Alane; Lala, Sanjay G; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-01-01

    A trivalent Group B streptococcus (GBS) polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine for vaccination of pregnant women is under development to protect their newborns against invasive GBS disease. Establishing sero-correlates of protection against invasive GBS disease in infants could expedite the licensure pathway of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine. A systematic review of studies reporting on the association of capsular antibodies and invasive GBS disease in infants and colonization in women or newborns was undertaken. Most studies that described maternal and/or infant capsular antibody levels in infants with invasive GBS disease identified an association between low capsular antibody levels in invasive GBS cases compared to controls. Different assay methods and the lack of standardized reference ranges for serotype-specific antibody levels makes it difficult to select an antibody level that may be used as a reliable sero-correlate of protection. Further studies using standardized methods are warranted. PMID:25242617

  5. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from disease Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P is 1838701 bp in size, containing 1831 genes. The genome has 1593 coding sequences, 152 pseudo genes, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and 1 non-coding RNA. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipel...

  6. Pyogenic liver abscess: Changing patterns in approach

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz A; Bari, Shams UL; Rouf, Khawaja Abdul; Wani, Khurshid Alam

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To define optimum management of the pyogenic liver abscess and assess new trends in treatment. METHODS: One hundred and sixty nine patients with pyogenic liver abscess managed at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir (India) from July 2001 to August 2006 were studied to evaluate and define the optimum treatment. RESULTS: Mortality in the surgically treated group of patients was 9.4% (12/119), while those treated non-surgically had a fatality rate of 16.66% (7/42). Multiple liver abscesses treated surgically had a surprisingly low mortality of 30%. The biliary tract (64.97%) was the most common cause of liver abscess. Multiple abscesses, mixed organisms and abscess complications are all associated with a significantly increased mortality. However, the lethality of the primary disease process was the most important factor in determining survival. CONCLUSION: Transperitoneal surgical drainage and antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment. Percutaneous drainage is recommended for high risk patients only. PMID:21206721

  7. Responses of innate immune cells to group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Fieber, Christina; Kovarik, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes, is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic human pathogen which causes a wide range of mostly self-limiting but also several life-threatening diseases. Innate immune responses are fundamental for defense against GAS, yet their activation by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and GAS-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is incompletely understood. In recent years, the use of animal models together with the powerful tools of human molecular genetics began shedding light onto the molecular mechanisms of innate immune defense against GAS. The signaling adaptor MyD88 was found to play a key role in launching the immune response against GAS in both humans and mice, suggesting that PRRs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are involved in sensing this pathogen. The specific TLRs and their ligands have yet to be identified. Following GAS recognition, induction of cytokines such as TNF and type I interferons (IFNs), leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been recognized as key events in host defense. A comprehensive knowledge of these mechanisms is needed in order to understand their frequent failure against GAS immune evasion strategies. PMID:25325020

  8. Responses of innate immune cells to group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Fieber, Christina; Kovarik, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes, is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic human pathogen which causes a wide range of mostly self-limiting but also several life-threatening diseases. Innate immune responses are fundamental for defense against GAS, yet their activation by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and GAS-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is incompletely understood. In recent years, the use of animal models together with the powerful tools of human molecular genetics began shedding light onto the molecular mechanisms of innate immune defense against GAS. The signaling adaptor MyD88 was found to play a key role in launching the immune response against GAS in both humans and mice, suggesting that PRRs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are involved in sensing this pathogen. The specific TLRs and their ligands have yet to be identified. Following GAS recognition, induction of cytokines such as TNF and type I interferons (IFNs), leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been recognized as key events in host defense. A comprehensive knowledge of these mechanisms is needed in order to understand their frequent failure against GAS immune evasion strategies. PMID:25325020

  9. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the ‘top 10’ causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•−), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:25670736

  10. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the 'top 10' causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:25670736

  11. Animal Models Used to Study Superantigen-Mediated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Brosnahan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Superantigens secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes interact with the T-cell receptor and major histocompatibility class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells to elicit a massive cytokine release and activation of T cells in higher numbers than that seen with ordinary antigens. Because of this unique ability, superantigens have been implicated as etiological agents for many different types of diseases, including toxic shock syndrome, infective endocarditis, pneumonia, and inflammatory skin diseases. This review covers the main animal models that have been developed in order to identify the roles of superantigens in human disease. PMID:26676033

  12. Extragingival Pyogenic Granuloma: an Unusual Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Suresh K.

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is thought to represent an exuberant tissue reaction to local irritation. It occurs in second decade of life in young females. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic growth, pedunculated or sessile, which usually bleeds on provocation. Oral pyogenic granuloma preferentially affects the gingiva. On rare occasion, it can be found extragingivally on lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate which may mimic more serious pathological conditions such as malignancies. This article reports an unusual case of extra gingival pyogenic granuloma occurring on the right buccal mucosa in a female patient and discusses the features that distinguish this lesion from other similar oral mucosal lesions. PMID:26535410

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes Sternoclavicular Septic Arthritis in a Healthy Adult

    PubMed Central

    Savcic-Kos, Radmila M.; Mali, Padmavati; Abraham, Ajit; Issa, Meltiady; Rangu, Venu; Nasser, Rana

    2014-01-01

    Sternoclavicular septic arthritis is a rare infection, accounting for approximately 1% of septic arthritis in the general population. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant etiologic agent, and it usually occurs in relatively young adults with some type of predisposition to infection. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of group A streptococcal, sternoclavicular arthritis in a previously healthy 62-year-old male patient. We present a detailed history and physical examination, with laboratory findings, imaging studies, cultures, and therapy. PMID:24667224

  14. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis in a 13-Month-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Leroux; Isabelle, Bernardini; Lucie, Grynberg; Claire, Grandguillaume; Paul, Michelin; Mourad, Ould Slimane; Eric, Nectoux; François, Deroussen; Richard, Gouron; Audrey, Angelliaume; Brice, Ilharreborde; Mariette, Renaux-Petel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pyogenic sacroiliitis is exceptional in very young children. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical examination is misleading. FABER test is rarely helpful in very young children. Inflammatory syndrome is frequent. Bone scintigraphy and MRI are very sensitive for the diagnosis. Joint fluid aspiration and blood cultures are useful to identify the pathogen. Appropriate antibiotic therapy provides rapid regression of symptoms and healing. We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child. Clinical, biological, and imaging data of this case were reviewed and reported retrospectively. A 13-month-old girl consulted for decreased weight bearing without fever or trauma. Clinical examination was not helpful. There was an inflammatory syndrome. Bone scintigraphy found a sacroiliitis, confirmed on MRI. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint was performed. Empiric intravenous biantibiotic therapy was started. Patient rapidly recovered full weight bearing. On the 5th day, clinical examination and biological analysis returned to normal. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was switched for oral. One month later, clinical examination and biological analysis were normal and antibiotic therapy was stopped. Hematogenous osteoarticular infections are common in children but pyogenic sacroiliitis is rare and mainly affects older children. Diagnosis can be difficult because clinical examination is poor. Moreover, limping and decreased weight bearing are very common reasons for consultation. This may delay the diagnosis or refer misdiagnosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful to locate a bone or joint disease responsible for limping. In this observation, bone scintigraphy located the infection at the sacroiliac joint. Given the young age, MRI was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Despite the very young age of the patient, symptoms rapidly disappeared with appropriate antibiotic therapy. We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child. It reminds the risk of misdiagnosing pyogenic sacroiliitis in children because it is exceptional and clinical examination is rarely helpful. It also highlights the usefulness of bone scintigraphy and MRI in osteoarticular infections in children. PMID:26496260

  15. Iliac osteomyelitis and gluteal muscle abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Calza, L; Manfredi, R; Briganti, E; Attard, L; Chiodo, F

    2001-05-01

    Streptococcus intermedius, included in the 'milleri group', is a commensal of the mouth and upper respiratory tract but it has often been associated with various pyogenic infections, such as endocarditis, pneumonia, abdominal or cerebral abscess, rarely with osteomyelitis, and exceptionally with muscular abscess. The first observed case of iliac osteomyelitis with gluteal muscle abscess caused by S. intermedius is reported. It is essential to recognise members of the 'milleri group' as possible agents of bone and muscle pyogenic infection because its management requires a timely diagnosis and prolonged antimicrobial treatment to achieve complete clinical and radiological recovery. PMID:11339259

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive genosensor for label-free detection of human rheumatic heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Kumar, Ashok; Khare, Shashi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh

    2014-11-01

    A specific and ultrasensitive, label free single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) based chemiresistive genosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in human causing rheumatic heart disease. The mga gene of S. pyogenes specific 24 mer ssDNA probe was covalently immobilized on SWNT through a molecular bilinker, 1-pyrenemethylamine, using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The sensor was characterized by the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve and scanning electron microscopy. The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNT channel based on hybridization of the target S. pyogenes single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) to its complementary 24 mer ssDNA probe. The sensor shows negligible response to non-complementary Staphylococcus aureus ssG-DNA, confirming the specificity of the sensor only with S. pyogenes. The genosensor exhibited a linear response to S. pyogenes G-DNA from 1 to1000 ng ml-1 with a limit of detection of 0.16 ng ml-1.

  17. Single-walled carbon nanotubes based chemiresistive genosensor for label-free detection of human rheumatic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Swati; Kumar, Ashok E-mail: ashokigib@rediffmail.com; Khare, Shashi; Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh E-mail: ashokigib@rediffmail.com

    2014-11-24

    A specific and ultrasensitive, label free single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) based chemiresistive genosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in human causing rheumatic heart disease. The mga gene of S. pyogenes specific 24 mer ssDNA probe was covalently immobilized on SWNT through a molecular bilinker, 1-pyrenemethylamine, using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The sensor was characterized by the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve and scanning electron microscopy. The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in conductance in SWNT channel based on hybridization of the target S. pyogenes single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) to its complementary 24 mer ssDNA probe. The sensor shows negligible response to non-complementary Staphylococcus aureus ssG-DNA, confirming the specificity of the sensor only with S. pyogenes. The genosensor exhibited a linear response to S. pyogenes G-DNA from 1 to1000 ng ml{sup −1} with a limit of detection of 0.16 ng ml{sup −1}.

  18. Clonal Complex 17 Group B Streptococcus strains causing invasive disease in neonates and adults originate from the same genetic pool.

    PubMed

    Teatero, Sarah; Ramoutar, Erin; McGeer, Allison; Li, Aimin; Melano, Roberto G; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of group B Streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease, particularly late-onset disease, is associated with strains of serotype III, clonal complex (CC) 17. CC17 strains also cause invasive infections in adults. Little is known about the phylogenetic relationships of isolates recovered from neonatal and adult CC17 invasive infections. We performed whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis of 93 temporally and geographically matched CC17 strains isolated from both neonatal and adult invasive infections in the metropolitan region of Toronto/Peel, Canada. We also mined the whole-genome data to reveal mobile genetic elements carrying antimicrobial resistance genes. We discovered that CC17 GBS strains causing neonatal and adult invasive disease are interspersed and cluster tightly in a phylogenetic tree, signifying that they are derived from the same genetic pool. We identified limited variation due to recombination in the core CC17 genome. We describe that loss of Pilus Island 1 and acquisition of different mobile genetic elements carrying determinants of antimicrobial resistance contribute to CC17 genetic diversity. Acquisition of some of these mobile genetic elements appears to correlate with clonal expansion of the strains that possess them. Our results provide a genome-wide portrait of the population structure and evolution of a major disease-causing clone of an opportunistic pathogen. PMID:26843175

  19. Clonal Complex 17 Group B Streptococcus strains causing invasive disease in neonates and adults originate from the same genetic pool

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Ramoutar, Erin; McGeer, Allison; Li, Aimin; Melano, Roberto G.; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of group B Streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease, particularly late-onset disease, is associated with strains of serotype III, clonal complex (CC) 17. CC17 strains also cause invasive infections in adults. Little is known about the phylogenetic relationships of isolates recovered from neonatal and adult CC17 invasive infections. We performed whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis of 93 temporally and geographically matched CC17 strains isolated from both neonatal and adult invasive infections in the metropolitan region of Toronto/Peel, Canada. We also mined the whole-genome data to reveal mobile genetic elements carrying antimicrobial resistance genes. We discovered that CC17 GBS strains causing neonatal and adult invasive disease are interspersed and cluster tightly in a phylogenetic tree, signifying that they are derived from the same genetic pool. We identified limited variation due to recombination in the core CC17 genome. We describe that loss of Pilus Island 1 and acquisition of different mobile genetic elements carrying determinants of antimicrobial resistance contribute to CC17 genetic diversity. Acquisition of some of these mobile genetic elements appears to correlate with clonal expansion of the strains that possess them. Our results provide a genome-wide portrait of the population structure and evolution of a major disease-causing clone of an opportunistic pathogen. PMID:26843175

  20. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease Caused by Strains of Uncommon emm Types in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Athey, Taryn B T; Teatero, Sarah; Sieswerda, Lee E; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Li, Aimin; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; McGeer, Allison; Williams, David; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of type emm59 invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease was declared in 2008 in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, 2 years after a countrywide emm59 epidemic was recognized in Canada. Despite a declining number of emm59 infections since 2010, numerous cases of iGAS disease continue to be reported in the area. We collected clinical information on all iGAS cases recorded in Thunder Bay District from 2008 to 2013. We also emm typed and sequenced the genomes of all available strains isolated from 2011 to 2013 from iGAS infections and from severe cases of soft tissue infections. We used whole-genome sequencing data to investigate the population structure of GAS strains of the most frequently isolated emm types. We report an increased incidence of iGAS in Thunder Bay compared to the metropolitan area of Toronto/Peel and the province of Ontario. Illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, homelessness, and hepatitis C infection were underlying diseases or conditions that might have predisposed patients to iGAS disease. Most cases were caused by clonal strains of skin or generalist emm types (i.e., emm82, emm87, emm101, emm4, emm83, and emm114) uncommonly seen in other areas of the province. We observed rapid waxing and waning of emm types causing disease and their replacement by other emm types associated with the same tissue tropisms. Thus, iGAS disease in Thunder Bay District predominantly affects a select population of disadvantaged persons and is caused by clonally related strains of a few skin and generalist emm types less commonly associated with iGAS in other areas of Ontario. PMID:26491184

  1. Subtractive genomics approach to identify putative drug targets and identification of drug-like molecules for beta subunit of DNA polymerase III in Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Georrge, John J; Umrania, V V

    2012-07-01

    The prolonged use of the antibiotics over the years has transformed many organisms resistant to multiple drugs. This has made the field of drug discovery of vital importance in curing various infections and diseases. The drugs act by binding to a specific target protein of prime importance for the cell's survival. Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes are the few gram positive organisms that have developed resistance to drugs. It causes pneumonia, meningitis, pharyngitis, otitis media, sinusitis, bacteremia, pericarditis, and arthritis infections. The present study was carried out to identify potential drug targets and inhibitors for beta subunit of DNA polymerase III in these three Streptococcus species that might facilitate the discovery of novel drugs in near future. Various steps were adopted to find out novel drug targets. And finally 3D structure of DNA polymerase III subunit beta was modeled. The ligand library was generated from various databases to find the most suitable ligands. All the ligands were docked using Molegro Virtual Docker and the lead molecules were investigated for ADME and toxicity. PMID:22415782

  2. Molecular epidemiology and genomics of group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Bessen, Debra E; McShan, W Michael; Nguyen, Scott V; Shetty, Amol; Agrawal, Sonia; Tettelin, Herv

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a strict human pathogen with a very high prevalence worldwide. This review highlights the genetic organization of the species and the important ecological considerations that impact its evolution. Recent advances are presented on the topics of molecular epidemiology, population biology, molecular basis for genetic change, genome structure and genetic flux, phylogenomics and closely related streptococcal species, and the long- and short-term evolution of GAS. The application of whole genome sequence data to addressing key biological questions is discussed. PMID:25460818

  3. Intramedullary pyogenic abscess in the conus medullaris.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M F; Mohamed, M B; Kalsi, P; Sinar, E J; Bradey, N

    2012-02-01

    Primary pyogenic abscess in the conus medullaris in a healthy adult has never been reported. An urgent MRI scan with contrast and prompt surgical evacuation may lead to good neurological recovery. PMID:22264156

  4. Pediatric pyogenic granuloma of the glans penis.

    PubMed

    Eickhorst, Kimberly M; Nurzia, Michael J; Barone, Joseph G

    2003-03-01

    Pyogenic granulomas are benign vascular proliferations of the skin and mucous membranes. We present a case report of a 13-year-old uncircumcised boy with phimosis and a pyogenic granuloma of the glans penis. The relationship between these lesions, phimosis, smegma, and circumcision is discussed. When the lesion is found in conjunction with phimosis, consideration should be given for circumcision. Close follow-up to rule out recurrence is necessary. PMID:12639669

  5. Lyme disease and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): an overview

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hanna; Cameron, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector- borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed. PMID:22393303

  6. Lyme disease and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): an overview.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hanna; Cameron, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector- borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed. PMID:22393303

  7. Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae conjunctivitis outbreak isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Yulanda M; Moura, Hercules; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Pirkle, James L; Barr, John R; Carvalho, Maria Da Gloria; Ades, Edwin P; Carlone, George M; Sampson, Jacquelyn S

    2008-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus [Pnc]) is a causative agent of many infectious diseases, including pneumonia, septicemia, otitis media, and conjunctivitis. There have been documented conjunctivitis outbreaks in which nontypeable (NT), nonencapsulated Pnc has been identified as the etiological agent. The use of mass spectrometry to comparatively and differentially analyze protein and peptide profiles of whole-cell microorganisms remains somewhat uncharted. In this report, we discuss a comparative proteomic analysis between NT S. pneumoniae conjunctivitis outbreak strains (cPnc) and other known typeable or NT pneumococcal and streptococcal isolates (including Pnc TIGR4 and R6, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and nonstreptococcal isolates (including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus) as controls. cPnc cells and controls were grown to mid-log phase, harvested, and subsequently treated with a 10% trifluoroacetic acid-sinapinic acid matrix mixture. Protein and peptide fragments of the whole-cell bacterial isolate-matrix combinations ranging in size from 2 to 14 kDa were evaluated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Additionally Random Forest analytical tools and dendrogramic representations (Genesis) suggested similarities and clustered the isolates into distinct clonal groups, respectively. Also, a peak list of protein and peptide masses was obtained and compared to a known Pnc protein mass library, in which a peptide common and unique to cPnc isolates was tentatively identified. Information gained from this study will lead to the identification and validation of proteins that are commonly and exclusively expressed in cPnc strains which could potentially be used as a biomarker in the rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal conjunctivitis. PMID:18708515

  8. Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Conjunctivitis Outbreak Isolates by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry▿

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Yulanda M.; Moura, Hercules; Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.; Carvalho, Maria Da Gloria; Ades, Edwin P.; Carlone, George M.; Sampson, Jacquelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus [Pnc]) is a causative agent of many infectious diseases, including pneumonia, septicemia, otitis media, and conjunctivitis. There have been documented conjunctivitis outbreaks in which nontypeable (NT), nonencapsulated Pnc has been identified as the etiological agent. The use of mass spectrometry to comparatively and differentially analyze protein and peptide profiles of whole-cell microorganisms remains somewhat uncharted. In this report, we discuss a comparative proteomic analysis between NT S. pneumoniae conjunctivitis outbreak strains (cPnc) and other known typeable or NT pneumococcal and streptococcal isolates (including Pnc TIGR4 and R6, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and nonstreptococcal isolates (including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus) as controls. cPnc cells and controls were grown to mid-log phase, harvested, and subsequently treated with a 10% trifluoroacetic acid-sinapinic acid matrix mixture. Protein and peptide fragments of the whole-cell bacterial isolate-matrix combinations ranging in size from 2 to 14 kDa were evaluated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Additionally Random Forest analytical tools and dendrogramic representations (Genesis) suggested similarities and clustered the isolates into distinct clonal groups, respectively. Also, a peak list of protein and peptide masses was obtained and compared to a known Pnc protein mass library, in which a peptide common and unique to cPnc isolates was tentatively identified. Information gained from this study will lead to the identification and validation of proteins that are commonly and exclusively expressed in cPnc strains which could potentially be used as a biomarker in the rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal conjunctivitis. PMID:18708515

  9. Dynamic Changes in the Streptococcus pneumoniae Transcriptome during Transition from Biofilm Formation to Invasive Disease upon Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Laura R.; Kong, Yong; Gent, Janneane F.; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of infectious disease globally. Nasopharyngeal colonization occurs in biofilms and precedes infection. Prior studies have indicated that biofilm-derived pneumococci are avirulent. However, influenza A virus (IAV) infection releases virulent pneumococci from biofilms in vitro and in vivo. Triggers of dispersal include IAV-induced changes in the nasopharynx, such as increased temperature (fever) and extracellular ATP (tissue damage). We used whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare the S. pneumoniae transcriptome in biofilms, bacteria dispersed from biofilms after exposure to IAV, febrile-range temperature, or ATP, and planktonic cells grown at 37°C. Compared with biofilm bacteria, actively dispersed S. pneumoniae, which were more virulent in invasive disease, upregulated genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymatic assays for ATP and lactate production confirmed that dispersed pneumococci exhibited increased metabolism compared to those in biofilms. Dispersed pneumococci also upregulated genes associated with production of bacteriocins and downregulated colonization-associated genes related to competence, fratricide, and the transparent colony phenotype. IAV had the largest impact on the pneumococcal transcriptome. Similar transcriptional differences were also observed when actively dispersed bacteria were compared with avirulent planktonic bacteria. Our data demonstrate complex changes in the pneumococcal transcriptome in response to IAV-induced changes in the environment. Our data suggest that disease is caused by pneumococci that are primed to move to tissue sites with altered nutrient availability and to protect themselves from the nasopharyngeal microflora and host immune response. These data help explain pneumococcal virulence after IAV infection and have important implications for studies of S. pneumoniae pathogenesis. PMID:25135685

  10. The core promoter of the capsule operon of Streptococcus pneumoniae is necessary for colonization and invasive disease.

    PubMed

    Shainheit, Mara G; Mulé, Matthew; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal of the human nasopharynx but can cause invasive diseases, including otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. The capsular polysaccharide (capsule) is a critical virulence factor required for both asymptomatic colonization and invasive disease, yet the expression level is different in each anatomical site. During colonization, reduced levels of capsule promote binding to the host epithelium and biofilm formation, while during systemic infection, increased capsule is required to evade opsonophagocytosis. How this regulation of capsule expression occurs is incompletely understood. To investigate the contribution of transcriptional regulation on capsule level in the serotype 4 strain TIGR4, we constructed two mutants harboring a constitutive promoter that was either comparably weaker (Pcat) or stronger (PtRNAGlu) than the wild-type (WT) capsule promoter, Pcps. Mild reductions in cpsA and cpsE transcript levels in the Pcat promoter mutant resulted in a 2-fold reduction in total amounts of capsule and in avirulence in murine models of lung and blood infection. Additionally, the PtRNAGlu mutant revealed that, despite expressing enhanced levels of cpsA and cpsE and possessing levels of capsule comparable to those of WT TIGR4, it was still significantly attenuated in all tested in vivo niches. Further analysis using chimeric promoter mutants revealed that the WT -10 and -35 boxes are required for optimal nasopharyngeal colonization and virulence. These data support the hypothesis that dynamic transcriptional regulation of the capsule operon is required and that the core promoter region plays a central role in fine-tuning levels of capsule to promote colonization and invasive disease. PMID:24478084

  11. Disease isolates of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and non-typeable S. pneumoniae presumptively identified as atypical S. pneumoniae in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rolo, Dora; S Simões, Alexandra; Domenech, Arnau; Fenoll, Asunción; Liñares, Josefina; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Ardanuy, Carmen; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to obtain insights on the nature of a collection of isolates presumptively identified as atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from invasive and non-invasive infections in Spain. One-hundred and thirty-two isolates were characterized by: optochin susceptibility in ambient and CO(2)-enriched atmosphere; bile solubility; PCR-based assays targeting pneumococcal genes lytA, ply, pspA, cpsA, Spn9802, aliB-like ORF2, and a specific 16S rRNA region; multilocus sequence analysis; and antimicrobial susceptibility. By multilocus sequence analysis, 61 isolates were S. pseudopneumoniae, 34 were pneumococci, 13 were S. mitis, and 24 remained unclassified as non-pneumococci. Among S. pseudopneumoniae isolates, 51 (83.6%) were collected from respiratory tract samples; eight isolates were obtained from sterile sources. High frequency of non-susceptibility to penicillin (60.7%) and erythromycin (42.6%) was found. Only 50.8% of the S. pseudopneumoniae isolates displayed the typical optochin phenotype originally described for this species. None harbored the cpsA gene or the pneumococcal typical lytA restriction fragment length polymorphism. The Spn9802 and the specific 16S rRNA regions were detected among the majority of the S. pseudopneumoniae isolates (n = 59 and n = 49, respectively). The ply and pspA genes were rarely found. A high genetic diversity was found and 59 profiles were identified. Among the S. pneumoniae, 23 were capsulated and 11 were non-typeable. Three non-typeable isolates, associated to international non-capsulated lineages, were recovered from invasive disease sources. In conclusion, half of the atypical pneumococcal clinical isolates were, in fact, S. pseudopneumoniae and one-fourth were other streptococci. We identified S. pseudopneumoniae and non-typeable pneumococci as cause of disease in Spain including invasive disease. PMID:23437306

  12. Disease Isolates of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Non-Typeable S. pneumoniae Presumptively Identified as Atypical S. pneumoniae in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fenoll, Asunción; Liñares, Josefina; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Ardanuy, Carmen; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to obtain insights on the nature of a collection of isolates presumptively identified as atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from invasive and non-invasive infections in Spain. One-hundred and thirty-two isolates were characterized by: optochin susceptibility in ambient and CO2-enriched atmosphere; bile solubility; PCR-based assays targeting pneumococcal genes lytA, ply, pspA, cpsA, Spn9802, aliB-like ORF2, and a specific 16S rRNA region; multilocus sequence analysis; and antimicrobial susceptibility. By multilocus sequence analysis, 61 isolates were S. pseudopneumoniae, 34 were pneumococci, 13 were S. mitis, and 24 remained unclassified as non-pneumococci. Among S. pseudopneumoniae isolates, 51 (83.6%) were collected from respiratory tract samples; eight isolates were obtained from sterile sources. High frequency of non-susceptibility to penicillin (60.7%) and erythromycin (42.6%) was found. Only 50.8% of the S. pseudopneumoniae isolates displayed the typical optochin phenotype originally described for this species. None harbored the cpsA gene or the pneumococcal typical lytA restriction fragment length polymorphism. The Spn9802 and the specific 16S rRNA regions were detected among the majority of the S. pseudopneumoniae isolates (n = 59 and n = 49, respectively). The ply and pspA genes were rarely found. A high genetic diversity was found and 59 profiles were identified. Among the S. pneumoniae, 23 were capsulated and 11 were non-typeable. Three non-typeable isolates, associated to international non-capsulated lineages, were recovered from invasive disease sources. In conclusion, half of the atypical pneumococcal clinical isolates were, in fact, S. pseudopneumoniae and one-fourth were other streptococci. We identified S. pseudopneumoniae and non-typeable pneumococci as cause of disease in Spain including invasive disease. PMID:23437306

  13. Streptococcal toxins: role in pathogenesis and disease.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Timothy C; Cole, Jason N; Rivera-Hernandez, Tania; Henningham, Anna; Paton, James C; Nizet, Victor; Walker, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are host-adapted bacterial pathogens among the leading infectious causes of human morbidity and mortality. These microbes and related members of the genus Streptococcus produce an array of toxins that act against human cells or tissues, resulting in impaired immune responses and subversion of host physiological processes to benefit the invading microorganism. This toxin repertoire includes haemolysins, proteases, superantigens and other agents that ultimately enhance colonization and survival within the host and promote dissemination of the pathogen. PMID:26433203

  14. Genetic diversity and virulence of novel sequence types of Streptococcus suis from diseased and healthy pigs in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujie; Gao, Mingming; An, Tongqing; Liu, Yonggang; Jin, Jiamin; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Chenggang; Tu, Yabin; Hu, Shouping; Li, Jinsong; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a serious threat to swine industry and public health. In this work, a total of 62 S. suis isolates recovered from infected and healthy pigs from four provinces in northern China were classified by multilocus sequence typing into nine sequence types (STs), including six novel ones, namely, ST417, ST418, ST419, ST420, ST421, and ST422. The majority (64.5%) of these 62 isolates belong to serotype 2; all of these serotype 2 isolates can be assigned into ST1 or ST28 clonal complex, indicating at least two parallel routes of clonal dissemination of these isolates. In these serotype 2 isolates, 23 (20 from healthy pigs and three from diseased pigs) were identified as ST7 strains, which were previously characterized as the cause of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. The novel ST strains lack 89 K pathogenicity island but can cause septicemia and meningitis in a mouse model, showing remarkable differences in virulence. The ST421 strain named HLB causes suppurative encephalitis. Our results highlighted the need for increased surveillance of S. suis in farm-raised pigs in northern China. PMID:25784908

  15. Vaccination against group B streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Heath, Paul T; Feldman, Robert G

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) is an important cause of disease in infants, pregnant women, the elderly and in immunosuppressed adults. An effective vaccine is likely to prevent the majority of infant disease (both early and late onset), as well as Group B streptococcus-related stillbirths and prematurity, to avoid the current real and theoretical limitations of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and to be cost effective. The optimal time to administer such a vaccine would be in the third trimester of pregnancy. The main limitations on the production of a Group B streptococcus vaccine are not technical or scientific, but regulatory and legal. A number of candidates including capsular conjugate vaccines using traditional carrier proteins such as tetanus toxoid and mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197, as well as Group B streptococcus-specific proteins such as C5a peptidase, protein vaccines using one or more Group B streptococcus surface proteins and mucosal vaccines, have the potential to be successful vaccines. The capsular conjugate vaccines using tetanus and CRM197 carrier proteins are the most advanced candidates, having already completed Phase II human studies including use in the target population of pregnant women (tetanus toxoid conjugate), however, no definitive protein conjugates have yet been trialed. However, unless the regulatory environment is changed specifically to allow the development of a Group B streptococcus vaccine, it is unlikely that one will ever reach the market. PMID:15889994

  16. VACCINES TO PREVENT STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE AND S. AGALACTIAE DISEASE IN TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the effects of diseases is crucial to prevent mortality, morbidity, and to promote optimal growth and feed conversion in sustained culture of warm-water fish in fresh, estuarine and marine waters. The control of diseases has been dependent on the use of therapeutics since the inception o...

  17. VACCINES TO PREVENT Streptococcus iniae AND S. agalactiae DISEASE IN NILE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the effects of disease is crucial to prevent mortality, morbidity, and to promote optimal growth and feed conversion in sustained culture of warm-water fish in fresh, estuarine and marine waters. The control of diseases has been dependent on the use of therapeutics since the inception of...

  18. Epidemiological and clinical features of pyogenic spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, M; Trecarichi, E M; Rossi, B; Mazzotta, V; Di Giacomo, G; Nasto, L A; Di Meco, E; Pola, E

    2012-04-01

    Pyogenic spondylodiscitis (PS) is an uncommon but important infection, that represents 3-5% of all cases of osteomyelitis. The annual incidence in Europe has been estimated to be from 0.4 to 2.4/100,000. A has been reported, with peaks at age less than 20 years and in the group aged 50-70 years. The incidence of PS seems to be increasing in the last years as a result of the higher life expectancy of older patients with chronic debilitating diseases, the rise in the prevalence of immunosuppressed patients, intravenous drug abuse, and the increase in spinal instrumentation and surgery. PS is in most cases a hematogenous infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent causative microorganism, accounting for about one half of the cases of PS. Gram-negative rods are causative agents in 7-33% of PS cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have been reported in 5-16% of cases. Staphylococcus epidermidis is often related to post-operative infections and intracardiac device-related bacteremia. Unremitting back pain, characteristically worsening during the night, is the most common presenting symptom, followed by fever that is present in about one half of the cases. The mortality of PS ranges from 0 to 11%. In a significant number of cases, recrudescence, residual neurological defects or persistent pain may occur. PMID:22655478

  19. Genome Sequence of a Lancefield Group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus Strain Causing Epidemic Nephritis: New Information about an Old Disease

    PubMed Central

    Beres, Stephen B.; Sesso, Ricardo; Pinto, Sergio Wyton L.; Hoe, Nancy P.; Porcella, Stephen F.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of disease attributable to human error or natural causes can provide unique opportunities to gain new information about host-pathogen interactions and new leads for pathogenesis research. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN), a sequela of infection with pathogenic streptococci, is a common cause of preventable kidney disease worldwide. Although PSGN usually occurs after infection with group A streptococci, organisms of Lancefield group C and G also can be responsible. Despite decades of study, the molecular pathogenesis of PSGN is poorly understood. As a first step toward gaining new information about PSGN pathogenesis, we sequenced the genome of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain MGCS10565, a group C organism that caused a very large and unusually severe epidemic of nephritis in Brazil. The genome is a circular chromosome of 2,024,171 bp. The genome shares extensive gene content, including many virulence factors, with genetically related group A streptococci, but unexpectedly lacks prophages. The genome contains many apparently foreign genes interspersed around the chromosome, consistent with the presence of a full array of genes required for natural competence. An inordinately large family of genes encodes secreted extracellular collagen-like proteins with multiple integrin-binding motifs. The absence of a gene related to speB rules out the long-held belief that streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B or antibodies reacting with it singularly cause PSGN. Many proteins previously implicated in GAS PSGN, such as streptokinase, are either highly divergent in strain MGCS10565 or are not more closely related between these species than to orthologs present in other streptococci that do not commonly cause PSGN. Our analysis provides a comparative genomics framework for renewed appraisal of molecular events underlying APSGN pathogenesis. PMID:18716664

  20. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Anthony R; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaña, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J; Holder, Michael E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2015-05-19

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  1. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Anthony R.; Galloway-Pea, Jessica; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldaa, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Ajami, Nadim J.; Holder, Michael E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Thompson, Erika; Margarit Y Ros, Immaculada; Rosini, Roberto; Grandi, Guido; Horstmann, Nicola; Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Rappuoli, Rino; Baker, Carol J.; Shelburne, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans. PMID:25941374

  2. Diversity of Prophage DNA Regions of Streptococcus agalactiae Clonal Lineages from Adults and Neonates with Invasive Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Mazen; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Valentin-Domelier, Anne-Sophie; Quentin, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic position and prophage DNA content of the genomes of 142 S. agalactiae (group-B streptococcus, GBS) isolates responsible for bacteremia and meningitis in adults and neonates were studied and compared. The distribution of the invasive isolates between the various serotypes, sequence types (STs) and clonal complexes (CCs) differed significantly between adult and neonatal isolates. Use of the neighbor-net algorithm with the PHI test revealed evidence for recombination in the population studied (PHI, P = 2.01×10−6), and the recombination-mutation ratio (R/M) was 6∶7. Nevertheless, the estimated R/M ratio differed between CCs. Analysis of the prophage DNA regions of the genomes of the isolates assigned 90% of the isolates to five major prophage DNA groups: A to E. The mean number of prophage DNA fragments amplified per isolate varied from 2.6 for the isolates of prophage DNA group E to 4.0 for the isolates of prophage DNA group C. The isolates from adults and neonates with invasive diseases were distributed differently between the various prophage DNA groups (P<0.00001). Group C prophage DNA fragments were found in 52% of adult invasive isolates, whereas 74% of neonatal invasive isolates had prophage DNA fragments of groups A and B. Differences in prophage DNA content were also found between serotypes, STs and CCs (P<0.00001). All the ST-1 and CC1 isolates, mostly of serotype V, belonged to the prophage DNA group C, whereas 84% of the ST-17 and CC17 isolates, all of serotype III, belonged to prophage DNA groups A and B. These data indicate that the transduction mechanisms, i.e., gene transfer from one bacterium to another by a bacteriophage, underlying genetic recombination in S. agalactiae species, are specific to each intraspecies lineage and population of strains responsible for invasive diseases in adults and neonates. PMID:21633509

  3. Estimated hospitalization rate for diseases attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Veneto region of north-east Italy

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Lazzari, Roberta; Furlan, Patrizia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Russo, Francesca; Saia, Mario; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in all age groups. Serious diseases often caused by pneumococci include pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. Objective The aim of this work was to estimate the hospitalization rate for SP in the Veneto region by investigating pneumococcal-related discharges. Material and methods This was a retrospective study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2008 to 2012 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with SP were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportions of hospital admissions for pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia attributable to the infection were calculated. Comorbidities were also graded according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Data were analyzed using the chi square test and Student's t-test for unpaired data, as appropriate. Significant trends over the years considered were examined in terms of average annual percent changes (AAPC). A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results We identified 62,946 hospital discharge records concerning diseases potentially associated with SP. Among them, the proportion of SP-related hospital admissions (SP-HA) was estimated to be 23,089 (37.2%). The estimated incidence of SP-HA was 94.0/100,000 population (102.8/100,000 in males and 85.6/100,000 in females; p < 0.01): 89.0 for pneumonia, 0.9 for meningitis, and 4.1 for septicemia. The incidence of SP-HA was higher in children and the elderly, and the overall fatality rate was 11.0%. The overall economic burden of SP-HA during the period considered was around €14.8 million a year, with an average cost of €3120 per hospitalization. Conclusion This study shows that hospitalization for SP-related disease has a considerable impact on the health services, especially as far as children and the elderly are concerned.

  4. Genome sequence of a serotype M28 strain of group a streptococcus: potential new insights into puerperal sepsis and bacterial disease specificity.

    PubMed

    Green, Nicole M; Zhang, Shizhen; Porcella, Stephen F; Nagiec, Michal J; Barbian, Kent D; Beres, Stephen B; LeFebvre, Rance B; Musser, James M

    2005-09-01

    Puerperal sepsis, a major cause of death of young women in Europe in the 1800s, was due predominantly to the gram-positive pathogen group A Streptococcus. Studies conducted during past decades have shown that serotype M28 strains are the major group A Streptococcus organisms responsible for many of these infections. To begin to increase our understanding of their enrichment in puerperal sepsis, we sequenced the genome of a genetically representative strain. This strain has genes encoding a novel array of prophage virulence factors, cell-surface proteins, and other molecules likely to contribute to host-pathogen interactions. Importantly, genes for 7 inferred extracellular proteins are encoded by a 37.4-kb foreign DNA element that is shared with group B Streptococcus and is present in all serotype M28 strains. Proteins encoded by the 37.4-kb element were expressed extracellularly and in human infections. Acquisition of foreign genes has helped create a disease-specialist clone of this pathogen. PMID:16088825

  5. Group A Streptococcus: a re-emergent pathogen. Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Rheumatic fever is still rare in North America but must continue to be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. Invasive or severe GABHS disease remains unusual and is unlikely to be missed by the practitioner; however, it is essential that GABHS infection be considered as a possible cause of a severe sepsis-like syndrome. Currently the routine management of GABHS infection is unchanged; however, heightened awareness of the infection's rare, more serious complications is needed. PMID:8500028

  6. Outbreak of Group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in a Peruvian military facility, April 2012.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mariana; Valle, Ruben; Reaves, Eric J; Loayza, Luis; Gonzalez, Sofia; Bernal, Maria; Soto, Giselle; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Kasper, Matthew R; Tilley, Drake H; De Mattos, Carlos A; Brown, Jason R; Bausch, David G

    2013-06-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common cause of acute pharyngitis as well as other diseases. Closed populations such as those living on military bases, nursing homes, and prisons are particularly vulnerable to GAS outbreaks due to crowding that facilitates person-to-person transmission. This report details a large outbreak of GAS pharyngitis at a Peruvian military training facility near Lima, Peru, in April 2012. Initial findings showed 145 cases. However, as the investigation continued it was revealed that some trainees may have concealed their illness to avoid real or perceived negative consequences of seeking medical care. A subsequent anonymous survey of all trainees revealed at least 383 cases of pharyngitis among the facility's 1,549 trainees and an attack rate of 34 percent among the 1,137 respondents. The epidemic curve revealed a pattern consistent with routine person-to-person transmission, although a point-source initiating event could not be excluded. Laboratory results showed GAS emm type 80.1 to be the culprit pathogen, an organism not commonly implicated in outbreaks of GAS in the Americas. Barious unique and illustrative features of outbreak investigation in military facilities and populations are discussed. PMID:23819536

  7. Splenectomy Correlates With Increased Risk of Pyogenic Liver Abscess: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the risk of pyogenic liver abscess in patients with splenectomy. We explored the relationship between splenectomy and pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan. Methods We conducted a nationwide cohort analysis using the hospitalization dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 17 779 subjects aged 20–84 years who underwent splenectomy in 1998 to 2010 (splenectomy group) and 70 855 randomly selected subjects without splenectomy (non-splenectomy group). Both groups were matched by sex, age, other comorbidities, and hospitalization year of receiving splenectomy. The incidence of pyogenic liver abscess at the end of 2011 was measured. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pyogenic liver abscess associated with splenectomy and other comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate was 3.75-fold higher in the splenectomy group than that in the non-splenectomy group (2.15 vs 0.57 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval, 3.57–3.94). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted hazard ratio of pyogenic liver abscess was 3.89 in subjects with splenectomy (95% confidence interval, 3.20–4.72) when compared with subjects without splenectomy. In further analysis, the hazard ratio markedly increased to 14.34 for those with splenectomy and having any of the assessed comorbidities, including alcoholism, biliary stone, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver diseases, and diabetes mellitus (95% confidence interval, 10.61–19.39). Conclusions Patients with splenectomy are at an increased risk of developing pyogenic liver abscess, particularly when they have comorbid conditions. PMID:26256773

  8. Anti-IgG antibodies in rheumatic diseases cross-react with Streptococcus mutans SR antigen.

    PubMed

    Ackermans, F; Pini, A; Wachsmann, D; Schöller, M; Ogier, J; Klein, J P

    1991-08-01

    We have previously shown that SR protein, a S. mutans major cell wall protein, as well as the recombinant protein SR (rSR) share common epitopes with human IgG. Since this antigenic mimicry could play a role in the induction of anti IgG, we have examined, in k-ELISA, the presence of antibodies reacting with S. mutans SR proteins and S. mutans whole cells in sera from 36 patients with rheumatic diseases. The majority of the 36 sera showed a high reactivity with rSR when compared with control sera. Eight highly positive sera were further purified on rSR and human IgG sorbents and tested against both rSR and IgG in ELISA and Western blotting. The affinity-purified antibodies reacted strongly with rSR, IgG and IgG Fab fragments but failed to react with IgG Fc fragment. In Western blotting the addition of unlabelled IgG abolished the reactivity of affinity-purified biotinylated antibodies with all antigens, confirming the existence of a common epitope shared by rSR and human IgG heavy chain. We show the existence in rheumatic diseases of high titres of anti-human IgG antibodies cross-reactive with S. mutans SR proteins. Those antibodies are principally IgG and react with the Fd part of the Fab fragment. We can hypothesize from the above data that this antigenic mimicry existing between S. mutans SR-related antigens and human IgG could play a role in the synthesis of at least a part of the anti-IgG antibodies present in rheumatic diseases sera. PMID:1864007

  9. Comparison of Pyogenic Spondylitis and Tuberculous Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pyogenic spondylitis and tuberculous spondylitis are common causes of spinal infection. It is difficult to differentiate tuberculous spondylitis and pyogenic spondylitis clinically and radiologically. Recently magnetic resonance imaging has been reported to be beneficial for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the spondylitis, and is being used extensively for diagnosis. However, the diagnosis must be considered in combination with corresponding changes in clinical manifestations, radiological findings, blood and tissue cultures and histopathological findings. Conservative treatments, including antimicrobial medications, are started initially. Surgical treatments, which include anterior or posterior approach, single-stage or two-stage surgery, with or without instrumentation, may be performed as indicated. PMID:24761207

  10. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM) and Quality Deer Management (QDM), a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the six regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern. PMID:23930157

  11. TrxR, a New CovR-Repressed Response Regulator That Activates the Mga Virulence Regulon in Group A Streptococcus?

    PubMed Central

    Leday, Temekka V.; Gold, Kathryn M.; Kinkel, Traci L.; Roberts, Samantha A.; Scott, June R.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    Coordinate regulation of virulence factors by the group A streptococcus (GAS) Streptococcus pyogenes is important in this pathogen's ability to cause disease. To further elucidate the regulatory network in this human pathogen, the CovR-repressed two-component system (TCS) trxSR was chosen for further analysis based on its homology to a virulence-related TCS in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In a murine skin infection model, an insertion mutation in the response regulator gene, trxR, led to a significant reduction in lesion size, lesion severity, and lethality. Curing the trxR mutation restored virulence comparable to the wild-type strain. The trxSR operon was defined in vivo, and CovR was found to directly repress its promoter in vitro. DNA microarray analysis established that TrxR activates transcription of Mga-regulated virulence genes, which may explain the virulence attenuation of the trxR mutant. This regulation appears to occur by activation of the mga promoter, Pmga, as demonstrated by analysis of a luciferase reporter fusion. Complementation of the trxR mutant with trxR on a plasmid restored expression of Mga regulon genes and restored virulence in the mouse model to wild-type levels. TrxR is the first TCS shown to regulate Mga expression. Because it is CovR repressed, TrxR defines a new pathway by which CovR can influence Mga to affect pathogenesis in the GAS. PMID:18678666

  12. Study of streptococcal hemoprotein receptor (Shr) in iron acquisition and virulence of M1T1 group A streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Dahesh, Samira; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) is a human bacterial pathogen of global significance, causing severe invasive diseases associated with serious morbidity and mortality. To survive within the host and establish an infection, GAS requires essential nutrients, including iron. The streptococcal hemoprotein receptor (Shr) is a surface-localized GAS protein that binds heme-containing proteins and extracellular matrix components. In this study, we employ targeted allelic exchange mutagenesis to investigate the role of Shr in the pathogenesis of the globally disseminated serotype M1T1 GAS. The shr mutant exhibited a growth defect in iron-restricted medium supplemented with ferric chloride, but no significant differences were observed in neutrophil survival, antimicrobial peptide resistance, cell surface charge, fibronectin-binding or adherence to human epithelial cells and keratinocytes, compared with wild-type. However, the shr mutant displayed a reduction in human blood proliferation, laminin-binding capacity and was attenuated for virulence in in vivo models of skin and systemic infection. We conclude that Shr augments GAS adherence to laminin, an important extracellular matrix attachment component. Furthermore, Shr-mediated iron uptake contributes to GAS growth in human blood, and is required for full virulence of serotype M1T1 GAS in mouse models of invasive disease. PMID:23076332

  13. Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis associated with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph D; Montecino, Rafael; Winograd, Jonathan M; Ferraro, Maryjane; Michelow, Ian C

    2008-12-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, formerly known as Oerskovia xanthineolytica, is a rare human pathogen, often in association with a foreign body. A case of pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis associated with C. cellulans in an immunocompetent boy is described, underlining the importance of prompt surgical and microbiologic evaluation. PMID:18832122

  14. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Associated with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans▿

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D.; Montecino, Rafael; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Ferraro, MaryJane; Michelow, Ian C.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, formerly known as Oerskovia xanthineolytica, is a rare human pathogen, often in association with a foreign body. A case of pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis associated with C. cellulans in an immunocompetent boy is described, underlining the importance of prompt surgical and microbiologic evaluation. PMID:18832122

  15. Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and Evidence for a Shared Global Gene Pool with Streptococcus pyogenes▿

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, M. D.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Ramirez, M.

    2010-01-01

    Quinolone resistance is an emerging problem in Streptococcus pyogenes, and recombination with Streptococcus dysgalactiae DNA has been implicated as a frequent mechanism leading to resistance. We have characterized a collection of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates responsible for infections in humans (n = 314) and found a high proportion of levofloxacin-resistant isolates (12%). Resistance was associated with multiple emm types and genetic lineages, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiling. Since we could not find evidence for a role of efflux pumps in resistance, we sequenced the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA and parC genes of representative resistant and susceptible isolates. We found much greater diversity among the parC genes (19 alleles) than among the gyrA genes (5 alleles). While single mutations in either GyrA or ParC were sufficient to raise the MIC so that the strains were classified as intermediately resistant, higher-level resistance was associated with mutations in both GyrA and ParC. Evidence for recombination with S. pyogenes DNA was found in some parC alleles, but this was not exclusively associated with resistance. Our data support the existence of a common reservoir of genes conferring quinolone resistance shared between S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. pyogenes, while no recombination with the animal pathogen S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae could be found. PMID:20145082

  16. Biochemical and biological characterizations and ribotyping of Actinomyces pyogenes and Actinomyces pyogenes-like organisms from liver abscesses in cattle.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S; Nagaraja, T G; Staats, J; Chengappa, M M; Oberst, R D

    1998-04-15

    Actinomyces pyogenes is the second most frequently encountered pathogen, next only to Fusobacterium necrophorum, in liver abscesses of feedlot cattle. Ninety-one isolates, presumptively identified as A. pyogenes, isolated from liver abscesses of cattle were studied. Biochemical characteristics determined by the API 20 Strep kit were similar to those reported previously for A. pyogenes isolated from other infections, except that 18% of isolates hydrolyzed esculin. Nine isolates that resembled A. pyogenes in morphology and in certain biochemical characteristics, but fermented mannitol and/or raffinose, were called A. pyogenes-like (APL) organisms. The five antimicrobial agents, bacitracin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin were inhibitory to all strains of A. pyogenes and APLs. Generally, APL organisms had higher mean hemolytic and leukotoxic activities than A. pyogenes. All isolates of A. pyogenes and APLs produced proteases and neuraminidases. Ribotyping with endonucleases, including BstEII, ClaI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HaeIII, MboI, PvuII, SalI, and SmaI alone or in combinations, showed considerable genetic heterogeneity in both A. pyogenes and APLs. No specific ribopattern characteristic of each group was observed with any of the endonuclease used. The origin of A. pyogenes and APLs and the relative importance of APLs in causing liver abscesses in feedlot cattle are not known. PMID:9646478

  17. Salivaricin 9, a new lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, P A; Upton, M; Renault, P; Wirawan, R E; Power, D; Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Tagg, J R

    2011-05-01

    Salivaricin 9 (Sal9) is a 2560 Da lantibiotic having just 46 % amino acid identity with its closest known homologue, the Streptococcus pyogenes lantibiotic SA-FF22. The Sal9 locus (designated siv) in Streptococcus salivarius strain 9 was partially sequenced and localized to an approximately 170 kb megaplasmid, which also harbours the locus for the lantibiotic salivaricin A4. The entire locus was fully characterized in the draft genome sequence of S. salivarius strain JIM8780 and shown to consist of eight genes, having the following putative functions: sivK, sensor kinase; sivR, response regulator; sivA, Sal9 precursor peptide; sivM, lantibiotic modification enzyme; sivT, ABC transporter involved in the export of Sal9 and concomitant cleavage of its leader peptide; and sivFEG, encoding lantibiotic self-immunity. Intriguingly, in contrast to strain 9, the siv locus was chromosomally located in strain JIM8780--the first lantibiotic locus shown not to be exclusively plasmid-associated in S. salivarius. Sal9-containing extracts specifically induced lantibiotic production in both strain 9 and strain JIM8780, indicating that Sal9 functions as a signal peptide for upregulation of its own biosynthesis. Screening representative strains of three streptococcal species (S. salivarius, S. pyogenes and S. mitis) for sivA indicated that it was present only in S. salivarius, with 12 of 28 tested S. salivarius positive. Since Sal9 was inhibitory to all tested S. pyogenes strains it appears to have potential as an important component of the bacteriocin armoury of S. salivarius probiotics intended to control S. pyogenes infections of the human oral cavity. PMID:21310787

  18. Camel Streptococcus agalactiae populations are associated with specific disease complexes and acquired the tetracycline resistance gene tetM via a Tn916-like element

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Camels are the most valuable livestock species in the Horn of Africa and play a pivotal role in the nutritional sustainability for millions of people. Their health status is therefore of utmost importance for the people living in this region. Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an important camel pathogen. Here we present the first epidemiological study based on genetic and phenotypic data from African camel derived GBS. Ninety-two GBS were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), capsular polysaccharide typing and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We analysed the GBS using Bayesian linkage, phylogenetic and minimum spanning tree analyses and compared them with human GBS from East Africa in order to investigate the level of genetic exchange between GBS populations in the region. Camel GBS sequence types (STs) were distinct from other STs reported so far. We mapped specific STs and capsular types to major disease complexes caused by GBS. Widespread resistance (34%) to tetracycline was associated with acquisition of the tetM gene that is carried on a Tn916-like element, and observed primarily among GBS isolated from mastitis. The presence of tetM within different MLST clades suggests acquisition on multiple occasions. Wound infections and mastitis in camels associated with GBS are widespread and should ideally be treated with antimicrobials other than tetracycline in East Africa. PMID:24083845

  19. A Case of Acute Pyogenic Sacroiliitis and Bacteremia Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Kang Lock; Baek, Hae Lim; Jang, Seung Jun; Moon, Song Mi

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a rare osteoarticular infection, occurring most frequently in children and young adults. Diagnosis of the disease is challenging because of a general lack of awareness of the disease and its nonspecific signs and symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative bacteria in pyogenic sacroiliitis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has typically been considered a hospital-associated pathogen; however, community-acquired (CA)-MRSA infections are becoming increasingly common in Korea. We report the first domestic case of acute pyogenic sacroiliitis with abscess and bacteremia caused by CA-MRSA. The pathogen carried the type IV-A staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, and was identified as sequence type (ST) 72 by multilocus sequence typing. PMID:24475359

  20. Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Heroin Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Fishbach, Ronald S.; Rosenblatt, Jon E.; Dahlgren, James G.

    1973-01-01

    The diagnosis of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis was made in seven narcotic addicts between 1967 and 1972. Vertebrae involved were either cervical or lumbar. Bacteriologic diagnosis was made in each case by percutaneous needle biopsy and aspiration. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in two patients. Five patients had infections due to Gram-negative bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter. All patients were cured by treatment with antibiotics and immobilization. PMID:4199351

  1. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis in a 13-Month-Old Child: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Julien; Julien, Leroux; Bernardini, Isabelle; Isabelle, Bernardini; Grynberg, Lucie; Lucie, Grynberg; Grandguillaume, Claire; Claire, Grandguillaume; Michelin, Paul; Paul, Michelin; Ould Slimane, Mourad; Slimane, Ould Slimane; Nectoux, Eric; Eric, Nectoux; Deroussen, François; François, Deroussen; Gouron, Richard; Richard, Gouron; Angelliaume, Audrey; Audrey, Angelliaume; Ilharreborde, Brice; Brice, Ilharreborde; Renaux-Petel, Mariette; Mariette, Renaux-Petel

    2015-10-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is exceptional in very young children. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical examination is misleading. FABER test is rarely helpful in very young children. Inflammatory syndrome is frequent. Bone scintigraphy and MRI are very sensitive for the diagnosis. Joint fluid aspiration and blood cultures are useful to identify the pathogen. Appropriate antibiotic therapy provides rapid regression of symptoms and healing. We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child.Clinical, biological, and imaging data of this case were reviewed and reported retrospectively.A 13-month-old girl consulted for decreased weight bearing without fever or trauma. Clinical examination was not helpful. There was an inflammatory syndrome. Bone scintigraphy found a sacroiliitis, confirmed on MRI. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint was performed. Empiric intravenous biantibiotic therapy was started. Patient rapidly recovered full weight bearing. On the 5th day, clinical examination and biological analysis returned to normal. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was switched for oral. One month later, clinical examination and biological analysis were normal and antibiotic therapy was stopped.Hematogenous osteoarticular infections are common in children but pyogenic sacroiliitis is rare and mainly affects older children. Diagnosis can be difficult because clinical examination is poor. Moreover, limping and decreased weight bearing are very common reasons for consultation. This may delay the diagnosis or refer misdiagnosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful to locate a bone or joint disease responsible for limping. In this observation, bone scintigraphy located the infection at the sacroiliac joint. Given the young age, MRI was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Despite the very young age of the patient, symptoms rapidly disappeared with appropriate antibiotic therapy.We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child. It reminds the risk of misdiagnosing pyogenic sacroiliitis in children because it is exceptional and clinical examination is rarely helpful. It also highlights the usefulness of bone scintigraphy and MRI in osteoarticular infections in children. PMID:26496260

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Genotypic Characteristics of Streptococcus suis Capsular Type 2 Isolated from Clinical Carrier Sows and Diseased Pigs in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunping; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Song, Li; Fan, Xuezheng; Wen, Fang; Xu, Shixin; Ning, Yibao

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypic characterizations of S. suis 2 from carrier sows and diseased pigs remain largely unknown. In this study, 96 swine S. suis type 2, 62 from healthy sows and 34 from diseased pigs, were analyzed. High frequency of tetracycline resistance was observed, followed by sulfonamides. The lowest resistance of S. suis 2 for β-lactams supports their use as the primary antibiotics to treat the infection of serotype 2. In contrast, 35 of 37 S. suis 2 with MLSB phenotypes were isolated from healthy sows, mostly encoded by the ermB and/or the mefA genes. Significantly lower frequency of mrp+/epf+/sly+ was observed among serotype 2 from healthy sows compared to those from diseased pigs. Furthermore, isolates from diseased pigs showed more homogeneously genetic patterns, with most of them clustered in pulsotypes A and E. The data indicate the genetic complexity of S. suis 2 between herds and a close linkage among isolates from healthy sows and diseased pigs. Moreover, many factors, such as extensive use of tetracycline or diffusion of Tn916 with tetM, might have favored for the pathogenicity and widespread dissemination of S. suis serotype 2. PMID:26064892

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Genotypic Characteristics of Streptococcus suis Capsular Type 2 Isolated from Clinical Carrier Sows and Diseased Pigs in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunping; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Song, Li; Fan, Xuezheng; Wen, Fang; Xu, Shixin; Ning, Yibao

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypic characterizations of S. suis 2 from carrier sows and diseased pigs remain largely unknown. In this study, 96 swine S. suis type 2, 62 from healthy sows and 34 from diseased pigs, were analyzed. High frequency of tetracycline resistance was observed, followed by sulfonamides. The lowest resistance of S. suis 2 for β-lactams supports their use as the primary antibiotics to treat the infection of serotype 2. In contrast, 35 of 37 S. suis 2 with MLSB phenotypes were isolated from healthy sows, mostly encoded by the ermB and/or the mefA genes. Significantly lower frequency of mrp+/epf+/sly+ was observed among serotype 2 from healthy sows compared to those from diseased pigs. Furthermore, isolates from diseased pigs showed more homogeneously genetic patterns, with most of them clustered in pulsotypes A and E. The data indicate the genetic complexity of S. suis 2 between herds and a close linkage among isolates from healthy sows and diseased pigs. Moreover, many factors, such as extensive use of tetracycline or diffusion of Tn916 with tetM, might have favored for the pathogenicity and widespread dissemination of S. suis serotype 2. PMID:26064892

  4. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, N; Ziane, H; Bekhoucha, S; Guechi, Z; Azzam, A; Touati, D; Naim, M; Azrou, S; Hamidi, M; Mertani, A; Laraba, A; Annane, T; Kermani, S; Tazir, M

    2015-07-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36%) were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence): 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria. PMID:26106481

  5. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, N.; Ziane, H.; Bekhoucha, S.; Guechi, Z.; Azzam, A.; Touati, D.; Naim, M.; Azrou, S.; Hamidi, M.; Mertani, A.; Laraba, A.; Annane, T.; Kermani, S.; Tazir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36%) were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence): 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria. PMID:26106481

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from the lungs of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Tell, Lisa A; Brooks, Jason W; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2011-09-01

    In vitro susceptibilities of 29 strains of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from lung lesions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with pneumonia were determined using the broth microdilution method to ascertain efficacious treatment options for pneumonic white-tailed deer. All 29 A. pyogenes strains tested were susceptible to ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but were resistant to both danofloxacin and sulfadimethoxine. Likewise, all 29 isolates were either fully susceptible or intermediately susceptible to gentamicin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate) and tulathromycin (25 susceptible; 4 intermediate). At least one isolate of A. pyogenes tested was resistant to ampicillin, chlortetracycline, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and tilmicosin suggesting their ineffectiveness in treating A. pyogenes-associated lung infections in white-tailed deer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for tylosin and neomycin could not be interpreted due to unavailability of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved breakpoints for these 2 agents. In summary, based on MIC values, ceftiofur, spectinomycin, tiamulin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are more efficacious than other antimicrobial agents for treating A. pyogenes-related pneumonia in white-tailed deer. However, ceftiofur may be preferred over the other 4 drugs as it is being widely used to treat respiratory disease in cattle and other animal species, as well as is available for single dose parenteral administration. PMID:21908365

  7. Childhood pyogenic meningitis: clinical and investigative indicators of etiology and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Abdul-Wahab B. R.; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju T.; Abdul-Karim, Aishat A.; Olanrewaju, Abdul-Waheed I.

    2007-01-01

    The relevant parameters of 71 consecutive pediatric admissions for pyogenic meningitis at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria, were analyzed to identify possible clinical and nonmicrobiologic investigative clues of disease etiology and mortality. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was Gram-smear positive (GSP) in 41 (57.6%) of the 71 cases. Twenty-three (56.1%) had Gram-positive cocci (GPC), 14 (34.2%) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and three (7.3%) Gram-negative diplococci (GND). The respective mean ages of GPC, GNB and GND cases were 4.49 +/- 5.3, 3.06 +/- 4.8 and 4.47 +/-4.9 years. Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 22 (78.6%) of the 28 CSF isolates (p=0.00), Haemophilus influenzae for two (7.1%) cases and Neisseria meningitides in one (3.5%). Anemia was significantly more common among GSP cases (p=0.04), as was convulsion among those with GNB-positive smears (p=0.03) and a bulging fontanelle in the Gram-smear-negative category. Otherwise, the prevalence and resolution times of the other clinical parameters were comparable across the etiological categories. There were 30 deaths (42.3%) among which GNB-positive cases had significantly shorter stay (p=0.045). Mortality was significantly higher in those with an abnormal respiratory rhythm at admission (p=0.04), purulent/turbid CSF (p=0.03), CSF protein of >150 mg/dl (p=0.02) and glucose <1 mg/dl (p=0.047). Our findings highlight the inherent limitations of predicting the etiology of pediatric meningitides from the clinical parameters as well as the poor prognostic import of respiratory dysrhythmia and a profoundly deranged CSF protein and glucose. The etiological burden of GPC/S. pneumoniae in childhood meningitides in sub-Saharan Africa, the propensity of GNB/H. influenzae for quick fatality and the need for the relevant preventive vaccines are expounded in the discussion. PMID:17722674

  8. Actinomyces pyogenes septic arthritis in a diabetic farmer.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; O'Leary, J; Murnaghan, D; Cryan, B

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of the left ankle due to Actinomyces pyogenes in a diabetic farmer. Few confirmed human cases of A. pyogenes infection have been reported, partly because of inadequate identification of this bacterium. Bacteriological characteristics of the organism, which resembles Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, are described with a review of previous case reports. PMID:9733386

  9. Molecular phylogeny and a taxonomic proposal for the genus Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Póntigo, F; Moraga, M; Flores, S V

    2015-01-01

    Alternative phylogenies for the genus Streptococcus have been proposed due to uncertainty about the among-species group relationships. Here, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Streptococcus, considering all the species groups and also the genomic data accumulated by other studies. Seventy-five species were subjected to a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using sequences from eight genes (16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, tuf, rnpB, gyrB, dnaJ, and recN). On the basis of our results, we propose a new Phylogeny for the genus, with special emphasis on the inter-species group level. This new phylogeny differs from those suggested previously. From topological and evolutionary distance criteria, we propose that gordonii, pluranimalium, and sobrinus should be considered as new species groups, in addition to the currently recognized groups of mutans, bovis, pyogenic, suis, mitis, and salivarius. PMID:26400318

  10. Comparative Genomics of Carriage and Disease Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 22F Reveals Lineage-Specific Divergence and Niche Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, David W.; Devine, Vanessa T.; Jefferies, Johanna M.C.; Webb, Jeremy S.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Gladstone, Rebecca A.; Faust, Saul N.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of meningitis, sepsis, and pneumonia worldwide. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been part of the United Kingdom’s childhood immunization program since 2006 and have significantly reduced the incidence of disease due to vaccine efficacy in reducing carriage in the population. Here we isolated two clones of 22F (an emerging serotype of clinical concern, multilocus sequence types 433 and 698) and conducted comparative genomic analysis on four isolates, paired by Sequence Type (ST) with one of each pair being derived from carriage and the other disease (sepsis). The most compelling observation was of nonsynonymous mutations in pgdA, encoding peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase A, which was found in the carriage isolates of both ST433 and 698. Deacetylation of pneumococcal peptidoglycan is known to enable resistance to lysozyme upon invasion. Althought no other clear genotypic signatures related to disease or carriage could be determined, additional intriguing comparisons between the two STs were possible. These include the presence of an intact prophage, in addition to numerous additional phage insertions, within the carriage isolate of ST433. Contrasting gene repertoires related to virulence and colonization, including bacteriocins, lantibiotics, and toxin-–antitoxin systems, were also observed. PMID:27016484

  11. Characterization and Protective Immunogenicity of the SzM Protein of Streptococcus zooepidemicus NC78 from a Clonal Outbreak of Equine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Velineni, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus zooepidemicus of Lancefield group C is a highly variable tonsillar and mucosal commensal that usually is associated with opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract of vertebrate hosts. More-virulent clones have caused epizootics of severe respiratory disease in dogs and horses. The virulence factors of these strains are poorly understood. The antiphagocytic protein SeM is a major virulence factor and protective antigen of Streptococcus equi, a clonal biovar of an ancestral S. zooepidemicus strain. Although the genome of S. zooepidemicus strain H70, an equine isolate, contains a partial homolog (szm) of sem, expression of the gene has not been documented. We have identified and characterized SzM from an encapsulated S. zooepidemicus strain from an epizootic of equine respiratory disease in New Caledonia. The SzM protein of strain NC78 (SzMNC78) has a predicted predominantly alpha-helical fibrillar structure with an LPSTG cell surface anchor motif and resistance to hot acid. A putative binding site for plasminogen is present in the B repeat region, the sequence of which shares homology with repeats of the plasminogen binding proteins of human group C and G streptococci. Equine plasminogen is activated in a dose-dependent manner by recombinant SzMNC78. Only 23.20 and 25.46% DNA homology is shared with SeM proteins of S. equi strains CF32 and 4047, respectively, and homology ranges from 19.60 to 54.70% for SzM proteins of other S. zooepidemicus strains. As expected, SzMNC78 reacted with convalescent-phase sera from horses with respiratory disease associated with strains of S. zooepidemicus. SzMNC78 resembles SeM in binding equine fibrinogen and eliciting strong protective antibody responses in mice. Sera of vaccinated mice opsonized S. zooepidemicus strains NC78 and W60, the SzM protein of which shared partial amino acid homology with SzMNC78. We conclude that SzM is a protective antigen of NC78; it was strongly reactive with serum antibodies from horses during recovery from S. zooepidemicus-associated respiratory disease. PMID:23740925

  12. CT in pyogenic osteomyelitis of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Kattapuram, S.V.; Phillips, W.C.; Boyd, R.

    1983-06-01

    Six patients with bacteriologically proven pyogenic osteomyelitis of the spine were followed serially with computed tomography (CT). Initial evaluation of the involved vertebral bodies and adjacent soft tissues showed a drop in CT numbers when compared to normal cancellous bone and soft tissues. A soft-tissue mass was seen in all cases. After appropriate antibiotic therapy, all six patients showed an increase in bone density and a diminution of the soft-tissue mass (p < 0.05). Five of the six patients showed a further decrease in soft-tissue CT numbers.

  13. Multiple Pyogenic Liver Abscesses Caused by Microperforation of an Idiopathic Cecal Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Dong Han; Sohn, Ki Chang; Chu, Min Su; Jo, Dong Ho; Cho, Eun Young; Kim, Haak Cheoul

    2016-01-25

    Idiopathic cecal ulcer is a rare disease entity of unknown cause diagnosed by ruling out other known causes of cecal ulceration. The most common complication of an idiopathic cecal ulcer is bleeding; perforation, peritonitis, abscess, and stricture formation have been noted. The authors treated a 53-year-old woman who presented with fever and intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Multiple pyogenic liver abscess and a solitary cecal ulcer were diagnosed by radiologic, endoscopic, and pathologic examination, followed by laparoscopic cecectomy. After extensive study, we concluded that this patient's liver abscesses were a complication of the idiopathic cecal ulcer. Herein, we report a case of multiple pyogenic liver abscess caused by microperforation of idiopathic cecal ulcer. PMID:26809632

  14. Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnostic value of radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.; Nichols, K.; Cefola, R.

    1986-11-01

    Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (HPVO) continues to be a diagnostic problem for clinicians due to nonspecific presentation of the disease (1,2). We reviewed our experience of the last 10 years to determine the diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide bone studies in this disease. We found 15 patients whose primary diagnosis was HPVO. Of the 15 patients, 12 had (99mTc)MDP bone scans which were all positive. Five of the 12 patients had positive (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scans and one patient with chronic active HPVO had negative /sup 67/Ga and (/sup 111/In)WBC bone images. At the same time, three patients' spine x-rays and one patient's CT scan of the vertebra were normal. Additionally, in three patients spine x-rays were interpreted as consistent with degenerative joint disease that contributed to the delay of the diagnosis. We conclude that when HPVO is suspected an abnormal (99mTc)MDP bone image increases the probability of the disease, even if the x-rays and CT scans of the spine are normal. An abnormal /sup 67/Ga image following an abnormal 99mTc bone image increases the specificity of the diagnosis. Normal (99mTc)MDP and (/sup 67/Ga)citrate bone images of the vertebra virtually exclude the diagnosis of HPVO.

  15. covR Mediated Antibiofilm Activity of 3-Furancarboxaldehyde Increases the Virulence of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Ashwinkumar Subramenium, Ganapathy; Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Iyer, Prasanth Mani; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2015-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes), a multi-virulent, exclusive human pathogen responsible for various invasive and non-invasive diseases possesses biofilm forming phenomenon as one of its pathogenic armaments. Recently, antibiofilm agents have gained prime importance, since inhibiting the biofilm formation is expected to reduce development of antibiotic resistance and increase their susceptibility to the host immune cells. Principal Findings The current study demonstrates the antibiofilm activity of 3Furancarboxaldehyde (3FCA), a floral honey derived compound, against GAS biofilm, which was divulged using crystal violet assay, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The report is extended to study its effect on various aspects of GAS (morphology, virulence, aggregation) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (132μg/ml). 3FCA was found to alter the growth pattern of GAS in solid and liquid medium and increased the rate of auto-aggregation. Electron microscopy unveiled the increase in extra polymeric substances around cell. Gene expression studies showed down-regulation of covR gene, which is speculated to be the prime target for the antibiofilm activity. Increased hyaluronic acid production and down regulation of srtB gene is attributed to the enhanced rate of auto-aggregation. The virulence genes (srv, mga, luxS and hasA) were also found to be over expressed, which was manifested with the increased susceptibility of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 3FCA treated GAS. The toxicity of 3FCA was ruled out with no adverse effect on C. elegans. Significance Though 3FCA possess antibiofilm activity against GAS, it was also found to increase the virulence of GAS. This study demonstrates that, covR mediated antibiofilm activity may increase the virulence of GAS. This also emphasizes the importance to analyse the acclimatization response and virulence of the pathogen in the presence of antibiofilm compounds prior to their clinical trials. PMID:25978065

  16. The presence of muramidase released protein and extracellular factor protein in various serotypes of Streptococcus suis isolated from diseased and healthy pigs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Luque, I; Tarradas, C; Astorga, R; Perea, A; Wisselink, H J; Vecht, U

    1999-02-01

    A total of 142 strains from different serotypes of Streptococcus suis isolated in Spain from diseased pigs (88 strains) and healthy carrier pigs (54 strains) were studied for the presence of a muramidase released protein (MRP) and an extracellular factor (EF). The following five phenotypes: MRP+EF+, MRP+EF-, MRP-EF+, MRP+EF* and MRP*EF- were detected. A high percentage of S. suis serotype 2 strains isolated from diseased pigs (84 per cent) belonged to phenotype MRP+EF+, but this phenotype has also been noticed in other serotypes (serotypes 1, 1/2 and 14). Both proteins were detected in S. suis serotype 2 strains (26%) isolated from healthy carrier pigs and one of both proteins in serotypes 1 and 14 (phenotype MRP+EF*). The isolation of S. suis strains from healthy pigs which have shown both proteins may support the epidemiological significance of these carriers in the maintenance, transmission and distribution of virulent strains within and between swine farms. PMID:10088715

  17. Isolation and genotypic characterization of Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes recovered from active cranial abscess infections of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bradley S; Belser, Emily H; Keeler, Shamus P; Yabsley, Michael J; Miller, Karl V

    2015-03-01

    Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes is a causative agent of suppurative infections in domestic and wild animals. In some populations of captive or free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), cranial abscess disease is an important source of mortality in adult males. Although the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood, T. pyogenes has been isolated from active infections with other opportunistic bacteria. In this study, bacteria associated with cranial abscess infections were identified, the prevalence of T. pyogenes associated with these infections was determined, and the presence of known virulence determinants in T. pyogenes isolates was ascertained. Using routine biochemical techniques seven bacterial species were identified from 65 samples taken from active cranial abscess infections of 65 male white-tailed deer. Trueperellapyogenes was recovered from 46 samples; in 32 samples it was the only bacterium species detected. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 26 samples. From these samples, the presence of known and putative virulence genes of T. pyogenes--plo, nanH, nanP, cbpA, fimA, fimC, fimE, and fimG--was examined by conventional polymerase chain reaction. All T. pyogenes isolates were positive for the pyolysin genes plo, nanP, and fimA. Furthermore, nanH, fimA, fimC, and fimE were detected in over 70% of isolates. Of the isolates tested, 48% had genotypes containing all virulence genes except cbpA. The suggestive virulence potential of all isolates, coupled with the large number of pure cultures obtained, implies that T. pyogenes is a causative agent of cranial abscess disease. PMID:25831577

  18. An unusual case of Streptococcus anginosus group pyomyositis diagnosed using direct 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Walkty, Andrew; Embil, John M; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Streptococcus anginosus group (Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus) are capable of causing serious pyogenic infections, with a tendency for abscess formation. The present article reports a case of S anginosus group pyomyositis in a 47-year-old man. The pathogen was recovered from one of two blood cultures obtained from the patient, but speciation was initially not performed because the organism was considered to be a contaminant (viridans streptococci group). The diagnosis was ultimately confirmed using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing of purulent fluid obtained from a muscle abscess aspirate. The present case serves to emphasize that finding even a single positive blood culture of an organism belonging to the S anginosus group should prompt careful evaluation of the patient for a pyogenic focus of infection. It also highlights the potential utility of 16S ribosomal DNA amplification and sequencing in direct pathogen detection from aspirated fluid in cases of pyomyositis in which antimicrobial therapy was initiated before specimen collection. PMID:24634686

  19. Two cases of giant pyogenic granuloma of scalp

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, B. Satish; Rao, P. Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is a benign vascular tumor of unknown etiology, though multiple factors play a role in its onset, e.g., trauma, chronic irritation, drugs etc., It is commonly seen in children and adolescents. Giant pyogenic granuloma is its atypical variant. We are presenting two cases of giant pyogenic granuloma, one, in a 28-year-old adult, presenting as a giant fluffy swelling of scalp and the other in a 11-year-old child, presenting as a giant ulcerated globular swelling of the scalp. PMID:24350008

  20. Streptococcus suis infection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  1. Evolutionary pathway to increased virulence and epidemic group A Streptococcus disease derived from 3,615 genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Waleed; Beres, Stephen B.; Olsen, Randall J.; Dean, Melissa A.; Rice, Kelsey A.; Long, S. Wesley; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Vuopio, Jaana; Raisanen, Kati; Caugant, Dominique A.; Steinbakk, Martin; Low, Donald E.; McGeer, Allison; Darenberg, Jessica; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Van Beneden, Chris A.; Hoffmann, Steen; Musser, James M.

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of 3,615 strains of serotype Emm protein 1 (M1) group A Streptococcus to unravel the nature and timing of molecular events contributing to the emergence, dissemination, and genetic diversification of an unusually virulent clone that now causes epidemic human infections worldwide. We discovered that the contemporary epidemic clone emerged in stepwise fashion from a precursor cell that first contained the phage encoding an extracellular DNase virulence factor (streptococcal DNase D2, SdaD2) and subsequently acquired the phage encoding the SpeA1 variant of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A superantigen. The SpeA2 toxin variant evolved from SpeA1 by a single-nucleotide change in the M1 progenitor strain before acquisition by horizontal gene transfer of a large chromosomal region encoding secreted toxins NAD+-glycohydrolase and streptolysin O. Acquisition of this 36-kb region in the early 1980s into just one cell containing the phage-encoded sdaD2 and speA2 genes was the final major molecular event preceding the emergence and rapid intercontinental spread of the contemporary epidemic clone. Thus, we resolve a decades-old controversy about the type and sequence of genomic alterations that produced this explosive epidemic. Analysis of comprehensive, population-based contemporary invasive strains from seven countries identified strong patterns of temporal population structure. Compared with a preepidemic reference strain, the contemporary clone is significantly more virulent in nonhuman primate models of pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis. A key finding is that the molecular evolutionary events transpiring in just one bacterial cell ultimately have produced millions of human infections worldwide. PMID:24733896

  2. The majority of 9,729 group A streptococcus strains causing disease secrete SpeB cysteine protease: pathogenesis implications.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Randall J; Raghuram, Anjali; Cantu, Concepcion; Hartman, Meredith H; Jimenez, Francisco E; Lee, Susan; Ngo, Ashley; Rice, Kelsey A; Saddington, Deborah; Spillman, Hannaka; Valson, Chandni; Flores, Anthony R; Beres, Stephen B; Long, S Wesley; Nasser, Waleed; Musser, James M

    2015-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS), the causative agent of pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis, secretes the potent cysteine protease SpeB. Several lines of evidence suggest that SpeB is an important virulence factor. SpeB is expressed in human infections, protects mice from lethal challenge when used as a vaccine, and contributes significantly to tissue destruction and dissemination in animal models. However, recent descriptions of mutations in genes implicated in SpeB production have led to the idea that GAS may be under selective pressure to decrease secreted SpeB protease activity during infection. Thus, two divergent hypotheses have been proposed. One postulates that SpeB is a key contributor to pathogenesis; the other, that GAS is under selection to decrease SpeB during infection. In order to distinguish between these alternative hypotheses, we performed casein hydrolysis assays to measure the SpeB protease activity secreted by 6,775 GAS strains recovered from infected humans. The results demonstrated that 84.3% of the strains have a wild-type SpeB protease phenotype. The availability of whole-genome sequence data allowed us to determine the relative frequencies of mutations in genes implicated in SpeB production. The most abundantly mutated genes were direct transcription regulators. We also sequenced the genomes of 2,954 GAS isolates recovered from nonhuman primates with experimental necrotizing fasciitis. No mutations that would result in a SpeB-deficient phenotype were identified. Taken together, these data unambiguously demonstrate that the great majority of GAS strains recovered from infected humans secrete wild-type levels of SpeB protease activity. Our data confirm the important role of SpeB in GAS pathogenesis and help end a long-standing controversy. PMID:26416912

  3. Health Care Associated Hematogenous Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Pigrau, Carlos; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Moretó, Laura; Pellise, Ferran; Larrosa, Maria-Nieves; Puig, Mireia; Almirante, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although hematogenous pyogenic spinal infections have been related to hemodialysis (HD), catheter-related sepsis, and sporadically, to other nosocomial infections or procedures, in most recent studies and reviews the impact of nosocomial infection as a risk factor for vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is not well established. The aim of our study was to describe the risk factors, infectious source, etiology, clinical features, therapy, and outcome of health care associated VO (HCAVO), and compare them with community-acquired VO (CAVO) cases. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with hematogenous VO was conducted in our third-level hospital between 1987 and 2011. HCAVO was defined as onset of symptoms after 1 month of hospitalization or within 6 months after hospital discharge, or ambulatory manipulations in the 6 months before the diagnosis. Over the 25-year study period, among 163 hematogenous pyogenic VO, 41 (25%) were health care associated, a percentage that increased from 15% (9/61) in the 1987–1999 period to 31% (32/102) in the 2000–2011 period (P < 0.01). The presumed source of infection was an intravenous catheter in 14 (34%), cutaneous foci in 8 (20%), urinary tract in 7 (17%), gastrointestinal in 3 (7%), other foci in 3 (7%), and unknown in 6 (15%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism (14 cases, 34%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in 6 (15%), and Enterobacteriaceae in 6 (15%) cases. Compared with CAVO cases, patients with HCAVO were older (mean 66.0 SD 13.0 years vs 60.5 SD 15.5 years), had more underlying conditions (73% vs 50%, P < 0.05), neoplasm/immunosuppression (39% vs 7%, P < 0.005), chronic renal failure (19% vs 4%, P < 0.001), a known source of infection (85% vs 54% P < 0.05), Candida spp (7% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or CoNS infections (15% vs 2%, P < 0.05), higher mortality (15% vs 6%, P = 0.069), and a higher relapse rate in survivors (9% vs 1%, P < 0.05). Presently, in our setting, one-third of hematogenous pyogenic VO infections are health care associated, and a third of these are potentially preventable catheter-related infections. Compared with CAVO, in health care associated hematogenous VO, mortality and relapse rates are higher; hence, further prevention measures should be assessed. PMID:25621677

  4. Enhanced Determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Associated with Invasive Disease in Laos by Using a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Serotyping Assay with Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catrin E.; Sengduangphachanh, Amphone; Thaojaikong, Thaksinaporn; Sirisouk, Joy; Foster, Dona; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; McGee, Lesley; Crook, Derrick W.; Newton, Paul N.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2010-01-01

    A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to define the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and circulating serotypes in Laos. Of 10,799 patients with hemocultures and 353 patients with cerebrospinal fluid samples, 0.21% and 5.4%, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, giving a total of 35 IPD patients. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect serotypes represented in the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A blinded evaluation comparing serotype as defined by the Quellung reaction versus the polymerase chain reaction demonstrated 100% concordance. The most frequent serotype (n = 33 patients) was 1 (n = 6), followed by serotypes 5, 6A/B/C, 14, and 23F. Serotypes represented in the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) infected 39% of patients, with 73% coverage for the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines. Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos. Further studies are urgently needed to guide pneumococcal vaccine policy in Laos. PMID:20810803

  5. Pyogenic granuloma on the upper labial mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    K A, Kamala; Ashok, L; G P, Sujatha

    2013-06-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is thought to represent an exuberant tissue response to a local irritation or trauma. It is a reactional response to constant minor trauma and it might be related to hormonal changes. Clinically, these lesions usually present as single nodules or sessile papules with smooth or lobulated surfaces. These may be seen in any size, from a few millimetres to several centimetres. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity is known to involve the gingiva more commonly (75% of all the cases). An extragingival occurrence of pyogenic granuloma is rare. This paper has described an extragingival pyogenic granuloma which occurred on the upper labial mucosa in a 30 years old female patient. PMID:23905151

  6. Pyogenic Granuloma on the Upper Labial Mucosa: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K A, Kamala; Ashok, L.; G P, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is thought to represent an exuberant tissue response to a local irritation or trauma. It is a reactional response to constant minor trauma and it might be related to hormonal changes. Clinically, these lesions usually present as single nodules or sessile papules with smooth or lobulated surfaces. These may be seen in any size, from a few millimetres to several centimetres. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity is known to involve the gingiva more commonly (75% of all the cases). An extragingival occurrence of pyogenic granuloma is rare. This paper has described an extragingival pyogenic granuloma which occurred on the upper labial mucosa in a 30 years old female patient. PMID:23905151

  7. Three cases of Arcanobacterium pyogenes-associated soft tissue infection.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Kannaiyan; Latha, R; Udayashankar, C; Jayanthi, K; Oudeacoumar, P

    2010-06-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes is an established but often unrecognized human pathogen. A. pyogenes may also be misidentified as Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, which gives remarkably similar results in conventional biochemical tests. In this study, we have reported three cases of wound infections associated with A. pyogenes and also on the bacteriological characteristics which are relevant for identification of these isolates. The negative reverse CAMP test, the ability to produce acid from xylose and to hydrolyse gelatin and the positive beta-glucuronidase test clearly differentiated A. pyogenes from other closely related species. All three isolates were uniformly susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and gentamicin, variably susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin and uniformly resistant to cotrimoxazole. Only a few confirmed cases have been reported throughout the world and therefore the diagnostic evaluation of this organism is emphasized. PMID:20299502

  8. Increase in Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in Children with Sickle Cell Disease since Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Licensure

    PubMed Central

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Quinn, Charles T.; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Rogers, Zora R.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased with prophylactic penicillin, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV7) usage. We report 10 IPD cases since PCV7 licensure, including a recent surge of non-vaccine serotypes. IPD continues to be a serious risk in SCD. PMID:21193205

  9. 77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae AGENCY: Technology Transfer Office, Centers for Disease Control and... of Streptococcus Pneumoniae PsaA Antigen and Uses Thereof,'' filed 7/ 18/2008, claiming priority to U... prevention of Streptococcus pneumonia infection in humans'') to practice the inventions embodied in...

  10. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  11. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Klesius, Phillip H.; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). PMID:19402966

  12. [Phenotypic characterization of erythromycin resistance in strains of the genus Streptococcus isolated from clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Limia, A; Jiménez, M L; Delgado, T; Sánchez, I; López, S; López-Brea, M

    1998-09-01

    There are presently two recognized mechanisms of resistance to macrolide antibiotics in species of the genus Streptococcus: target modification and efflux. Target modification occurs in the ribosomes through the production of a ribosomal methylase codified for the erm genes and it is phenotypically known as MLSB resistance. Expression of MLSB resistance can be inducible or constitutive. Active efflux has been recently described in S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae, and its expression is known as M phenotype. We studied the susceptibility, by determining the MIC using agar dilution, to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin, of 295 strains of the genus Streptococcus clinically isolated from 1993 to 1996 (70 S. pyogenes, 81 S. pneumoniae, 37 viridans group, and 107 S. milleri). We also studied the phenotype pattern of erythromycin-clindamycin resistance in the strains resistant to erythromycin by using the double-disc test. We found a 17.2% resistance to erythromycin and a 12.5% resistance to clindamycin. The M phenotype, initially described in S. pyogenes, was also observed in 6.6% of our S. pneumoniae strains, 25% of S. viridans spp., and 4.8% in the S. milleri group. PMID:9795307

  13. Pyomyositis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wong, S Lindsey; Anthony, Evelyn Y; Shetty, Avinash K

    2009-06-01

    Pyomyositis is an unusual but potentially serious disease in children. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly implicated pathogen, but pneumococcal pyomyositis is very rare. Clinical diagnosis of pyomyositis can be difficult often mimicking septic arthritis of the hip or appendicitis. We report a 12-year-old male with pyomyositis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae who presented with fever and severe right hip and abdominal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right hip revealed the diagnosis of pyomyositis. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensitive to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and clindamycin. He was successfully treated with a 3-week course of clindamycin. Early recognition, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and if indicated, drainage of the muscle abscess is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:19497488

  14. The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on carriage of and disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D in southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Porat, Nurith; Benisty, Rachel; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Trefler, Ronit; Dagan, Ron

    2016-05-27

    The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) followed by PCV13 resulted in a dramatic reduction in carriage and disease rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) serotype 6B (Sp6B) and Sp6A. The structural modifications of the capsule of Sp6A and Sp6B to become Sp6C and Sp6D, respectively, raised a concern that eradication of Sp6A/Sp6B by PCV could be accompanied by an increase in Sp6C/Sp6D. This study examines the dynamics and clonal distribution of Sp6C/Sp6D relative to Sp6A/Sp6B during 1999-2014, pre- and post-PCV implementation. Sp were cultured from Blood/CSF and MEF of children <2 years, and from conjunctiva and nasopharynx of children <5 years. PCR was applied for Sp6C and Sp6D identification. Clonality was determined by PFGE and MLST. PCV introduction resulted in decreased carriage rates and conjunctivitis caused by serogroup 6 serotypes. Incidence of Sp6A, Sp6B and Sp6D in otitis media dropped gradually along with PCV7/13 introduction, whereas Sp6C rates increased in the PCV7 period and then decreased following PCV13 implementation. In invasive pneumococcal disease, complete elimination of serogroup 6 was found in the PCV era. Similar clonal composition was found for Sp6C and Sp6D pre- and post-PCV. We conclude that Sp6C and Sp6D do not act as replacement serotypes for Sp6A and Sp6B following vaccination with PCV13. The major Sp6C and Sp6D clones present pre-PCV persisted also post-PCV implementation, suggesting that these clones possess an advantage retained post-vaccination. PMID:27113163

  15. Molecular characteristics of penicillin-binding protein 2b, 2x and 1a sequences in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases among children in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Liu, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, Y

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the common pathogens causing severe invasive infections in children. This study aimed to investigate the serotype distribution and variations of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 2b, 2x and 1a in S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases in Northeast China. A total of 256 strains were isolated from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) from January 2000 to October 2014. All strains were serotyped and determined for antibiotic resistance. The amplicons of penicillin-binding domains in pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x genes were sequenced for variation identification. The most prevalent serotypes of isolates in IPD children were 19A, 14, 19F, 23F and 6B. 19A and 19F were the most frequent serotypes of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP), which present with high resistance to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and meropenem. The numbers of amino acid substitutions of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolates were higher than those of penicillin-sensitive S. pneumoniae isolates in all the PBP genes (p < 0.01). The patterns of amino acid mutation in PBP2b, PBP2x and PBP1a were unique and different from those of other countries. All of the serotype 19A and 19F PRSP isolates carried 25 amino acid mutations, including Ala618 → Gly between positions 560 and 675 in PBP2b and Thr338 → Ala substitutions in PBP2x. The amino acid alterations in PBP2b, PBP2x and PBP1a from S. pneumoniae were closely associated with resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. This study provides new data for further monitoring of genetic changes related to the emergence and spread of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in China. PMID:26972430

  16. Bactericidal effect of extracts and metabolites of Robinia pseudoacacia L. on Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis causing dental plaque and periodontal inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Kim, Eun Sil; Oh, Kyounghee; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Dhakal, Radhika; Kim, Yangseon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The mouth cavity hosts many types of anaerobic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which cause periodontal inflammatory diseases and dental caries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of Robinia pseudoacacia and its different fractions, as well as some of its natural compounds against oral pathogens and a nonpathogenic reference bacteria, Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract and the solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol) of R. pseudoacacia were evaluated against S. mutans, P. gingivalis and E. coli DH5α by standard micro-assay procedure using conventional sterile polystyrene microplates. The results showed that the crude extract was more active against P. gingivalis (100% growth inhibition) than against S. mutans (73% growth inhibition) at 1.8 mg/mL. The chloroform and hexane fractions were active against P. gingivalis, with 91 and 97% growth inhibition, respectively, at 0.2 mg/mL. None of seven natural compounds found in R. pseudoacacia exerted an antibacterial effect on P. gingivalis; however, fisetin and myricetin at 8 µg/mL inhibited the growth of S. mutans by 81% and 86%, respectively. The crude extract of R. pseudoacacia possesses bioactive compounds that could completely control the growth of P. gingivalis. The antibiotic activities of the hexane and chloroform fractions suggest that the active compounds are hydrophobic in nature. The results indicate the effectiveness of the plant in clinical applications for the treatment of dental plaque and periodontal inflammatory diseases and its potential use as disinfectant for various surgical and orthodontic appliances. PMID:25856062

  17. Streptococcus suis infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Tsung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Ho, Shen-Wu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2005-10-01

    A recent outbreak of Streptococcus suis infection associated with the slaughter, preparation or consumption of pigs in Sichuan, China has led to concerns that similar outbreaks could occur in other Asian countries. Although the pig farming industry is flourishing in Taiwan, reports of S. suis infection remain rare. We report 2 cases of S. suis meningitis successfully treated with ceftriaxone and penicillin. Previous reports of S. suis infection from the English literature are reviewed and the clinical data of cases reported in Asian and European countries are summarized. In Europe, there was good correlation between clinical disease and porcine contact, while few cases in Asia reported this association. Meningitis remained the most common presentation of infection in both areas (84.6% and 75.2%, respectively), followed by sepsis (15.4% and 18.6%, respectively), which had a higher mortality rate, particularly for splenectomized patients. Other clinical presentations included enteritis, arthritis, endocarditis, pneumonia, spondylodiscitis, endophthalmitis, uveitis and peritonitis. Deafness was a distinct sequelae (50.5% in Europe and 51.9% in Asia) after recovery from S. suis infection, especially in patients with meningitis. Not all commercial identification systems for streptococci could offer adequate speciation for S. suis. When viridans group streptococci are isolated from patients with meningitis and sepsis, prompt and correct identification of isolates to the species level should be performed, especially in areas with a high prevalence of S. suis diseases. PMID:16211137

  18. Streptococcus anginosus ("Streptococcus milleri"): the unrecognized pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, K L

    1988-01-01

    "Streptococcus milleri" is an unofficial name that has been applied to a group of streptococci which, although basically similar, show various hemolytic, serological, and physiological characteristics. The species name Streptococcus anginosus has recently been recognized as the approved name for these organisms. Streptococci known as "S. milleri" have been implicated as etiologic agents in a variety of serious purulent infections, but because of their heterogeneous characteristics, these organisms may be unrecognized or misidentified by clinical laboratorians. This review describes the bacteriological aspects of organisms known as "S. milleri," their clinical significance, and the problems encountered with their identification in the clinical laboratory. PMID:3060239

  19. Dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae enhance immunity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Marina Keiko P; Nakandakare, Ivan B; Terhune, Jeffery S; Wood, Theresa; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José T

    2015-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary administration of probiotic with Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth, innate immune response, Hemato-immunological parameters and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Animals were distributed in three equal groups, each of five replicates and received one of the following experimental diets for four weeks: Control, non-supplemented diet; 5 g kg(-1) probiotic mixture (B. subtilis 1.5 × 10(9) CFU g(-1), S. cerevisiae 10(9) CFU g(-1) and A. oryzae 2 × 10(9) CFU g(-1)); and 10 g kg(-1) probiotic mixture (B. subtilis 3.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1), S. cerevisiae 2.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) and A. oryzae 4.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1)). The respiratory burst activity, white blood cells and hematological parameters were evaluated after four, five and six weeks of feeding. At the end of the growth trial, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology and challenged by intraperitoneal injection of LD50 concentration of Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus iniae. Mortality was recorded for the following 3 weeks. Results showed that administration of the probiotic had no significant effect on the growth rates of Nile tilapias, although the fish fed probiotics had better feed conversion. Respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte fragility and levels of white blood cells were significantly improved in tilapias fed diet supplemented with probiotic levels (P < 0.05), which may exhibit up-regulating effects on tilapia immune parameters. The cumulative mortality after A. hydrophila and S. iniae challenge decreased in tilapias fed with probiotic (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated the potential of B. subtilis, S. cerevisiae and A. oryzae combined as beneficial dietary probiotic in juvenile O. niloticus. PMID:25530581

  20. SpyAD, a Moonlighting Protein of Group A Streptococcus Contributing to Bacterial Division and Host Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Gallotta, Marilena; Gancitano, Giovanni; Pietrocola, Giampiero; Mora, Marirosa; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Tuscano, Giovanna; Chiarot, Emiliano; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Taddei, Anna Rita; Rindi, Simonetta; Speziale, Pietro; Soriani, Marco; Bensi, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen causing a wide repertoire of mild and severe diseases for which no vaccine is yet available. We recently reported the identification of three protein antigens that in combination conferred wide protection against GAS infection in mice. Here we focused our attention on the characterization of one of these three antigens, Spy0269, a highly conserved, surface-exposed, and immunogenic protein of unknown function. Deletion of the spy0269 gene in a GAS M1 isolate resulted in very long bacterial chains, which is indicative of an impaired capacity of the knockout mutant to properly divide. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the protein was mainly localized at the cell septum and could interact in vitro with the cell division protein FtsZ, leading us to hypothesize that Spy0269 is a member of the GAS divisome machinery. Predicted structural domains and sequence homologies with known streptococcal adhesins suggested that this antigen could also play a role in mediating GAS interaction with host cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by showing that recombinant Spy0269 could bind to mammalian epithelial cells in vitro and that Lactococcus lactis expressing Spy0269 on its cell surface could adhere to mammalian cells in vitro and to mice nasal mucosa in vivo. On the basis of these data, we believe that Spy0269 is involved both in bacterial cell division and in adhesion to host cells and we propose to rename this multifunctional moonlighting protein as SpyAD (Streptococcus pyogenes Adhesion and Division protein). PMID:24778116

  1. Streptolysin S Promotes Programmed Cell Death and Enhances Inflammatory Signaling in Epithelial Keratinocytes during Group A Streptococcus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Rebecca A.; Puricelli, Jessica M.; Higashi, Dustin L.; Park, Claudia J.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a pathogen that causes a multitude of human diseases from pharyngitis to severe infections such as toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis. One of the primary virulence factors produced by GAS is the peptide toxin streptolysin S (SLS). In addition to its well-recognized role as a cytolysin, recent evidence has indicated that SLS may influence host cell signaling pathways at sublytic concentrations during infection. We employed an antibody array-based approach to comprehensively identify global host cell changes in human epithelial keratinocytes in response to the SLS toxin. We identified key SLS-dependent host responses, including the initiation of specific programmed cell death and inflammatory cascades with concomitant downregulation of Akt-mediated cytoprotection. Significant signaling responses identified by our array analysis were confirmed using biochemical and protein identification methods. To further demonstrate that the observed SLS-dependent host signaling changes were mediated primarily by the secreted toxin, we designed a Transwell infection system in which direct bacterial attachment to host cells was prevented, while secreted factors were allowed access to host cells. The results using this approach were consistent with our direct infection studies and reveal that SLS is a bacterial toxin that does not require bacterial attachment to host cells for activity. In light of these findings, we propose that the production of SLS by GAS during skin infection promotes invasive outcomes by triggering programmed cell death and inflammatory cascades in host cells to breach the keratinocyte barrier for dissemination into deeper tissues. PMID:26238711

  2. Streptolysin S Promotes Programmed Cell Death and Enhances Inflammatory Signaling in Epithelial Keratinocytes during Group A Streptococcus Infection.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Rebecca A; Puricelli, Jessica M; Higashi, Dustin L; Park, Claudia J; Lee, Shaun W

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a pathogen that causes a multitude of human diseases from pharyngitis to severe infections such as toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis. One of the primary virulence factors produced by GAS is the peptide toxin streptolysin S (SLS). In addition to its well-recognized role as a cytolysin, recent evidence has indicated that SLS may influence host cell signaling pathways at sublytic concentrations during infection. We employed an antibody array-based approach to comprehensively identify global host cell changes in human epithelial keratinocytes in response to the SLS toxin. We identified key SLS-dependent host responses, including the initiation of specific programmed cell death and inflammatory cascades with concomitant downregulation of Akt-mediated cytoprotection. Significant signaling responses identified by our array analysis were confirmed using biochemical and protein identification methods. To further demonstrate that the observed SLS-dependent host signaling changes were mediated primarily by the secreted toxin, we designed a Transwell infection system in which direct bacterial attachment to host cells was prevented, while secreted factors were allowed access to host cells. The results using this approach were consistent with our direct infection studies and reveal that SLS is a bacterial toxin that does not require bacterial attachment to host cells for activity. In light of these findings, we propose that the production of SLS by GAS during skin infection promotes invasive outcomes by triggering programmed cell death and inflammatory cascades in host cells to breach the keratinocyte barrier for dissemination into deeper tissues. PMID:26238711

  3. Protein array profiling of tic patient sera reveals a broad range and enhanced immune response against Group A Streptococcus antigens.

    PubMed

    Bombaci, Mauro; Grifantini, Renata; Mora, Marirosa; Reguzzi, Valerio; Petracca, Roberto; Meoni, Eva; Balloni, Sergio; Zingaretti, Chiara; Falugi, Fabiana; Manetti, Andrea G O; Margarit, Immaculada; Musser, James M; Cardona, Francesco; Orefici, Graziella; Grandi, Guido; Bensi, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    The human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, GAS) is widely recognized as a major cause of common pharyngitis as well as of severe invasive diseases and non-suppurative sequelae associated with the existence of GAS antigens eliciting host autoantibodies. It has been proposed that a subset of paediatric disorders characterized by tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms would exacerbate in association with relapses of GAS-associated pharyngitis. This hypothesis is however still controversial. In the attempt to shed light on the contribution of GAS infections to the onset of neuropsychiatric or behavioral disorders affecting as many as 3% of children and adolescents, we tested the antibody response of tic patient sera to a representative panel of GAS antigens. In particular, 102 recombinant proteins were spotted on nitrocellulose-coated glass slides and probed against 61 sera collected from young patients with typical tic neuropsychiatric symptoms but with no overt GAS infection. Sera from 35 children with neither tic disorder nor overt GAS infection were also analyzed. The protein recognition patterns of these two sera groups were compared with those obtained using 239 sera from children with GAS-associated pharyngitis. This comparative analysis identified 25 antigens recognized by sera of the three patient groups and 21 antigens recognized by tic and pharyngitis sera, but poorly or not recognized by sera from children without tic. Interestingly, these antigens appeared to be, in quantitative terms, more immunogenic in tic than in pharyngitis patients. Additionally, a third group of antigens appeared to be preferentially and specifically recognized by tic sera. These findings provide the first evidence that tic patient sera exhibit immunological profiles typical of individuals who elicited a broad, specific and strong immune response against GAS. This may be relevant in the context of one of the hypothesis proposing that GAS antigen-dependent induction of autoantibodies in susceptible individuals may be involved the occurrence of tic disorders. PMID:19623252

  4. Serotypes and Clonal Diversity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in the Era of PCV13 in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Del Amo, Eva; Esteva, Cristina; Hernandez-Bou, Susanna; Galles, Carmen; Navarro, Marian; Sauca, Goretti; Diaz, Alvaro; Gassiot, Paula; Marti, Carmina; Larrosa, Nieves; Ciruela, Pilar; Jane, Mireia; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the serotypes and clonal diversity of pneumococci causing invasive pneumococcal disease in Catalonia, Spain, in the era of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). In our region, this vaccine is only available in the private market and it is estimated a PCV13 vaccine coverage around 55% in children. A total of 1551 pneumococcal invasive isolates received between 2010 and 2013 in the Molecular Microbiology Department at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, were included. Fifty-two serotypes and 249 clonal types-defined by MLST-were identified. The most common serotypes were serotype 1 (n = 182; 11.7%), 3 (n = 145; 9.3%), 19A (n = 137; 8.8%) and 7F (n = 122; 7.9%). Serotype 14 was the third most frequent serotype in children < 2 years (15 of 159 isolates). PCV7 serotypes maintained their proportion along the period of study, 16.6% in 2010 to 13.4% in 2013, whereas there was a significant proportional decrease in PCV13 serotypes, 65.3% in 2010 to 48.9% in 2013 (p<0.01). This decrease was mainly attributable to serotypes 19A and 7F. Serotype 12F achieved the third position in 2013 (n = 22, 6.4%). The most frequent clonal types found were ST306 (n = 154, 9.9%), ST191 (n = 111, 7.2%), ST989 (n = 85, 5.5%) and ST180 (n = 80, 5.2%). Despite their decrease, PCV13 serotypes continue to be a major cause of disease in Spain. These results emphasize the need for complete PCV13 vaccination. PMID:26953887

  5. Serotypes and Clonal Diversity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in the Era of PCV13 in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    del Amo, Eva; Esteva, Cristina; Hernandez-Bou, Susanna; Galles, Carmen; Navarro, Marian; Sauca, Goretti; Diaz, Alvaro; Gassiot, Paula; Marti, Carmina; Larrosa, Nieves; Ciruela, Pilar; Jane, Mireia; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the serotypes and clonal diversity of pneumococci causing invasive pneumococcal disease in Catalonia, Spain, in the era of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). In our region, this vaccine is only available in the private market and it is estimated a PCV13 vaccine coverage around 55% in children. A total of 1551 pneumococcal invasive isolates received between 2010 and 2013 in the Molecular Microbiology Department at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, were included. Fifty-two serotypes and 249 clonal types—defined by MLST—were identified. The most common serotypes were serotype 1 (n = 182; 11.7%), 3 (n = 145; 9.3%), 19A (n = 137; 8.8%) and 7F (n = 122; 7.9%). Serotype 14 was the third most frequent serotype in children < 2 years (15 of 159 isolates). PCV7 serotypes maintained their proportion along the period of study, 16.6% in 2010 to 13.4% in 2013, whereas there was a significant proportional decrease in PCV13 serotypes, 65.3% in 2010 to 48.9% in 2013 (p<0.01). This decrease was mainly attributable to serotypes 19A and 7F. Serotype 12F achieved the third position in 2013 (n = 22, 6.4%). The most frequent clonal types found were ST306 (n = 154, 9.9%), ST191 (n = 111, 7.2%), ST989 (n = 85, 5.5%) and ST180 (n = 80, 5.2%). Despite their decrease, PCV13 serotypes continue to be a major cause of disease in Spain. These results emphasize the need for complete PCV13 vaccination. PMID:26953887

  6. Pyogenic infection of the sacroiliac joint. Case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vyskocil, J J; McIlroy, M A; Brennan, T A; Wilson, F M

    1991-05-01

    Three cases of pyogenic sacroiliitis are described, and the English literature from 1878 to 1990 reviewed, for a total of 166 cases. In 1 patient the source of infection was identified at the site of an intravenous line; 1 patient had 2 risk factors for developing the disease (pregnancy and intravenous drug use); and a third patient had no source of infection and no associated risk factors. The diagnosis of pyogenic sacroiliitis was made in each patient by history, physical examination, and positive skeletal scintigraphy or computed tomography of the sacroiliac joint. The infectious agent causing septic arthritis was identified by fine-needle aspiration of the sacroiliac joint under fluoroscopic guidance. Two of the 3 patients also had an open biopsy of the sacroiliac joint--one to confirm the organism causing septic arthritis, and the other for surgical drainage of the infected sacroiliac joint. Cultures from all 3 patients grew organisms uncommon for this disease, and all were treated for 6 weeks with intravenous antibiotics. In all patients pain diminished after treatment. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a relatively rare condition (1-2 cases reported/year) that may be clinically difficult to diagnose unless the clinician is familiar with the disease. A prompt diagnosis can prevent significant morbidity and reduce serious complication. Major predisposing factors include intravenous drug use, trauma, or an identifiable focus of infection elsewhere, but 44% of patients have no predisposing or associated factors identified. Most patients present with an acute febrile illness with pain in the buttocks and pain on movement that stresses the affected sacroiliac joint. There is no specific blood test which points to the diagnosis of pyogenic sacroiliitis, although the erythrocyte sedimentation rate may be greater than 100 mm/hr. The diagnostic procedure of choice is bone scan with attention to the early perfusion phase, which usually localizes the affected sacroiliac joint. Unilateral involvement is the rule. In patients whose blood cultures fail to reveal a causative organism, fluoroscopic guided fine-needle aspiration of the sacroiliac joint under general anesthesia may help to identify the organism. If all cultures are negative, open biopsy of the sacroiliac joint may be required. Open biopsy should also be done if sequestration or an abscess is formed, or if the patient fails to respond to antibiotic therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2030642

  7. Evolution of the core and pan-genome of Streptococcus: positive selection, recombination, and genome composition

    PubMed Central

    Lefébure, Tristan; Stanhope, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Streptococcus is one of the most diverse and important human and agricultural pathogens. This study employs comparative evolutionary analyses of 26 Streptococcus genomes to yield an improved understanding of the relative roles of recombination and positive selection in pathogen adaptation to their hosts. Results Streptococcus genomes exhibit extreme levels of evolutionary plasticity, with high levels of gene gain and loss during species and strain evolution. S. agalactiae has a large pan-genome, with little recombination in its core-genome, while S. pyogenes has a smaller pan-genome and much more recombination of its core-genome, perhaps reflecting the greater habitat, and gene pool, diversity for S. agalactiae compared to S. pyogenes. Core-genome recombination was evident in all lineages (18% to 37% of the core-genome judged to be recombinant), while positive selection was mainly observed during species differentiation (from 11% to 34% of the core-genome). Positive selection pressure was unevenly distributed across lineages and biochemical main role categories. S. suis was the lineage with the greatest level of positive selection pressure, the largest number of unique loci selected, and the largest amount of gene gain and loss. Conclusion Recombination is an important evolutionary force in shaping Streptococcus genomes, not only in the acquisition of significant portions of the genome as lineage specific loci, but also in facilitating rapid evolution of the core-genome. Positive selection, although undoubtedly a slower process, has nonetheless played an important role in adaptation of the core-genome of different Streptococcus species to different hosts. PMID:17475002

  8. Polyarteritis nodosa associated with streptococcus.

    PubMed Central

    David, J; Ansell, B M; Woo, P

    1993-01-01

    Twelve children are described with an essentially benign vasculitic illness in association with streptococcal infection. They demonstrated characteristic clinical features of nodular cutaneous polyarteritis with fever. Laboratory findings showed an acute phase response associated with raised antistreptolysin and antihyaluronidase titres in all patients and a positive throat culture for beta haemolytic streptococcus in three patients. Ten required corticosteroids. Two patients had systemic involvement with abnormal arteriography; both had appreciably raised white cell counts (> 40 x 10(9)/l). They may represent a subset of poststreptococcal vasculitis, requiring cytotoxic treatment for effective disease control. Images PMID:7904442

  9. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D.; Tagg, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  10. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  11. Processing, stability, and kinetic parameters of C5a peptidase from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth T; Wetherell, Michael G; Winter, Laurie A; Olmsted, Stephen B; Cleary, Patrick P; Matsuka, Yury V

    2002-10-01

    A recombinant streptococcal C5a peptidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and its catalytic properties and thermal stability were subjected to examination. It was shown that the NH2-terminal region of C5a peptidase (Asn32-Asp79/Lys90) forms the pro-sequence segment. Upon maturation the propeptide is hydrolyzed either via an autocatalytic intramolecular cleavage or by exogenous protease streptopain. At pH 7.4 the enzyme exhibited maximum activity in the narrow range of temperatures between 40 and 43 degrees C. The process of heat denaturation of C5a peptidase investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the protein undergoes biphasic unfolding transition with Tm of 50 and 70 degrees C suggesting melting of different parts of the molecule with different stability. Unfolding of the less stable structures was accompanied by the loss of proteolytic activity. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to the COOH-terminus of human complement C5a we demonstrated that in vitro peptidase catalyzes hydrolysis of two His67-Lys68 and Ala58-Ser59 peptide bonds. The high catalytic efficiency obtained for the SQLRANISHKDMQLGR extended peptide compared to the poor hydrolysis of its derivative Ac-SQLRANISH-pNA that lacks residues at P2'-P7' positions, suggest the importance of C5a peptidase interactions with the P' side of the substrate. PMID:12354115

  12. Activation of a 66-kilodalton human endothelial cell matrix metalloprotease by Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, E H; Marciel, A M; Musser, J M

    1996-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to gain insight into the molecular mechanism whereby the major extracellular protease from group A streptococci damages host tissue. HUVECs exposed to streptococcal cysteine protease (SCP) for various times exhibited cytopathic effect and cell detachment from the culture vessel. Gelatin substrate zymography showed that a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the level of activity of an approximately 66-kDa gelatinase occurred in culture medium taken from cells exposed to enzymatically active SCP. This gelatinase comigrated in gelatin zymograms with the activated form of purified recombinant matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and had type IV collagenase activity. In contrast, medium taken from cells exposed to inactivated (boiled) SCP and cells exposed to SCP inhibited by treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-valyl-glycine diazomethyl ketone lacked the 66-kDa gelatinase. Appearance of the 66-kDa gelatinase activity was also prevented by 1,10-phenanthroline, a zinc chelator and MMP inhibitor. Inasmuch as proteolytically active SCP is required for the emergence of this gelatinase and MMP activation occurs by proteolytic processing, the 66-kDa gelatinase may be a proteolytic cleavage product of a latent MMP expressed extracellularly by HUVECs. Direct SCP treatment of culture supernatant taken from HUVECs not exposed to SCP also produced the 66-kDa gelatinase. The data show that SCP activates an MMP produced by human endothelial cells, a process that may contribute to endothelial cell damage, tissue destruction, and hemodynamic derangement observed in some patients with severe, invasive group A streptococcal infection. PMID:8890235

  13. Insight into the evolution of the histidine triad protein (HTP) family in Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Pan, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    The Histidine Triad Proteins (HTPs), also known as Pht proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae, constitute a family of surface-exposed proteins that exist in many pathogenic streptococcal species. Although many studies have revealed the importance of HTPs in streptococcal physiology and pathogenicity, little is known about their origin and evolution. In this study, after identifying all htp homologs from 105 streptococcal genomes representing 38 different species/subspecies, we analyzed their domain structures, positions in genome, and most importantly, their evolutionary histories. By further projecting this information onto the streptococcal phylogeny, we made several major findings. First, htp genes originated earlier than the Streptococcus genus and gene-loss events have occurred among three streptococcal groups, resulting in the absence of the htp gene in the Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups. Second, the copy number of htp genes in other groups of Streptococcus is variable, ranging from one to four functional copies. Third, both phylogenetic evidence and domain structure analyses support the division of two htp subfamilies, designated as htp I and htp II. Although present mainly in the pyogenic group and in Streptococcus suis, htp II members are distinct from htp I due to the presence of an additional leucine-rich-repeat domain at the C-terminus. Finally, htp genes exhibit a faster nucleotide substitution rate than do housekeeping genes. Specifically, the regions outside the HTP domains are under strong positive selection. This distinct evolutionary pattern likely helped Streptococcus to easily escape from recognition by host immunity. PMID:23527301

  14. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality less than 40% by 14 d postchallenge. PMID:26030196

  15. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p < 0.05) weight gain, absolute growth rate and specific growth rate. Feed intake significantly increased in fish fed with A. vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p < 0.05). Several haemato-biochemical indices were examined before and after fish were challenged with S. iniae pathogen containing 7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells mL(-1). A. vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in red blood cells, hematocrits (Hb), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, serum total protein, glucose and cortisol after challenge when compared to unsupplemented ones. Meanwhile, 4% A. vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p < 0.05) in RBC, Hb, Ht, WBC, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) after challenge compared to unsupplemented ones and other supplemented ones. In addition, lower mean corpuscular volume values (MCV) (p < 0.05) were observed in fish fed with A. vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p < 0.05) of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) than those fed unsupplemented diet and 4% A. vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) within experimental groups after challenge; N/L ratio in A. vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera diet at 1%/kg feed increased significantly (p < 0.05) throughout challenge period; while those fed 4% A. vera supplemented diet maintained higher values at all experimental stages among groups. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.05, r = 0.53) between N/L ratio and glucose concentration, 96 h after challenge. Aloe had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the survival of the fish when compared to the control; no mortality was recorded in challenge trial. Overall, our results indicated that dietary aloe supplementation could improve growth, feed utilization, and haemato-biochemical parameters of cultured tilapia. PMID:25758848

  16. Distribution and genetic diversity of suilysin in Streptococcus suis isolated from different diseases of pigs and characterization of the genetic basis of suilysin absence.

    PubMed

    King, S J; Heath, P J; Luque, I; Tarradas, C; Dowson, C G; Whatmore, A M

    2001-12-01

    Streptococcus suis is an economically important pathogen of pigs responsible for a variety of diseases including meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, and pneumonia, although little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis or virulence factors associated with this organism. Here, we report on the distribution and genetic diversity of the putative virulence factor suilysin, a member of the thiol-activated toxin family of gram-positive bacteria. On the basis of PCR analysis of over 300 isolates of S. suis, the suilysin-encoding gene, sly, was detected in 69.4% of isolates. However, sly was present in a considerably higher proportion of isolates obtained from cases of meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis (>80%) and isolates obtained from asymptomatic tonsillar carriage (>90%) than lung isolates associated with pneumonia (44%). With the exception of serotypes 1, 14, and 1/14, there was no strong correlation between the presence of suilysin and serotype. Analysis of the genetic diversity of suilysin by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis found that the suilysin gene, where present, is highly conserved with a maximum of 1.79% diversity at the nucleotide level seen between sly alleles. Assays of hemolytic activity and hybridization analysis provided no evidence for a second member of the thiol-activated toxin family in S. suis. Inverse PCR was used to characterize regions flanking sly, which in turn allowed the first characterization of the equivalent region in a strain lacking sly. Sequence comparison of these regions from sly-positive (P1/7) and sly-negative (DH5) strains indicated that two alternative arrangements are both flanked by genes with highest similarity to haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolases (5' end) and putative N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerases (3' end). However, sly appears to be completely absent from the alternative arrangement, and a gene of unknown function is located in the equivalent position. Finally, PCR analysis of multiple sly-positive and -negative strains indicated that these two alternative genetic arrangements are conserved among many S. suis isolates. PMID:11705935

  17. Multiple pyogenic granulomas on the face after landmine injury.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Vedat; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir; Yildiz, Abdullah; Emsen, Murat

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we present a 13-year-old male patient with multiple pyogenic granulomas (PG) on the face after landmine injury. To the best of our knowledge, PG after landmine injury has not been reported previously. The case has been reported in view of its rarity and its etiology. PMID:18577058

  18. Post-partum pyogenic abscess containing Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Raashid; Wani, Sajad; Ahmad, Nawab; Akhter, Afrozah

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of multiple pyogenic liver abscesses containing Ascariasis lumbricoides in a 35-year-old post-partum female who had delivered 1 month back. Open drainage of liver abscess along with liver worm was done. Patient did well post-operatively. PMID:23961448

  19. Identification and partial characterization of an Actinomyces pyogenes hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Funk, P G; Staats, J J; Howe, M; Nagaraja, T G; Chengappa, M M

    1996-05-01

    Twenty-two Actinomyces pyogenes isolates were recovered from hepatic abscesses in cattle and evaluated for hemolysin production. Hemolysin was collected from supernatant of cultures grown in 6% CO2 in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. The effect of oxidizing and reducing agents, enzymes, temperatures and pH on hemolytic activity were studied using sheep erythrocytes as the target cells. Our study showed that A. pyogenes hemolysin is oxygen stable; sensitive to treatment by protease, trypsin, and amylase; and destroyed by treatment at extreme temperatures (56 and 100 degrees C) and pH (pH 3 and 11). Production of hemolysin was studied in BHI, RPMI-1640, and a defined serum-free A. pyogenes medium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Maximum hemolysin was produced in BHI incubated aerobically in 6% CO2 and to a lesser degree anaerobically in RPMI-1640. No hemolysin was produced in the defined A. pyogenes medium. Differential filtration, isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis identified two hemolysin proteins with pI values of 3.40 and 9.45 and estimated molecular masses of 62 and 58 kDa, respectively. Cell-free supernatant samples positive for hemolysin activity also were screened for leukotoxin activity. Significant levels of leukotoxin were detected in all samples screened. PMID:8810014

  20. The novel species Streptococcus tigurinus and its association with oral infection

    PubMed Central

    Zbinden, Andrea; Bostanci, Nagihan; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a novel species of viridans streptococci, shown to cause severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. S. tigurinus belongs to the Streptococcus mitis group and is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus infantis. The presence of S. tigurinus in the human oral cavity has been documented, including in patients with periodontal disease. This review addresses the available scientific knowledge on S. tigurinus and its association with closely related streptococci, and discusses its putative involvement in common oral infections. While there is as yet no strong evidence on the involvement of S. tigurinus with oral infections, its presence in the oral cavity and its association with endocarditis warrants special attention for a link between oral and systemic infection. PMID:25483862

  1. The novel species Streptococcus tigurinus and its association with oral infection.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Andrea; Bostanci, Nagihan; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a novel species of viridans streptococci, shown to cause severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. S. tigurinus belongs to the Streptococcus mitis group and is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus infantis. The presence of S. tigurinus in the human oral cavity has been documented, including in patients with periodontal disease. This review addresses the available scientific knowledge on S. tigurinus and its association with closely related streptococci, and discusses its putative involvement in common oral infections. While there is as yet no strong evidence on the involvement of S. tigurinus with oral infections, its presence in the oral cavity and its association with endocarditis warrants special attention for a link between oral and systemic infection. PMID:25483862

  2. Characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant beta-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. isolated in North America and Europe including the first report of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2004).

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Toleman, Mark A; Walsh, Timothy R; Jones, Ronald N

    2006-06-01

    Beta-hemolytic streptococci are common bacterial pathogens that can cause serious invasive disease, and although this group of species has remained susceptible to the fluoroquinolone class, resistant strains have been reported. This multicenter investigation determined the rate of fluoroquinolone-resistant beta-hemolytic streptococci using the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program network data (1997-2004). Forty-seven surveillance culture isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci from North America and Europe with elevated levofloxacin MIC results (2 to >32) microg/mL were tested for susceptibility to other fluoroquinolones including ciprofloxacin, garenoxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, and moxifloxacin using reference broth microdilution and Etest (BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) methods. Strains were characterized using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing to detect mutations in the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDR). The beta-hemolytic streptococci isolates with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility included the following Lancefield groups: A (Streptococcus pyogenes; 9 strains), B (Streptococcus agalactiae; 24 strains), C and G (14 strains). Vitek and API 20 strep (bioMerieux, Hazelwood, MO) identification systems, as well as conventional biochemical methods and colony morphology, were used to confirm the organism identifications. The overall potency (MIC90 in microg/mL) for the fluoroquinolones against all tested beta-hemolytic streptococci showed the following rank order: gemifloxacin (0.06) > garenoxacin (0.12) > moxifloxacin (0.25) > gatifloxacin (0.5) > levofloxacin = ciprofloxacin (1). The rate of levofloxacin-resistant beta-hemolytic streptococci in the SENTRY program was 0.14% (Europe) and 0.51% (North America) during the study period. All levofloxacin-resistant strains tested by molecular methods had significant mutations in either parC (position 79 or 83) and/or gyrA (position 81 or 85). All but 2 isolates with high-level resistance to levofloxacin (>32 microg/mL) had gyrA mutations. Strains with lower MIC values to levofloxacin (2-4 microg/mL) only had mutations in parC. The increasing rate of fluoroquinolone-resistant streptococci including Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and the more recently reported beta-hemolytic streptococci, is becoming a clinical concern due to the morbidity and mortality caused by these pathogens. PMID:16530373

  3. Relatedness of Streptococcus canis from canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed Central

    DeWinter, L M; Prescott, J F

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in dogs caused by Streptococcus canis has been reported by our laboratory. Since clonal expansion is thought to be partially responsible for the spread of invasive strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in humans, the relatedness of 15 isolates of S. canis from canine STSS and/or NF was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and biotyping; production of proteases and of a CAMP-like reaction were also examined. Only 2 of the 15 STSS and/or NF isolates were clonally related, suggesting that the emergence of canine STSS/NF is not the result of clonal expansion of one or more highly virulent strains of S. canis. All of the isolates produced proteases and demonstrated a CAMP-like reaction, which appear to be additional characteristics of S. canis. PMID:10369564

  4. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  5. A case of hypopharyngeal cancer with stenosis, perforation, and pyogenic spondylitis development after chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Mioko; Rikimaru, Fumihide; Higaki, Yuichiro; Masuda, Muneyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chemoradiotherapy plays an important role in preserving function and morphology in head and neck cancer. However, in a few cases, chemoradiotherapy has been shown to result in late complications, such as hypopharyngeal perforation, which is very rare. Presentation of case A 65-year-old man, who had undergone chemoradiotherapy for hypopharyngeal cancer 30 months previously, presented with high fever and neck pain. He subsequently developed hypopharyngeal stenosis, hypopharyngeal perforation, and a retropharyngeal abscess followed by pyogenic spondylitis. He underwent surgical treatment (resection with reconstruction) and was administered an antibacterial agent and steroids for an extended period. This treatment regimen was successful, and the patient has survived disease-free without symptoms. Discussion Chemoradiotherapy-induced hypopharyngeal perforation is an extremely rare condition. In the present case, the perforation was large (2 cm), and the hypopharyngeal cavity was originally constricted. Pharyngeal reconstruction with a jejunal autograft was therefore necessary. Through the present case, we reconfirmed that although the primary purpose of chemoradiotherapy is organ preservation, it can also lead to organ destruction and fatal complications. It is important that physicians be aware of the possibility of hypopharyngeal perforation so as to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment of similar rare cases. Conclusion Hypopharyngeal perforation can sometimes be fatal because it can lead to pyogenic spondylitis. Suitable surgical techniques and appropriate doses of antibacterial agents for long-term use were appropriate treatments for the patient in this case. PMID:26829460

  6. Pyogenic liver abscess caused by Fusobacterium in a 21-year-old immunocompetent male

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zohair; Bansal, Saurabh K; Dhillon, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old male with no significant past medical history, presented with right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain along with fevers and chills. Lab work revealed leukocytosis, anemia, and slightly elevated alkaline phosphatase. Viral serology for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus were negative and he was immunocompetent. Computed tomography imaging revealed hepatic abscesses, the largest measuring 9.5 cm. Empiric antibiotics were started and percutaneous drains were placed in the abscesses. Anaerobic cultures from the abscesses grew Fusobacterium nucleatum. This is a gram negative anaerobic bacteria; a normal flora of the oral cavity. Fusobacterium is most commonly seen in Lemiere’s disease, which is translocation of oral bacteria to the internal jugular vein causing a thrombophlebitis and subsequent spread of abscesses. Our patient did not have Lemiere’s, and is the first case described of fusobacterium pyogenic liver abscess in a young immunocompetent male with good oral hygiene. This case was complicated by sepsis, empyema, and subsequent abscesses located outside the liver. These abscesses’ have the propensity to flare abruptly and can be fatal. This case not only illustrates fusobacterium as a rare entity for pyogenic liver abscess, but also the need for urgent diagnosis and treatment. It is incumbent on physicians to diagnose and drain any suspicious hepatic lesions. While uncommon, such infections may develop without any overt source and can progress rapidly. Prompt drainage with antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of therapy. PMID:25834342

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae septic arthritis in adults.

    PubMed

    James, P A; Thomas, M G

    2000-01-01

    Septic arthritis is a rarely reported manifestation of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have reviewed our recent experience of this disease in 14 adult patients. Common features in patients with S. pneumoniae septic arthritis included advanced age (median=63 y), pre-existing joint disease (6/14), large joint disease (14/14), polyarthritis (6/14), and associated meningitis, pneumonia or both (6/14). Two patients with septic arthritis and meningitis, and another with Down's syndrome and sleep apnoea, died during treatment. In the remaining 11 patients, treatment for at least 19 d, predominantly with intravenous benzyl penicillin, plus joint lavage, resulted in cure. PMID:11055652

  8. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  9. Development of a Streptococcus gordonii vaccine strain expressing Schistosoma japonicum Sj-F1 and evaluation of using this strain for intranasal immunization in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqian; Liu, Wei; Yang, Ming; Peng, Dan; Chen, Liyu

    2013-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease. Currently, chemotherapy is the main effective method to treat schistosomiasis; however, it does not prevent reinfection. No effective vaccine is currently available to prevent schistosomiasis. Sj-F1 (GenBank accession number AY261995) is a novel gene that was discovered through screening adult Schistosoma japonicum worm cDNA library with female S. japonicum antigen-immunized sera. Streptococcus gordonii, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, has been a prime candidate in recent investigations toward developing a live oral vaccine vector. One of the approaches for the surface expression of heterologous antigens in S. gordonii is to surface-localize them with the M6 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we develop a recombinant S. gordonii strain that expresses the M6-Sj-F1 fusion protein on the bacterial surface. Intranasal immunization in mice with such M6-Sj-F1-expressing S. gordonii bacteria induced strong serum IgG, serum IgA, and saliva IgA against Sj-F1. The results of protective immunity against a challenge with cercariae of S. japonicum showed statistically significant protection following this treatment, with a worm reduction rate of 21.45% and an egg reduction rate of 34.77%. Our data indicate that the described M6-Sj-F1-expressing S. gordonii is highly immunogenic and can partially protect mice from challenge infection with S. japonicum. Intranasal immunization with recombinant S. gordonii may be an alternative to developing a novel S. japonicum vaccine in a safe, effective, and feasible way. PMID:23403993

  10. Streptococcus iniae vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the most important emergent pathogens that affects many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, this Gram-positive bacterium causes significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Inf...

  11. Streptococcus suis, an Emerging Drug-Resistant Animal and Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Claudio; Varaldo, Pietro E.; Facinelli, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen, has been receiving growing attention not only for its role in severe and increasingly reported infections in humans, but also for its involvement in drug resistance. Recent studies and the analysis of sequenced genomes have been providing important insights into the S. suis resistome, and have resulted in the identification of resistance determinants for tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, antifolate drugs, streptothricin, and cadmium salts. Resistance gene-carrying genetic elements described so far include integrative and conjugative elements, transposons, genomic islands, phages, and chimeric elements. Some of these elements are similar to those reported in major streptococcal pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae and share the same chromosomal insertion sites. The available information strongly suggests that S. suis is an important antibiotic resistance reservoir that can contribute to the spread of resistance genes to the above-mentioned streptococci. S. suis is thus a paradigmatic example of possible intersections between animal and human resistomes. PMID:22275909

  12. Citrobacter koseri: an unusual cause of pyogenic liver abscess

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Monica; Sharma, Alka; Singh, Ram; Lehl, S S

    2013-01-01

    Liver abscess is a common pathology in the Indian subcontinent and usually results from amoebic or bacterial infection. Pyogenic abscesses usually occur in those with underlying predisposing factors like intra-abdominal infections, biliary infections or comorbidities like malignancy, immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus and previous biliary surgery or interventional endoscopy. Citrobacter is an unusual cause of pyogenic liver abscess and may occur in the setting of underlying comorbidities. We report a 56-year-old man with diabetes (operated for periampullary carcinoma 20 years ago), who presented with a history of fever for 1 week and on evaluation was found to have Citrobacter koseri-related hepatic abscess. The patient was managed with parenteral antibiotics, repeated aspiration of liver abscess and pigtail drainage. PMID:23505286

  13. Diagnosis of hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.P.; Wiener, S.N. )

    1991-04-01

    The clinical information and imaging data from 27 patients with hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis were reviewed. All patients had roentgenographic and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Seventeen patients had computed tomograms; 17 had technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans; and seven had gallium citrate Ga 67 scans. Magnetic resonance imaging, when used as a part of the initial radiologic evaluation, detected abnormalities consistent with osteomyelitis in all 27 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated paravertebral and/or epidural extension of infection in 14 patients, including seven patients who had neurologic signs of lower-extremity weakness. Roentgenograms, computed tomograms, technetium bone scans, and gallium scans had findings suggestive of the diagnosis in 48%, 65%, 71%, and 86% of the patients, respectively. We recommend magnetic resonance imaging as an important and perhaps critical imaging modality for detection of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

  14. Efficacy of the Canine Influenza Virus H3N8 Vaccine To Decrease Severity of Clinical Disease after Cochallenge with Canine Influenza Virus and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Laurie J.; Henningson, Jamie; Sharp, Patricia; Thiel, Bliss; Deshpande, Muralidhar S.; Davis, Tamara; Jayappa, Huchappa; Wasmoen, Terri; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Schultz, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Since first emerging in the North American canine population in 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 has shown horizontal transmission among dogs, with a high level of adaptation to this species. The severity of disease is variable, and coinfection by other respiratory pathogens is an important factor in the degree of morbidity and mortality. The first influenza vaccine for dogs, an inactivated vaccine containing CIV subtype H3N8, was conditionally approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for licensure in May 2009 and fully licensed in June 2010. This study evaluates the efficacy of this vaccine to reduce the severity of illness in dogs cochallenged with virulent CIV and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. PMID:21346059

  15. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  16. Co-development of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma on the alveolar ridge associated with a dental implant: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The development of various benign oral mucosal lesions associated with dental implants, such as pyogenic granuloma or peripheral giant cell granuloma, has been rarely reported. However, the occurrence of vascular diseases, such as hemangioma, related to dental implants has not been explored in the literature. In this study, we report a case of co-development of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma on the alveolar ridge associated with a dental implant in a patient undergoing antithrombotic therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is first case of hemangioma formation associated with a dental implant. Case presentation A 68-year-old Korean man was referred for intermittent bleeding and a dome-shaped overgrowing mass on his upper alveolar ridge. He underwent dental implantation 5 years ago, and was started on warfarin for cerebral infarction a year ago. He had experienced gum bleeding and gingival mass formation 6 months after warfarinization; then, his implant fixture was removed. However, his gingival mass has been gradually increasing. The gingival mass was surgically excised, and revealed the coexistence of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma in histological analysis of the specimen. The lesion has showed no recurrence for more than a year. Conclusions Regarding immunostaining features, the endothelial cell markers, CD34 and CD31, and the mesenchymal cell marker, vimentin, were strongly detected, but cell proliferation marker, Ki-67, was negatively expressed in the endothelial cells of the hemangioma portion. However, in the pyogenic granuloma portion, CD34 was almost negatively detected, whereas vimentin and Ki-67 were highly detected in the fibroblast-like tumor cells. According to these heterogeneous characteristics of the lesion, the patient was diagnosed with coexistence of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma associated with the dental implant on the attached gingiva. We recommend that patients with dental implants who have chronic peri-implantitis under antithrombotic therapy should be closely followed to ensure early detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. PMID:24934284

  17. Weekly oral azithromycin as prophylaxis for agents causing acute respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Gray, G C; McPhate, D C; Leinonen, M; Cassell, G H; Deperalta, E P; Putnam, S D; Karcher, J A; Sawyer, M H; Laurila, A; Connor, J D

    1998-01-01

    Since the 1950s the U.S. military has used intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) to control outbreaks of respiratory disease. In an effort to find an alternative prophylaxis, a randomized field trial was conducted among 1,016 male U.S. Marine trainee volunteers at high risk for respiratory disease. Participants were evaluated for evidence of acute respiratory infection by serological tests on pretraining and posttraining sera (63 days apart). Oral azithromycin prophylaxis (500 mg/w) outperformed BPG, preventing infection from Streptococcus pyogenes (Efficacy [E] = 84%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 63%-93%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (E = 80%; 95% CI, 50%-92%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (E = 64%; 95% CI, 25%-83%), and Chlamydia pneumoniae (E = 58%; 95% CI, 15%-79%) in comparison with results in a no-treatment group. Azithromycin group subjects reported few side effects and less respiratory symptoms than the BPG and no-treatment groups. According to serological tests, oral azithromycin is an effective alternative prophylaxis to BPG for military populations. PMID:9455517

  18. Intravascular laser therapy in different forms of lung diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, M. N.; Reshetnikov, V. A.; Kazhekin, O. A.; Shepelenko, A. F.

    1993-06-01

    The potentions of laser intravascular therapy in elimination of pyogenic and inflammatory intoxication in cases of acute pneumonia, pyo-destructive diseases (including posttraumatic diseases) of the lungs are studied clinically.

  19. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  20. Characterization of the haem-uptake system of the equine pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. equi.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Mary; Burke, Fiona M; Macken, Susan; Owen, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Streptococcus equi possesses a haem-uptake system homologous to that of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. The system consists of two ligand-binding proteins (Shr and Shp) and proteins (HtsA-C) with homology to an ABC transporter. The haem-uptake system of S. equi differs from that of S. pyogenes and S. zooepidemicus in that Shr is truncated by two-thirds. This study focused on the SeShr, SeShp and SeHtsA proteins of S. equi. Analysis of shr, shp and shphtsA knockout mutants showed that all three proteins were expressed in vitro and that expression was upregulated under conditions of iron limitation. SeShr possesses no membrane-/cell wall-spanning sequences and was shown to be secreted. Both SeShp and SeHtsA were confirmed to be envelope-associated. Recombinant SeShp and SeHtsA proteins have been previously shown to bind haem and SeHtsA could capture haem from SeShp. This report extends these studies and shows that both SeShp and SeHtsA can sequester haem from haemoglobin but not from haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes. Like full-length Shr, SeShr possesses haemoglobin and haemoglobin-haptoglobin binding ability but unlike full-length Shr, it lacks haem- or fibronectin-binding capabilities. Analysis of SeShr truncates showed that residues within and upstream of the near transporter (NEAT) domain are required for this ligand binding. Structural predictions suggest that truncation of NEAT1 in SeShr accounts for its impaired ability to bind haem. Haem and haemoglobin restored to almost normal the impaired growth rates of wild-type S. equi cultured under iron-limiting conditions. However, no difference in the growth rates of wild-type and mutants could be detected under the in vitro growth conditions tested. PMID:20223800

  1. An update on vaccination against group B streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Heath, Paul T

    2011-05-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) is an important cause of disease in infants, pregnant women, the elderly and immunosuppressed adults. An effective vaccine is likely to prevent the majority of infant disease (both early and late onset), to avoid the limitations of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis and to be cost effective. A number of candidates, including capsular conjugate vaccines, have the potential to be successful vaccines. Phase II human studies with capsular conjugate vaccines have been completed successfully. Issues yet to be resolved include the safety and acceptability of vaccination during pregnancy, the durability of vaccine-derived immunity and the regulatory issues required for licensure. PMID:21604988

  2. Bacteriophage therapy: a revitalized therapy against bacterial infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shigenobu; Rashel, Mohammad; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Sakurai, Shingo; Ujihara, Takako; Kuroda, Masayuki; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tani, Toshikazu; Fujieda, Mikiya; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Imai, Shosuke

    2005-10-01

    Bacteriophage (phage) therapy involves using phages or their products as bioagents for the treatment or prophylaxis of bacterial infectious diseases. Much evidence in support of the effectiveness of phage therapy against bacterial infectious diseases has accumulated since 1980 from animal model studies conducted in Western countries. Reports indicate that appropriate administration of living phages can be used to treat lethal infectious diseases caused by gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Salmonella spp., and gram-positive bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. The phage display system and genetically modified nonreplicating phages are also effective for treatment of Helicobacter pylori and P. aeruginosa, respectively. In addition to phage particles per se, purified phage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolase (lysin) is also reported to be effective for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases caused by gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis, and group B streptococci. All phage lysins that have been studied to date exhibit immediate and strong bacteriolytic activity when applied exogenously. Furthermore, phage-coded inhibitors of peptidoglycan synthesis (protein antibiotics), search methods for novel antibacterial agents using phage genome informatics, and vaccines utilizing phages or their products are being developed. Phage therapy will compensate for unavoidable complications of chemotherapy such as the appearance of multidrug resistance or substituted microbism. PMID:16258815

  3. Surgical management of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis: 10 years of experience in a tertiary referral centre in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Co, Michael; Pang, Suet Ying; Wong, Kin Yuen; Ip, Wai Kit; Yuen, Wai Key

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is common in Asia. Its management differs from centre to centre. Methods A retrospective review of 80 patients undergoing surgery for RPC was performed. Immediate and longterm outcomes were analysed. Results All patients underwent hepaticocutaneousjejunostomy (HCJ) for biliary drainage and stone removal. Additional hepatectomy was performed in 38 patients with intrahepatic ductal stricture or liver segmental atrophy. Twenty-three patients had residual stones and 25 had recurrent stones. All patients with residual stones underwent repeated choledochoscopy (median: four sessions) for stone removal and obtained confirmation of ductal clearance. Four patients developed cholangiocarcinoma, of which two died. The complication rate was 17.5%. Most of the complications were wound infections. No mortality related to surgery occurred. Multivariate analysis found that gender, disease extent (unilobar versus bilobar) and surgery type (HCJ alone versus HCJ with hepatectomy) were not associated with increased risk for residual or recurrent stones. A raised preoperative bilirubin level was the only risk factor identified as associated with an increased risk for recurrent stones (P < 0.001); it was not associated with an increased risk for residual stones. Conclusions Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is a distinct disease, the management of which requires a high level of surgical expertise. Hepaticojejunostomy is recommended as the primary drainage procedure, but hepatectomy should be reserved for complicated RPC. PMID:24246050

  4. Considerations for a phase-III trial to evaluate a group B Streptococcus polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine in pregnant women for the prevention of early- and late-onset invasive disease in young-infants.

    PubMed

    Madhi, Shabir A; Dangor, Ziyaad; Heath, Paul T; Schrag, Stephanie; Izu, Alaine; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Dull, Peter M

    2013-08-28

    In 2010, an estimated 393,000 infection-related neonatal deaths occurred worldwide with Group B streptococcus (GBS) being a leading cause. Prevention of early-onset disease (0-6 days; EOD) is currently focused on intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis to mothers identified as being at risk; such strategies reduce EOD by 75-80% but are resource-intensive and logistically-difficult to implement in developing countries. Vaccination of pregnant women is an alternate strategy for preventing both EOD and late-onset disease (7-89 days; LOD). A trivalent GBS polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (GBS-CV) composed of capsular epitopes from serotypes Ia, Ib and III is undergoing phase-II evaluation among pregnant women in Europe, North America and Africa. These serotypes cause 70-80% of all invasive GBS disease in early-infancy. Maternal anti-GBS antibodies are associated with protection from EOD, however, since a correlate of efficacy has not been defined, a phase III efficacy trial may be required for licensure. Criteria for selecting appropriate sites include sufficiently high GBS incidence in large birth cohorts, as well as adequate clinical and microbiological diagnostic skills and capacities. Alternate pathways to licensure should be explored, e.g. identification of serological correlates of protection with subsequent phase IV studies establishing vaccine-effectiveness against invasive GBS disease. Conducting a randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial, however, has the additional advantage of also being able to evaluate the role of GBS contributing to neonatal culture-negative sepsis, stillbirths, prematurity and low-birth weight. PMID:23973347

  5. Streptolysin S of Streptococcus anginosus exhibits broad-range hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Asam, Daniela; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a commensal of mucous membranes and an emerging human pathogen. Some strains, including the type strain, display a prominent β-hemolytic phenotype. A gene cluster (sag), encoding a variant of streptolysin S (SLS) has recently been identified as the genetic background for β-hemolysin production in S. anginosus. In this study, we further characterized the hemolytic and cytolytic activity of the S. anginosus hemolysin in comparison with other streptococcal hemolysins. The results indicate that SLS of S. anginosus is a broad-range hemolysin able to lyse erythrocytes of different species, including horse, bovine, rabbit and even chicken. The hemolytic activity is temperature dependent, and a down-regulation of the hemolysin expression is induced in the presence of high glucose levels. Survival assays indicate that in contrast to other streptococcal species, S. anginosus does not require SLS for survival in the presence of human granulocytes. Cross-complementation studies using the sagB and sagD genes of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis demonstrated functional similarities to the S. anginosus SLS. Nevertheless, distinct differences to other streptolysin S variants were noted and provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms of SLS pathogen host interactions. PMID:25381594

  6. A Genome-Wide Profiling Strategy as an Aid for Searching Unique Identification Biomarkers for Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Prasun; Koul, Shikha

    2016-03-01

    The use of rrs (16S rRNA) gene is widely regarded as the "gold standard" for identifying bacteria and determining their phylogenetic relationships. Nevertheless, multiple copies of this gene in a genome is likely to give an overestimation of the bacterial diversity. In each of the 50 Streptococcus genomes (16 species, 50 strains), 4-7 copies of rrs are present. The nucleotide sequences of these rrs genes show high similarity within and among genomes, which did not allow unambiguous identification. A genome-wide search revealed the presence of 27 gene sequences common to all the Streptococcus species. Digestion of these 27 gene sequences with 10 type II restriction endonucleases (REs) showed that unique RE digestion in purH gene is sufficient for clear cut identification of 30 genomes belonging to 16 species. Additional gene-RE combinations allowed identification of another 15 strains belonging to S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. suis. For the rest 5 strains, a combination of 2 genes was required for identifying them. The proposed strategy is likely to prove helpful in proper detection of pathogens like Streptococcus. PMID:26843696

  7. Cloning and characterization of a novel macrolide efflux gene, mreA, from Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, J; Dib-Hajj, F; Petitpas, J W; Yuan, W

    1997-01-01

    A strain of Streptococcus agalactiae displayed resistance to 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides. In PCR assays, total genomic DNA from this strain contained neither erm nor mef genes. EcoRI-digested genomic DNA from this strain was cloned into lambda Zap II to construct a library of S. agalactiae genomic DNA. A clone, pAES63, expressing resistance to erythromycin, azithromycin, and spiramycin in Escherichia coli was recovered. Deletion derivatives of pAES63 which defined a functional region on this clone that encoded resistance to 14- and 15-membered, but not 16-membered, macrolides were produced. Studies that determined the levels of incorporation of radiolabelled erythromycin into E. coli were consistent with the presence of a macrolide efflux determinant. This putative efflux determinant was distinct from the recently described Mef pump in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae and from the multicomponent MsrA pump in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Its gene has been designated mreA (for macrolide resistance efflux). PMID:9420045

  8. Gas-Forming Pyogenic Liver Abscess with Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Muhammad K.; Jones, Kellie R.

    2015-01-01

    The pyogenic liver abscess caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a rare but rapidly fatal infection. The main virulence factor of this pathogen is its α-toxin (lecithinase), which decomposes the phospholipid in cell membranes leading to cell lysis. Once the bacteria are in blood stream, massive intravascular hemolysis occurs. This can present as anemia on admission with evidence of hemolysis as indicated by low serum haptoglobin, high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elevated indirect bilirubin, and spherocytosis. The clinical course of C. perfringens septicemia is marked by rapidly deteriorating course with a mortality rate ranging from 70 to 100%. The very rapid clinical course makes it difficult to diagnose on time, and most cases are diagnosed at autopsy. Therefore it is important to consider C. perfringens infection in any severely ill patient with fever and evidence of hemolysis. We present a case of seventy-seven-year-old male with septic shock secondary to pyogenic liver abscess with a brief review of existing literature on C. perfringens. PMID:26090240

  9. Pyogenic granuloma in relation to dental implants: Clinical and histopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Pinas, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of pyogenic granuloma in association to dental implants is rare and only five cases have been reported in the literature. Material and Methods Patients charts were analyzed to select patients who had been diagnosed for pyogenic granuloma and its association with dental implants had been evaluated. The clinical status of the dental implants and the prosthesis had also been assessed. Results Clinical and histopathological diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma had been reached for soft mass growth in association with dental implants in 10 patients. Histological analysis of all samples was performed to obtain a firm diagnosis of finding against pyogenic granuloma lesions. Accumulation of dental plaque due to poor oral hygiene and improper design of the prosthesis had been related to the occurrence of pyogenic granuoloma. This lesion showed no predilection to specific surface type and had no significant association with marginal bone loss. Conclusions Pyogenic granuloma should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft mass growth around dental implants. Key words:Reactive lesion, soft mass, pyogenic granuloma, dental implant, titanium. PMID:26535087

  10. Virulence determinants and biofilm production among Trueperella pyogenes recovered from abscesses of captive forest musk deer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kelei; Tian, Yongqiang; Yue, Bisong; Wang, Hongning; Zhang, Xiuyue

    2013-03-01

    Trueperella pyogenes (formerly Arcanobacterium) is commonly isolated from domesticated or wild ruminants as an opportunistic pathogen. To investigate the role of virulence determinants (VDs) and biofilm production in T. pyogenes isolates, a total of 36 T. pyogenes were collected from abscesses of forest musk deer in Miyaluo Farm (Sichuan Province, China). The prevalence of VDs and associations with clonal types, antibiotic resistance and biofilm production were analyzed by PCR and bioassay. Finally, T. pyogenes isolates were separated into three clonal types based on the DNA fingerprinting of BOX-PCR. Isolates with less VDs obtained from sick forest musk deer were mainly belonged to Type 1, and the isolates with robust VD repertoire obtained from dead forest musk deer were included in Type 3. Accordingly, resistant isolates exhibited significant lower virulence than susceptible ones. Majority of T. pyogenes isolates of this study were capable of producing a biofilm. However, no VDs presence and antibiotic resistance were statistically associated with biofilm production. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that T. pyogenes was probably the primary pathogen of abscesses in the forest musk deer. Moreover, as an animal origin pathogen, the increasing resistance of T. pyogenes isolates could also associate with a decreased virulence. PMID:23354327

  11. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:2023428

  12. GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE FROM FISH, BOVINE AND HUMAN HOSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a cause of infectious disease in multiple poikilothermic and homothermic animal species. Epidemiological and zoonotic considerations necessitate an undertaking of a comparison of S. agalactiae isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regi...

  13. Multiple pyogenic granuloma of the penis in a four-year-old child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Martina; Bertocchini, Alessia; Loggini, Barbara; Pingitore, Raffaele

    2009-01-01

    Pyogenic granulomas are common, acquired, benign vascular lesions of the skin and mucous membranes that can develop both spontaneously and traumatically. We present a unique case of a four-year healthy, uncircumcised boy with multiple pyogenic granuloma on the mucous face of the penis foreskin. Although penile multiple pyogenic granulomas have previously been described in adults, there are no reports of similar problems in children. In this patient, the pathogenesis of the lesions is probably trauma related as reported in the anamnesis. Therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:19918487

  14. AN OVERVIEW STREPTOCOCCUS IN WARM-WATER FISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite being known mainly as mammalian disease agents, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae have become recognized as emerging pathogens of wild and cultured fish. The worldwide economic impact of S. iniae and S. agalactiae to the aquaculture industry is estimated in hundreds of millions annually...

  15. Streptococcus mutans, caries and simulation models.

    PubMed

    Forssten, Sofia D; Björklund, Marika; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-03-01

    Dental caries and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide, and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the dental surface and cause damage to the hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates e.g., sucrose and fructose. This paper reviews the link between S. mutans and caries, as well as different simulation models that are available for studying caries. These models offer a valuable approach to study cariogenicity of different substrates as well as colonization of S. mutans. PMID:22254021

  16. Surface-associated properties of Streptococcus milleri group strains and their potential relation to pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Willcox, M D; Knox, K W

    1990-04-01

    Thirty strains from the Streptococcus milleri (anginosus) group (SMG) obtained from various sources were tested for a range of characters that could be associated with pathogenicity and the results were compared with those for type strains of S. sanguis, S. mutans and S. pyogenes. The SMG strains were heterogeneous in all tests. Most (18) belonged to one of the Lancefield groups with group F predominating. Adherence of strains isolated from abscesses to buccal epithelial cells was greater than that of other strains (p = 0.033). Compared with strains of S. sanguis, SMG strains were generally not aggregated by human saliva. They differed from the type strain of S. pyogenes in their relative ability to bind fibrinogen and fibronectin; they were less effective in binding fibrinogen (0.33-4.28% cf. 22% for S. pyogenes) and generally more effective in binding fibronectin (0.49-12.37% cf. 0.95%). Strains isolated from infections were statistically better at binding fibronectin than other strains (p less than 0.001). The ability of strains to adhere to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA) varied 10-fold, from 0.16-16.35%. The amount of fibronectin bound by SMG strains correlated with their ability to adhere to SHA (p less than 0.001). The hydrophobicity of the strains, as measured in the hexadecane partition assay, ranged from 0.0% to 99.0%. Some strains carried both positive and negative cell-surface charges and some strains with a highly hydrophobic cell surface also possessed a relatively high cell-surface charge. A minority of strains possessed a net positive cell-surface charge. Neither hydrophobicity nor cell-surface charge was related to the capacity of strains to adhere to SHA. Strains of SMG co-aggregated weakly with strains of Veillonella parvula, V. dispar, Actinomyces viscosus and A. naeslundii. PMID:2325115

  17. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Japan.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takeaki; Morozumi, Miyuki; Hanada, Shigeo; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Chiba, Naoko; Iwata, Satoshi; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2016-02-01

    We collected ?-hemolytic streptococci (1,611 isolates) from patients with invasive streptococcal infections in Japan during April 2010-March 2013. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) was most common (n = 693); 99% of patients with SDSE infections were elderly (mean age 75 years, SD 15 years). We aimed to clarify molecular and epidemiologic characteristics of SDSE isolates and features of patient infections. Bacteremia with no identified focus of origin and cellulitis were the most prevalent manifestations; otherwise, clinical manifestations resembled those of S. pyogenes infections. Clinical manifestations also differed by patient's age. SDSE isolates were classified into 34 emm types; stG6792 was most prevalent (27.1%), followed by stG485 and stG245. Mortality rates did not differ according to emm types. Multilocus sequence typing identified 46 sequence types and 12 novel types. Types possessing macrolide- and quinolone-resistance genes were 18.4% and 2.6%, respectively; none showed ?-lactam resistance. Among aging populations, invasive SDSE infections are an increasing risk. PMID:26760778

  18. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wajima, Takeaki; Morozumi, Miyuki; Hanada, Shigeo; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Chiba, Naoko; Iwata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We collected β-hemolytic streptococci (1,611 isolates) from patients with invasive streptococcal infections in Japan during April 2010–March 2013. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) was most common (n = 693); 99% of patients with SDSE infections were elderly (mean age 75 years, SD ±15 years). We aimed to clarify molecular and epidemiologic characteristics of SDSE isolates and features of patient infections. Bacteremia with no identified focus of origin and cellulitis were the most prevalent manifestations; otherwise, clinical manifestations resembled those of S. pyogenes infections. Clinical manifestations also differed by patient’s age. SDSE isolates were classified into 34 emm types; stG6792 was most prevalent (27.1%), followed by stG485 and stG245. Mortality rates did not differ according to emm types. Multilocus sequence typing identified 46 sequence types and 12 novel types. Types possessing macrolide- and quinolone-resistance genes were 18.4% and 2.6%, respectively; none showed β-lactam resistance. Among aging populations, invasive SDSE infections are an increasing risk. PMID:26760778

  19. Autoimmune diseases: Solution of the environmental, immunological and genetic components with principles for immunotherapy and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Duncan D; Knight, John G; Ebringer, Alan

    2010-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases have environmental and genetic components. These are the microbial trigger, the immunity system component and the genetic component. Here we describe these components and how they interact. Known microbial triggers are Streptococcus pyogenes for rheumatic carditis, Proteus mirabilis for rheumatoid arthritis and Klebsiella pneumoniae for ankylosing spondylitis. The immunity system component has been clarified by realisation that no autoimmune disease is caused by loss of suppressor T cells. This leaves Burnet's forbidden clones, clearly seen in Graves' disease, as the immunological defect. With wide scope for clonal diversification by somatic gene mutations, to prevent frequent autoimmunity the immunity system is policed by the histocompatibility system. This dictates the immune response repertoire by deleting complementary clones (H Gene Theory). We show molecular evidence of how specific histocompatibility antigens can predispose to an autoimmune disease by influencing choice of the microbial antigen to which the immunity system reacts. Because of the unlucky random element in the somatic mutations involved in their development, forbidden clones are unlikely to reappear in new immune repertoires developing after immune ablation and autologous bone marrow cell reconstitution, as observed clinically. Isolation of autoantigens and their attachment to cytotoxic moieties could provide specific immunotherapy for autoimmune diseases. Kaplans's discovery that xenografts can be accepted without rejection after immune ablation followed by autologous and xenogeneic bone marrow inoculation, could enable widespread use of pig grafts for humans. PMID:20083235

  20. Laser: A Powerful Tool for Treatment of Pyogenic Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shalu; Kaur, Mandeep; Bhatnagar, Puneet

    2011-01-01

    Lasers have opened a new door for the treatment of various disorders. Treatment of soft tissue intraoral mucosal growth by laser has profound effect on the patient acceptability taking the functional and aesthetic factor into consideration. The patient is able to get the outdoor treatment without the phobia of local anaesthetic and is out of the clinic in few minutes in contrast to the traditional method of surgical excision. Very few cases have been reported in literature regarding treatment of mucosal growth by soft tissue lasers. We present a case of recurrent pyogenic granuloma in a patient treated with an alternative approach, that is, diode laser, without the use of anaesthesia, sutures, anti-inflammatory drugs, or analgesics. The diagnosis of this lesion is equally important for correct treatment planning. PMID:21976910

  1. Alternative Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Oral Pyogenic Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Bugshan, Amr; Patel, Harsh; Garber, Karen; Meiller, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic granulomas (PGs) in the oral cavity present as an inflammatory hyperplasia usually caused by trauma, hormonal imbalance, chronic irritation, or as the response to a wide variety of drugs. PGs with atypical presentation and behavior may clinically mimic malignant tumors. Thus, histological examination is required to rule out cancer development. Lesions in the oral cavity have been described to be either an isolated entity or present in multiple forms and with multiple recurrences. Conservative surgical excision is the standard choice of treatment in almost every scenario. However, the severity of the lesions and the affected sites often challenge surgical treatment. In this report, we describe the clinical scenario of a recurrent PG, where surgical excision of the lesion was questioned. As an alternative, we describe a noninvasive approach with lesional steroid injections. PMID:26668570

  2. Pyogenic granuloma on the tongue: a pediatric case report.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Marcos; Triches, Thaisa C; Cardoso, Mariane; Bolan, Michele

    2013-08-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a rare, benign, vascular, hyperplasic, soft tissue lesion caused by diverse factors, including traumatic injuries. This article presents a case involving the surgical removal of PG on the tongue of a 4-year-old boy who had difficulty with speech and eating because of the tongue lesion. The parents reported that the child had the habit of nibbling on and sucking his tongue. The lesion was excised and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of PG; however, because the child continued to nibble and suck on his tongue, the lesion recurred. A second surgery was performed with the same histopathological diagnosis. At a one-year follow-up, the child had ceased his tongue habits, and no recurrence was seen. PMID:23928434

  3. Hepatolithiasis and the syndrome of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Wilson Man-shan; Chan, Yiu-kay; Wong, Chi-tat; Lo, Yan-fai; Yeung, Yat-wah; Lee, Yat-wing

    2011-02-01

    Primary hepatothiasis (HL) and recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) are two terms describing the different aspects of the same disease, with HL emphasizing the pathologic changes and RPC emphasizing the clinical presentation and suppurative inflammation. It is predominantly a disease of the Far East. In the 1960s, it was the third most common cause of emergency abdominal surgery at a university hospital in Hong Kong. Thereafter, its incidence has decreased considerably, possibly due to improved standards of living and Westernized diet. Clinically, patients may present acutely with recurrent bacterial cholangitis and its possible complications, such as liver abscess and septicemic shock, or with chronic complications, such as cholangiocarcinoma. Pathologically, it is characterized by pigmented calcium bilirubinate stones within dilated intrahepatic bile ducts featuring chronic inflammation, mural fibrosis, and proliferation of peribiliary glands, without extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Episodes of suppurative inflammation cumulate in sclerosing cholangitis of peripheral ducts and parenchymal fibrosis resulting from collapse and scarring. Mass-forming inflammatory pseudotumor and neoplasms like intraductal papillary neoplasms and cholangiocarcinoma are increasingly recognized complications. Modern imaging techniques allow definitive diagnosis, accurate assessment for treatment planning, and detection of complications. A multidisciplinary team approach (interventional endoscopist, interventional radiologist, hepatobiliary surgeon, and intensivists) is important for optimal patient outcome. PMID:21344349

  4. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Pyogenic Spondylitis Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung-Ji; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Chung-Jong; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Oh, Myoung-don

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited data describing the clinical characteristics of pyogenic spondylitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). The aim of this study was to investigate the predisposing factors and clinical characteristics of pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB compared to Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records from patients with culture-confirmed pyogenic spondylitis at four tertiary teaching hospitals over an 8-year period. Results A total of 344 patients with culture-confirmed pyogenic spondylitis were evaluated. There were 62 patients (18.0%) with pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB and the most common organism was Escherichia coli (n = 35, 10.2%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 10, 2.9%). Pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB was more frequently associated with the female gender (64.5 vs. 35.5%, P <0.01), preexisting or synchronous genitourinary tract infection (32.3 vs. 2.1%, P< 0.01), and intra-abdominal infection (12.9 vs. 0.4%, P< 0.01) compared to patients with GPC. Although pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB presented with severe sepsis more frequently (24.2 vs. 11.3%, P = 0.01), the mortality rate (6.0 vs. 5.2%) and the proportion of patients with residual disability (6.0 vs. 9.0%), defined as grade 3 or 4 (P = 0.78) 3 months after completion of treatment, were not significantly different compared to GPC patients. Conclusion GNB should be considered as the etiologic organism when infectious spondylitis develops in a patient with preexisting or synchronous genitourinary tract and intra-abdominal infection. In addition, the mortality rate and clinical outcomes are not significantly different between pyogenic spondylitis caused by GNB and GPC. PMID:25978839

  5. Identification of fimbrial subunits in the genome of Trueperella pyogenes and association between serum antibodies against fimbrial proteins and uterine conditions in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Filho, J C Oliveira; Narbus, C; Machado, V S; Murray, E; Bicalho, R C

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the role of fimbrial subunits during bacterial adherence and the host's immunological response against anchorage proteins is critical for the development of strategies to prevent pathogens from thriving. The objectives of the present study were to locate fimbria-related proteins in the genome of Trueperella pyogenes (CP007519), define their importance for bacterial adherence, and evaluate the association between serum antibodies against fimbrial subunits and uterine health in dairy cows. Using a BLASTp search through the GenBank database, 4 putative clusters for fimbrial assembly were identified in the genome of T. pyogenes, namely FimA, FimC, FimE, and the novel major fimbriae FimJ. The fimbrial proteins FimA, FimC, FimE, and surface-anchored protein (SAP) were cloned into the pET 26b (+) vector, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and purified using affinity chromatography. Serum antibodies against FimA, FimC, FimE, and SAP were determined by ELISA on d 260±3 of gestation and at 2±1 and 35±3 d in milk (DIM) to assess the relationship between antigenicity against fimbrial proteins and parameters of uterine health. Antibodies against FimC and FimE were greater both pre- and postpartum in cows from which T. pyogenes was recovered by uterine flushing at 35±3 DIM, whereas T. pyogenes infection was not associated with differences in serum concentrations of FimA and SAP antibodies. Likewise, concentrations of FimC antibodies were consistently greater in cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis at 35±3 DIM compared with healthy counterparts. These results suggest that fimbrial proteins evaluated in the present study, particularly FimC and FimE, are important for maintenance of T. pyogenes in the uterus postpartum and development of uterine diseases in dairy cattle. Additional research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms by which each fimbrial subunit contributes to the establishment of uterine diseases, evaluate its effect on fertility responses, and assess its relevance as a target for vaccine development. PMID:26947291

  6. Adherence of Veillonella Species Mediated by Extracellular Glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, R. M.; Donkersloot, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of extracellular products from Streptococcus salivarius on sucrose-dependent adherence to smooth surfaces by other oral bacteria was studied in vitro. Strains of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Veillonella parvula without innate ability to adhere to a steel wire were able to do so when incubated with sucrose and cell-free culture fluid from S. salivarius strains 9759, 25975, CNII, and MEPI. These culture fluids synthesized more adherent material and water-insoluble glucan than those from Streptococcus mutans C67-1 and seven other S. salivarius strains. Among the S. salivarius strains, glucosyltransferase (GT; dextransucrase, EC 2.4.1.5) activity varied more than 100-fold. Cells of Veillonella and S. mitis S3 that had been incubated in culture fluids from S. salivarius 25975 and 9759, respectively, and then washed adhered upon subsequent incubation with sucrose. This was due to adsorbed GT because (i) the adherence was sensitive to dextranase; (ii) it was observed only with the high-GT culture fluids; (iii) it was dependent on sucrose; and (iv) the washed Veillonella cells synthesized glucan, but not fructan, from sucrose. These results suggest that sucrose-dependent adherence of bacteria without such innate ability can be mediated by (i) entrapment in insoluble glucan synthesized by S. salivarius culture fluids, and (ii) prior adsorption of GT from S. salivarius culture fluids. The possibility that GT formed by high-yield strains of S. salivarius is distributed through the mouth by the action of salivary flow and contributes to sucrose-dependent adherence and plaque formation is considered. Images PMID:591064

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, Multilocus Sequence Type 283 Strain SG-M1

    PubMed Central

    Mehershahi, Kurosh S.; Hsu, Li Yang; Koh, Tse Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a common commensal strain in the human gastrointestinal tract that can also cause invasive disease in humans and other animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SG-M1, a serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain, isolated from a Singaporean patient suffering from meningitis. PMID:26494662

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, Multilocus Sequence Type 283 Strain SG-M1.

    PubMed

    Mehershahi, Kurosh S; Hsu, Li Yang; Koh, Tse Hsien; Chen, Swaine L

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a common commensal strain in the human gastrointestinal tract that can also cause invasive disease in humans and other animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SG-M1, a serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain, isolated from a Singaporean patient suffering from meningitis. PMID:26494662

  9. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  10. Characteristics of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae isolated from purulent sputum samples.

    PubMed

    Keith, Elaine R; Podmore, Roslyn G; Anderson, Trevor P; Murdoch, David R

    2006-03-01

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae is a recently described streptococcus that is phenotypically and genetically distinct from Streptococcus pneumoniae and other viridans streptococci. Key characteristics of S. pseudopneumoniae are the absence of a pneumococcal capsule, insolubility in bile, resistance or indeterminate susceptibility to optochin when incubated in 5% CO2 but susceptibility to optochin when incubated in ambient air, and a positive reaction with the AccuProbe DNA probe hybridization test. The clinical importance of this bacterium is currently unknown. We report the characteristics and associated clinical data of 35 strains of S. pseudopneumoniae isolated from sputum samples from 33 patients. All isolates produced a positive result with the NOW S. pneumoniae antigen test (Binax, Inc.). No isolate was resistant to penicillin, but 60% were resistant to erythromycin and 77% were resistant to tetracycline. All patients had lower respiratory tract symptoms, 79% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 33% had chest radiographic infiltrates. Compared with matched control patients who had Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from sputum, patients with S. pseudopneumoniae infection were more likely to have a history of COPD (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.67 to 20.11) or exacerbation of COPD (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.61 to 16.20). Further research is needed to better characterize the epidemiology of S. pseudopneumoniae colonization and the role of S. pseudopneumoniae in COPD and other diseases. PMID:16517877

  11. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. PMID:26826230

  12. Oral Pyogenic Granuloma Associated With a Dental Implant Treated With an Er:YAG Laser: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Alper; Ugurlu, Faysal; Basel, Bilal; Sener, Cem B

    2015-12-01

    A pyogenic granuloma is a tumorlike proliferation that occurs slightly more often in females, frequently involving the gingiva in the maxillary region. Clinically, it presents as a sessile or pedunculated exophytic mass with a smooth or lobulated surface, which tends to bleed easily. Its color can range from pink to dark red. The most common treatment is surgical excision. This case report presents a pyogenic granuloma that formed around an implant 7 years after its insertion. Pyogenic granulomas associated with dental implants are extremely rare; this is the fourth reported case and the first case of pyogenic granuloma to be treated with an Er:YAG laser. PMID:24351117

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae NanC

    PubMed Central

    Owen, C. David; Lukacik, Petra; Potter, Jane A.; Sleator, Olivia; Taylor, Garry L.; Walsh, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that causes a range of disease states. Sialidases are important bacterial virulence factors. There are three pneumococcal sialidases: NanA, NanB, and NanC. NanC is an unusual sialidase in that its primary reaction product is 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en, also known as DANA), a nonspecific hydrolytic sialidase inhibitor. The production of Neu5Ac2en from α2–3-linked sialosides by the catalytic domain is confirmed within a crystal structure. A covalent complex with 3-fluoro-β-N-acetylneuraminic acid is also presented, suggesting a common mechanism with other sialidases up to the final step of product formation. A conformation change in an active site hydrophobic loop on ligand binding constricts the entrance to the active site. In addition, the distance between the catalytic acid/base (Asp-315) and the ligand anomeric carbon is unusually short. These features facilitate a novel sialidase reaction in which the final step of product formation is direct abstraction of the C3 proton by the active site aspartic acid, forming Neu5Ac2en. NanC also possesses a carbohydrate-binding module, which is shown to bind α2–3- and α2–6-linked sialosides, as well as N-acetylneuraminic acid, which is captured in the crystal structure following hydration of Neu5Ac2en by NanC. Overall, the pneumococcal sialidases show remarkable mechanistic diversity while maintaining a common structural scaffold. PMID:26370075

  14. Pyogenic pancreatic abscess mimicking pancreatic neoplasm: a four-case series.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Seo, Eui Keun; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Keun Mo; Oh, Young Min; Cho, Byung Ha; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ji, Myoung Jin; Jeong, Ji Won; Park, Seon Mee

    2015-04-01

    A pyogenic pancreatic abscess mimicking pancreatic neoplasm in the absence of acute pancreatitis is rare. We report four patients who each presented with a pancreatic mass at the pancreas head or body without acute pancreatitis. The presenting symptoms were abdominal pain, fever, or weight loss. Abdominal CT scans showed low-density round masses at the pancreas head or body with/without lymphadenopathy. In each case, a PET-CT scan showed a mass with a high SUV, indicating possible malignancy. Comorbid diseases were identified in all patients: chronic pancreatitis and thrombus at the portal vein, penetrating duodenal ulcer, distal common bile duct stenosis, and diabetes mellitus. Diagnoses were performed by laparoscopic biopsy in two patients and via EUS fine needle aspiration in one patient. One patient revealed a multifocal microabscess at the pancreatic head caused by a deep-penetrating duodenal ulcer. He was treated with antibiotics and a proton-pump inhibitor. The clinical symptoms and pancreatic images of all the patients were improved using conservative management. Infective causes should be considered for a pancreatic mass mimicking malignancy. PMID:25896161

  15. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lübke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

  16. Effect of penicillin on surface carbohydrate, hemolysin and morphology of Streptococcus pyogenes during and after the post-antibiotic phase.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L B; Fonseca, M E; Benchetrit, L C

    2004-06-01

    The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of penicillin was measured in vitro against a group A streptococcal strain by the kinetic growth method. The duration of the effect was 2.8 h. The bacterial morphology and some streptococcal products were analyzed during and after the PAE, after being exposed to penicillin in a concentration of 1xMIC for 2 h. Bacteria not previously exposed to penicillin were used as a control culture. Morphological changes and increases in the size of treated streptococci were observed by electronic microscope during the post-antibiotic phase. The post-penicillin effect on the production of cell-bound hemolysin and free hemolysin was examined using sheep red blood cells. Production of cell-bound hemolysin rose sharply, but was inhibited by the antimicrobial agent. The free lysin diminished significantly, and concomitantly with a higher production of free toxin by the treated cells. No effect was observed on the specific carbohydrate group when the antigen was tested with streptococcal group A antiserum. PMID:15330318

  17. Bacteriophage enzymes for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections: Stability and stabilization of the enzyme lysing Streptococcus pyogenes cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klyachko, N. L.; Dmitrieva, N. F.; Eshchina, A. S.; Ignatenko, O. V.; Filatova, L. Y.; Rainina, Evguenia I.; Kazarov, A. K.; Levashov, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Recombinant, phage associated lytic enzyme Ply C capable to lyse streptococci of groups A and C was stabilized in the variety of the micelles containing compositions to improve the stability of the enzyme for further application in medicine. It was shown that, in the micellar polyelectrolyte composition M16, the enzyme retained its activity for 2 months; while in a buffer solution under the same conditions ((pH 6.3, room temperature), it completely lost its activity in 2 days

  18. The In Vitro Interaction of Streptococcus pyogenes with Human Pharyngeal Cells Induces a Phage-Encoded Extracellular DNase

    PubMed Central

    Broudy, Thomas B.; Pancholi, Vijaykumar; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2002-01-01

    The role lysogenic bacteriophage play in the pathogenesis of the host bacterium is poorly understood. In a previous study, we found that streptococcal coculture with human pharyngeal cells resulted in the induction of lysogenic bacteriophage as well as the phage-associated streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC). In this study, we have determined that in addition to SpeC induction, a number of other streptococcal proteins are also released by the bacteria during coculture with pharyngeal cells. Among these, we identified and characterized a novel 27-kDa secreted protein. Sequence analysis of this novel protein demonstrated it to be encoded by the same lysogenic bacteriophage which harbors speC. Protein sequence analysis revealed varied homologies with several streptococcal DNases. Further biochemical characterization of the recombinantly expressed protein verified it to be a divalent cation-dependent streptococcal phage-encoded DNase (Spd1). Although functionally distinct, SpeC and Spd1 are associated by a number of parameters, including genetic proximity and transcriptional regulation. Finally, we speculate on the induction of phage-encoded DNase (Spd1) enhancing the fitness of both bacteria and phage. PMID:12010966

  19. The in vitro interaction of Streptococcus pyogenes with human pharyngeal cells induces a phage-encoded extracellular DNase.